Common Names in English:
Longtongue Bentgrass, Alaska Bentgrass, Bigspike Bentgrass, Minor Spike Bentgrass, Monolepis Bentgrass, Smallleaf Bentgrass, Spike Bent, Spike Bent Grass, Spike Bentgrass, Spike Redtop, Western Redtop
or sometimes with rhizomes or stolons. Leaf blades
, flat or rolled; ligule membranous. Inflorescence a panicle, open to contracted
or spikelike. Spikelets
with 1 floret, small, often gaping
, without rachilla extension
; rachilla disarticulating above glumes
; glumes persistent
than floret, subequal
or lower a little longer, membranous, 1-veined, apex subacute
to acuminate; floret callus glabrous
or shortly pilose
; lemma oblong
, thinner than glumes, often hyaline
, 5-veined, rounded
on back, glabrous or hairy
veins sometimes excurrent, awnless or awned
from back, apex truncate
, sometimes weakly so or straight when short; palea shorter than lemma, sometimes very small. Stamens 3. Caryopsis oblong, sulcate
on ventral side.
About 200 species:temperate and cold regions of the N hemisphere, also on tropical mountains; 25 species (eight endemic) in China.
The genus includes some good fodder and lawn plants .
Some species are superficially very similar, and correct identification depends on careful observation of spikelet details. It is also important to collect the basal parts to show the presence or absence of rhizomes and stolons. When the palea is long it is normally obvious, but small paleas usually adhere to the mature caryopsis and may appear to be absent. The presence or absence of awns is useful for identification, but awned species may have awnless variants , and vice versa, and the position of the awn on the lemma back can also be rather variable.
Habit: Graminoid • Growth Form: Rhizomatous • Shape and Orientation: Erect
Flowers: Bloom Period: Late Spring • Flower Color: Yellow • Flower Conspicuous: No
Seeds: Seed per Pound: 5600000 • Seed Spread Rate: Slow • Seedling Vigor: Low • Fruit/Seed Abundance: Low • Fruit/Seed Color: Brown • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: No • Cold Stratification Required: No
Foliage: Foliage Color: Green • Foliage Porosity Summer: Porous • Foliage Porosity Winter: Porous • Foliage Texture: Medium • Fall Conspicuous: No • Leaf Retention: No
Active Growth Period: Spring , Summer, Fall • Growth Rate: Moderate • After Harvest Regrowth Rate: Slow • Mature Height (feet): 3.0 • Size: 4-6' tall. • Vegetative Spread Rate: Slow • Lifespan: Lifespan
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 3,180 meters (0 to 10,433 feet).
Duration: Perennial • Coppice Potential: No • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: No • Propagated by Container: No • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: No • Propagated by Seed: Yes • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: No • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Summer • Fruit/Seed Period End: Summer • Fruit/Seed Persistence: No
Culture: Space 24-36" apart.
Soil: Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: Yes • Anaerobic Tolerance: Medium • Salinity Tolerance: Low • CaCO3 Tolerance: Low • Minimum pH: 5.5 • Maximum pH: 7.5 • Fertility Requirement: Medium
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun . • Shade Tolerance: Intolerant
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: Low • Minimum Precipitation: 6 • Maximum Precipitation: 30 • Moisture Use: Medium
Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): -38 • Minimum Frost Free Days: 90 • Cold Hardiness: 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- (Auct.) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Juncanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Commelinidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Angiospermae () - Auct.
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina () - (Auct.) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Agrostis aenea Trin. • Agrostis alaskana Hultén • Agrostis ampla A. S. Hitchc. • Agrostis asperifolia Trin. • Agrostis exarata minor (Hook.) C. L. Hitchc. • Agrostis exarata var. minor Hook. • Agrostis exarata var. monolepis (Torr.) A. S. Hitchc. • Agrostis exarata var. pacifica Vasey • Agrostis exarata var. purpurascens Hultén • Agrostis longiligula A. S. Hitchc. • Agrostis longiligula var. australis J. T. Howell • Agrostis melaleuca (Trin.) A. S. Hitchc. • Agrostis microphylla var. major Vasey
Publishing author : Vasey Publication : Bull . Torrey Bot. Club xiii. (1886) 54.
Members of the genus Agrostis
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 51 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
A. aequivalvis (Arctic Bentgrass) · A. alascana (Alaska Bentgrass) · A. alba var. major (Black Bent) · A. avenacea (Pacific Bentgrass) · A. blasdalei (Blasdale Bentgrass) · A. blasdalei var. blasdalei (Blasdale Bentgrass) · A. canina (Brown Bentgrass) · A. canina canina (Velvet Bent Grass) · A. capillaris (Brown-Top Bent) · A. capillaris var. aristata (Colonial Bent) · A. capillaris 'Jorvik' (Common Bent 'jorvik') · A. castellana (Bentgrass) · A. clavata (Clavate Bentgrass) · A. clivicola (Coastal Bluff Bentgrass) · A. clivicola var. clivicola (Coastal Bluff Bent Grass) · A. clivicola var. punta-reyesensis (Point Reyes Bentgrass) · A. densiflora (California Bentgrass) · A. elliottiana (Elliot Bentgrass) · A. exarata (Longtongue Bentgrass) · A. exarata var. exarata (Spike Bentgrass) · A. gigantea (Black Bent) · A. hallii (Hall's Bentgrass) · A. hallii var. hallii (Hall's Bentgrass) · A. hendersonii (Henderson's Bentgrass) · A. hooveri (Hoover Bentgrass) · A. howellii (Howell's Bentgrass) · A. humilis (Alpine Bentgrass) · A. hyemalis (Winter Bentgrass) · A. idahoensis (Idaho Bentgrass) · A. idahoensis var. idahoensis (Idaho Bentgrass) · A. longiligula var. longiligula (Longtongue Bentgrass) · A. mertensii (Arctic Bentgrass) · A. microphylla (Small-Leaf Bentgrass) · A. microphylla var. microphylla (Smallleaf Bentgrass) · A. muelleriana (He'u-Pueo) · A. nebulosa (Bentgrass) · A. oregonensis (Oregon Bentgrass) · A. pallens (Leafy Bentgrass) · A. perennans (Autumm Bentgrass) · A. pringlei (Pringle's Bentgrass) · A. rossiae (Mountain Bentgrass) · A. sandwicensis (Hawai'i Bentgrass) · A. scabra (Hairgrass) · A. scabra var. scabra (Rough Bentgrass) · A. stolonifera (Carpet Bentgrass) · A. stolonifera palustris (Creeping Bent Grass) · A. stolonifera var. stolonifera (Creeping Bentgrass) · A. tandilensis (Kennedy's Bentgrass) · A. variabilis (Mountain Bentgrass) · A. vinealis (Brown Bentgrass) · A. vinealis vinealis (Brown Bentgrass)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- ... Flora of Glacier National Park, Montana, by Paul C. Standley. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1921. url p. 284.
- A flora of California, by Willis Linn Jepson. San Francisco, Calif., Cunningham, Curtis & Welch, 1909- url p. 116, p. 118, p. 118, p. 119, p. 119.
- A flora of northwest America: containing brief descriptions of all the known indigenous and naturalized plants growing without cultivation north of California, west of Utah, and south of British Columbia / by Thomas Howell. Vol. 1, Phanerogamae. Portland, Or.: [s.n.], 1903. url p. 725, p. 725.
- A flora of the South Fork of Kings River: from Millwood to the head waters of Bubbs Creek / by Alice Eastwood. [San Francisco]: Sierra Club, 1902. url p. 13.
- A popular flora of Denver, Colorado, / by Alice Eastwood. San Francisco: Zoe Publishing Company. ..,  url p. 52, p. 52.
- A preliminary catalogue of the flora of Vancouver and Queen Charlotte Islands. Victoria, B.C., Printed by W. H. Cullin, 1921. url .
- A provisional host-index of the fungi of the United States, by W. G. Farlow and A. B. Seymour. Cambridge, 1888-91. url p. 147.
- A report upon the boreal flora of the Sierra Nevada of California / by Frank Jason Smiley. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1921. url p. 95.
- A vegetation index of biotic integrity for small-order streams in southwest Montana and a floristic quality assessment for western Montana wetlands / [Helena, Mont.: Montana Natural Heritage Program, c2005]. url .
- Alaska / Harriman Alaska Expedition. New York: Doubleday, Page, 1901-1910. url p. 19.
- Alaska. New York, Doubleday, Page & company, 1901- url p. 19.
- American farming and stock raising, with useful facts for the household, devoted to farming in all its departments, ed. by Charles L. Flint; with an appendix by Manly Miles. Illustrated with over six hundred engravings. New York, Casselberry, 1892. url p. 142, p. 156.
- American plants. .. [Descriptions, bibliographical notes, synonymy, and other information, comp. from many sources] Charles Russell Orcutt, editor. San Diego, Calif., -1910. url p. 429, p. 432.
- An illustrated flora of the Pacific States: Washington, Oregon, and California. Stanford University, Stanford University Press, 1923- url p. 153.
- An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102d meridian / by Nathaniel Lord Britton and Addison Brown. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1898. url .
- Annual report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, -1965. url p. 459, p. 459.
- Aquatic and wetland plants of southwestern United States, by Donovan S. Correll and Helen B. Correll. [Washington]Environmental Protection Agency; [For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off.]1972. url p. 233, p. 234.
- Botany Cambridge, Mass., John Wilson and Son, 1880 url p. 273, p. 310.
- Botany of Yakutat Bay, Alaska / by Frederick Vernon Coville; with a field report by Frederick Funston. Washington: GPO, 1895 [i.e. 1896] url .
- Botany. Cambridge, Mass.Welch, Bigelow, University Press, 1876-80. url p. 273.
- Botany. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1871. url .
- Britton, N. L. (ed.). North American flora. [New York]New York Botanical Garden. url p. 1031, p. 296, p. 314, p. 526, p. 852.
- Budd's flora of the Canadian Prairie Provinces / [Ottawa]: Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, 1987. url p. 92.
- Bulletin / U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Washington: G.P.O., 1901-1913. url p. 56.
- Bulletin / United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Agrostology. 1895-1897 Washington, D.C.: The Division, 1895-1901. url p. 109, p. 111, p. 13, p. 39, p. 9, p. 9.
- Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences. Los Angeles, Calif.: The Academy, 1902-1971. url p. 4, p. 51, p. 60.
- Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 13 1886 New York: Torrey Botanical Club, 1870-1996 url p. 54.
- Bulletin of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. [Washington, D.C.?]: Supt. of Docs., G.P.O., 1913-1923. url p. 289.
- Bulletin. Bureau of Plant Industry. U. S. Department of Agriculture. 1901-13. WashingtonGovt. Print. Off. url , , p. 49.
- Catalogue of Canadian plants. .. Montreal [etc.]1883-1902. url , , p. 198, p. 198, p. 392.
- Conservation status of Carex parryana ssp. idahoa in Montana / prepared by Peter Lesica; prepared for U.S. Bureau of Land Management Montana State office. Helena: Montana Natural Heritage Program, . url p. 65.
- Contributions from the Botanical Laboratory. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1892- url .
- Contributions from the New York Botanical Garden. New York: The Garden, 1899- url p. 603.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 11 1906 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 118, p. 120, p. 189, p. 197, p. 200, p. 260, p. 282, p. 283, p. 284, p. 30, p. 318, p. 320, p. 348, p. 353, p. 43, p. 46, p. 48, p. 51, p. 530, p. 54, p. 56, p. 56, p. 57, p. 57, p. 57, p. 58, p. 587, p. 61, p. 67, p. 68, p. 69, p. 72, p. 73, p. 74, p. 77, p. 78, p. 78, p. 78, p. 79.
- Dedication papers: scientific papers presented at the dedication of the laboratory building and plant houses, April 19-21, 1917. Brooklyn, N.Y.: Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 1918. url p. 262, p. 266, p. 267.
- Experiment station record. Washington: G.P.O., 1889-1946. url p. 664.
- Feeding animals:. Lake view, N.Y., The author, 1890. url .
- First report on the flora of Wyoming / Aven Nelson. Laramie: Wyoming Experiment Station, 1896. url p. 192.
- Flora boreali-Americana, or, The botany of the northern parts of British America compiled principally from the plants collected by Dr. Richardson & Mr. Drummond on the late northern expeditions, under command of Captain Sir John Franklin, R.N. to which are added (by permission of by Sir William Jackson Hooker. London: H.G. Bohn, 1840. url .
- Flora of Japan: in English: combined, much revised and extended translation / by the author of his Flora of Japan (1953) and Flora of Japan, Pteridophyta (1957); edited by Frederick G. Meyer and Egbert H. Walker. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1965. url p. 142, p. 143.
- Flora of Los Angeles and vicinity / by LeRoy Abrams. Stanford University, Cal. 1917. url p. 33.
- Flora of New Mexico / by E.O. Wooton and Paul C. Standley. Washington: G.P.O., 1915. url p. 78, p. 79.
- Flora of New Mexico. By E.O. Wooton and Paul C. Standley. WashingtonGovt. Print. Off.1915 url p. 78.
- Flora of Santa Catalina island (California) / Charles Frederick Millspaugh and Lawrence William Nuttall. 5 1923 Chicago, 1923. url p. 49.
- Flora of southeastern Washington and adjacent Idaho / by Charles V. Piper and R. Kent Beattie. Lancaster, Pa.: New Era, 1914. url p. 27.
- Flora of the Black Hills of South Dakota. By P.A. Rydberg. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1896. url p. 530.
- Flora of the Queen Charlotte Islands. [Ottawa: Queen's Printer], 1968-. url p. 100, p. 184, p. 185, p. 203, p. 22, p. 561, p. 58, p. 65, p. 70.
- Flora of the Yellowstone National Park / by Frank Tweedy. Washington, D.C.: F. Tweedy, 1886. url p. 70, p. 70.
- Flora of the northwest coast, including the area west of the summit of the Cascade Mountains, from the forty-ninth parallel south to the Calapooia Mountains on the south border of Lane County, Oregon. Lancaster, Pa., Press of the New Era Printing Company, 1915. url , .
- Flora of the northwest coast: including the area west of the summit of the Cascade Mountains, from the forty-ninth parallel south to the Calapooia Mountains on the south border of Lane County, Oregon / by Charles V. Piper and R. Kent Beattie. Lancaster, Pa.: Press of the New era printing company, 1915. url p. 42, p. 43, p. 44.
- Flora of the southeastern Washington and adjacent Idaho, Lancaster, Pa., Press of the New Era Printing Company, 1914. url .
- Flora of the state of Washington / by Charles V. Piper. Washington: G.P.O., 1906 url p. 118, p. 120.
- Flora of the state of Washington. By Charles V. Piper. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1906. url p. 120.
- Grasses of North America / by W.J. Beal. New York: H. Holt, 1887-1896. url p. 84.
- Grasses of North America for farmers and students. .. / by W.J. Beal. Lansing: W.J. Beal, 1887-1896. url p. 326, p. 84.
- Grasses of North America. .. by W. J. Beal. New York: H. Holt and company, 1887-96. url p. 84.
- Great Basin naturalist memoirs. 1987 [Provo, Utah]Brigham Young University, 1976-1992. url p. 694, p. 695.
- Harriman Alaska series. City of Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1910-1914. url p. 19.
- Harriman Alaska series. vol. I-V, VIII-XIV Washington, D.C., Smithsonian Institution, 1910-14 url p. 19.
- History of Pasadena, comprising an account of the native Indian, Pasadena, Cal., Pasadena history company, 1895. url p. 628.
- Hooker, J. D. The botany of the Antarctic voyage of H.M. discovery ships Erebus and Terror in the Years 1839-1843: under the command of Captain Sir James Clark Ross /by Joseph Dalton Hooker. London: Reeve Brothers, 1844-60. url p. 372.
- Hooker, W. J. Flora boreali-americana, or, the botany of the northern parts of British America: compiled principally from the plants collected by Dr. Richardson & Mr. Drummond on the late northern expeditions, under command of Captain Sir John Franklin, R.N. To which are added (by permission of the Horticultural society of London, ) those of Mr. Douglas, from north-west America, and of other naturalists /by Sir William Jackson Hooker. 2 1840 London, H.G. Bohn -1840. url p. 239.
- How to know the grasses; pictured-keys for determining the common and important American grasses, with suggestions and aids for their study. Dubuque, Iowa, W. C. Brown Co. url p. 118.
- Illustrations of North American grasses. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1891-93. url p. 121.
- Index to the names of North American grasses: a report presented to the Society for the Promotion of Agricultural Science, at the Indianapolis meeting, 1890 / [S.l.]Published by authority of the Society, 1980? url , p. 10, p. 11, p. 13.
- Journal of agricultural research. Washington, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, 1913-1949.. url p. 442, p. 476, p. 478, p. 479.
- Leaflets of western botany. San Fransisco:[J. T. Howell], 1932-1966. url , p. 10, p. 309, p. 56.
- List of Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta growing without cultivation in northeastern North America. Prepared by a Committee of the Botanical Club, American Association for the Advancement of Science. New York, 1894. url p. 41.
- Manual of the botany (Phaenogamia and Pteridophyta) of the Rocky mountain region, from New Mexico to the British boundary. By John M. Coulter. and Chicago: Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor, and company, 1885. url p. 412.
- Manual of the botany (Phænogamia and Pteridophyta) of the Rocky mountain region, from New Mexico to the British boundary. and Chicago, Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor, and Company, 1885. url .
- Manual of the grasses of the United States / by A.S. Hitchcock. Washington: U.S. G.P.O., 1935. url p. 335, p. 336, p. 780, p. 781.
- Memoirs / Brooklyn Botanic Garden. Brooklyn, N.Y.: The Garden, 1918-1936. url p. 266, p. 267.
- Memoirs of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History. Honolulu: [Bishop Museum Press], 1899-1949. url p. 226.
- Memoirs of the San Diego Society of Natural History. 12 1981 San Diego, Calif.: The Society, 1931-1989. url fig. 26, page 45.
- Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club. 9 1900 Durham, N.C.: Published for the Club by the Seeman Printery, 1889- url p. 210, p. 41.
- Muhlenbergia. Chico, Calif. [etc] url p. 106, p. 128, p. 34.
- New manual of botany of the central Rocky mountains (vascular plants) Cincinnati [etc.]American Book Company[c1909] url .
- North American fauna. Washington: Fish and Wildlife Service; for sale by the Supt. of Docs., U. S. Govt. Print. Off. url p. 14, p. 46, p. 83.
- Occasional papers - San Diego Society of Natural History. 1949 San Diego, The Society. url p. 15, p. 15.
- Pamphlets on forestry. Grazing. [1900?- url p. 46.
- Phytologia. Bronx Park, New York, H.A. Gleason and H.N. Moldenke, url p. 136, p. 76.
- Plantae Bakerianae by Edw. L. Greene, and others. Washington, D.C.: s.n., 1901 url p. 37, p. 42.
- Plantæ Bakerianæ / by Edw. L. Greene and others. [Washington, D.C.: s.n., 1901. url p. 37, p. 42.
- Point Lobos Reseerve; State Park, California. Interpretation of a primitive landscape. Sacramento, [State Print. Off., 1954] url p. 88.
- Postelsia: the year book of the Minnesota Seaside Station. St. Paul, Minn.: Pioneer Press, 1902-1906. url p. 25, p. 69, p. 69, p. 95, p. 95.
- Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Philadelphia, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia url p. 333, p. 333, p. 94, p. 94.
- Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Boston: Metcalf and Co., 1846-1958 url p. 408.
- Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 4th series. San Francisco, California Academy of Sciences. url p. 657.
- Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. Sydney, Linnean Society of New South Wales. url , p. 663.
- Range plant handbook. Washington, U. S. Govt. print. off., 1937. url p. v.
- Report of the Commissioner of Agriculture. .. Washington: G.P.O., 1863-1889. url .
- Report of the geological exploration of the fortieth parallel / Washington, D.C.: G.P.O., 1870-80 url , p. 377.
- Report upon United States Geographical surveys west of the one hundredth meridian, Washington, Govt. print. off., 1875-89. url , .
- Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899. J. B. Hatcher in charge. Edited by William B. Scott. Princeton, The University, 1901-32 [v. 1, 1903] url p. 37.
- Rocky Mountain wild flower studies; an account of the ways of some plants that live in the Rocky Mountain region, by Burton O. Longyear. .. with illustrations from nature by the author. Denver, Merchants Publishing Co., c1909 url p. 412.
- Rocky mountain flowers; an illustrated guide for plantlovers and plant-users; with twenty-five plates in color and twenty-one plates in black and white [by] Frederic Edward Clements...and Edith Schwartz Clements... 1914 New York city, the H.W. Wilson company, 1914. url p. 341.
- Sensitive plant species survey, Ashland District, Custer National Forest, Powder River and Rosebud Counties, Montana / by Bonnie L. Heidel and Hollis Marriott; for Custer National Forest. Helena, MT: Montana Natural Heritage Program,  url .
- Sensitive plant surveys, 1989: U.S. Forest Service, Region 1, Gallatin National Forest / prepared for United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service; prepared by Sarah Y. Mathews. Helena, Mont.: Montana Natural Heritage Program,  url p. 19.
- Sources of the Ohio flora, by A.D. Selby and J.W.T. Duvel. Columbus, 1899 url p. 46.
- Studies on Rocky Mountain flora. New York, New York Botanical Garden, 1899-1913. url p. 603.
- Syllogeus. Ottawa, National Museum of Natural Sciences, 1972-1995. url p. 10, p. 11, p. 13, p. 14, p. 16, p. 58, p. 61, p. 62, p. 7, p. 91, p. 94.
- Text-book of western botany: consisting of Coulter's Manual of the botany of the Rocky mountains, to which is prefixed Gray's lessons in botany. For the use of schools and colleges between the Mississippi river and the Rocky moun Chicago: Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor, and Company, 1885. url p. 412.
- The American farmer; a complete agricultural library, with useful facts for the household, devoted to farming in all its departments and details. .. / ed. by Charles L. Flint. ..; illus. with over six hundred engravings. Hartford, Conn.: R.H. Park, 1882. url p. 156.
- The Asa Gray bulletin. 1 1952 Ann Arbor, Mich. url , p. 213.
- The Canadian field-naturalist. 68 1954 Ottawa, Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. url fig. 9 , title page, index , p. 166, p. 183, p. 200, p. 264, p. 278, p. 281, p. 290, p. 296, p. 412, p. 420, p. 429, p. 433, p. 44, p. 73, p. 758.
- The Great Basin naturalist. 49 1989 Provo, Utah: M.L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, 1939-1999. url p. 219, p. 4, p. 404, p. 643.
- The Kansas University quarterly. Lawrence, Kansas: The University. url p. 131.
- The North American Pyrenomycetes. A contribution to mycologic botany, by J. B. Ellis and B. M. Everhart. With original illustrations by F. W. Anderson. Newfield, N.J., Ellis & Everhart, 1892. url p. 15.
- The Plant world. Baltimore [etc.]Plant World Association [etc.] url p. 117, p. 173, p. 81.
- The Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science. Des moines, Iowa: The Academy, [1889-1987] url p. 164, p. 322, p. 342, p. 345, p. 349, p. 431, p. 478.
- The agricultural grasses and forage plants of the United States; and such foreign kinds as have been introduced. By Dr. Geo. Vasey; with an appendix on the chemical composition of grasses, by Clifford Richardson. Washington: Govt. print. off., 1889. url , , p. 107, p. 111, p. 139, p. 21, p. 21, p. 245, p. 359, p. 47, p. 47.
- The flora of Canada, by J. M. Macoun and M. O. Malte. Ottawa: Government printing bureau, 1917. url p. 13.
- The flora of Tennessee and a philosophy of botany: respectfully dedicated to the citizens of Tennessee / by Augustin Gattinger. Nashville: Press of Gospel Advocate Pub. Co., 1901. url p. 41.
- The forage and fiber crops in America, by Thomas F. Hunt. New York, Orange Judd company; [etc., etc.]1907. url p. 11, p. 9.
- The genera of grasses of the United States: with special reference to the economic species / by A.S. Hitchcock. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1920. url p. 129, p. 289.
- The grasses of Hawaii, by A. S. Hitchcock. Honolulu, Hawaii, Bishop Museum Press, 1922. url p. 7.
- Transactions of the California State Agricultural Society. Sacramento, G.H. Springer. url p. 135.
- Transactions of the. .. annual meetings of the Kansas Academy of Science. Topeka, Kan.: Kansas Pub. House, 1883-1901. url p. 113, p. 96.
- Vascular plant and sensitive plant species inventory for the highland mountains, Deerlodge National Forest; prepared for Deerlodge National Forest / prepared by Peter Lesica. Helena, Mont.: Montana Natural Heritage Program,  url p. 24, p. 45.
- Watson, S. Botany /by Sereno Watson, aided by Daniel C. Eaton, and others. 5 1871 Washington, D.C.: G.P.O., 1871. url p. 377, p.
- Zoe:a biological journal. 1 1890 San Diego, Calif. [etc.]Zoe Publishing Co. url p. 115, p. 264, p. 293.
- Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly, J. van Hertum, eds (2007). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed January 18, 2007. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 2 providers.
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
- The International Plant Names Index. Accessed Dec 27, 2011.
- USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL (April 25, 2008)
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 15, 2007:
- Berkeley Natural History Museums, University and Jepson Herbaria DiGIR provider
- Bundesamt für Naturschutz / Zentralstelle für Phytodiversität Deutschland, Bundesamt fuer Naturschutz / Zentralstelle fuer Phytodiversitaet Deutschland
- Canadian Museum of Nature, Canadian Museum of Nature Herbarium
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, The Deaver Herbarium, Northern Arizona University
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alaska Museum of the North, University of Alaska Museum of the North Herbarium
- University of Washington Burke Museum, Vascular Plant Collection - University of Washington Herbarium
- Utah State University, USU-UTC Specimen Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2660740
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-40412
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13753258
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:385721-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 2024
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 40412
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 385720-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PMPOA040D0
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: AGEX
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 20276
- Sheng-lian Lu & Sylvia M. Phillips "Agrostis". in Flora of China Vol. 22 Page 317, 340, 348, 349, 351, 353, 358, 359, 361. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 1,034.920 meters (3,395.407 feet), Standard Deviation = 757.550 based on 960 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]