Common Names in English:
, often flowering after 8-20+ years, monocarpic
or polycarpic, acaulescent
, forming succulent rosettes on thick, fibrous-rooted crowns, often rhizomatous
. Stems aboveground, unbranched or, less often, branched. Leaves evergreen
in rosette; blade
light green to green and occasionally with lighter patterns
of white (€œcross-zoned€) or imprinted with white (€œbud-prints€), linear-lanceolate to ovate
, firm to rigid
, often thick and fleshy
, or armed
teeth and short to long, sharp-pointed apical spine. Scapes, with inflorescences, much exceeding foliage
. Inflorescences terminal
atop a semiwoody stalk
, racemose, or paniculate
, open to dense, bracteate
, occasionally bulbiferous
, with flowers borne singly, in pairs, or in umbellike clusters
of 2-40+ on peduncles or the lateral
branches borne by the peduncle. Flowers protandrous, erect
or recurved, showy; perianth mostly yellow, infrequently whitish or reddish, funnelform
; tepals 6, connate
basally into tube
atop a typically constricted
neck; limb lobes
erect or curved
, equal to unequal in length
or deltate, often papillate
at recurved or hooded
apex; stamens 6, exserted, attached atop or within perianth tube; filaments
versatile, linear; ovary inferior, greenish at anthesis
, 3-locular, succulent, thick-walled, ovules numerous
; style subulate
; stigma 3-lobed, glandular
, capitate, papillate. Fruits capsular
, oblong to ovoid
, mostly thick walled and fleshy, dehiscence loculicidal. Seeds black, flattened, obovoid
, becoming globose
= 30 (5 large, 25 small) .
Species ca. 200: warmer regions in the Americas from the sw United States and Florida s to the Caribbean Islands and into Mexico, Central America, and tropical South America; widely cultivated.
Specimens of Agave are planted occasionally for their horticultural value in warmer regions. Native Americans have used most of our native species for food and fiber. Mescal and tequila are distilled liquors derived from the meristem and leaf base of agave. Tequila comes mainly from A. tequilana F. A. C. Weber, whereas A. angustifolia Haworth is the usual source for €œcommerical€ mescal. Some variants of A. angustifolia are also important sources of fiber. Commercially, most agave fiber comes from A. sisalana in what is now a worldwide industry . Agave fourcroydes Lemaire is also used but more locally in Latin America including Mexico. Both species are sterile hybrids of unknown origin .
Native Americans who used agave plants for food and fiber developed numerous cultivars, including many that may be the results of hybridization or mutation events resulting in fully or partially sterile clones. Some have been sufficiently studied cytologically and morphologically so that the origin of the hybrid species can be ascertained. Naturally occurring hybrids also are known, and some sterile recombinants are so distinctive that they have been formally named (e.g. , Agave ×ajoensis, A. ×arizonica, A. ×glomeruliflora, and probably A. schottii var. treleasei) . There remain some species that may be of hybrid origin, or at least now are sterile or partially sterile, but little is known about their origin. Essentially, all the species are known today from pre-Columbian agricultural sites, and most appear to have had a Mexican origin (e.g., the many expressions of A. americana subsp. americana, A. decipiens, A. desmettiana, A. neglecta, A. delamateri, A. phillipsiana, A. sisalana, and A. weberi) . Some rare species associated with pre-Columbian sites are fertile (e.g., A. murpheyi) ; whether they were locally selected or brought from elsewhere is unknown. Some hybrid expressions, such as A. gracilipes, seem to be well established . It is a matter of taxonomic judgment whether the species status for A. gracilipes should be altered to hybrid status; we have not proposed that now because the cytological work to confirm the morphological hypothesis of a hybrid origin has not been done.
Indigenous people long have used agaves. Those containing high amounts of sapogenins are bitter and generally not used for food. Agave plants used for food are harvested when they show signs of flowering. Rosettes are collected and the leaves cut away, leaving the heart or head , which is pit-baked for many hours. It has been known for a long time that agaves have been cultivated in the warmer regions of North America, but it was only recently discovered that cultivation occurred north of the Mexican border . Such agaves are typically found near agricultural features and possess morphological characteristics that reflect desirable agronomic attributes . People no doubt traded agave products and live plants, thereby expanding the distribution of many expressions of agave. Agaves whose distributions directly reflect their movement by man include Agave murpheyi, A. delamateri, A. phillipsiana, A. applanata, A. karatto Miller, and A. decipiens. It is also suggested that A. americana subsp. americana var. expansa, A. desmettiana, A. sisalana, A. neglecta, and A. weberi may have been ancient cultivars originating in Latin America or the Caribbean, although at present there is little information to support this hypothesis.
Identification of Agave species is often difficult, especially with nonflowering material . See H. S. Gentry (1982, p. 47) for information on how to prepare specimens properly.
Flowers: Flower Color: yellow
Culture: Space 18-24" apart.
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: High
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 9b, 10a, 10b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Order: Asparagales () - Bromhead, 1838
- Superorder: Lilianae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Liliidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Agave
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 242 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
A. aktites (Agave) · A. albomarginata (Agave) · A. americana americana (Agave) · A. americana protamericana (American Agave) · A. americana var. americana (American Century Plant) · A. americana var. expansa (Agave) · A. americana var. marginata (American Century Plant) · A. americana var. striata (Agave) · A. americana 'Marginata Aurea Monstrosa' (Dwarf Variegated Century Plant) · A. americana 'Medio-picta Alba' (Century Plant) · A. americana 'Mediopicta' (Agave) · A. americana 'Mediopicta Alba' (Agave) · A. americana subsp. protamericana (American Century Plant) · A. americana 'Variegata' (Agave) · A. angustifolia (Century Plant) · A. angustifolia var. pacifica (Agave) · A. angustifolia var. sargentii (Agave) · A. angustifolia var. variegata (Agave) · A. anomala (Agave) · A. antillarum (Agave) · A. applanata (Agave) · A. arizonica (Agave) · A. asperrima (Rough Century Plant) · A. atrovirens (Maguey) · A. attentuata (Fox Tail Agave) · A. attenuata (Agave) · A. attenuata x shawii (Red Margin Agave) · A. attenuata 'Albo-Marginata' (White Fox Tail Agave) · A. attenuata 'Nova' (Agave) · A. attenuata 'Variegata' (Agave) · A. aurea (Agave) · A. avellanidens (Agave) · A. bahamana (Agave) · A. barbadensis (Agave) · A. boldinghiana (Agave) · A. bovicornuta (Agave) · A. braceana (Agave) · A. bracteosa (Squid Agave) · A. breedlovei (Agave) · A. brevipetala (Agave) · A. brevispina (Agave) · A. cacozela (Agave) · A. calodonta (Agave) · A. cantala (Agave) · A. capensis (Agave) · A. caribaeicola (Agave) · A. celsii (Agave) · A. celsii var. albicans (Agave) · A. cerulata (Agave) · A. cerulata dentiens (Agave) · A. chiapensis (Agave) · A. chrysantha (Agave) · A. chrysoglossa (Agave) · A. cocui (Agave) · A. colimana (Agave) · A. colorata (Agave) · A. congesta (Agave) · A. cupreata (Agave) · A. dasylirioides (Agave) · A. datylio (Agave) · A. datylio var. vexans (Agave) · A. decipiens (Agave) · A. delamateri (Agave) · A. deserti (Desert Agave) · A. deserti deserti (Desert Agave) · A. deserti Engelm. var. simplex (Gentry) (Simple Desert Agave) · A. deserti pringlei (Desert Agave) · A. deserti simplex (Desert Agave) · A. deserti var. simplex (Agave) · A. desmettiana (Dwarf Century Plant) · A. desmettiana 'Variegata' (Dwarf Century Plant) · A. difformis (Agave) · A. durangensis (Agave) · A. echinoides (Agave) · A. eggersiana (Egger's Agave) · A. ellemeetiana (Agave) · A. ensifera (Agave) · A. evadens (Agave) · A. expansa (American Century Plant) · A. felgeri (Mescalito) · A. fenzliana (Agave) · A. ferdinand-regis x scabra (Shark Skin Agave) · A. ferdinandi-regis (King Ferdinand Agave) · A. filifera (Agave) · A. foetida (Mauritius Hemp) · A. fortiflora (Agave) · A. fourcroydes (Agave) · A. franzosinii (Agave) · A. funkiana (Agave) · A. geminiflora (Agave) · A. gentryi (Agave) · A. gentryi 'Jaws' (Jaws Hardy Century Plant) · A. ghiesbreghtii (Agave) · A. gigantensis (Agave) · A. glomeruliflora (Chisos Agave) · A. gracilipes (Agave) · A. grenadina (Agave) · A. grisea (Agave) · A. guadalajarana (Maguey Chato) · A. guiengola (Agave)
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- Berger, A. 1915. Die Agaven. Jena. Breitung, A. J. 1968. The Agaves.... Edited by Charles Glass and Robert A. Foster. Reseda.
- Gentry, H. S. 1972. The Agave Family in Sonora. Washington. [Agric. Handb. 399].
- Gentry, H. S. 1978. The agaves of Baja California. Occas. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci. 130.
- Gentry, H. S. 1982. Agaves of Continental North America. Tucson.
- Hodgson, W. C. 1999. Vascular plants of Arizona: Agavaceae. J. Arizona-Nevada Acad. Sci. 32: 121.
- Hodgson, W. C. 2001. Food Plants of the Sonoran Desert. Tucson.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.