The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.
The Heliantheae are a tribe of closely related genera of the sunflower family that can be readily recognized due to the association of a receptacular bract or chaff scale with each disk floret in the head . The heads usually include bisexual , actinomorphic disk florets with tubular corollas that have 4 or 5 distal lobes and also peripheral zygomorphic female or sometimes sterile florets with strap-shaped corollas that have 3 or fewer distal teeth. However, the ray flowers are sometimes absent and the heads are then discoid , containing only bisexual florets with tubular corollas. The pappus is absent or more commonly ranges from scales to stiff bristles . -- Gerald Carr.
or perennials, 10-20(-30+) cm . Stems prostrate
, usually branched ± throughout. Leaves cauline; opposite; petiolate
[± sessile]; blades
(usually 3-nerved) ovate
or lanceolate [linear
± cuneate, margins
entire or toothed
. Heads radiate
], borne singly at tips
of branches [corymbiform
arrays]. Involucres ± hemispheric
, 3-6+ mm diam. Phyllaries persistent
, 8-15+ in 1-3 series (distinct
, ovate to linear, subequal
or outer longer
). Receptacles conic, paleate (paleae falling with fruit, ± navicular
, membranous to scarious
, each about equaling subtended floret). Ray florets 0 or 5-20+, pistillate
; corollas yellow to orange [white or purplish] (laminae
ovate to linear) [wanting
]. Disc florets 25-100(-200+) bisexual
, fertile; corollas yellow [orange], tubes
shorter than campanulate
4-5, deltate. Cypselae 2-3-angled (peripheral) or strongly compressed
on the 2-3 angles
) ; pappi 0, or fragile, of 1-3 awnlike bristles
. x = 13.
Species 30: s United States, Mexico, West Indies, Central America, South America; introduced in Asia, Africa, Pacific Islands, Australia.
Acmella pilosa R. K . Jansen has been reported as introduced in Florida (http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu) ; it differs from A. repens mainly by its more densely pilose stems and leaves and more truncate to cordate (versus cuneate) leaf bases.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Lindley, 1833
- Family: Compositae () - Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Order: Asterales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Campanulanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : Cass. Publication : in Dict. Sc. Nat. xxiv. 331
Members of the genus Acmella
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 8 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
A. decumbens (Creeping Spotflower) · A. iodiscaea (Maluco) · A. oleracea (Perennial Para Cress) · A. oppositifolia (Oppositeleaf Spotflower) · A. oppositifolia var. repens (Oppositeleaf Spotflower) · A. paniculata (Panicled Spot Flower) · A. pilosa (Hairy Spotflower) · A. pusilla (Dwarf Spotflower)
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- Jansen, R. K. 1985. The systematics of Acmella (Asteraceae-Heliantheae). Syst. Bot. Monogr. 8: 1-115.
- Behnke Nurseries, Potomac MD USA
- Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly, J. van Hertum, eds (2007). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-2006. Systema Naturae 2000. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Accessed April 19, 2007.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed January 22, 2008. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from provider.
- Merrifield Garden Center, Fairfax VA USA
- The International Plant Names Index. Accessed Jan 19, 2007.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal January 23, 2008:
- Herbarium of the University of Aarhus, The AAU Herbarium Database
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 9270636
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 174546-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 1149945