Common Names in English:
Japanese Chaff Flower, Japanese Chaff-Flower
, or lianas. Leaves alternate or opposite, entire, exstipulate
. Flowers small, bisexual
, or sterile
and reduced, subtended by 1 membranous bract and 2 bracteoles, solitary or aggregated in cymes. Inflorescences elongated or condensed spikes (heads
, or thyrsoid
structures of varying complexity. Bracteoles membranous or scarious
. Tepals 3-5, membranous, scarious or subleathery, 1-, 3-, 5-, or 7(-23) -veined. Stamens as many as tepals and opposite these, rarely fewer than tepals; filaments
into a cup
or ± entirely into a tube
, filament lobes present or absent, pseudostaminodes present or absent; anthers
(1- or) 2-loculed, dorsifixed
, introrsely dehiscent
. Ovary superior, 1-loculed; ovules 1 to many; style persistent
, short and indistinct or long and slender; stigma capitate, penicillate
, 2-lobed or forming 2 filiform
branches. Fruit a dry utricle or a fleshy
capsule, indehiscent, irregularly bursting, or circumscissile. Seeds lenticular
, subglobose, or shortly cylindric
About 70 genera and 900 species: worldwide; 15 genera (one introduced ) and 44 species (three endemic, 14 introduced) in China.
Morphology of the androecium, perianth (tepals), and the inflorescence has traditionally been used to circumscribe genera and tribes . Pseudostaminodia are interstaminal appendages with variously shaped apices. Filament appendages are the lateral appendages of filaments (one on each side) . The basic structure of the inflorescence is the cyme (branchlets arising from the bracteole axils, the bracteoles serving as bracts for upper flowers), which can be reduced to one flower with two bracteoles and a bract. Units of dispersal vary considerably (capsules opening with lower part persistent, flower and bracteoles falling together, or cymose partial inflorescences breaking off above bract) and can be characteristic for genera. Several genera possess long trichomes serving dispersal at the base of the tepals.
. Stems erect
. Leaves opposite, petiolate
to orbiculate, or broadly rhombate, margins
entire. Inflorescences terminal
, many-flowered, simple
spikes or few-branched panicles; flowers crowded together at tips
, becoming more widely spaced toward base
. Flowers bisexual
, often becoming deflexed
with age; tepals 4 or 5, basally connate
, without ornamentation, coriaceous
, becoming indurate
in fruit, ± glabrous
basally connate into short tubes
4-locular; pseudostaminodes 5; ovary obovoid
; ovule 1; style elongate; stigma 1, capitate. Utricles enclosed by and falling with indurate tepals, elliptic or cylindric
, membranous, indehiscent. Seeds 1, inverted
, obovoid or ovoid
Species 8-12: c and se United States, Mexico, West Indies, Central America, South America, tropical , subtropical , and warm-temperate regions of the Old World.
The groups of plants referred to as Achyranthes and Alternanthera have been subject to considerable nomenclatural confusion, primarily because P. C. Standley (1915) designated Achyranthes repens Linnaeus as the lectotype species of Achyranthes. As a result, species that had been placed in Achyranthes were transferred to Centrostachys Wallich, and species that had been in Alternanthera were transferred to Achyranthes. A. A. Bullock (1957; see also R. Melville 1958) showed that Standley's lectotypification was incorrect and that the type species of Achyranthes is Achyranthes aspera Linnaeus. The generic concepts of Achyranthes and Alternanthera then returned to those prior to 1915.
Species Achyranthes japonica
Plants perennial . Stems 0.75-1.5 m , glabrous or slightly pubescent . Leaf blades ovate-elliptic, 2.5-13.5 × 0.2-6.8 cm, base tapering, apex acute to acuminate, pubescent on veins abaxially, short-pubescent adaxially, varying to glabrous or glabrescent . Inflorescences 2-4 cm in flower, elongating to 21 cm in fruit; bracteoles spinose ; basal wings attached at base and sometimes slightly on sides. Flowers: tepals 5, 4-5 mm; pseudostaminodes with margins entire, denticulate , or slightly 2-lobed at apex. Utricles elliptic , 2.5 mm. Flowering summer. [source]
Wooded riverbanks; 100-200 m .
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Perleb, 1826
- Family: Amaranthaceae () - Adanson, 1763 ex A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons. - amaranthes, pigweed
- Suborder: Chenopodiineae ()
- Order: Caryophyllales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Caryophyllanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Caryophyllidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Achyranthes bidentata var. japonica Miq. • Achyranthes bidentata Blume Var. japonica Miquel • Achyranthes Bidentata Japonica
Publishing author : Nakai Publication : in Mori, Enum. Pl. Cor . 139 (1922), nomen.
Members of the genus Achyranthes
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 14 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
A. amaranthoides (Jiang Guo Xian) · A. aspera (Devil's Horsewhip) · A. aspera var. aspera (Devil's Horsewhip) · A. aspera var. pubescens (Devils Horsewhip) · A. atollensis (Hawai'i Chaff Flower) · A. bidentata (Niu Xi) · A. japonica (Japanese Chaff Flower) · A. japonica var. hachijoensis (Japanese Chaff Flower) · A. lanuginosa (Woolly Tidestromia) · A. mutica (Blunt Chaff Flower) · A. splendens (Maui Chaff Flower) · A. splendens rotundata var. rotundata (Maui Chaff Flower) · A. splendens var. rotundata (Round Chaff Flower) · A. splendens var. splendens (Maui Chaff Flower)
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- Bulletin of the Natural History Museum. London: The Natural History Museum, c1993-2002. url p. 30.
- Flora of Japan: in English: combined, much revised and extended translation / by the author of his Flora of Japan (1953) and Flora of Japan, Pteridophyta (1957); edited by Frederick G. Meyer and Egbert H. Walker. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1965. url p. 419.
- Journal of the Kentucky Academy of Science. Lexington, KY: The Academy, 1998- url p. 159, p. 97.
- Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science. [Lexington, Ky.]Kentucky Academy of Science, 1923-1997. url p. 169.
- Kuan Ke-chien. 1979. Amaranthaceae. In: Kung Hsien-wu & Tsien Cho-po, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 25(2): 194241.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 27, 2007:
- Australian National Herbarium
- , Australian National Herbarium
- National Science Museum of Korea, National Science Museum of Korea Plant
- Taiwan Biodiversity Information Facility, Magnoliophyta
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2328762
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-181937
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13728929
- GRIN Nomen Number: 414337
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 181938
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 1159621-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDAMA01090
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ACJA
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 19325
- Bojian Bao, Thomas Borsch & Steven E. Clemants "Amaranthaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 5 Page 415. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Kenneth R. Robertson "Achyranthes". in Flora of North America Vol. 4 Page 406, 435. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Achyranthes japonica". in Flora of North America Vol. 4 Page 435, 437. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]