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Common Names in Chinese:
Tai Bai Jiu, Tai Bai Shan Cong, ye Cong (Herb)
Common Names in English:
Chinese Red Alliium, Pratt Onion
, from tunicate
bulbs, with onion odor and taste. Bulbs solitary or clustered, dividing at base
, or on rhizomes, reforming annually; outer coats
generally brown or gray, smooth
, or with cellular
reticulation (generally important in identification) ; inner coats membranous. Leaves generally withering from tip
, usually persistent
, 1-12, basal; blade
, or flat (carinate
in A. sativum, A. praecox, A. tuberosum, A. rotundum, A. neapolitanum, A. triquetrum, A. unifolium, and A. lacunosum), straight or ± falcate
in A. nevadense and A. atrorubens), broader in A. victorialis and A. tricoccum, not petiolate
(except in A. tricoccum and A. victorialis) . Scape usually persistent, terete or flattened. Inflorescences umbellate
, flowering centripetally (centrifugally in A. schoenoprasum), sometimes replaced totally or partially by bulbils, subtended by spathe
bracts; bracts conspicuous
, ± fused, usually 3+-veined, equaling pedicel except in some introduced species
, membranous. Flowers erect
(pendent in A. triquetrum) ; tepals 6, in 2 similar whorls, ± distinct
, petallike, usually becoming becoming dry and persisting; stamens 6, epipetalous
in all but 1 native species
broad at base, fused into ring
(some introduced species and A. victorialis appendaged), linear, generally glabrous
(A. rotundum and A. hoffmanii papillose
proximally) ; anthers
and pollen variously colored
; ovary superior, 3-lobed, sometimes crested
with processes, 3-locular, usually 2 ovules per locule (6-8 in A. nigrum), crest
processes 3 or 6, smooth except in A. haematochiton, A. sharsmithiae, and A. lacunosum; style 1; stigma capitate to ± 3-lobed; pedicel erect or spreading
in A. triquetrum) . Fruits capsular
, dehiscence loculicidal. Seeds black, obovoid
, finely cellular-reticulate, cells
smooth or minutely roughened, with 1-8 papillae, without caruncle except in A. triquetrum. x
= 7, 8, 9.
Species 550-700: mostly Northern Hemisphere.
As with many other genera in the Liliaceae sensu lato, Allium has been segregated into a separate family , Alliaceae , by most recent authors (R. Dahlgren et al. 1985; K . Rahn 1998; A. L. Takhtajan 1997; R. F. Thorne 1992) .Old World species of Allium are generally placed in subgenera and sections . Attempts to treat New World species similarly have gained less acceptance. H. P. Traub (1972) recognized subg. Amerallium, encompassing all of the x = 7 North American members of the genus.
P. Hanelt (1992) placed the Old World x = 7 species also in that subgenus , which includes all but three of the North American species (A. schoenoprasum, A. tricoccum, and A. victorialis), which have x = 8. These latter species have been placed in subg. Rhizirideum (P. Hanelt 1992) . Resolution of the problematic subgeneric and sectional relationships among Old and New World species will require much more extensive molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the genus. The characters used in the construction of the following key are the best that have been discovered for this purpose. Many of these are subject to sometimes rather wide variation . It is anticipated, therefore, that it can be used successfully only with considerable understanding of the natural units involved, their distribution, and comparison with descriptions and accurately named specimens. The Allium bulb consists of a series of leaf bases, some with blades, others without, surrounding an apical meristem. The leaf bases are replaced annually as the meristem forms a new (renewal) bulb. Often the meristem will branch , resulting in two or more bulbs being formed from a single parent bulb (increase bulbs) . In addition several types of rhizomes are formed in Allium. In some cases (e.g. , A. validum) bulbs form atop a thick, iris-like rhizome that produces new bulbs in succeeding years. In other cases (e.g., A. bolanderi, A. campanulatum, and A. unifolium) each bulb produces one or more rhizomes that in turn produce a terminal renewal or increase bulb. There is variation even in this type of rhizome. In some species (e.g., A. bolanderi and A. unifolium) the bulb producing the rhizomes disappears during the development of the rhizomes and new bulbs except for the roots , which remain active until the new bulbs mature and become dormant . In others (e.g., A. campanulatum) the bulb produces a number of very short rhizomes around the roots, each of which develops a very small terminal bulbel. At the same time, the parent bulb remains intact and produces a renewal bulb, or may divide to produce two or more large increase bulbs. As a result, specimens with this type of rhizome will have one or more large bulbs with a number of much smaller bulbels among the roots. The underground parts of Allium are often critical for successful identification, and every effort should always be made to collect them. The €œdirty€ brown or gray coats surrounding the bulbs are the only source for the cellular-reticulation patterns referred to in the key. These should be carefully collected and preserved as part of any specimen. Several Old World species (Allium ampeloprasum Linnaeus, A. cepa Linnaeus, A. oleraceum Linnaeus, A. sativum Linnaeus, A. nigrum Linnaeus), grown as foodstuffs or ornamentals , may be encountered and are certainly represented in North American herbaria. For this reason, these species have been included in the key. Some do not reproduce by seeds and probably should not be considered as truly naturalized in our flora , although they may persist for long periods at or near places where they have been planted. Additionally, over 52 species contained in this treatment are considered choice garden plants and are readily available through catalogues and garden centers. Locally, these species and possibly others grown as garden plants may escape and become established . It is inevitable, therefore, that numerous specimens of these escapees will be represented in North American herbaria and may muddy the boundaries of what is regarded to be the natural distribution. We have attempted in all cases to map what we consider to be the natural ranges of these species, based on the specimens examined over the years. Material falling outside these ranges may include these escapees and should be suspect.
Flowers: Bloom Period: June, July, August, September. • Flower Color: mauve , pink, red, rose
Size: 12-18" tall.
Culture: Space 9-12" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Order: Asparagales () - Bromhead, 1838
- Superorder: Lilianae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Liliidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 06-Jan-2005
Members of the genus Allium
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 871 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
A. aaseae (Aase Onion) · A. abramsii (Abrams' Allium) · A. acuminatum (Taper-Tip Onion) · A. aflatunense (Flowering Onion) · A. aflatunense 'Purple Sensation' (Persian Flowering Onion) · A. allegheniense (Wild Leek) · A. amethystinum (Ornamental Allium) · A. ampeloprasum (Broadleaf Wild Leek) · A. ampeloprasum var. ampeloprasum (Broadleaf Wild Leek) · A. ampeloprasum var. atroviolaceum (Broadleaf Wild Leek) · A. ampeloprasum var. babbingtonii (Babbingtons Leek) · A. ampeloprasum var. babingtonii (Babington´s Leek) · A. ampeloprasum 'Porrum' (Garden Leek) · A. amplectens (Narrowleaf Onion) · A. anceps (Kellogg's Onion) · A. angulosum (Mouse Garlic) · A. ascalonicum (Grey Shallot) · A. ascalonicum 'Armador' (Shallot) · A. ascalonicum 'Atlantic' (Shallot) · A. ascalonicum 'Atlas' (Shallot) · A. ascalonicum 'Cuisse De Poulet' (Shallot) · A. ascalonicum 'Matador' (Shallot) · A. ascalonicum 'Pikant' (Shallot) · A. ascalonicum 'Prisma' (Shallot) · A. atropurpureum (Ornamental Allium) · A. atrorubens (Dark Red Onion) · A. atrorubens S.Watson var. atrorubens S.Watson (Darkred Onion) · A. atrorubens var. atrorubens (Darkred Onion) · A. atrorubens var. cristatum (Darkred Onion) · A. bigelovii (Bigelow Onion) · A. bisceptrum (Aspen Onion) · A. bisceptrum S.Watson var. bisceptrum S.Watson (Twincrest Onion) · A. bisceptrum S.Watson var. palmeri (S.Watson) Cronq. (Aspen Onion) · A. bisceptrum var. bisceptrum (Twincrest Onion) · A. bisceptrum var. palmeri (Aspen Onion) · A. bolanderi (Bolander Onion) · A. bolanderi S.Watson var. bolanderi S.Watson (Bolander's Onion) · A. bolanderi S.Watson var. stenanthum (E.Drew) Jeps. (Bolander's Onion) · A. bolanderi var. bolanderi (Bolander's Onion) · A. bolanderi var. mirabile (Bolander's Onion) · A. bolanderi var. stenanthum (Bolander's Onion) · A. brandegeei (Brandegee Onion) · A. brevistylum (Short-Stem Onion) · A. burdickii (Narrow-Leaf Wild Leek) · A. burlewii (Burlew's Onion) · A. caeruleum (Azure Flowered Garlic) · A. campanulatum (Dusky Onion) · A. canadense (Bulbil Onion) · A. canadense var. canadense (Meadow Garlic) · A. canadense var. ecristatum (Meadow Garlic) · A. canadense var. fraseri (Fraser Meadow Garlic) · A. canadense var. hyacinthoides (Hyacinth Meadow Garlic) · A. canadense var. lavandulare (Meadow Garlic) · A. canadense var. mobilense (Meadow Garlic) · A. carinatum (Keeled Garlic) · A. carinatum carinatum (Keeled Garlic) · A. carinatum pulchellum (Keeled Garlic) · A. cepa (Cultivated Onion) · A. cepa var. aggregatum 'Ambition' (Multiplier Onion) · A. cepa var. aggregatum 'Bonilla' (Multiplier Onion) · A. cepa var. aggregatum 'Golden Gourmet' (Multiplier Onion) · A. cepa var. aggregatum 'Mirage' (Multiplier Onion) · A. cepa var. cepa (Garden Onion) · A. cepa var. viviparum (Egyptian Onion) · A. cepa 'Ada' (Onion) · A. cepa 'Adelante' (Onion) · A. cepa 'Admiral' (Onion) · A. cepa 'Affirmed' (Onion) · A. cepa 'Ailsa Craig Exhibition' (Edible Onion) · A. cepa 'Alabaster' (Onion) · A. cepa 'Alpina' (Bunching) · A. cepa 'Alpine' (Onion) · A. cepa 'Altisimo' (Onion) · A. cepa 'Alvara' (Onion 'alvara') · A. cepa 'Amethyst' (Borettana Onion) · A. cepa 'Antilla Red' (Bunching) · A. cepa 'Arad' (Onion) · A. cepa 'Aranex' (Edible Onion) · A. cepa 'Aurora' (Onion) · A. cepa 'Australian Brown' (Onion) · A. cepa 'Azteca' (Edible Onion) · A. cepa 'Baby Adavantage Brand' (Bunching) · A. cepa 'Baby Belle Brand' (Bunching) · A. cepa 'Baco' (Edible Onion) · A. cepa 'Baja Verde' (Bunching) · A. cepa 'Bakal' (Edible Onion) · A. cepa 'Balaton' (Onion) · A. cepa 'Balusta' (Edible Onion) · A. cepa 'Bambi' (Edible Onion) · A. cepa 'Banana' (Shallot 'banana') · A. cepa 'Bandolero' (Onion) · A. cepa 'Bantry' (Edible Onion) · A. cepa 'Barletta' (Pickling Onion) · A. cepa 'Barrage' (Onion) · A. cepa 'Beacon' (Onion) · A. cepa 'Bedfordshire Champion' (Onion) · A. cepa 'Bella Donna' (Edible Onion) · A. cepa 'Belvedere Early Brown' (Onion) · A. cepa 'Bennie's Red' (Onion) · A. cepa 'Bianca Di Lucca' (Onion)
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- Cronquist, A. and M. Ownbey. 1977. Allium. In: A. Cronquist et al. 1972+. Intermountain Flora. Vascular Plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. 5+ vols. New York and London. Vol. 6, pp. 508522. New York.
- Davies, D. 1992. Alliums, the Ornamental Onions. Portland.
- Denison, S. S. and D. W. McNeal Jr. 1989. A reevaluation of the Allium sanbornii (Alliaceae) complex.
- Hanelt, P. 1992. Infrageneric grouping of AlliumThe Gatersleban approach. In: P. Hanelt et al., eds. 1992. The Genus Allium: Taxonomic Problems and Genetic Resources.Gatersleben. Pp. 107123.
- Jacobsen, T. D. 1978. A Comparative Study of Three Alliances of the Genus Allium. Ph.D. thesis. Washington State University.
- Madroño 29: 7986. McNeal, D. W. Jr. 1992. A revision of the Allium fimbriatum (Alliaceae) complex. Aliso 13: 411426.
- Madroño 36: 122130. Gregory, M. et al. 1998. Nomenclator Alliorum: Allium Names and Synonyms, a World Guide. Kew.
- Mathew, B. 1996. A Review of Allium sect. Allium. Kew. McNeal, D. W. Jr. 1970. Comparative Studies of the Allium acuminatum Alliance. Ph.D. thesis. Washington State University.
- McNeal, D. W. Jr. 1982. Taxonomy of the Allium lacunosum complex (Liliaceae).
- McNeal, D. W. Jr. 1992b. A reappraisal of Allium cristatum (Alliaceae) and its allies. Madroño 39: 8389.
- Mingrone, L. V. 1968. A Comparative Study of the Allium falcifolium Alliance. Ph.D. thesis. Washington State University.
- Mortola, W. R. and D. W. McNeal Jr. 1985. Taxonomy of the Allium tribracteatum (Alliaceae) complex. Aliso 11: 2735.
- Ownbey, M. 1947. The genus Allium in Arizona. Res. Stud. State Coll. Wash. 15: 211232.
- Ownbey, M. 1950. The genus Allium in Idaho. Res. Stud. State Coll. Wash. 18: 339.
- Ownbey, M. 1950b. The genus Allium in Texas. Res. Stud. State Coll. Wash. 18: 181222.
- Ownbey, M. 1969b. Allium. In: C. L. Hitchcock et al. 19551969. Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest. 5 vols. Seattle. Vol. 1, pp. 739760.
- Ownbey, M. and H. C. Aase. 1955. Cytotaxonomic studies in Allium. I. The Allium canadense alliance. Res. Stud. State Coll. Wash., suppl. 1: 1106.
- Peterson, P. M., C. R. Annable, and L. H. Rieseberg. 1988. Systematic relationships and nomenclatural changes in the Allium douglasii complex (Alliaceae). Syst. Bot. 13: 207214.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed February 5, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal December 04, 2007:
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 1859466
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-296318
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 14973970
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:528656-1
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 528656-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 716639