Coarse weedy herb with sharp spines and tiny greenish flowers, native to tropical America. Brought into Hawaii at about the turn of the century. This weedy species may be found in disturbed areas. It has tiny, greenish, prickly flowers typical of the family .
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Chinese:
Common Names in English:
Calaloo, Calalu, Edlebur, Needle Burr, Pigweed Species, Prickly Amaranth, Spiny Amaranth, Spiny Amaranthus, Thorny Amaranth, Thorny Pigweed
Common Names in Finnish:
Common Names in French:
épinard Cochon, épinard Malabre, Amarante épineuse, Epinard Cochon, Epinard Piquant, Pariétaire Piquant
Common Names in German:
Dorniger Fuchsschwanz, Malabarspinat
Common Names in Hindi:
Chaulai Bhaji, Cholai, Kateli, Katemath
Common Names in India:
Common Names in Japanese:
Common Names in Norwegian:
Common Names in Portuguese:
Bredo-Bravo, Bredo-De-Espinho, Carurú-De-Espinho, Caruru-Bravo
Common Names in Sanskrit:
Common Names in Spanish:
Bledo Espinoso, Espinaca De Malabar, Quelite Espinoso (Mexico)
Common Names in Swedish:
Common Names in Tamil:
Common Names in Thai:
Phak Khom Nam
, or lianas. Leaves alternate or opposite, entire, exstipulate
. Flowers small, bisexual
, or sterile
and reduced, subtended by 1 membranous bract and 2 bracteoles, solitary or aggregated in cymes. Inflorescences elongated or condensed spikes (heads
, or thyrsoid
structures of varying complexity. Bracteoles membranous or scarious
. Tepals 3-5, membranous, scarious or subleathery, 1-, 3-, 5-, or 7(-23) -veined. Stamens as many as tepals and opposite these, rarely fewer than tepals; filaments
into a cup
or ± entirely into a tube
, filament lobes present or absent, pseudostaminodes present or absent; anthers
(1- or) 2-loculed, dorsifixed
, introrsely dehiscent
. Ovary superior, 1-loculed; ovules 1 to many; style persistent
, short and indistinct or long and slender; stigma capitate, penicillate
, 2-lobed or forming 2 filiform
branches. Fruit a dry utricle or a fleshy
capsule, indehiscent, irregularly bursting, or circumscissile. Seeds lenticular
, subglobose, or shortly cylindric
About 70 genera and 900 species: worldwide; 15 genera (one introduced ) and 44 species (three endemic, 14 introduced) in China.
Morphology of the androecium, perianth (tepals), and the inflorescence has traditionally been used to circumscribe genera and tribes . Pseudostaminodia are interstaminal appendages with variously shaped apices. Filament appendages are the lateral appendages of filaments (one on each side) . The basic structure of the inflorescence is the cyme (branchlets arising from the bracteole axils, the bracteoles serving as bracts for upper flowers), which can be reduced to one flower with two bracteoles and a bract. Units of dispersal vary considerably (capsules opening with lower part persistent, flower and bracteoles falling together, or cymose partial inflorescences breaking off above bract) and can be characteristic for genera. Several genera possess long trichomes serving dispersal at the base of the tepals.
Herbs, usually annual
, rarely perennial
, monoecious (subg. Amaranthus and Albersia) or dioecious (subg. Acnida), glabrous
. Stems erect
, or prostrate
, usually branched, occasionally simple
or nearly so; without nodal
spines (except in A. spinosus ). Leaves alternate, petiolate
, lanceolate, oblanceolate
, or orbiculate to linear
to narrowly cuneate, margins
usually entire, usually plane
, slightly undulate
, or crispate
, rarely undulate-erose, apex acute, obtuse
, or emarginate
, usually mucronulate
. Inflorescences terminal
or exclusively terminal, compound
dichasia arranged in spikes, thyrses
, panicles, or glomerules
of terminal inflorescences often subtended by reduced leaves (pseudobracts), each dichasium unit
subtended by persistent
bracts. Bracts ovate, lanceolate, linear, subulate
, deltate, or broadly triangular (in A. acanthochiton), or proximal
bracts modified into spines (in A. spinosus) ; bracts of pistillate
flowers not keeled
(keeled in A. scleropoides and A. crassipes) ; bracteoles absent or 1-2. Flowers unisexual
. Pistillate flowers: tepals absent or (1-) 3-5, distinct
in proximal 1/3 in A. polygonoides, equal or outer tepals larger than inner ones, usually membranaceous
, sometimes scarious
at maturity; stamens absent [rudimentary
]; pistil 1; ovule 1; style 0.1-1 mm, or absent; stigmas 2-3(-5), slender. Staminate flowers
: tepals 3-5, equal or subequal
; stamens 3-5, filaments
4-locular, pseudostaminodes absent; pistils absent or rudimentary. Utricles loosely enclosed by inner tepals, occasionally conspicuously 3(-5) -veined, usually globose
, or elongate-ovoid, thin walled, membranaceous, rugose
, glabrous, dehiscence regularly circumscissile, irregularly dehiscent
, or indehiscent. Seeds 1, subglobose or lenticular
, usually smooth
, shiny, sometimes indistinctly puncticulate
; embryo annular
. x = 16, 17.
Species ca. 70 (38 in the flora , including cultivated species) : mostly tropical , subtropical , and warm-temperate zones, some species in temperate zones; some taxa are at present almost worldwide as introduced and naturalized weeds .
Some segregate genera of Amaranthus, in the broad sense, have been proposed and sometimes recognized (see synonymy ). In the present treatment, Amaranthus is accepted in its broad sense. Three subgenera are currently recognized (S. L. Mosyakin and K . R. Robertson 1996) : subg. Acnida, subg. Amaranthus, and subg. Albersia.
Morphologic terminology in Amaranthus, as used in different floristic and taxonomic treatments, is rather confusing, especially regarding the terms applied to inflorescences and flowers. In the present treatment, we follow the traditional inflorescence terminology only for brevity and convenience; see T. A. Fedorova (1997) for a more complex scheme. A flower is subtended by a bract, often termed a "bracteole," and 0-2 lateral bracts, the true bracteoles. Structures that are clearly reduced green leaves subtending portions of the inflorescence are sometimes incorrectly called bracts.
Specimens of Amaranthus are often difficult to identify by someone not familiar with the group. When using the key , look closely at the tips of pistillate inflorescence branches for staminate flowers to determine whether the plant is monoecious or dioecious; this is especially important for some monoecious species that produce few staminate flowers. Also, pistillate plants of dioecious species are usually required for positive identification. Descriptions and measurements of floral parts are given in more detail for pistillate flowers, unless noted otherwise.
Determining the exact distribution of some species of Amaranthus in North America requires additional floristic and taxonomic studies. Because of the weedy life strategies of some Amaranthus species, they may occasionally occur as naturalized weeds or waifs very far from their original areas of distribution. Some of such isolated populations exist only as long as conditions are favorable and may eventually disappear or, vice versa, become expansive and invasive. These factors , together with frequent misidentifications in herbaria and the literature, obscure the distribution patterns of some Amaranthus species in North America. Weedy and introduced species of Amaranthus are often neglected or misidentified by collectors . Consequently, some taxa are known only from scattered localities in various regions of the flora, and their actual distribution may be much wider than present data indicate. Some species have been reported for the flora only as rare, casual , non-naturalized aliens , e.g. , on ballast , or as grain immigrants or wool contaminants, and may not now be present in North America. Because of all these factors, the maps and distribution statements in the treatment show the generalized distribution and may not properly reflect the actual changing distribution patterns of some species, especially those that have expanded their ranges over the decades due to various anthropic factors. In addition to the taxa discussed below, some other South American or Old World species may be found in North America in the future as introduced weeds.
Species of Amaranthus occasionally form interspecific hybrids. Such hybridization seems to be especially important and widespread in cultivated grain-amaranths, in wild representatives of the A. hybridus aggregate, between species of sect. Amaranthus, and between A. tuberculatus and species of sect. Amaranthus. The degree and scope of hybridization in Amaranthus are often overestimated, especially by European authors , and some taxa described as putative hybrids are in fact nonhybrid infraspecific forms of morphologically variable species. Hybrids between more distantly related species, if they occur at all, are usually highly sterile , such as hybrids between taxa of the subgenera Amaranthus and Acnida, or at least show much decreased fertility . There are no verified records of hybrids between representatives of the subgenera Amaranthus and Albersia.
Some species of Amaranthus are cultivated as pseudocereal and leaf-vegetable crops , or as ornamental or fodder plants (J. D. Sauer 1967; D. M. Brenner 1990; J. T. Williams and D. M. Brenner 1995; S. Cheatham et al. 1995). The most commonly cultivated taxa are A. caudatus Linnaeus, A. hypochondriacus Linnaeus, and A. cruentus Linnaeus of American origin , and south Asian A. tricolor Linnaeus. The cultivated species may occur occasionally as escapes near places of cultivation; they cannot be regarded as truly naturalized.
Species of Amaranthus were widely used by prehistoric and modern Native Americans as food, forage for livestock, medicinal plants, and, occasionally, for some other uses, such as face and body paint, ceremonial items, and fuel (S. Cheatham et al. 1995; D. E. Moerman 1998).
Species Amaranthus spinosus
or sparsely pubescent
in the distal younger
parts of stems and branches. Stems erect
or sometimes ascending
proximally, much-branched and bushy, rarely nearly simple
; each node with paired
, divergent spines (modified bracts) to 1.5(-2.5)
cm. Leaves: petiole
± equaling or longer
blade rhombic-ovate, ovate
, or ovate-lanceolate, 3-10(-15) ×
1.5-6 cm, base
broadly cuneate, margins
, apex acute or subobtuse to indistinctly emarginate
Inflorescences simple or compound
subglobose mostly pistillate
, erect or with
, usually green to silvery green. Bracts
of pistillate flowers lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, shorter than
tepals, apex attenuate. Pistillate flowers: tepals 5, obovate-lanceolate
or spatulate-lanceolate, equal or subequal
, 1.2-2 mm, apex mucronate
or short-aristate; styles erect or spreading
; stigmas 3. Staminate
flowers: often terminal or in proximal
; tepals 5,
equal or subequal, 1.7-2.5 mm; stamens 5. Utricles ovoid
subglobose, 1.5-2.5 mm, membranaceous
proximally, wrinkled and spongy
distally, irregularly dehiscent
or indehiscent. Seeds
or subglobose-lenticular, 0.7-1 mm diam., smooth
shiny. Flowering summer-fall. [source]
Amaranthus spinosus is native to lowlands in tropical America; at present it is a pantropical weed that also occurs in some warm-temperate regions. [source]
Amaranthus spinosus, or its ancestral taxon , probably gave rise to the allopolyploid A. dubius by hybridization with some species of the A. hybridus aggregate (see above). Section Centrusa probably occupies a basal position, at least for the clade of subg. Amaranthus sect. Amaranthus, and probably for some representatives of subg. Acnida as currently outlined. Recent results of sequencing the ITS region (including ITS-1, 5.8S rDNA, and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA from 15 species of Amaranthus occurring in China also suggest the basal position of A. spinosus among the studied species (Song B . H. et al. 2000). These results also confirm a profound divergence between subgenera Amaranthus and Albersia; the latter is called "sect. Paucestamen" by the above authors. Data on the electrophoretic variation of seed proteins (R. H. Sammour et al. 1993) are also in accord with the segregation of these two subgenera; in the cited article, these groups are called sect. Amaranthus and sect. Blitopsis. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: April, May, June, July, August. • Flower Color: near white, white
Size: 18-24" tall.
Waste places, fields , roadsides, railroads, barnyards, overgrazed pastures, other disturbed habitats ; 0-700 m .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,653 meters (0 to 15,266 feet).
Culture: Space 15-18" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Perleb, 1826
- Family: Amaranthaceae () - Adanson, 1763 ex A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons. - amaranthes, pigweed
- Suborder: Chenopodiineae ()
- Order: Caryophyllales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Caryophyllanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Caryophyllidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Amaranthus Spinosa • Galliaria spinosa Nieuwl.
Publishing author : L. Publication : Sp. Pl. 2: 991 1753 [1 May 1753]
Members of the genus Amaranthus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 91 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
A. acanthochiton (Green-Stripe Amaranth) · A. acutilobus (Sharplobe Amaranth) · A. albus (Pigweed) · A. A. caudatus (Love Lies Bleeding) · A. arenicola (Sand Amaranth) · A. australis (Giant Amaranth) · A. bigelovii (Bigelow's Amaranth) · A. blitoides (Mat Amaranth) · A. blitum (Bride Malabar) · A. blitum blitum (Purple Amaranth) · A. blitum var. pseudogracilis (Amaranthus Blitum) · A. brownii (Brown's Amaranth) · A. californicus (California Amaranth) · A. cannabinus (Salt-Marsh Water-Hemp) · A. caudatus (Foxtail Amaranth) · A. caudatus caudatus (Love Lies Bleeding) · A. caudatus 'Fat Spike' (Love-Lies-Bleeding) · A. caudatus 'Pony Tails' (Love-Lies-Bleeding) · A. caudatus 'Viridis' (Green Tassel Flower) · A. chihuahuensis (Chihuahuan Amaranth) · A. crassipes (Clubfoot Amaranth) · A. crispus (Crisp-Leave Amaranth) · A. cruentus (Blood Amaranth) · A. cruentus 'Giant Copperhead' (Mexican Grain Amaranth) · A. cruentus 'Golden Giant' (Mexican Grain Amaranth) · A. cruentus 'Hot Biscuits' (Mexican Grain Amaranth) · A. cruentus 'Marvel Bronze' (Mexican Grain Amaranth) · A. cruentus 'Oeschberg' (Mexican Grain Amaranth) · A. cruentus 'Orange Giant' (Mexican Grain Amaranth) · A. cruentus 'Split Personality' (Mexican Grain Amaranth) · A. cruentus 'Towers Green' (Mexican Grain Amaranth) · A. cruentus 'Towers Red' (Mexican Grain Amaranth) · A. cruentus 'Velvet Curtain' (Mexican Grain Amaranth) · A. deflexus (Argentina Amaranth) · A. dubius (Spleen Amaranth) · A. fimbriatus (Fringed Amaranth) · A. fimbriatus var. denticulatus (Fringed Amaranth) · A. fimbriatus var. fimbriatus (Fringed Amaranth) · A. floridanus (Florida Amaranth) · A. gangeticus 'Greek' (Amaranth) · A. greggii (Gregg's Amaranth) · A. hybridus (Green Amaranth) · A. hybridus cruentus (Green Pigweed) · A. hypochondriacus (Prince's Feather Amaranth) · A. hypochondriacus 'Burgundy' (Amaranth) · A. hypochondriacus 'Green Thumb' (Prince-Of-Wales Feather) · A. hypochondriacus 'Manna De Montana' (Amaranth) · A. hypochondriacus 'Mercado' (Amaranth) · A. hypochondriacus 'Oscar Blanco' (Amaranth) · A. hypochondriacus 'Pygmy Torch' (Prince-Of-Wales Feather) · A. lineatus (Australian Amaranth) · A. mangostanus (Chinese Spinach) · A. muricatus (African Amaranth) · A. obcordatus (Trans Pecos Amaranth) · A. palmeri (Careless Weed) · A. polygonoides (Smartweed Amaranth) · A. powellii (Green Amaranth) · A. pringlei (Pringle's Amaranth) · A. pumilus (Coast Amaranth) · A. retroflexus (Careless Weed) · A. retroflexus 'Fotete' (Green Amaranth) · A. rudis (Common Waterhemp) · A. scleropoides (Bone-Bract Amaranth) · A. spinosus (Calaloo) · A. texensis (Amaranthus) · A. thunbergii (Thunberg's Amaranth) · A. torreyi (Torrey's Amaranthus) · A. tricolor (Chinese Spinach) · A. tricolor var. salicifolius (Flaming Fountain) · A. tricolor 'Aurora' (Chinese Spinach) · A. tricolor 'Cinco De Mayo' (Amaranth) · A. tricolor 'Green Leaf' (Chinese Spinach) · A. tricolor 'Illumination' (Chinese Spinach) · A. tricolor 'New Garnet Red' (Chinese Spinach) · A. tricolor 'Perfecta' (Chinese Spinach) · A. tricolor 'Red Leaf' (Chinese Spinach) · A. tricolor 'Splendens' (Chinese Spinach) · A. tuberculatus (Rough-Fruit Amaranth) · A. viridis (Chinese Spinach) · A. viridis 'All Red' (Amaranth) · A. viridis 'Asia Red' (Amaranth) · A. viridis 'Bayam' (Amaranth) · A. viridis 'Green Pointed Leaf' (Amaranth) · A. viridis 'Green Round Leaf' (Amaranth) · A. viridis 'Red Stripe Leaf' (Amaranth) · A. viridis 'Tender Leaf' (Amaranth) · A. viridis 'White Leaf' (Amaranth) · A. watsonii (Torrey's Amaranthus) · A. wrightii (Wright's Amaranth) · A. 'Magic Fountains Mix' (Amaranthus) · A. 'Opopeo' (Love-Lies-Bleeding)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- A bibliographic enumeration of Bornean plants, by E. D. Merrill. Singapore, Printed by Fraser & Neave, ltd., 1921 url p. 245, p. 245.
- A contribution to the botany of the Isle of Pines, Cuba, based upon the specimens of plants from that island contained in the herbarium of the Carnegie Museum under date of October, 1916. By O.E. Jennings. n.p., 1917 url p. 112.
- A dictionary of the plant names of the Philippine Islands / by Elmer D. Merrill. Manila: Bureau of Public Print., 1903. url p. 112, p. 27, p. 31, p. 43, p. 53, p. 54, p. 65, p. 89.
- A manual of poisonous plants, chiefly of eastern North America, with brief notes on economic and medicinal plants, and numerous illustrations, Cedar Rapids, Ia., The Torch Press, 1911. url , .
- A manual of poisonous plants: chiefly of eastern North America, with brief notes on economic and medicinal plants, and numerous illustrations / by L.H. Pammel. Cedar Rapids, Iowa: Torch Press, 1910-1911. url p. 107, p. 432.
- A manual of weeds, with descriptions of all the most pernicious and troublesome plants in the United States and Canada, their habits of growth and distribution, with methods of control, by Ada E. Georgia. .. with 385 illustrations by F. Schuyler Mathews. .. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1916, c1914. url p. 124.
- Agricultural botany: Philadelphia, J. W. Moore;1847. url p. 141.
- American bee journal. Hamilton, Ill., etc., Dadant & Sons url p. 191.
- An English index to the plants of India compiled by H. Piddington. Calcutta: Printed at the Baptist Mission Press, and sold by Messrs. Thacker and Co., 1832. url p. 155.
- An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, Manila, Bureau of Printing, 1922-26. url p. 128.
- An enumeration of the vascular plants known from Surinam: together with their distribution and synonymy / by A. Pulle. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1906. url p. 511.
- An illustrated dictionary of medicine, biology and allied sciences. .. by George M. Gould. 5th ed., with additions and corrections. PhiladelphiaP. Blakiston's Son1907 url p. 65.
- An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions: from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102nd meridian / by Nathaniel Lord Britton and Hon. Addison Brown. New York: Scribner, 1913. url p. 3, p. 3.
- Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural. Madrid: La Sociedad, url p. 228, p. 228.
- Annals of the Carnegie Museum. [Pittsburgh]: Published by authority of the Board of Trustees of the Carnegie Institute, 1901- url p. 112, p. 476.
- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. New York, New York Academy of Sciences. url p. 15.
- Annotated list of the ferns and flowering plants of New York state, by Homer D. House. Albany, The University of the state of New York, 1924. url p. 302.
- Annual report / Florida State Geological Survey. Tallahassee, Fla.: Capital Pub. Co., state printer, url p. 277, p. 418.
- Annual report Missouri Botanical Garden. 18 1907 St. Louis: Board of Trustees, 1890-1912. url p. 189, p. 238.
- Annual report of the Ohio State Academy of Science. Columbus: The Academy, 1893-1930. url p. 71.
- Annual report of the Secretary of the State Board of Agriculture of the State of Michigan. .. Lansing: The Board, 1862- url p. 315.
- Aquatic and wetland plants of southwestern United States, by Donovan S. Correll and Helen B. Correll. [Washington]Environmental Protection Agency; [For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off.]1972. url p. 858, p. 861.
- Bartonia;proceedings of the Philadelphia botanical club. .. 62 2004 Philadelphia, Philadelphia Botanical Club, Academy of Natural Sciences. url p. 126, p. 66, p. 76.
- Bergen's botany, key and flora. Northern and central states ed. By Joseph Y. Bergen. Boston, Ginn,  url p. 74.
- Botanical publications of E.D. Merrill. [New York, etc., 1899- url p. 128, p. 245.
- Botany of the United States north of Virginia; comprising descriptions of the flowering and fern-like plants hitherto found in those states. By Lewis C. Beck. New York, Harper & brothers, 1856. url p. 295.
- Botany of the northern and middle states, or, A description of the plants found in the United States, north of Virginia: arranged according to the natural system: with a synopsis of the genera according to the Linnaean system. .. / Albany: Printed by Webster and Skinners. .., 1833. url p. 294.
- Britton, N. L. (ed.). North American flora. 21 1917 [New York]New York Botanical Garden. url p. 114.
- Bulletin / Ohio Biological Survey. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University, 1913- url p. 180.
- Bulletin / U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology. Washington: G.P.O., 1904-1916. url p. 102, p. 102, p. 103, p. 103, p. 147, p. 147, p. 149, p. 149, p. 152, p. 152, p. 180, p. 31, p. 31, p. 32, p. 32, p. 65, p. 65, p. 77, p. 77, p. 99, p. 99.
- Bulletin of miscellaneous information /Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 1921 London: H.M. Stationery Office, 1900-1941. url p. 397.
- Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). London: The Museum, 1951-1992. url p. 109, p. 341.
- Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society. Brooklyn, N.Y.: The Society, url p. 148.
- Bulletin of the New York Botanical Garden. 8 1912-1914 Lancaster, Pa.: Published for the Garden by the New Era Printing Co., url p. 388.
- Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 1904 31 New York: Torrey Botanical Club, 1870-1996 url p. 156, p. 157, p. 544, p. 78, p. 92.
- Bulletin of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. [Washington, D.C.?]: Supt. of Docs., G.P.O., 1913-1923. url p. 24, p. 5.
- Bulletin. Bureau of Plant Industry. U. S. Department of Agriculture. 1901-13. WashingtonGovt. Print. Off. url p. 12, p. 99.
- Carotenoids, their comparative biochemistry. New York, Chemical Pub. Co., 1954. url p. 327.
- Catalog of Ohio vascular plants, arranged according to the phyletic classification; with notes on the geographical distribution in the state, based mainly on specimens in the State Herbarium, Botanical Laboratory, the Ohio State Univ Columbus, The Ohio State University, 1914. url .
- Catalog of Ohio vascular plants: arranged according to the phyletic classification: with notes on the geographical distribution in the state, based mainly on specimens in the State Herbarium, Botanical Laboratory, the Ohio State Uni by John H. Schaffner. Columbus: Ohio State University, 1914. url p. 180.
- Catalogue of scientific papers (1800-1900) Comp. by the Royal society of London. Cambridge, C. J. Clay and sons, 1867-1902; url p. 423.
- Catalogue of scientific papers, 1800-1900. Compiled by the Royal Society of London. London, C.J. Clay and Sons, 1867-1902 [etc.] Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1914-25. url p. 423.
- Catalogue of the flowering plants and ferns of Connecticut growing without cultivation / by Charles Burr Graves. .. [et al.]; Committee of the Connecticut Botanical Society. Hartford: Printed for the State Geological and Natural History Survey, 1910. url p. 170.
- Catalogue of the plants collected by Mr. & Mrs. P.A. Talbot in the Oban district, South Nigeria / by A.B. Rendle. .. [et al.]. London: Printed by order of the Trustees of the British Museum, 1913. url p. 142.
- Check-list of the species of fishes known from the Philippine Archipelago, Manila, Bureau of printing, 1910. url p. 213, p. 532.
- Companion to the Botanical magazine: being a journal, containing such interesting botanical information as does not come within the prescribed limits of the magazine; with occasional figures /by W.J. Hooker. 2 1836-1837 London: Printed by E. Conchman. .. for the proprietor, S. Curtis, 1835-1836 [i.e., 1835-1837] url p. 61.
- Contribution [I]-III to the coastal and plain flora of Yucatan, by Charles Frederick Millspaugh. 1 1896 Chicago, 1895-1898. url p. 295.
- Contributions from the Botanical Laboratory. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1892- url .
- Contributions from the Department of Botany of Columbia University. [New York, N.Y.: s.n.], 1896- url p. 15.
- Contributions from the New York Botanical Garden. New York: The Garden, 1899- url p. 544.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 24 1931 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 100, p. 136, p. 149, p. 180, p. 228, p. 411, p. 451, p. 490, p. 494, p. 531, p. 765, p. 88, p. 94, p. V.
- Cooperative economic insect report. Hyattsville, MD. [etc.]Plant Protection and Quarantine Programs Animal and Plant Health Service. url p. 1310, p. 187, p. 421, p. 67.
- Dedication papers: scientific papers presented at the dedication of the laboratory building and plant houses, April 19-21, 1917. Brooklyn, N.Y.: Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 1918. url p. 44.
- Dictionary of the common names of plants with list of foreign plants cultivated in the open / by Rudolf Marloth. Cape Town: Specialty Press of South Africa, 1917. url p. 6.
- Elements of botany. Boston, Ginn[c1904, pref. 1906] url .
- Entomological news, and proceedings of the Entomological Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Philadelphia[Entomological Rooms of the Academy of Natural Sciences] url p. 191.
- Erigenia: journal of the Illinois Native Plant Society. Carbondale, Ill.: The Society, 1982- url p. 10, p. 3, p. 42.
- Essentials of botany. Boston, Ginn[c1908] url .
- Farmer's cyclopedia: a compilation of such bulletins and reports as are indispensable to the practical farmer. Garden City, N. Y.: Doubleday, Page, 1914. url p. 533.
- Flora Costaricensis / William Burger, editor. 13 1983 Chicago, Ill.: Field Museum of Natural History, 1983. url p. 156, p. 160.
- Flora Malesiana. general editor, C.G.G.J. van Steenis. Djakarta: Noordhoff-Kolff, 1950- url p. 77, p. 78, p. 79.
- Flora Vitiensis nova: a new Flora of Fiji (spermatophytes only) / Albert C. Smith. Lawaii, Hawaii: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, 1979- url p. 285, p. 287.
- Flora of Berkshire County, Massachusetts. Boston, Printed for the Society, 1922. url .
- Flora of Bermuda. .. by Nathaniel Lord Britton. .. New York, C. Scribner's sons, 1918. url p. 120.
- Flora of Bermuda... by Nathaniel Lord Britton... New York, Scribner, 1918. url p. 120.
- Flora of Costa Rica. .. by Paul C. Standley. .. 18 1937 Chicago, 1937. url p. 419.
- Flora of Delaware and the Eastern Shore: an annotated list of the ferns and flowering plants of the peninsula of Delaware, Maryland and Virginia. [Wilmington]: Society of Natural History of Delaware, 1946. url p. 112.
- Flora of Guatemala, by Paul C. Standley and J.A. Steyermark. 24 1946 Chicago, 1946- url p. 156.
- Flora of Illinois, containing keys for identification of flowering plants and ferns. Notre Dame, Ind., University of Notre Dame Press, 1963. url p. 90.
- Flora of Indiana, by Charles C. Deam. Indianapolis, Wm. B. Burford printing co., contractor for state printing and binding, 1940. url p. 428, p. 429.
- Flora of Japan: in English: combined, much revised and extended translation / by the author of his Flora of Japan (1953) and Flora of Japan, Pteridophyta (1957); edited by Frederick G. Meyer and Egbert H. Walker. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1965. url p. 417, p. 418.
- Flora of Lancaster County: being descriptions of the seed-plants growing naturally in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania / by John Kunkel Small and Joel Jackson Carter. New York: The authors, 1913. url p. 111.
- Flora of Lancaster County; being descriptions of the seed- plants growing naturally in Lancaster County, Pennsylvanial. By John Kunkel Small and Joel Jackson Carter. New York, 1913. url p. 111.
- Flora of Miami; being descriptions of the seed-plants growing naturally on the Everglade Keys and in the adjacent Everglades, southern peninsular Florida. New York, The author, 1913. url p. 69, p. 69.
- Flora of Pennsylvania, Boston, Ginn & Company, 1903. url .
- Flora of Pennsylvania. Edited with the addition of analytical keys by John Kunkel Small. Boston, Ginn & Co., 1903. url p. 122.
- Flora of Peru / by J. Francis Macbride; B.E. Dahlgren, editor. 13 1937 Chicago, U.S.A.: Field Museum of Natural History,  url p. 483, p. 487.
- Flora of West Virginia, by Charles Frederick Millspaugh and Lawrence William Nuttall. 1 1896 Chicago, 1896. url p. 203.
- Flora of Yucatan, by Paul C. Standley. 3 1930 Chicago, Field Museum of Natural History, 1930. url p. 256.
- Flora of the Aguan valley and the coastal regions near La Ceiba, Honduras, by T. G. Yuncker. 9 1940 [Chicago]1940. url p. 287.
- Flora of the District of Columbia and vicinity. By A.S. Hitchcock and Paul C. Standley, with the assistance of the botanists of Washington. WashingtonGovt. print. off.1919 url p. 149.
- Flora of the Florida Keys; being descriptions of the seed-plants growing naturally on the islands of the Florida reef from Virginia Key to Dry Tortugas. New York, The author, 1913. url p. 44.
- Flora of the Florida keys; being descriptions of the see-plants growing naturally on the islands of the Florida reef from Virginia key to Dry Tortugas, by John Kunkel Small. .. New York: The author, 1913. url p. 44.
- Flora of the Lancetilla Valley, Honduras, by Paul C. Standley. 10 1931 Chicago, Field Museum of Natural History, 1931. url p. 184, p. 36.
- Flora of the islands of Margarita and Coche, Venezuela / by John Robert Johnston. Boston: Gray Herbarium of Harvard University, 1909. url p. 284.
- Flora of the southeastern United States; being descriptions of the seed-plants, ferns and fern-allies growing naturally in North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, and in Oklahom by John Kunkel Small. New York, The author, 1913. url p. 392, p. 392.
- Flora of tropical Africa. By Daniel Oliver. .. assisted by other botanists. London, L. Reeve, 1868-1902. url p. 33.
- Flowers and insects; lists of visitors of four hundred and fifty-three flowers, by Charles Robertson. Carlinville, Ill., n.p.1928. url p. 23.
- Flowers of field, hill, and swamp, by Caroline A. Creevey. Illustrated by Benjamin Lander. New York, Harper, 1897. url p. 257.
- Flowers of field, hill, and swamp; New York, Harper & Brothers, 1899. url .
- Hand-book of Indian agriculture, by Nitya Gopal Mukerji. Calcutta, Thacker, Spink & co., 1901. url p. 619.
- Handbook of the flora of Philadelphia and vicinity, containing data relating to the plants within the following radius: eastern Pennsylvania, north to the Blue mountains, and west to the Susquehanna; all of New Jersey except the northern counties; and Philadelphia, Philadelphia Botanical Club, 1905. url .
- Hooker, J. D. The botany of the Antarctic voyage of H.M. discovery ships Erebus and Terror in the Years 1839-1843: under the command of Captain Sir James Clark Ross /by Joseph Dalton Hooker. 3 1860 London: Reeve Brothers, 1844-60. url p. xlvi.
- Illinois River Bluffs area assessment / Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Office of Scientific Research and Analysis, [and the] State Geological Survey Division. Springfield, Ill.: Illinois Dept. of Natural Resources, 1998- url p. 170, p. 175.
- Introduction to botany, Boston, Ginn and company[c1914] url .
- Introduction to botany. Boston, Ginn url p. 74.
- Journal of economic entomology. [College Park, Md., etc.]Entomological Society of America [etc.] url p. 200.
- Journal of ethnobiology. 23 2003 Flagstaff, Ariz.: Center for Western Studies, 1981- url p. 172, p. 39, p. 9.
- Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. Chapel Hill, N.C. [etc.]Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society [etc.] url p. 136.
- Key and flora, northern and central states. Boston, Ginn,  url p. 74.
- List of Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta growing without cultivation in northeastern North America. Prepared by a Committee of the Botanical Club, American Association for the Advancement of Science. New York, 1894. url p. 145.
- Madagascar: an environmental profile IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre url p. 342, p. 358, p. 359, p. 361.
- Manual of the botany of the northern United States: including Virginia, Kentucky, and all east of the Mississippi / by Asa Gray; (the mosses and liverworts by Wm. S. Sullivant.) Chicago: Ivison, Phinney; 1863, c1862. url p. 368.
- Manual of the flora of the northern states and Canada / by Nathaniel Lord Britton. New York: Holt, 1905. url p. 378.
- Manual of vascular plants of the lower Yangtze Valley, China. Corvallis, Oregon State College url p. 103.
- Memoir of the late William Wright, M. D. with extracts from his correspondence, and a selection of his papers on medical and botanical subjects. Edinburgh: Blackwood, 1828. url p. 299.
- Memoirs / Brooklyn Botanic Garden. Brooklyn, N.Y.: The Garden, 1918-1936. url p. 44.
- Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden. New York: The Garden, 1900- url p. 300.
- Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club. 5 1893 - 18 Durham, N.C.: Published for the Club by the Seeman Printery, 1889- url p. 145.
- Minor products of Philippine forests, Manila, Bureau of Printing, 1920-1921. url , , , , , , .
- Natal plants: Descriptions and figures of Natal indigenous plants, with notes on their distribution, economic value, native names, &c., / by J. Medley Wood and Maurice S. Evans. Published under the auspices of Nat Durban: Bennett & Davis, Printers, 1898-1912. url .
- Natal plants: descriptions and figures of Natal indigenous plants, with notes on their distribution economic value, native names, etc., etc. / By J. Medley Wood and Maurice S. Evans. Durban: Bennett & Davis, 1899 (i.e. 1898)-1912. url p. 305.
- New manual of botany of the central Rocky mountains (vascular plants) Cincinnati [etc.]American Book Company[c1909] url , .
- Niger flora; or, An enumeration of the plants of western tropical Africa, collected by the late Dr. Theodore Vogel, botanist to the voyage of the expedition sent by Her Britannic Majesty to the river Niger in 1841, under the command of Capt. H. D. Trotter, R.N., &c.; includ London, H. Bailliere; [etc., etc.]1849. url p. 173.
- Occasional papers of Bernice P. Bishop Museum. Honolulu, Bishop Museum Press, 1898-1984. url p. 18, p. 18, p. 24, p. 324, p. 335, p. 35, p. 35, p. 35.
- Occasional papers of the California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco: California Academy of Sciences, url p. 12.
- Occasional papers. Honolulu, Bishop Museum Press. url p. 24, p. 335, p. 335, p. 335, p. 335, p. 35.
- Oliver, D. Flora of tropical Africa /by Daniel Oliver. .. assisted by other botanists. 6 1909-1913 London: L. Reeve and co., 1868-1999. url p. 32, p. 33.
- Pamphlets on forest protection. [1900?- url p. 311.
- Pamphlets on silviculture. [1899- url p. 10, p. 16.
- Parasitic rhizoctonias in America, by George Leo Peltier. .. Urbana, 1916 url p. 311.
- Phytologia memoirs. Plainfield, N.J.: H.N. Moldenke and A.L. Moldenke, 1980- url p. 130, p. 251.
- Phytologia. Bronx Park, New York, H.A. Gleason and H.N. Moldenke, url p. 125, p. 126, p. 127, p. 128, p. 129, p. 142, p. 269, p. 275, p. 280, p. 30, p. 324, p. 389, p. 400, p. 46, p. 472, p. 49, p. 58.
- Plant life of Alabama, an account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state. By Charles Mohr. .. Montgomery, Ala., Brown printing co., 1901. url p. 151, p. 490, p. 55.
- Plant life of Alabama. An account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state. Prepared in cooperationwith the Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1901. url , , .
- Plant life of Alabama: an account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state / by Charles Mohr. Montgomery, Ala.: Brown Printing Co., 1901. url p. 490, p. 55.
- Plantae Lindheimerianae: an enumeration of F. Lindheimer's collection of Texan plants, with remarks and descriptions of new species, etc. / by George Engelmann and Asa Gray. Boston: Printed by Freeman and Bolles, 1845- url p. 189.
- Plantae Utowanae. Plants collected in Bermuda, Porto Rico, St. Thomas, Culebras, Santo Domingo, Jamaica, Cuba, The Caymans, Cozumel, Yucatan and the Alacran shoals. Dec. 1898-Mar. 1899. The Antillean cruise of the yach 2 1900 Chicago, 1900. url p. 35.
- Plants of Mississippi: a list of flowering plants and ferns / by E.N. Lowe. [Jackson, Miss.]: Mississippi State Geological Survey, 1921. url p. 139.
- Plants of the Bahamas, Jamaica and Grand Cayman, by A.S. Hitchcock. .. Issued March 9, 1893. St. Louis, 1893 url p. 121.
- Praenunciae bahamenses-- I. Contributions to a flora of the Bahamian archipelago. By Charles Frederick Millspaugh. 2 1906 Chicago, 1906. url p. 146.
- Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Boston: Metcalf and Co., 1846-1958 url p. 228.
- Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. Washington, Biological Society of Washington url p. 114.
- Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 4th series. San Francisco, California Academy of Sciences. url p. 89, p. 91.
- Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. Washington, etc.: Entomological Society of Washington url p. 852, p. 853, p. 858.
- Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society. Honolulu: Hawaiian Entomological Society url .
- Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science. Indianapolis, Ind.[s.n.] url p. 129, p. 135, p. 201, p. 201.
- Proceedings of the United States National Museum. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, [etc.] url p. 34, p. 44.
- Publication / Institute of Social Anthropology. Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1944- url p. 324, p. 341.
- Publication. Field Columbian Museum. Chicago.: Field Columbian Museum, 1895-1909. url p. 203, p. 35.
- Reliquiae Baldwinianae: selections from the correspondence of the late William Baldwin with occasional notes, and a short biographical memoir compiled by William Darlington. Philadelphia: Kimber and Sharpless, 1843. url p. 142.
- Rendle, A. B., E. G. Baker, S. le M. Moore & H. F. Wernham Catalogue of the plants collected by Mr. & Mrs. P.A. Talbotin the Oban district, South Nigeria, by A. B. Rendle, E.G. Baker, and H.F. Wernham, S. Moore, and others. With seventeen plates. 1913 London, Printed by order of the Trustees, 1913. url p. 142.
- Report of the Board of Commissioners of Agriculture and Forestry of the Territory of Hawaii for the period. .. Honolulu. url p. 41.
- Report of the Michigan Academy of Science. Lansing, Mich.: The Academy, 1904-1916. url p. 162.
- Reports and papers on botany. London: Printed for the Ray society, 1846-49. url p. 268, p. 504.
- Reports of the Director. .. / Experimental Farms. Ottawa: Experimental Farms, 1888-1916. url p. 493.
- Root-knot and its control. Washington, Govt. print. off., 1911. url p. 12.
- Seemann, B. The botany of the voyage of H.M.S. Herald: under the command of Captain Henry Kellett, R.N., C.B., during the years 1845-51 /by Berthold Seemann. 1852-1857 London: Lovell Reeve, 1852-1857. url p. 435.
- Small, J. K. Flora of the southeastern United States;being descriptions of the seed-plants, ferns and fern-allies growing naturally in North Carolina, South Carolin, Georgia, Florida, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana and the Indian territory and in Oklahoma and Texas east of the one-hundredth meridian /by John Kunkel Small. .. 1903 New York: The author, 1903. url p. 391, p. 392.
- Sources of the Ohio flora, by A.D. Selby and J.W.T. Duvel. Columbus, 1899 url p. 52.
- Students' handbook to accompany Plants and their uses / by Frederick Leroy Sargent. New York: Henry Holt, 1914. url .
- Studies of Central American plants. by Paul C. Standley and Julian A. Steyermark. 23 1944 Chicago, [Ill.]: Field Museum of Natural History,  url p. 113.
- Taxonomic literature: a selective guide to botanical publications and collections with dates, commentaries and types (TL2) Utrecht: Bohn, Scheltema & Holkema, 1976-1988. url p. 384.
- The American midland naturalist. Notre Dame, Ind., University of Notre Dame. url p. 126, p. 278.
- The Annals of Scottish natural history. Edinburgh: David Douglas, 1892-1911. url p. 179, p. 179.
- The Asa Gray bulletin. 2 1953 Ann Arbor, Mich. url p. 398.
- The Bahama flora, by Nathaniel Lord Britton and Charles Frederick Millspaugh. New York, The authors, 1920. url p. 123, p. 123, p. 125, p. 125, p. 125, p. 125.
- The Bulletin of the North Carolina Department of Agriculture. Raleigh: State Board of Agriculture, [1907- url p. 12.
- The Hawaiian forester and agriculturist. Honolulu: Hawaiian Gazette Co., 1904-1933. url .
- The Indiana weed book, by W. S. Blatchley. Indianapolis, The Nature publishing company, 1920. url p. 74.
- The Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. Bombay: The Society, url p. 420.
- The Journal of the Linnean Society. Botany. 24 1888 London: the Society: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts & Green: ||Williams and Norgate, 1865-1968. url p. 150.
- The Ohio journal of science. Columbus, Ohio, The Ohio State University and the Ohio Academy of Science url p. 417.
- The Ottawa naturalist. Ottawa, Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. url p. 116, p. 116, p. 169, p. 169.
- The Philippine journal of science. 17 1920 Manila. url p. 172, p. 183, p. 233, p. 26, p. 346, p. 381, p. 408, p. 416, p. 421, p. 424, p. 513.
- The Phytologist: a popular botanical miscellany. London, John van Voorst, 1844-56. url p. 886.
- The Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science. Des moines, Iowa: The Academy, [1889-1987] url p. 281.
- The Review of applied entomology. Farnham Royal, Eng., etc.: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, etc. url p. 313, p. 476.
- The University of Kansas science bulletin. 48 1969 [Lawrence]: University of Kansas, 1902-1996. url p. 556.
- The University of Missouri studies. Columbia, Mo.: The University, 1905- url p. 133.
- The flora of Long Island. Lancaster, Pa.New Era Print., 1899. url .
- The flora of North Carolina from Ranunculaceae to Salviniaceae / C.W. Hyams. Raleigh, N.C.: The North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, Agricultural Experiment Station, 1899. url p. 335.
- The flora of Tennessee and a philosophy of botany: respectfully dedicated to the citizens of Tennessee / by Augustin Gattinger. Nashville: Press of Gospel Advocate Pub. Co., 1901. url p. 74.
- The flora of the American Virgin Islands / N.L. Britton. New York: New York Botanical Garden, 1918. url p. 44.
- The flora of the metamorphic region of Alabama / by F.S. Earle. Montgomery, Ala.: Brown Printing Co., 1902. url p. 72.
- The forests and flora of British Honduras / by Paul C. Standley and Samuel J. Record; in cooperation with the Conservator of Forests and the Agricultural Officer of the Colony. 12 1936 Chicago: [Field Museum of Natural History], 1936. url p. 128.
- The grass and clover seed trade in Vermont in 1907-1909 / [by George T. Harrington] Burlington: Vermont Agricultural Experiment Station, 1909. url p. 235.
- The medicinal plants of the PHilippines, by T. H. Pardo de Tavera. .. tr. and rev. by Jerome B. Thomas, jr. Philadelphia, P. Blakiston's son & co.1901. url , , , .
- The medicinal plants of the Philippines / by T. H. Pardo de Tavera; translated and revised by Jerome B. Thomas. Philadelphia, P. Blakiston's son & co., 1901. url p. 200, p. 246, p. 249, p. 252, p. xv.
- The plant life of Maryland, by Forrest Shreve [et al.] Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1910. url p. 191, p. 430.
- The plants of Michigan; simple keys for the identification of the native seed plants of the state, by Henry Allan Gleason. Ann Arbor, G. Wahr, c1918. url p. 30.
- The useful plants of the island of Guam; with an introductory account of the physical features and natural history of the island, of the character and history of its people, and of their agriculture / by William Edwin Safford. Washington, D.C.: Govt. Print. Off., 1905. url p. 180, p. 353.
- The weed flora of Iowa / [by L. H. Pammel; with the collaboration of Charlotte M. King. .. et al.] Des Moines: Iowa Geological Survey, 1913. url p. 697, p. 723.
- The weed flora of Iowa Des Moines, Iowa geological survey, 1913. url , .
- The weed flora of Iowa. .. Des Moines, Iowa Geological Survey, 1913. url p. 697.
- Torreya. 31 1931 Burlington, Vt., Torrey Botanical Club, 1901-1945. url p. 188, p. 193, p. 275, p. 3.
- Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science. Springfield, Ill., Illinois State Academy of Science [etc.] url p. 179.
- Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. Topeka, Kan.: W.Y. Morgan, 1903- url p. 192.
- Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science. [Lexington, Ky.]Kentucky Academy of Science, 1923-1997. url p. 231, p. 29, p. 34, p. 41, p. 91.
- Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, 2nd series: Botany 3 1888-1894 London. url p. 426.
- Transactions of the Maryland Academy of Sciences. Baltimore: The Academy, 1901- url p. 57.
- Transactions of the Royal Society of Arts and Sciences of Mauritius. [S.l.: s.n.], 1848-1949. url p. 142.
- Trinidad, its geography, natural resources, administration, present condition, and prospects. London, Cassell, 1884. url p. 405.
- Vascular plants of the Sangamon River basin; annotated checklist and ecological summary [by] Almut G. Jones and David T. Bell. [Urbana], University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, College of Agriculture,  url p. 14.
- Weeds of the North Central States. Urbana, Ill: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, College of Agriculture, Agricultural Experiment Station,  url p. 282, p. 66.
- Weeds of the farm and garden, by L.H. Pammel. .. New York, Orange Judd, 1912. url .
- Woods of northeastern Peru, by Llewelyn Williams. 15 1936 Chicago, 1936. url p. 538.
- [Pamphlets on agriculture in Guam] S.l.: s.n., 1905-1916 url p. 180.
- [Publications] - Bureau of Government Laboratories. Manila, Bureau of Public Printing, 1903-1906. url p. 43, p. 54.
- Kuan Ke-chien. 1979. Amaranthaceae. In: Kung Hsien-wu & Tsien Cho-po, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 25(2): 194241.
- Brenner, D. M. et al. 2000. Genetic resources and breeding of Amaranthus. Pl. Breed. Rev. 19: 227-285.
- Costea, M. and D. A. DeMason. 2001. Stem morphology and anatomy in Amaranthus L. (Amaranthaceae): Taxonomic significance. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 128: 254-281.
- Costea, M., A. Sanders, and G. Waines. 2001. Preliminary results toward a revision of the Amaranthus hybridus species complex (Amaranthaceae). Sida 19: 931-974.
- Mosyakin, S. L. and K. R. Robertson. 1996. New infrageneric taxa and combinations in Amaranthus L. (Amaranthaceae). Ann. Bot. Fenn. 33: 275-281.
- Sauer, J. D. 1955. Revision of the dioecious amaranths. Madroño 13: 5-46.
- Sauer, J. D. 1967b. The grain amaranths and their relatives: A revised taxonomic and geographic survey. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 54: 103-137.
- Sauer, J. D. 1972b. The dioecious amaranths: A new species name and major range extensions. Madroño 21: 426-434.
- Uline, E. B. and W. L. Bray. 1894. A preliminary synopsis of the North American species of Amaranthus. Bot. Gaz. 19: 267-273, 313-320.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 12, 2007:
- Australian National Herbarium
- , Australian National Herbarium
- Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Bishop Museum Natural History Specimen Data
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen, Biologiezentrum Linz
- Botanical Research Institute of Texas, Andes to Amazon Biodiversity Program
- Bundesamt für Naturschutz / Zentralstelle für Phytodiversität Deutschland, Bundesamt fuer Naturschutz / Zentralstelle fuer Phytodiversitaet Deutschland
- Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden Virtual Herbarium Darwin Core format
- Harvard University Herbaria, Harvard University Herbaria
- Herbarium of the University of Aarhus, The AAU Herbarium Database
- Herbier de la Guyane, Herbier de la Guyane
- Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad
- , Biodiversidad de Costa Rica
- International Plant Genetic Resources Institute(IPGRI), The System-wide Information Network for Genetic Resources
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, NSW herbarium collection
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, Plants of Papua New Guinea
- National Institute of Genetics, ROIS, Herbarium Specimens of Museum of Nature and Human Activities, Hyogo Pref., Japan
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plant Herbarium, Oslo
- SysTax, Herbarium Universitat Ulm
- SysTax, SysTax
- Taiwan Biodiversity Information Facility, Magnoliophyta
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Botany
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- US National Plant Germplasm System, United States National Plant Germplasm System Collection
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- University of Vienna, Institute for Botany - Herbarium WU, Herbarium WU
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2646915
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-20748
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13740620
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:59675-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 2804
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 20748
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 108928-3
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDAMA04130
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: AMSP
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 19695
- Bojian Bao, Thomas Borsch & Steven E. Clemants "Amaranthaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 5 Page 415. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Sergei L. Mosyakin & Kenneth R. Robertson "Amaranthus". in Flora of North America Vol. 4 Page 405, 406, 410. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Amaranthus spinosus". in Flora of North America Vol. 4 Page 405, 410, 412, 420,. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 251.940 meters (826.575 feet), Standard Deviation = 397.480 based on 1,898 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]