Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Danish:
ægte Venushår, Venushår
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
Common Maidenhair Fern, Common Maidenhair, Maidenhair Fern, Southern maidenhair Fern, Southern Maidenhair, Southern Maidenhair Fern, Venus Hair, Venus Hairfern, Venus Maidenhair, Venus Maidenhair Fern, Venus´ Hair Fern, Venus's-Hair Fern
Common Names in Finnish:
Common Names in French:
Capillaire Cheveux-De-Vénus, Capillaire De Montpellier, Cheveux De Vénus
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Italian:
Common Names in Spanish:
Adianto, Capilera, Culantrillo De Pozo
40, species ca. 1000 (13 genera, 90 sp: worldwide.
Considerable disagreement exists concerning the circumscription and proper name of this family . The taxa comprising the Pteridaceae in this treatment were assigned to the Sinopteridaceae and Pteridaceae by D. B . Lellinger (1985) and were included in five families by R. E. G. Pichi-Sermolli (1977). The broad concept followed here is similar (except for the exclusion of Ceratopteris ) to that espoused by R. M. Tryon and A. F. Tryon (1982), who applied the name Pteridaceae to the group. Until very recently, the newer name Adiantaceae was more commonly used.
As represented in North America, Pteridaceae comprise three major evolutionary lines (the adiantoids, the pteroids, and the cheilanthoids). Characteristics holding the family together include abaxial (usually submarginal ) sori that lack indusia or are protected by a reflexed or revolute leaf margin , spores that are usually globose-tetrahedral and trilete, and chromosome base numbers of 30 or 29 (rarely 27). The xeric-adapted members of the family (particularly the cheilanthoids) have undergone extensive parallel and convergent evolution, and they have frustrated attempts to produce a natural generic classification based on macromorphologic characteristics alone. Although some workers have aggregated species into a few large genera (e.g. , J. T. Mickel 1979b), most tend to recognize smaller segregate genera based on a combination of morphologic, chromosomal, and biochemical data. The latter approach seems to provide a more useful, evolutionarily informative classification and is the one adopted here. Aspidotis and Notholaena are maintained here as distinct from Cheilanthes, and three recently described genera ( Argyrochosma, Astrolepis, and Pentagramma ) have been incorporated into the treatment. The reasons for these changes in generic circumscription are discussed under the individual genera.
or on rock. Stems short- to long-creeping or suberect, branched; scales
yellow to dark reddish brown [black], concolored or bicolored
, linear-lanceolate to lanceolate, margins
entire, erose-ciliate, or minutely dentate
. Leaves monomorphic
to somewhat dimorphic
, densely clustered to closely spaced [distant
], 15--110 cm. Petiole
chestnut brown to dark purple or blackish, with single groove
, or strigose
, with 1 or 2 vascular bundles
, trowel-shaped, or fan-shaped, 1--4(--9) -pinnate proximally, membranaceous
, both surfaces commonly glabrous (2 species with scattered
), adaxially dull or shiny, not striate
; rachis straight or flexuous
to short-stalked (stalks
terminating in cupulelike swelling at base
of pinna in A. tenerum ), round
, fan-shaped, rhombic
, or oblong
, 3--29 mm wide; base truncate to cuneate, free
from costa; stalk dark, often lustrous
segments with marginal
recurved to form false indusia. Veins of ultimate segments conspicuous
, free, ± dichotomously forking near base and well above segment base [anastomosing in a few tropical
species], parallel distally. False indusia light gray-green or brown to dark brown, narrow, 0.6--1 mm wide, marginal, concealing sporangia until sporangia dehisce. Sporangia submarginal, borne along or sometimes also between veins on abaxial
surface of false indusium, paraphyses and glands
absent. Spores yellow or yellowish brown, tetrahedral-globose, trilete, rugulate to rugose
, equatorial ridge
= 29, 30.
Species ca. 150--200: nearly worldwide except at latitudes greater than 60°.
Most diverse in Andean South America, Adiantum is primarily a tropical genus; of the nine species occurring in the flora , A. melanoleucum, A. tenerum, and A. tricholepis are strictly subtropical . Adiantum hispidulum occurs only as an escape from cultivation. The genus is absent from dry areas in the interior of the continent.
Adiantum is a very clearly circumscribed genus of ferns, the character state "sporangia borne on abaxial surface of false indusium" being both necessary and sufficient to define it. Within this large and widespread genus, however, species relationships are mostly unknown. An evolutionary classification of the group is indeed much needed (R. M. Tryon and A. F. Tryon 1982).
Species Adiantum capillus-veneris
Stems short-creeping; scales
golden brown to medium brown, concolored,
entire or occasionally with single broad tooth
. Leaves lax-arching or pendent, closely spaced, 15--75
0.5--1.5 mm diam., glabrous
, occasionally glaucous. Blade
lanceolate, pinnate, 10--45 × 4--15 cm, glabrous, gradually
reduced distally; proximal
pinnae 3(--4) -pinnate; rachis straight
, glabrous, not glaucous. Segment stalks
dark color extending into segment base. Ultimate
generally cuneate or fan-shaped to irregularly rhombic
American southwest occasionally with segments nearly round
as long as broad; base broadly to narrowly cuneate; margins shallowly
to deeply lobed
, incisions 0.5--7 mm, occasionally ± laciniate
segments; apex rounded
to acute. Indusia
or crescent-shaped, 1--3(--7) mm, glabrous. Spores
mostly 40--50 µm diam. 2 n = 120. Sporulating spring--summer.
No evident pattern to morphologic variation in the species is discernible, although a number of segregate species and infraspecific taxa have been recognized within North American Adiantum capillus-veneris. In the Eastern Hemisphere, the species is diploid, with 2 n = 60 (I. Manton 1950). Several tetraploid counts have been reported from North America (W. H. Wagner Jr. 1963). Spore-measurement data suggest, however, that the polyploid cytotype may not be widely distributed. Further investigation is needed to determine whether Adiantum capillus-veneris populations in North America are conspecific with those in Eurasia and Africa. [source]
Habit: Forb/herb • Growth Form: Rhizomatous • Shape and Orientation: Erect
Flowers: Bloom Period: Summer • Flower Color: White • Flower Conspicuous: No
Seeds: Seed per Pound: 3000000 • Seed Spread Rate: Slow • Seedling Vigor: Medium • Fruit/Seed Abundance: Medium • Fruit/Seed Color: Brown • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: No • Cold Stratification Required: No
Foliage: Foliage Color: Green • Foliage Porosity Summer: Porous • Foliage Porosity Winter: Porous • Foliage Texture: Fine • Fall Conspicuous: No • Leaf Retention: No
Active Growth Period: Spring and Summer • Growth Rate: Moderate • After Harvest Regrowth Rate: Slow • Mature Height (feet): 1.7 • Size: 18-24" tall. • Vegetative Spread Rate: Slow • Lifespan: Lifespan
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,701 meters (0 to 15,423 feet).
Duration: Perennial • Coppice Potential: No • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: Yes • Propagated by Container: No • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: No • Propagated by Seed: Yes • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: No • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Summer • Fruit/Seed Period End: Fall • Fruit/Seed Persistence: No
Culture: Space 12-15" apart.
Soil: Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: No • Anaerobic Tolerance: Medium • Salinity Tolerance: None • CaCO3 Tolerance: High • Minimum pH: 6.0 • Maximum pH: 8.0 • Fertility Requirement: Low
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Partial to Full Shade. • Shade Tolerance: Tolerant
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: None • Minimum Precipitation: 10 • Maximum Precipitation: 60 • Moisture Use: High
Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): -33°F. • Minimum Frost Free Days: 120 • Cold Hardiness: 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997, Nom. Nud.
- Cronquist et al.
- Family: Pteridaceae () - Kirchn. - Maidenhair Fern Family Plants perennial [annual],
- Order: Polypodiales () - Link
- Class: Polypodiopsida () - Cronquist et al.
- Infraphylum: Moniliformopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997, Nom. Nud.
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
A. capillus-veneris var. rimicola (Slosson) Fernald • Adiantum capillus-veneris var. modestum (L. Underwood) Fernald • Adiantum capillus-veneris var. protrusum Fern. • Adiantum modestum Underwood
Publishing author : L. Publication : Sp. Pl. 2: 1096 1753 [1 May 1753]
Members of the genus Adiantum
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 57 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
A. aethiopicum (Common Maidenhair Fern) · A. aleuticum (Aleutian Maidenhair) · A. anceps (Double Edge Maidenhair) · A. bellum (Bermuda Maidenhair Fern) · A. capillus (Common Maidenhair) · A. capillus-veneris (Common Maidenhair Fern) · A. capillus-veneris L. 'Fimbriatum' (Fimbriatum Southern Maidenhair Fern Adiantum Capillus-Veneris) · A. capillus-veneris 'Imbricatum' (Imbricatum Southern Maidenhair Fern Adiantum Capillus-Veneris) · A. caudatum (Angel Wings) · A. caudatum 'Coll. #tlc-008' (Walking Maidenhair Fern) · A. chilense (Maidenhair Fern) · A. concinnum (Polished Maidenhair) · A. formosum (Black Stem Maidenhair) · A. fragile (Fragile Maidenhair) · A. fragile var. fragile (Fragile Maidenhair) · A. fragile var. rigidulum (Fragile Maidenhair) · A. hirsutum (Hairy Maidenhair) · A. hispidulum (Rosy Australian Maidenhair Fern) · A. hispidulum 'Bronze Venus' (Rough Maidenhair) · A. jordanii (California Maidenhair) · A. latifolium (Broadleaf Maidenhair) · A. lunulatum (Crescent Maidenhair) · A. macrophyllum (Large-Leaf Maidenhair-Fern) · A. melanoleucum (Fragrant Maidenhair) · A. obliquum (Oblique Maidenhair) · A. pedatum (American Maidenhair Fern) · A. pedatum subpumilum (Maidenfern) · A. pedatum 'Eco Aurora-Borealis' (Eco Aurora-Borealis Northern Maidenhair Fern Adiantum Pedatum) · A. peruvianum (Peruvian Maidenhair Fern) · A. petiolatum (Stalked Maidenhair) · A. philippense (Philippine Maidenhair) · A. pulverulentum (Glossy Maidenhair) · A. pyramidale (Pyramid Maidenhair) · A. raddianum (Delta Maiden-Hair Fern) · A. raddianum 'Bridal Veil' (Bridal Veil Delta Maidenhair Fern Adiantum Raddianum) · A. raddianum 'Crested Fritz' (Maidenhair Fern) · A. raddianum 'Fritz-Luthi' (Fritz-Luthi Delta Maidenhair Fern) · A. raddianum 'Gracillimum' (Maidenhair Fern) · A. raddianum 'Micropinnulum' (Micropinnulum Delta Maidenhair Fern Adiantum Raddianum) · A. raddianum 'Ocean Spray' (Maidenhair Fern) · A. raddianum 'Pacific Maid' (Pacific Maid Delta Maidenhair Fern) · A. raddianum 'Sleeping Beauty' (Maidenhair Fern) · A. raddianum 'Variegatum' (Variegatum Delta Maidenhair Fern Adiantum Raddianum) · A. radiatum (Delta Maidenhair Fern) · A. tenerum (Black Stick Maidenhair Fern Adiantum Tenerum) · A. tenerum var. farleyense (Black Stick Maidenhair Fern) · A. tetraphyllum (Fourleaf Maidenhair) · A. thalictroides 'Argentine Lace' (Meadow-Rue Maidenhair Fern) · A. tracyi (Tracy's Maidenhair) · A. trapeziforme (Diamond Maidenhair) · A. tricholepis (Deer Maidenhair-Fern) · A. venustum (Evergreen Maidenhair Fern) · A. villosum (Woolly Maidenhair) · A. viridimontanum (Green Mountain Maidenhair) · A. vivesii (Puerto Rico Maidenhair) · A. wilsonii (Wilson's Maidenhair) · A. x tracyi (Tracy's Maidenhair)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 12, 2007:
- Utah State University, USU-UTC Specimen Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2644524
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-17308
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4490920
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:91322-3
- GRIN Nomen Number: 401925
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 17308
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 17009280
- MoBot NameID: 26602671
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PPADI03010
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ADCA
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 19620
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- Mean = 758.830 meters (2,489.600 feet), Standard Deviation = 992.390 based on 8,354 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]