Common Names in English:
Deciduous or evergreen
, often thorny trees
, woody climbers
, or lianas, rarely herbs. Leaves simple
, alternate or opposite, pinnately veined or 3-5-veined, entire to serrate, sometimes much reduced; stipules small, caducous
, sometimes transformed into spines. Flowers yellowish to greenish, rarely brightly colored
, small, bisexual
, rarely polygamous, (4 or) 5-merous, hypogynous to epigynous
, in mostly axillary
, sessile or pedunculate
cymes, or reduced to few in fascicles. Calyx tube
or hemispherical to tubular
, sometimes absent, at rim
with calyx, corolla, and stamens; sepals 4 or 5, valvate
in bud, triangular, erect
or ± recurved during anthesis
, adaxially often distinctly keeled
, alternate with petals. Petals 4 or 5, rarely absent, usually smaller than sepals, concave
, rarely nearly flat, often shortly clawed. Stamens 4 or 5, antepetalous
and often ± enclosed by petals; filaments
of petals; anthers
minute, versatile or not, 2(or 4) -celled, dehiscing by longitudinal
slits, usually introrse
. Disk intrastaminal
, thin to ± fleshy
, entire or lobed
or rarely pubescent
from ovary or tightly surrounding it, or adnate to calyx tube. Ovary superior to inferior, (1 or) 2-4-loculed, with 1(or 2) ovules per locule; ovules anatropous
, basal and erect; styles simple or ± deeply 3-lobed or 3-cleft. Fruit either an indehiscent, rarely explosively dehiscent
, sometimes winged
, schizocarpic capsule, or a ± fleshy drupe with 1-4 indehiscent, rarely dehiscent, pyrenes (stones
) . Seeds with thin, oily albumen, sometimes exalbuminous
; embryo large, oily, straight or rarely bent.
About 50 genera and more than 900 species: almost cosmopolitan , mainly in subtropical to tropical areas; 13 genera and 137 species (82 endemic, one introduced ) in China.
Former classifications usually placed Rhamnaceae in the Rhamnales, together with Vitaceae and Leeaceae (Suessenguth in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2, 20d. 1953), or together with Elaeagnaceae (Thorne, Bot. Rev. 58: 225-348. 1992) . Orders such as Celastrales, Urticales, and Euphorbiales have often been considered as closely related groups. Recent analyses of DNA sequences strongly supported including the family in the Rosales, beside the closest relatives Barbeyaceae and Dirachmaceae (see Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 141: 399-436. 2003) . Suessenguth (loc. cit. ) grouped the family into five tribes , mainly characterized by fruit characters. Richardson et al. (Kew Bull . 55: 311-340. 2000; Amer. J. Bot. 87: 1309-1324. 2000) revised this tribal classification on the basis of a phylogenetic analysis using rbcL and trnL-F sequences of the plastid genome. Now 11 tribes are recognized, of which four are represented in the Flora area.
The bark , leaves, and fruit of several species of Rhamnus have been used as laxatives , notably R. cathartica and R. frangula. Diverse Old World species of Rhamnus provide yellow and green dyes as well as drugs. Timber of Alphitonia, Colubrina, Hovenia, and Ziziphus species is used for construction, fine furniture, carving, lathework, and musical instruments. Many Ziziphus species yield edible fruit; among them, Z. jujuba (Chinese jujube) and Z. mauritiana (Indian jujube) are cultivated on a commercial scale. Hovenia dulcis is also grown for its edible, fleshy inflorescence stalks . Species of Hovenia, Paliurus, and Rhamnus are cultivated as ornamentals .
. Buds and young branches often ± densely brownish pubescent
. Leaves alternate, with small, caducous
stipules; leaf blade
to lanceolate, rarely nearly cordate, papery
to leathery, pinnately veined, abaxially usually glabrous
, adaxially whitish to rusty pubescent, margin
entire. Flowers bisexual
, 5-merous, many in di-
or rarely terminal
cymes. Calyx tube
to hemispherical; sepals 5, triangular, adaxially keeled. Petals 5, clawed, cucullate
. Stamens 5, enfolded by petals. Disk mainly thick, nectariferous
. Ovary inferior, immersed
in disk, 2- or 3-loculed, with 1 ovule per locule; style short, often divided
into 2 to 3 slightly capitate stylar
branches, basally often densely whitish to yellowish pubescent or glabrous. Fruits drupaceous
or broadly ovoid
, at base
surrounded by persistent
calyx tube; mesocarp
thick, initially fleshy
, later dry and mealy
; endocarp splitting
longitudinally into 2 or 3, hard, leathery, 1-seeded endocarpids. Seeds ± completely enclosed by a membranous, reddish to brownish aril; testa smooth
; embryo straight; endocarp cartilaginous.
About ten species: SE Asia, Australia, Pacific islands; one species in China.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,023 meters (0 to 3,356 feet).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Perleb, 1826
- A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons.
- buckthorn, nerpruns
- Reissek ex Endlicher, 1840
- Specific epithet:
- (Fenzl) Reissek ex Benth.
for a flora of the island, based on a study of the
- Botanical name: - Alphitonia excelsa (Fenzl) Reissek ex Benth.
- Form: for a flora of the island, based on a study of the
- Specific epithet: excelsa - (Fenzl) Reissek ex Benth.
- Genus: Alphitonia () - Reissek ex Endlicher, 1840 - Alphitonia
- Family: Rhamnaceae () - A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons. - buckthorn, nerpruns
- Order: Rosales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Rhamnanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Colubrina excelsa Fenzl
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 04-May-2001
Members of the genus Alphitonia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 3 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- A bibliographic enumeration of Bornean plants, by E. D. Merrill. Singapore, Printed by Fraser & Neave, ltd., 1921 url p. 364, p. 364.
- A contribution to the flora of Australia / by William Woolls. Sydney: F. White, 1867. url p. 249.
- A preliminary catalogue of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop museum of Polynesian ethnology and natural history. .. Honolulu, 1892-93. url p. 50.
- A supplementary list of Chinese flowering plants, 1904-1910, url .
- An annotated catalogue of types of the University of Illinois mycological collections (ILL) / Urbana: University of Illinois Press, c1997. url p. 116.
- An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, Manila, Bureau of Printing, 1922-26. url p. 525.
- Annales du Jardin botanique de Buitenzorg. Leiden [etc.]: E. J. Brill [etc.] url p. 10.
- Bernice P. Bishop Museum bulletin. Honolulu, Hawaii: Bishop Museum Press, 1922-1987. url p. 138, p. 222, p. 231.
- Botanical bulletin / Honolulu: Division of Forestry, 1911-1919. url p. 52, p. 8.
- Botanical publications of E.D. Merrill. [New York, etc., 1899- url , p. 364, p. 525.
- Botany bulletin / Department of Agriculture. Brisbane: Govt. Print. url p. 114.
- Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 46 1919 New York: Torrey Botanical Club, 1870-1996 url p. 148, p. 565.
- Bulletin. Manila, Bureau of printing, 1903- url p. 102, p. 105, p. 72.
- Cabinet timbers of Australia. By R. T. Baker. Sydney: W.A. Gullick, government printer, 1913. url p. 183.
- Cabinet timbers of Australia. SydneyW.A. Gullick, Govt. Printer1913 url , p. 16, p. 16, p. 183.
- Flora Vitiensis nova: a new Flora of Fiji (spermatophytes only) / Albert C. Smith. Lawaii, Hawaii: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, 1979- url p. 690, p. 692.
- Forest culture and eucalyptus trees, San FranciscoCubery1876 url p. 175.
- Forestry handbook / ed. by R. Dalrymple Hay, director of forests. Sydney: W. A. Gullick, 1915-17. url , , p. 205.
- Forestry handbook. .. Sydney, W. A. Gullick, government printer, 1915-17. url , , , .
- Forestry quarterly. Ithaca, N.Y. [etc.] url p. 709.
- Great Basin naturalist memoirs. 1992 [Provo, Utah]Brigham Young University, 1976-1992. url p. 1248, p. 935.
- Hawaiian Fungi / Honolulu, Hawaii: The Museum, 1925. url p. 162, p. 174, p. 42, p. 43.
- Icones plantarum formosanarum nec non et contributiones ad floram formosanam: or, Icones of the plants of Formosa, and materials for a flora of the island, based on a study of the collections of the Botanical survey of the Government of Formosa / By B. Hayata. .. Taihoku: Bureau of Productive Industry, Government of Formosa, 1911-1921. url p. 28.
- International catalogue of scientific literature. London: Published for the International Council by the Royal Society of London, 1902-1919. url p. 466.
- Inventory of seeds and plants imported / U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Washington, D.C.: G.P.O., 1914-1924. url p. 10.
- Journal of Hymenoptera research. Washington, D.C.: International Society of Hymenopterists, [1992- url p. 143.
- Journal of botany, British and foreign. 7 1869 London: Robert Hardwicke, 1863-1942. url p. 178, p. 181.
- Journal of the New York Botanical Garden. 35 1934 Lancaster, Pa.: Published for the Garden by the New Era Printing Co., 1900- url p. 265, p. 272, p. 289.
- Memoirs of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History. Honolulu: [Bishop Museum Press], 1899-1949. url , , , , .
- Minor products of Philippine forests, Manila, Bureau of Printing, 1920-1921. url , , , , , .
- Natural history of Hawaii, being an account of the Hawaiian people, the geology and geography of the islands, and the native and introduced plants and animals of the group, Honolulu, Hawaii[Printed for the author by] the Hawaiian gazette co., ltd., 1915. url p. 511.
- Nature. London, etc., Macmillan Journals Ltd., etc. url , , p. 311.
- Notes upon Hawaiian plants, with descriptions of new species and varieties. Honolulu, The College, 1911. url p. 14.
- Observations of a naturalist in the Pacific between 1896 and 1899 / by H.B. Guppy. London: Macmillan and Co., 1903-1906. url p. 531.
- Occasional papers of Bernice P. Bishop Museum. Honolulu, Bishop Museum Press, 1898-1984. url p. 40.
- Pamphlets on forestry in Hawaii. [1900?- url p. 8.
- Pamphlets on the lumber industry. [1900?- url p. 122.
- Papers and proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania. Hobart, Tasmania, The Society. url p. 49.
- Philippine fiber plants, / by William H. Brown. Manila: Bureau of Printing; 1919. url p. 102, p. 105, p. 72.
- Phytologia. Bronx Park, New York, H.A. Gleason and H.N. Moldenke, url p. 179, p. 94.
- Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Boston: Metcalf and Co., 1846-1958 url p. 161, p. 509, p. 509.
- Proceedings of the Essex Institute. Salem: Essex Institute Press. url .
- Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society. Honolulu: Hawaiian Entomological Society url , p. 116.
- Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. Sydney, Linnean Society of New South Wales. url , , , , , , , , , , p. 139, p. 149, p. 149, p. 150, p. 154, p. 162, p. 17, p. 179, p. 235, p. 236, p. 236, p. 239, p. 246, p. 246, p. 251, p. 252, p. 255, p. 259, p. 261, p. 268, p. 295, p. 295, p. 307, p. 436, p. 52, p. 53, p. 55, p. 57, p. 59, p. 61, p. 62, p. 644, p. 648, p. 649, p. 649, p. 71, p. 72, p. 78, p. 793, p. 794, p. 80, p. 81, p. 83, p. 854, p. 89, p. 90, p. 91.
- Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria. Melbourne: The Society, 1889- url p. 60.
- Report of the Australian Association for the advancement of Science. Sidney, The Association. url p. 396, p. 431.
- Report on the scientific results of the voyage of H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-76: under the command of Captain George S. Nares, R.N., F.R.S. and Captain Frank Turle Thomson, R.N. / prepared under the superintendence of Sir C. Wyville Thomson. Edinburgh: Neill, 1880-1895. url p. 116, p. 133.
- Reports of the Survey. Botanical series. Minneapolis [etc.]1892- url p. 849.
- Second systematic census of Australian plants, with chronologic, literary and geographic annotations; by Baron Ferdinand von Mueller. Pt. I. --Vasculares. Melbourne: Printed for the Victorian Government by McCarron. Bird & Co., 1889. url p. 102.
- Systematic arrangement of Australian Fungi, together with host-index and list of works on the subject. By D. McAlpine. Melbourne, R.S. Brain, Govt. Printer, 1895. url p. 177, p. 213.
- The Annals and magazine of natural history; zoology, botany, and geology being a continuation of the Annals combined with Loudon and Charlesworth's Magazine of Natural History. London, Taylor and Francis, Ltd. url p. 91, p. 91.
- The Australian zoologist. Sydney, Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales url p. 57.
- The Garden: an illustrated weekly journal of gardening in all its branches. London: [s.n., url p. 324.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url p. 187, p. 77.
- The Hawaiian forester and agriculturist; quarterly magazine of forestry, entomology, plant inspection and animal industry. Honolulu, Advertiser pub. co., ltd. [etc.] url p. 85.
- The Journal of the Linnean Society. Botany. 30 1895 London: the Society: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts & Green: ||Williams and Norgate, 1865-1968. url p. 172, p. 18, p. 203, p. 208, p. 23, p. 32, p. 510, p. 528, p. 534, p. 566, p. 64, p. 678.
- The Philippine journal of science. 2 1907 Manila. url p. 280.
- The Queensland flora: Queensland, Printed by H. J. Diddams & co., 1899-1902. url .
- The Victorian naturalist. [Melbourne]Field Naturalists Club of Victoria. url p. 87.
- The botany of the Kimberleys, Northwest Australia. [Perth, W. Simpson, Govt. Printer]1918. url .
- The flora of the Northern Territory, Melbourne, McCarron, Bird & Co., Printers, 1917. url .
- The indigenous trees of the Hawaiian Islands / by Joseph F. Rock. Honolulu: J.F. Rock; 1913. url p. 199, p. 210, p. 235, p. 283, p. 285, p. 286, p. 313, p. 38, p. 39, p. 54, p. 57.
- The journal of the Horticultural Society of London. London, [England]: Published for the Society, by Longman and Co., 1846-1855. url p. 287.
- The standard cyclopedia of horticulture; a discussion, for the amateur, and the professional and commercial grower, of the kinds, characteristics and methods of cultivation of the species of plants grown in the regions of the United States a Illustrated with colored plates, four thousand engravings in the text, and ninety-six full-page cuts. New York, Macmillan, 1919 [c1914] url p. 1701.
- The timber trees of New South Wales, By Arvid Nilson. Sydney: T. Richards, government printer, 1884. url p. 12.
- The useful native plants of Australia, (including Tasmania) by J. H. Maiden. Sydney, Turner and Henderson, 1889. url p. 315, p. 373, p. 669.
- Timber. LondonConstable1908 url p. 335.
- Timbers and their uses; a handbook for woodworkers, merchants, and all interested in the conversion and use of timber, London, E. P. Dutton & Co., 1919. url , .
- Transactions of the Academy of Science of St. Louis. [St. Louis: Academy of Science of St. Louis], 1860-1958. url p. 107, p. 107, p. 107.
- Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, 2nd series: Botany 6 1901-1905 London. url p. 267, p. 275, p. 491.
- Transactions of the Scottish Arboricultural Society. Edinburgh: The Society, -1887. url p. 457, p. 471.
- Wood; a manual of the natural history and industrial applications of the timbers of commerce. LondonE. Arnold1908 url p. 133, p. 164, p. 202, p. 325.
- Chen Yi-ling and Chou Pan-kai. 1982. Rhamnaceae. In: Chen Yi-ling, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 48(1): i-vi, 1-169.
- Chen Yi-ling and Chou Pan-kai. 1982. Rhamnaceae. In: Chen Yi-ling, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 48(1): i-vi, 1-169.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 01, 2008:
- Australian National Herbarium
- , Australian National Herbarium
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, NSW herbarium collection
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, Plants of Papua New Guinea
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2664121
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-184728
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2490700
- GRIN Nomen Number: 2659
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 716620-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 407759
- Yilin Chen & Carsten Schirarend "Rhamnaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 12 Page 115,355. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Alphitonia". in Flora of China Vol. 12 Page 115, 166. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 144.120 meters (472.835 feet), Standard Deviation = 376.250 based on 526 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]