Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Autumn Adonis, Bird's-Eye, Blood-Drops, Blooddrops, Pheasant´s-Eye, Pheasant's Eye, Pheasant's-Eye
Common Names in Italian:
, sometimes subshrubs
or herbaceous or woody vines
. Leaves basal and cauline, alternate, rarely opposite or whorled
or variously compound
, palmately nerved, rarely penninerved
, with or without stipules. Inflorescence a simple or compound monochasium, dichasium, simple or compound raceme, or flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual
, sometimes unisexual
, rarely zygomorphic, hypogynous. Sepals 3--6 or more, free
, imbricate or sometimes valvate
in bud. Petals present or absent, 2--8 or more, free, usually with nectaries. Stamens numerous
, rarely few, free; filaments
, or extrorse
; sometimes some sterile
stamens becoming staminodes. Carpels numerous or few, rarely 1, free, rarely connate
to various degrees
; ovary with 1 to many ovules. Fruit follicles or achenes, rarely capsules or berries
. Seeds small, with abundant endosperm and minute embryo.
About 60 genera and 2500 species: worldwide, but richly represented in N temperate regions , particularly in E Asia; 38 genera (four endemic) and 921 species (604 endemic) in China.
Species Adonis annua
, taprooted. Stem 1, 10-40 cm. Leaves: basal leaves
2-5 cm, similar to cauline, petiolate
; cauline leaves sessile or
. Leaf blade
2-3-pinnatifid. Flowers 1.5-2.5 cm diam.;
to petals, broadly obovate
, ± erose in distal
1/3, minutely ciliate
, otherwise glabrous
; petals 6-10, spreading
dark red [orange to red-purple], usually with dark basal blotch
±plane, 8-15 mm, ca.
1.5 times length
of calyx, apex slightly
erose; stamens 15-20; anthers
purple-black (olive green with age)
; pistils 20-30. Heads
of achenes short-cylindric, 13-20 ×
6-10 mm; pedicels conspicuously exserted well beyond leaves. Achenes
3-5 mm, glabrous, adaxial
nearly straight, abaxial
, 0.5-1 mm.
Adonis annua also has been reported for the lower Mississippi Valley (W.C. Muenscher 1980), Ontario and Manitoba (H. J. Scoggan 1978-1979, part 3), some of the western states, and New England. I have not found more recent records to confirm abundance of the species in those regions. Muenscher's report was presumably based on J. K . Small (1933), who cited the species as abundant along newly built levees of the Mississippi River . Although the species may escape frequently in some areas, the populations are often tenuously established and tend not to persist. Records of A. annua from western states were based on misidentified A. aestivalis. [source]
Herbarium specimens without mature achenes may be impossible to distinguish from the closely related Adonis aestivalis, which differs in achene morphology and, reportedly, a slight difference in orientation of sepals and petals. [source]
Several infraspecific taxonomies have been proposed for Adonis annua ; none are well supported by observations in the field (C. C. Heyn and B . Pazy 1989). [source]
Petal color has been variously reported; in the flora only dark red with a dark basal blotch is confirmed by herbarium specimens. [source]
Prairies, fields , river banks, and waste places; 100-200 m (Ref. 51328).
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,040 meters (0 to 6,693 feet).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Superorder: Ranunculanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Ranunculidae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Adonis autumnalis Linnaeus
Publishing author : L. Publication : Sp. Pl. 1: 547 1753 [1 May 1753]
Members of the genus Adonis
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 4 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- A catalogue of the phaenogamous plants of Great Britain: arranged according to the natural orders: with a copious list of synonyms carefully compiled from Steudel's Nomenclator botanicus, Smith's English flora, Hookers's British flora, Lindley's Synopsis, by Henry Ibbotson. London: H. Bailliere, 1848. url p. 2.
- A new British flora: British wild flowers in their natural haunts / described by A. R. Horwood; with sixty-four plates in colour representing 350 different plants, from drawings by J. N. Fitch and many illustrations from photographs. London: Gresham, 1919. url p. 205, p. 213.
- A new British flora; British wild flowers in their natural haunts, described by A. R. Horwood, with 64 plates in col. representing 350 different plants, from drawings by J. N. Fitch and many illus. from photo. London, Gresham Pub. Co., 1919. url p. 205.
- A supplement to F. Hamilton Davey's Flora of Cornwall / by Edgar Thurston and Chambré C. Vigurs. Truro: Oscar Blackford, Royal Printeries, 1922. url p. 2.
- A voyage to China and the East Indies, by Peter Osbeck. Together with A Voyage to Suratte, by Olof Toreen and an account of the Chinese husbandry, by Captain Charles Gustavus Eckeberg. Tr. from the German, by John Reinhold Forster, F. A. S London, B. White, 1771. url , p. 73.
- An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions: from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102nd meridian / by Nathaniel Lord Britton and Hon. Addison Brown. New York: Scribner, 1913. url p. 121, p. 121.
- Annotated list of the ferns and flowering plants of New York state, by Homer D. House. Albany, The University of the state of New York, 1924. url p. 346.
- Bulletin of miscellaneous information /Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 1923 London: H.M. Stationery Office, 1900-1941. url p. 88.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 6 1901 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 516.
- Flora of Middlesex: a topographical and historical account of the plants found in the county: with sketches of its Physical Geography and climate and of the progress of Middlesex Botany during the last three centuries. London, R. Hardwicke1869. url p. 13.
- Flora of the southeastern United States; being descriptions of the seed-plants, ferns and fern-allies growing naturally in North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, and in Oklahom by John Kunkel Small. New York, The author, 1913. url p. 445.
- Flora of the vicinity of New York; a contribution to plant geography. [New York]1915 url p. 330, p. 652.
- Flowers of the field, by the late Rev. C. A. Johns. London, Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1911. url p. 8.
- Flowers of the field. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1911. url .
- Journal of botany, British and foreign. London: Robert Hardwicke, 1863-1942. url p. 177, p. 188, p. 225, p. 260, p. 33, p. 350, p. 6, p. 74.
- Leaflets of western botany. San Fransisco:[J. T. Howell], 1932-1966. url p. 199, p. 291, p. 4.
- List of Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta growing without cultivation in northeastern North America. Prepared by a Committee of the Botanical Club, American Association for the Advancement of Science. New York, 1894. url p. 162.
- Manual of the flora of the northern states and Canada / by Nathaniel Lord Britton. New York: Holt, 1905. url p. 432.
- Manual of the southeastern flora: being descriptions of the seed plants growing naturally in Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, eastern Louisiana, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. 1933 New York: The author, 1933. url p. 523.
- Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden. New York: The Garden, 1900- url p. 330, p. 652.
- Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club. 5 1893 - 18 Durham, N.C.: Published for the Club by the Seeman Printery, 1889- url p. 162.
- Miscellaneous tracts relating to natural history, husbandry, and physick. To which is added The calendar of flora. London: R. and J. Dodsley, S. Baker, and T. Payne, 1762. url p. 272, p. 283.
- New illustrated encyclopedia of gardening, unabridged. Edited by T.H. Everett, with contributions from twenty horticulturists and authorities in the United States and Canada. New York, Greystone Press[1964-] url p. 48.
- Plant life of Alabama, an account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state. By Charles Mohr. .. Montgomery, Ala., Brown printing co., 1901. url p. 516.
- Plant life of Alabama. An account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state. Prepared in cooperationwith the Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1901. url .
- Plant life of Alabama: an account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state / by Charles Mohr. Montgomery, Ala.: Brown Printing Co., 1901. url p. 516.
- The Annals of Scottish natural history. Edinburgh: David Douglas, 1892-1911. url p. 218.
- The English gardener; or, A treatise on the situation, soil, enclosing and laying-out of kitchen gardens. .. concluding with a kalendar, giving instructions relative to the sowings, plantings, prunings. .. in each month of By William Cobbett. London, The author, 1829. url .
- The Entomologist's record and journal of variation. s.l., s.n. url p. 85.
- The Great Basin naturalist. 41 1981 Provo, Utah: M.L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, 1939-1999. url p. 3, p. 80.
- The Victoria history of Berkshire. edited by P.H. Ditchfield and William Page. [LondonConstable]1906-1923 url p. 54, p. 56, p. 58, p. 61.
- The flora of Berkshire; being a topographical and historical account of the flowering plants and ferns found in the county, with short biographical notices of the botanists who have contributed to Berkshire botany during the Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1897. url p. 6.
- The naturalist. London: Simpkin, Marshall, 1865- url p. 250.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 11, 2007:
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen, Biologiezentrum Linz
- Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Herbarium Willing
- Bundesamt für Naturschutz / Zentralstelle für Phytodiversität Deutschland, Bundesamt fuer Naturschutz / Zentralstelle fuer Phytodiversitaet Deutschland
- Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien, Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien
- GBIF-Spain, Dirección General de Investigación, Desarrollo Tecnológico e Innovación de la Junta de Extremadura(DGIDTI): HSS
- GBIF-Spain, Herbario Universidad de Málaga: MGC-Cormófitos
- GBIF-Spain, Herbario de la Universidad de Sevilla, SEV
- GBIF-Spain, Hortus Botanicus Sollerensis Herbarium
- GBIF-Spain, Institut Botanic de Barcelona, BC
- Israel Nature and Parks Authority, Israel Nature and Parks Authority
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, NSW herbarium collection
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plant Herbarium, Oslo
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Plants
- Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2645538
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-18726
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4490920
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:91990-3
- GRIN Nomen Number: 401541
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 18726
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDRAN03020
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ADAN
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 19722
- Wencai Wang, Dezhi Fu, Liang-Qian Li, Bruce Bartholomew, Anthony R. Brach, Bryan E. Dutton, Michael G. Gilbert, Yuichi Kadota, Orbélia R. Robinson, Michio Tamura, Michael J. Warnock, Guanghua Zhu & Svetlana N. Ziman "Ranunculaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 6 Page 133. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 151.470 meters (496.949 feet), Standard Deviation = 190.480 based on 1,284 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]