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Aegiphila panamensis


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Threat status


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Family Verbenaceae

Shrubs or trees , sometimes climbing shrubs, rarely herbs. Indumentum of simple , stellate , and/or other complex hairs . Leaves opposite or rarely whorled , without stipules, simple or 3-foliolate, less often palmately [or pinnately] compound . Inflorescences terminal or axillary , racemose, cymose , spicate , or thyrses . Flowers bisexual or polygamous by abortion , zygomorphic or rarely actinomorphic . Calyx persistent . Corolla 4- or 5- or more lobed ; lobes usually spreading , aestivation overlapping. Fertile stamens inserted on corolla tube , alternate with lobes; filaments free ; anthers dorsifixed , 1- or 2-locular, dehiscing by longitudinal slits or sometimes a circular pore . Ovary entire or 4-grooved, 2-8-locular; ovules 1 or 2 per locule, erect or pendulous. Style terminal, simple, entire or 2-cleft. Fruit a drupe or indehiscent capsule, sometimes breaking up into nutlets . Seeds (1 or) 2-4, endosperm usually absent, seed coat thin; embryo straight, as long as seed; radicle short, inferior.

Some 91 genera and ca. 2000 species: primarily tropical and subtropical , 20 genera and 182 species in China.

The classification of Verbenaceae is in a state of flux, especially regarding its relationship to Lamiaceae. There is evidence to suggest a significant division between members of subfamily Verbenoideae, genera 1-5 in this account, and the remaining genera, including genera 6-20, which for convenience are here referred to as subfamily Viticoideae s.l. The latter are more closely allied to each other and to genera traditionally kept within Lamiaceae (including genera 1-8 in this Flora ) . Avicennia is often placed in a family of its own, but its affinities are clearly with Viticoideae, especially genera 17-19 in this account which have traditionally been placed in a separate subfamily, Symphorematoideae.[1]


Ecology: Occurring in remaining areas of lowland rainforest and thickets, often in marshy places.[2].


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Publishing author : Moldenke Publication : Trop. Woods 1931, No. 25, 14.

Similar Species

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Members of the genus Aegiphila

ZipcodeZoo has pages for 3 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:

A. elata (Tall Spiritweed) · A. integrifolia (Entireleaf Spiritweed) · A. martinicensis (Caribbean Spiritweed)

More Info

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Further Reading

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Data Sources

Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 18, 2007:



  1. Shou-liang Chen & Michael G. Gilbert "Verbenaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 17 Page 1. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at [back]
  2. Nelson, C. 1998. Aegiphila panamensis. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <>. Downloaded on 30 January 2012. [back]
Last Revised: 2014-05-09