Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Azerbaijani:
Common Names in Czech:
Common Names in Dutch:
Gele Sierui, Goudlook
Common Names in English:
Golden Garlic, Lily Leek, Liliy Leek, Moly, Yellow Garlic, Yellow Onion
Common Names in Finnish:
Common Names in French:
Ail Dor?, Ail D´espagne, Ail Doré, Ail doré
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Italian:
Common Names in Japanese:
Common Names in Polish:
Common Names in Russian:
Luk Molia, Luk Zolotistyi, Лук Моли
, from tunicate
bulbs, with onion odor and taste. Bulbs solitary or clustered, dividing at base
, or on rhizomes, reforming annually; outer coats
generally brown or gray, smooth
, or with cellular
reticulation (generally important in identification) ; inner coats membranous. Leaves generally withering from tip
, usually persistent
, 1-12, basal; blade
, or flat (carinate
in A. sativum, A. praecox, A. tuberosum, A. rotundum, A. neapolitanum, A. triquetrum, A. unifolium, and A. lacunosum), straight or ± falcate
in A. nevadense and A. atrorubens), broader in A. victorialis and A. tricoccum, not petiolate
(except in A. tricoccum and A. victorialis) . Scape usually persistent, terete or flattened. Inflorescences umbellate
, flowering centripetally (centrifugally in A. schoenoprasum), sometimes replaced totally or partially by bulbils, subtended by spathe
bracts; bracts conspicuous
, ± fused, usually 3+-veined, equaling pedicel except in some introduced species
, membranous. Flowers erect
(pendent in A. triquetrum) ; tepals 6, in 2 similar whorls, ± distinct
, petallike, usually becoming becoming dry and persisting; stamens 6, epipetalous
in all but 1 native species
broad at base, fused into ring
(some introduced species and A. victorialis appendaged), linear, generally glabrous
(A. rotundum and A. hoffmanii papillose
proximally) ; anthers
and pollen variously colored
; ovary superior, 3-lobed, sometimes crested
with processes, 3-locular, usually 2 ovules per locule (6-8 in A. nigrum), crest
processes 3 or 6, smooth except in A. haematochiton, A. sharsmithiae, and A. lacunosum; style 1; stigma capitate to ± 3-lobed; pedicel erect or spreading
in A. triquetrum) . Fruits capsular
, dehiscence loculicidal. Seeds black, obovoid
, finely cellular-reticulate, cells
smooth or minutely roughened, with 1-8 papillae, without caruncle except in A. triquetrum. x
= 7, 8, 9.
Species 550-700: mostly Northern Hemisphere.
As with many other genera in the Liliaceae sensu lato, Allium has been segregated into a separate family , Alliaceae , by most recent authors (R. Dahlgren et al. 1985; K . Rahn 1998; A. L. Takhtajan 1997; R. F. Thorne 1992) .Old World species of Allium are generally placed in subgenera and sections . Attempts to treat New World species similarly have gained less acceptance. H. P. Traub (1972) recognized subg. Amerallium, encompassing all of the x = 7 North American members of the genus.
P. Hanelt (1992) placed the Old World x = 7 species also in that subgenus , which includes all but three of the North American species (A. schoenoprasum, A. tricoccum, and A. victorialis), which have x = 8. These latter species have been placed in subg. Rhizirideum (P. Hanelt 1992) . Resolution of the problematic subgeneric and sectional relationships among Old and New World species will require much more extensive molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the genus. The characters used in the construction of the following key are the best that have been discovered for this purpose. Many of these are subject to sometimes rather wide variation . It is anticipated, therefore, that it can be used successfully only with considerable understanding of the natural units involved, their distribution, and comparison with descriptions and accurately named specimens. The Allium bulb consists of a series of leaf bases, some with blades, others without, surrounding an apical meristem. The leaf bases are replaced annually as the meristem forms a new (renewal) bulb. Often the meristem will branch , resulting in two or more bulbs being formed from a single parent bulb (increase bulbs) . In addition several types of rhizomes are formed in Allium. In some cases (e.g. , A. validum) bulbs form atop a thick, iris-like rhizome that produces new bulbs in succeeding years. In other cases (e.g., A. bolanderi, A. campanulatum, and A. unifolium) each bulb produces one or more rhizomes that in turn produce a terminal renewal or increase bulb. There is variation even in this type of rhizome. In some species (e.g., A. bolanderi and A. unifolium) the bulb producing the rhizomes disappears during the development of the rhizomes and new bulbs except for the roots , which remain active until the new bulbs mature and become dormant . In others (e.g., A. campanulatum) the bulb produces a number of very short rhizomes around the roots, each of which develops a very small terminal bulbel. At the same time, the parent bulb remains intact and produces a renewal bulb, or may divide to produce two or more large increase bulbs. As a result, specimens with this type of rhizome will have one or more large bulbs with a number of much smaller bulbels among the roots. The underground parts of Allium are often critical for successful identification, and every effort should always be made to collect them. The €œdirty€ brown or gray coats surrounding the bulbs are the only source for the cellular-reticulation patterns referred to in the key. These should be carefully collected and preserved as part of any specimen. Several Old World species (Allium ampeloprasum Linnaeus, A. cepa Linnaeus, A. oleraceum Linnaeus, A. sativum Linnaeus, A. nigrum Linnaeus), grown as foodstuffs or ornamentals , may be encountered and are certainly represented in North American herbaria. For this reason, these species have been included in the key. Some do not reproduce by seeds and probably should not be considered as truly naturalized in our flora , although they may persist for long periods at or near places where they have been planted. Additionally, over 52 species contained in this treatment are considered choice garden plants and are readily available through catalogues and garden centers. Locally, these species and possibly others grown as garden plants may escape and become established . It is inevitable, therefore, that numerous specimens of these escapees will be represented in North American herbaria and may muddy the boundaries of what is regarded to be the natural distribution. We have attempted in all cases to map what we consider to be the natural ranges of these species, based on the specimens examined over the years. Material falling outside these ranges may include these escapees and should be suspect.
Flowers: Bloom Period: April, May, June. • Flower Color: yellow
Size: 6-12" tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,287 meters (0 to 4,222 feet).
- 1 Forest
- 1.4 Forest - Temperate
- 6 Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs , mountain peaks) [more info]
Culture: Space 6-9" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 6.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Chatton, 1925
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997, nom. inval.
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Novák ex Takht. (1967)
- Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Lilianae () - Takhtajan, 1967 - Monocots
- Subclass: Magnoliidae () - Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967 - Angiosperms
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Novák ex Takht. (1967)
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997, nom. inval.
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 06-Jan-2005
Allium moly L. is a tertiary wild relative of a number of crops in the allium group, including onion (A. cepa L.), Welsh onion (A. fistulosum L.), leek (A. porrum L.), garlic (A. sativum L.) and chives (A. schoenoprasum L.)..
Members of the genus Allium
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 889 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
A. aaseae (Aase Onion) · A. abramsii (Abrams' Allium) · A. acuminatum (Taper-Tip Onion) · A. aflatunense (Flowering Onion) · A. aflatunense 'Purple Sensation' (Persian Flowering Onion) · A. allegheniense (Wild Leek) · A. amethystinum (Ornamental Allium) · A. ampeloprasum (Broadleaf Wild Leek) · A. ampeloprasum var. ampeloprasum (Broadleaf Wild Leek) · A. ampeloprasum var. atroviolaceum (Broadleaf Wild Leek) · A. ampeloprasum var. babbingtonii (Babbingtons Leek) · A. ampeloprasum var. babingtonii (Babington´s Leek) · A. ampeloprasum 'Porrum' (Garden Leek) · A. amplectens (Narrowleaf Onion) · A. anceps (Kellogg's Onion) · A. angulosum (Mouse Garlic) · A. ascalonicum (Grey Shallot) · A. ascalonicum 'Armador' (Shallot) · A. ascalonicum 'Atlantic' (Shallot) · A. ascalonicum 'Atlas' (Shallot) · A. ascalonicum 'Cuisse De Poulet' (Shallot) · A. ascalonicum 'Matador' (Shallot) · A. ascalonicum 'Pikant' (Shallot) · A. ascalonicum 'Prisma' (Shallot) · A. atropurpureum (Ornamental Allium) · A. atrorubens (Dark Red Onion) · A. atrorubens S.Watson var. atrorubens S.Watson (Darkred Onion) · A. atrorubens var. atrorubens (Darkred Onion) · A. atrorubens var. cristatum (Darkred Onion) · A. baytopiorum (Yumak Out) · A. bigelovii (Bigelow Onion) · A. bisceptrum (Aspen Onion) · A. bisceptrum S.Watson var. bisceptrum S.Watson (Twincrest Onion) · A. bisceptrum S.Watson var. palmeri (S.Watson) Cronq. (Aspen Onion) · A. bisceptrum var. bisceptrum (Twincrest Onion) · A. bisceptrum var. palmeri (Aspen Onion) · A. bolanderi (Bolander Onion) · A. bolanderi S.Watson var. bolanderi S.Watson (Bolander's Onion) · A. bolanderi S.Watson var. stenanthum (E.Drew) Jeps. (Bolander's Onion) · A. bolanderi var. bolanderi (Bolander's Onion) · A. bolanderi var. mirabile (Bolander's Onion) · A. bolanderi var. stenanthum (Bolander's Onion) · A. brandegeei (Brandegee Onion) · A. brevistylum (Short-Stem Onion) · A. burdickii (Narrow-Leaf Wild Leek) · A. burlewii (Burlew's Onion) · A. caeruleum (Azure Flowered Garlic) · A. campanulatum (Dusky Onion) · A. canadense (Bulbil Onion) · A. canadense var. canadense (Meadow Garlic) · A. canadense var. ecristatum (Meadow Garlic) · A. canadense var. fraseri (Fraser Meadow Garlic) · A. canadense var. hyacinthoides (Hyacinth Meadow Garlic) · A. canadense var. lavandulare (Meadow Garlic) · A. canadense var. mobilense (Meadow Garlic) · A. carinatum (Keeled Garlic) · A. carinatum carinatum (Keeled Garlic) · A. carinatum pulchellum (Keeled Garlic) · A. cepa (Cultivated Onion) · A. cepa var. aggregatum 'Ambition' (Multiplier Onion) · A. cepa var. aggregatum 'Bonilla' (Multiplier Onion) · A. cepa var. aggregatum 'Golden Gourmet' (Multiplier Onion) · A. cepa var. aggregatum 'Mirage' (Multiplier Onion) · A. cepa var. cepa (Garden Onion) · A. cepa var. viviparum (Egyptian Onion) · A. cepa 'Ada' (Onion) · A. cepa 'Adelante' (Onion) · A. cepa 'Admiral' (Onion) · A. cepa 'Affirmed' (Onion) · A. cepa 'Ailsa Craig Exhibition' (Edible Onion) · A. cepa 'Alabaster' (Onion) · A. cepa 'Alpina' (Bunching) · A. cepa 'Alpine' (Onion) · A. cepa 'Altisimo' (Onion) · A. cepa 'Alvara' (Onion 'alvara') · A. cepa 'Amethyst' (Borettana Onion) · A. cepa 'Antilla Red' (Bunching) · A. cepa 'Arad' (Onion) · A. cepa 'Aranex' (Edible Onion) · A. cepa 'Aurora' (Onion) · A. cepa 'Australian Brown' (Onion) · A. cepa 'Azteca' (Edible Onion) · A. cepa 'Baby Adavantage Brand' (Bunching) · A. cepa 'Baby Belle Brand' (Bunching) · A. cepa 'Baco' (Edible Onion) · A. cepa 'Baja Verde' (Bunching) · A. cepa 'Bakal' (Edible Onion) · A. cepa 'Balaton' (Onion) · A. cepa 'Balusta' (Edible Onion) · A. cepa 'Bambi' (Edible Onion) · A. cepa 'Banana' (Shallot 'banana') · A. cepa 'Bandolero' (Onion) · A. cepa 'Bantry' (Edible Onion) · A. cepa 'Barletta' (Pickling Onion) · A. cepa 'Barrage' (Onion) · A. cepa 'Beacon' (Onion) · A. cepa 'Bedfordshire Champion' (Onion) · A. cepa 'Bella Donna' (Edible Onion) · A. cepa 'Belvedere Early Brown' (Onion) · A. cepa 'Bennie's Red' (Onion)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- An encyclopaedia of gardening; comprising the theory and practice of horticulture, floriculture, arboriculture, and landscape-gardening, including all the latest improvements; a general history of gardening in all countries; and a By J.C. Loudon. London, Printed for Longman, Ross, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1828. url p. 887.
- An encyclopædia of gardening; comprising the theory and practice of horticulture, floriculture, arboriculture, and landscape-gardening, including all the latest improvements; a general history of gardening in all countries; and a By J.C. Loudon. .. illustrated with many hundred engravings on wood by Branston. London: Printed for Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1827. url p. 875, p. 887.
- Beeton's Dictionary of everyday gardening. .. to which is added a monthly calendar of garden work throughout the year. London, Ward, Lock, 1909. url p. 711.
- Biological effects of radiation; mechanism and measurement of radiation, applications in biology, photochemical reactions, effects of radiant energy on organisms and organic products. Edited by Benjamin M. Duggar. With the cooperation of Janet Howell Clark, Kenneth S. Cole, Farrington Daniels [and others] New York andMcGraw-Hill Book Co., 1936. url p. 815.
- Bulb propagation and trade study WWF url p. 107, p. 89.
- Bulbs and their cultivation: a practical treatise on the cultivation and propagation of window and indoor bulbous and tuberous-rooted plants. .. / by T.W. Saunders. London: W.H. & L. Collingridge, [1913?] url p. 22.
- Bulbs: a treatise on hardy and tender bulbs and tubers. By Edward Sprague Rand, jr. Boston, J. E. Tilton, 1866. url p. 175.
- Bulbs; a treatise on hardy and tender bulbs and tubers. By Edward Sprague Rand, jr.. .. Boston, Houghton, Mifflin and company, 1884. url p. 175.
- Bulletin - Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station. Amherst, : Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station, 1907-1974. url p. 46.
- Catalogue of bulbous and tuberous rooted flowers, of the most choice and splendid varieties: cultivated at Prince's Botanic Garden and Nurseries, Flushing, near New-York / William R. Prince & Co., proprietors. New York: s.n., 1846? url p. 8.
- Catalogue of dahlias, and bulbous and tuberous rooted flowers, of the most splendid and choice varieties: cultivated at Prince's Linn©an Botanic Garden and Nurseries, Flushing, near New-York / William R. Prince & Co. New York: s.n., 1844 url p. 26.
- Catalogue of scientific papers, 1800-1900. Compiled by the Royal Society of London. London, C.J. Clay and Sons, 1867-1902 [etc.] Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1914-25. url p. 733.
- Cryptogamic plants of the USSR. (Flora sporovykh rastenii SSSR) Translated from Russian. Jerusalem[Published for the National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C. by the Israel Program for Scientific Translations, 19 - url p. 448.
- English botany, or, Coloured figures of British plants / edited by John T. Boswell Syme; the popular portion by Mrs. Lankester; the figures by J. Sowerby, J. de C. Sowerby, J.W. Salter, and John Edward Sowerby. London: R. Hardwicke, 1863-1886. url p. 227.
- English botany, or, coloured figures of British plants / edited by John T. Boswell Syme; the popular portion by Mrs. Lankester; the figures by J. Sowerby, J. de C. Sowerby, J.W. Salter, and John Edward Sowerby. London: G. Bell, 1873. url p. 227.
- Horticultural register, and gardener's magazine. Boston, G. D. Barrett [etc.] url p. 314.
- Jenaische Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaft. Jena, Gustav Fischer [etc.]. url p. 13.
- Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society. Oxford [etc.]Royal Microscopical Society. url p. 496.
- Leechdoms, wortcunning, and starcraft of early England: being a collection of documents, for the most part never before printed, illustrating the history of science in this country before the Norman conquest / London: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts, and Green, 1864-1866. url p. 152.
- List of rare, threatened and endemic plants in Europe (1982 edition) Council of Europe url p. 40.
- New illustrated encyclopedia of gardening, unabridged. Edited by T.H. Everett, with contributions from twenty horticulturists and authorities in the United States and Canada. New York, Greystone Press[1964-] url p. 77, p. 78.
- Nicholson, G. The illustrated dictionary of gardening: a practical and scientific encyclopædia of horticulture for gardeners and botanists /edited by George Nicholson; assisted by J.W.H. Trail. .. and J. Garrett. .. 1 1884-1888 London: L.U. Gill, -88. url p. 48.
- Science progress. London: John Murray, 1916- url p. 552.
- Standardized plant names; a catalogue of approved scientific and common names of plants in American commerce. Salem, Mass., 1923. url p. 261.
- The Floral world and garden guide. London, Groombridge and Sons, 1858-1880. url p. 251.
- The Florists' exchange: a weekly medium of interchange for florists, nurserymen, seedsmen and the trade in general. New York, N.Y.: [A.T. De la Mare Ptg. and Pub. Co., url p. 572, p. 665.
- The Gardener's monthly and horticulturist. Philadelphia, Pa.: Charles H. Marot, 1876-1888. url p. 258, p. 258.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url p. 285, p. 368, p. 392, p. 48, p. 802, p. 813.
- The Universal herbal; or, Botanical, medical, and agricultural dictionary; containing an account of all the known plants in the world, arranged according to the Linnean system. Specifying the uses to which they are or may be applied, whether as food, as medicine, or in the a London, Caxton Press url p. 867.
- The complete garden, by Albert D. Taylor, assisted by Gordon D. Cooper. Illustrated with fifty full page cuts, four line charts, and nine coloured plates. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, Page, 1921. url p. 270, p. 270, p. 331, p. 331, p. 380.
- The complete illustrated book of garden magic. Chicago, J.G. Ferguson Pub. Co. url p. 194.
- The florist cultivator, or, Plain directions for the management of the principal florist flowers, shrubs, etc. etc.: adapted to the flower-garden, shrubbery, and greenhouse: with select lists of the finest roses, geraniums, carnations, pinks, auriculas, polyanthuses, tulips, dahlias, heartsease, &c &c.. .. / by Thomas Willats. London: J. Ridgeway, 1836. url p. 70.
- The florist's manual; or, Hints for the construction of a gay flower garden. With observations on the best methods of preventing the depredations of insects. To which is added, a Catalogue of common herbaceous plants, with London, Printed for H. Colburn, 1816. url p. 60.
- Trade in bulbs. Phase 1: report IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre url p. 63, p. 65, p. 71.
- Transactions and proceedings of the New Zealand Institute. Wellington: New Zealand Institute. url p. 395.
- Transactions of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. [S.l.: s.n.], 1843-1920. url p. 9.
- U.S. gardening guide: everything you need to know about how to make things grow / compiled by Jeffery Feinman. New York: Simon and Schuster, c1979. url p. 77.
- Cronquist, A. and M. Ownbey. 1977. Allium. In: A. Cronquist et al. 1972+. Intermountain Flora. Vascular Plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. 5+ vols. New York and London. Vol. 6, pp. 508522. New York.
- Davies, D. 1992. Alliums, the Ornamental Onions. Portland.
- Denison, S. S. and D. W. McNeal Jr. 1989. A reevaluation of the Allium sanbornii (Alliaceae) complex.
- Hanelt, P. 1992. Infrageneric grouping of AlliumThe Gatersleban approach. In: P. Hanelt et al., eds. 1992. The Genus Allium: Taxonomic Problems and Genetic Resources.Gatersleben. Pp. 107123.
- Jacobsen, T. D. 1978. A Comparative Study of Three Alliances of the Genus Allium. Ph.D. thesis. Washington State University.
- Madroño 29: 7986. McNeal, D. W. Jr. 1992. A revision of the Allium fimbriatum (Alliaceae) complex. Aliso 13: 411426.
- Madroño 36: 122130. Gregory, M. et al. 1998. Nomenclator Alliorum: Allium Names and Synonyms, a World Guide. Kew.
- Mathew, B. 1996. A Review of Allium sect. Allium. Kew. McNeal, D. W. Jr. 1970. Comparative Studies of the Allium acuminatum Alliance. Ph.D. thesis. Washington State University.
- McNeal, D. W. Jr. 1982. Taxonomy of the Allium lacunosum complex (Liliaceae).
- McNeal, D. W. Jr. 1992b. A reappraisal of Allium cristatum (Alliaceae) and its allies. Madroño 39: 8389.
- Mingrone, L. V. 1968. A Comparative Study of the Allium falcifolium Alliance. Ph.D. thesis. Washington State University.
- Mortola, W. R. and D. W. McNeal Jr. 1985. Taxonomy of the Allium tribracteatum (Alliaceae) complex. Aliso 11: 2735.
- Ownbey, M. 1947. The genus Allium in Arizona. Res. Stud. State Coll. Wash. 15: 211232.
- Ownbey, M. 1950. The genus Allium in Idaho. Res. Stud. State Coll. Wash. 18: 339.
- Ownbey, M. 1950b. The genus Allium in Texas. Res. Stud. State Coll. Wash. 18: 181222.
- Ownbey, M. 1969b. Allium. In: C. L. Hitchcock et al. 19551969. Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest. 5 vols. Seattle. Vol. 1, pp. 739760.
- Ownbey, M. and H. C. Aase. 1955. Cytotaxonomic studies in Allium. I. The Allium canadense alliance. Res. Stud. State Coll. Wash., suppl. 1: 1106.
- Peterson, P. M., C. R. Annable, and L. H. Rieseberg. 1988. Systematic relationships and nomenclatural changes in the Allium douglasii complex (Alliaceae). Syst. Bot. 13: 207214.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed February 5, 2012.
- Draper, D. 2011. Allium moly. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 30January2012.
- IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on January 28, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal January 01, 2008:
- Bundesamt für Naturschutz / Zentralstelle für Phytodiversität Deutschland, Bundesamt fuer Naturschutz / Zentralstelle fuer Phytodiversitaet Deutschland
- Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien, Observations du Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien.
- European Environment Agency, EUNIS
- GBIF-Spain, Institut Botanic de Barcelona, BC
- GBIF-Spain, Universidad de Oviedo. Departamento de Biología de Organismos y Sistemas: FCO
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Plants
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 5821625
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-296034
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4490920
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:528431-1
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 528428-1
- IUCN ID: 189835
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 644337
- Dale W. McNeal Jr. & T. D. Jacobsen "Allium". in Flora of North America Vol. 26 Page 53, 55, 224, 225, 259, 334, 336. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 307.830 meters (1,009.941 feet), Standard Deviation = 374.610 based on 138 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
- Draper, D. 2011. Allium moly. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 January 2012. [back]