Quite handsome flowering tree displaying attractive red blooms in 3- to 6-inch clusters at the branch tips . Lustrous dark green leaves make a stunning contrast with the flowers. Deciduous. Full to partial sun. Small, rounded tree or large cone-shaped shrub to 10 to 15 feet tall and wide. Seed grown.
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Firecracker Plant, Red Buckeye
Common Names in unspecified:
(or woody vines
in Cardiospermum and allied genera), rarely herbaceous climbers
. Indumentum usually of simple
, often glandular
on young parts, buds, and inflorescences. Leaves alternate, usually estipulate; leaf blade
pinnate or digitate, rarely simple; leaflets
alternate to opposite, entire or dentate
to serrate. Inflorescence a terminal
; bracts and bracteoles small. Flowers unisexual
, rarely polygamous or bisexual
or zygomorphic, usually small. Sepals 4 or 5(or 6), equal or unequal, free
, imbricate or valvate
. Petals 4 or 5(or 6), sometimes absent, free, imbricate, usually clawed, often with scales
or hair-tufted basal appendages
. Disk conspicuous
, rarely absent. Stamens 5-10(-74), usually 8, rarely numerous
, variously inserted
but usually within disk, often exserted in male flowers; filaments
free, rarely connate; anthers
, longitudinally dehiscent
; staminodes sometimes present in carpellate
flowers, but filaments shorter and anthers with a thick wall, indehiscent. Ovary superior, (1-) 3(or 4) -loculed; ovules 1 or 2(or several) per locule, placentation axile
, rarely parietal
, campylotropous, or amphitropous
; style usually apical (terminal), semigynobasic in Allophylus [gynobasic
in Deinbollia Schumacher & Thonning]; stigma entire or 2 or 3(or 4) -lobed, usually rudimentary
in male flowers. Fruit a loculicidal capsule, berry, or drupe, or consisting of 2 or 3 samaras, often 1-seeded and 1-loculed by abortion
. Seeds 1(or 2 or more) per locule; testa black or brown, hard, often with a conspicuous fleshy aril or sarcotesta
; embryo curved
, or twisted, oily and starchy; endosperm usually absent. 2n = 20-36.
One hundred thirty-five genera and ca. 1500 species: widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, especially well represented in tropical SE Asia; 21 genera (one endemic) and 52 species (16 endemic, one introduced ) in China.
There is some variation in the circumscription of Sapindaceae in taxonomic treatments, particularly with regard to the inclusion of genera from the closely related, predominately temperate families Aceraceae and Hippocastanaceae. Several studies including Müller and Leenhouts (in Ferguson & Müller, Evolutionary Significance Exine: 407-445. 1976), and more recently those based on molecular data (Stevens, Angiosperm Phylogeny Website, 2001 onward; Harrington et al. , Syst. Bot. 30: 366-382. 2005), supported the recognition of a broadly defined Sapindaceae incorporating Aceraceae and Hippocastanaceae. Harrington et al. (loc. cit. ) proposed four subfamilies or clades, comprising Sapindoideae (including
Koelreuteria and Ungnadia Endlicher), Dodonaeoideae, Hippocastanoideae (including taxa previously referred to Aceraceae and Hippocastanaceae, plus Handeliodendron), and a monotypic "Xanthoceratoideae". Within Hippocastanoideae, Acer Linnaeus and Dipteronia Oliver comprise a monophyletic group and are treated in this Flora as Aceraceae. Similarly, Aesculus Linnaeus, Billia Peyritsch, and the Chinese endemic Handeliodendron Rehder form a monophyletic group and are treated here as Hippocastanaceae. There is some support for "Xanthoceratoideae" being the first lineage to diverge within the broadly defined Sapindaceae assemblage; consequently, Xanthoceras is treated separately from genera in Sapindoideae and Dodonaeoideae in the following account of Sapindaceae s.s. The sequence of genera reflects Müller and Leenhouts (loc. cit.) as modified by recent analyses based on molecular and morphological data, rather than following the order developed by Radlkofer (Sitzungsber. Math.-Phys. Cl. Königl. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. München 20: 105-379. 1890; and in Engler, Pflanzenreich 98a-h(IV . 165) : 1-1539. 1931-1934), which was previously followed in FRPS.
The main economic uses of this family include (1) timber: Amesiodendron chinense, Dimocarpus longan, D. confinis, Litchi chinensis, Pavieasia kwangsiensis, and Pometia pinnata; (2) fruit: Dimocarpus longan, Litchi chinensis, and Nephelium lappaceum; (3) medicine: Dimocarpus longan (arillode ), Litchi chinensis (seeds), and Sapindus saponaria (roots ) ; (4) oil : Amesiodendron chinense, Delavaya toxocarpa, and Xanthoceras sorbifolium. Saponins occur widely in the family, commonly used as a fish poison and for their detergent properties.
, deciduous. Winter buds
or not, with several pairs of imbricate scales
; scales abaxially glabrous
or sparsely puberulent
. Leaf blade
blades without scattered
to serrate or compoundly so. Thyrse
or conic; branches simple
; bracts absent. Flowers often large and showy. Sepals connate
to form a tubular
. Petals often unequal, base
clawed, limb obovate
, or spatulate
. Ovary without a gynophore
; style long, slender; stigma depressed
, entire or obscurely lobed
. Capsule depressed globose to pyriform
, without a long gynophore, often 1-seeded; pericarp usually smooth
, often dotted
, rarely verrucose
or prickly. Seeds depressed globose to pyriform, large (2-7 cm) ; testa brown; hilum
, occupying 1/3-1/2 of seed. x = 20.
Twelve species: mainly in North America (United States, Baja California in Mexico) and Asia from the Himalayas to Japan (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Japan, Kashmir, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Thailand, Vietnam), one species in SE Europe (Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, former Yugoslavia) ; four species (one endemic, two introduced ) in China.
Fang (Acta Sci. Nat. Univ. Szechuan. 1960(3) : 77-125. 1962) published a revision of the Hippocastanaceae in China, including 12 new species, for which six of the names were not validly published, either because no Latin description was provided, no type was indicated, or more than one type was indicated. Fang later (in FRPS) identified three of these entities as species of Araliaceae: "Aesculus chingsiensis" as Acanthopanax evodiifolius Franchet, "Aesculus chinpingensis" as Brassaiopsis glomerulata (Blume) Regel, and "Aesculus kwangsiensis" as Schefflera octophylla (Loureiro) Harms.
The leaves, flowers, and large seeds contain the poisonous compound aesculin.
ID Features: Smallest of the tree-forming Aesculus. Typical palmately compound leaves of Aesculus. Fruit flattened, smooth. Large, non-resinous terminal buds.
Flowers: Blooms in May to early June. Panicles 3" to 6" long, of 1" to 1.5" long, red flowersat end of branchlets . Petals remain closed . Flowers attract hummingbirds. • Bloom Period: April, May. • Flower Color: red
Foliage: Summer foliage: Opposite, palmately-compound leaves, with 5 leaflets , each 2" to 5" in. length . Lush, dark green color. • Fall foliage: Loses leaves early (late September). No appreciable fall color.
Growth Rate: Moderate. • Size: 12-15' tall.
Landscape Uses: Uncommon; adds variety to the landscape. Specimen or accent for its flowers and habit. In a border or for massing. • Liabilities: May be difficult to find in the trade. Leaf blotch . • Care: Follow a regular watering schedule during the first growing season to establish a deep, extensive root system . Watering can be reduced after establishment. Feed with a general purpose fertilizer before new growth begins in spring .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,135 meters (0 to 3,724 feet).
Culture: Space 8-10' apart.
Soil: Likes moist, well-drained, organic , acidic soil. • Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade.
Moisture: Water Requirements: Keep surface of soil moist, but not soggy.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Aesculus discolor flavescens Sard. • Pavia Pavia
Publishing author : L. Publication : Sp. Pl. 1: 344 1753 [1 May 1753]
Members of the genus Aesculus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 44 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
A. arnoldiana (Arnold's Chestnut) · A. bushii (Bush's Chestnut) · A. californica (California Buckeye) · A. carnea (Red Horse-Chestnut) · A. chinensis (Chinese Horsechestnut) · A. flava (Yellow Buckeye) · A. glabra (Buckeye) · A. glabra forma pallida (Buckeye) · A. glabra var. arguta (Texas Buckeye) · A. glabra var. glabra (Ohio Buckeye) · A. glabra 'April Wine' (Buckeye) · A. glabra 'Fall Red' (Ohio Buckeye) · A. glabra 'Klein's Weeping' (Ohio Buckeye) · A. hippocastanum (Common Horse Chestnut) · A. hippocastanum 'Baumannii' (Baumanns Horse Chestnut) · A. hippocastanum 'Laciniata' (Conker Tree) · A. hybrida (Hybrid Chestnut) · A. indica (Indian Horse Chesnut) · A. marylandica (Maryland Chestnut) · A. mutabilis (Chestnut) · A. neglecta (Chestnut) · A. parviflora (Bottlebrush Buckeye) · A. parviflora f. serotina (Bottlebrush Buckeye) · A. parviflora var. serotina (Bottlebrush Buckeye) · A. parviflora var. serotina 'Rogers' (Bottlebrush Buckeye) · A. pavia (Firecracker Plant) · A. pavia L. var. flavescens (Sarg.) Correll (Red Buckeye) · A. pavia var. flavescens (Yellow Buckeye) · A. pavia var. pavia (Red Buckeye) · A. sylvatica (Oainted Buckeye) · A. turbinata (Japanese Horse Chestnut) · A. worlitzensis (Dupont's Chestnut) · A. × arnoldiana (Arnold's Chestnut) · A. x carnea (Red Horse Chestnut) · A. x carnea 'Briotii' (Bottlebrush Buckeye) · A. x carnea 'Fort Mcnair' (Bottlebrush Buckeye) · A. x carnea 'O'Neill Red' (Ellamae Lily of The Nile) · A. x carnea 'O'neill's Red' (Bottlebrush Buckeye) · A. x carnea 'Plantierensis' (Bottlebrush Buckeye) · A. x carnea 'Rosea' (Bottlebrush Buckeye) · A. x mutabilis 'Induta' (Chestnut) · A. x neglecta 'Erythroblastos' (Yellow Horsechestnut) · A. x worlitzensis (Worlitz's Chestnut) · A. 'Autumn Splendor' (Ohio Buckeye)
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- inatura - Erlebnis Naturschau Dornbirn, inatura - Erlebnis Naturschau Dornbirn
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2652240
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-28723
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13743926
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:781619-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 1635
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 28723
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 781619-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDHPC01060
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: AEPAP
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 19122
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- Mean = 107.730 meters (353.445 feet), Standard Deviation = 138.290 based on 992 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]