font settings and languages

Font Size: Large | Normal | Small
Font Face: Verdana | Geneva | Georgia
Languages:

Acer caesium caesium

(Indian Maple)

Common Names

[ Back to top ]

Common Names in English:

Indian Maple

Description

[ Back to top ]

Family Sapindaceae

Trees or shrubs (or woody vines with tendrils in Cardiospermum and allied genera), rarely herbaceous climbers . Indumentum usually of simple hairs , often glandular on young parts, buds, and inflorescences. Leaves alternate, usually estipulate; leaf blade pinnate or digitate, rarely simple; leaflets alternate to opposite, entire or dentate to serrate. Inflorescence a terminal or axillary thyrse ; bracts and bracteoles small. Flowers unisexual , rarely polygamous or bisexual , actinomorphic or zygomorphic, usually small. Sepals 4 or 5(or 6), equal or unequal, free or connate at base , imbricate or valvate . Petals 4 or 5(or 6), sometimes absent, free, imbricate, usually clawed, often with scales or hair-tufted basal appendages . Disk conspicuous , fleshy , complete or interrupted , lobed or annular , rarely absent. Stamens 5-10(-74), usually 8, rarely numerous , variously inserted but usually within disk, often exserted in male flowers; filaments free, rarely connate; anthers dorsifixed , longitudinally dehiscent , introrse ; staminodes sometimes present in carpellate flowers, but filaments shorter and anthers with a thick wall, indehiscent. Ovary superior, (1-) 3(or 4) -loculed; ovules 1 or 2(or several) per locule, placentation axile , rarely parietal , anatropous , campylotropous, or amphitropous ; style usually apical (terminal), semigynobasic in Allophylus [gynobasic in Deinbollia Schumacher & Thonning]; stigma entire or 2 or 3(or 4) -lobed, usually rudimentary in male flowers. Fruit a loculicidal capsule, berry, or drupe, or consisting of 2 or 3 samaras, often 1-seeded and 1-loculed by abortion . Seeds 1(or 2 or more) per locule; testa black or brown, hard, often with a conspicuous fleshy aril or sarcotesta ; embryo curved , plicate , or twisted, oily and starchy; endosperm usually absent. 2n = 20-36.

One hundred thirty-five genera and ca. 1500 species: widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, especially well represented in tropical SE Asia; 21 genera (one endemic) and 52 species (16 endemic, one introduced ) in China.

There is some variation in the circumscription of Sapindaceae in taxonomic treatments, particularly with regard to the inclusion of genera from the closely related, predominately temperate families Aceraceae and Hippocastanaceae. Several studies including Müller and Leenhouts (in Ferguson & Müller, Evolutionary Significance Exine: 407-445. 1976), and more recently those based on molecular data (Stevens, Angiosperm Phylogeny Website, 2001 onward; Harrington et al. , Syst. Bot. 30: 366-382. 2005), supported the recognition of a broadly defined Sapindaceae incorporating Aceraceae and Hippocastanaceae. Harrington et al. (loc. cit. ) proposed four subfamilies or clades, comprising Sapindoideae (including

Koelreuteria and Ungnadia Endlicher), Dodonaeoideae, Hippocastanoideae (including taxa previously referred to Aceraceae and Hippocastanaceae, plus Handeliodendron), and a monotypic "Xanthoceratoideae". Within Hippocastanoideae, Acer Linnaeus and Dipteronia Oliver comprise a monophyletic group and are treated in this Flora as Aceraceae. Similarly, Aesculus Linnaeus, Billia Peyritsch, and the Chinese endemic Handeliodendron Rehder form a monophyletic group and are treated here as Hippocastanaceae. There is some support for "Xanthoceratoideae" being the first lineage to diverge within the broadly defined Sapindaceae assemblage; consequently, Xanthoceras is treated separately from genera in Sapindoideae and Dodonaeoideae in the following account of Sapindaceae s.s. The sequence of genera reflects Müller and Leenhouts (loc. cit.) as modified by recent analyses based on molecular and morphological data, rather than following the order developed by Radlkofer (Sitzungsber. Math.-Phys. Cl. Königl. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. München 20: 105-379. 1890; and in Engler, Pflanzenreich 98a-h(IV . 165) : 1-1539. 1931-1934), which was previously followed in FRPS.

The main economic uses of this family include (1) timber: Amesiodendron chinense, Dimocarpus longan, D. confinis, Litchi chinensis, Pavieasia kwangsiensis, and Pometia pinnata; (2) fruit: Dimocarpus longan, Litchi chinensis, and Nephelium lappaceum; (3) medicine: Dimocarpus longan (arillode ), Litchi chinensis (seeds), and Sapindus saponaria (roots ) ; (4) oil : Amesiodendron chinense, Delavaya toxocarpa, and Xanthoceras sorbifolium. Saponins occur widely in the family, commonly used as a fish poison and for their detergent properties.[1]

Habitat

Biome: Terrestrial [2].

Ecology: Usually found in open grassy places and in moist patches of broadleaved forest .[2].

Taxonomy

[ Back to top ]

Similar Species

[ Back to top ]

Members of the genus Acer

ZipcodeZoo has pages for 642 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:

A. barbatum (Florida Maple) · A. barbatum var. caddo (Caddo Florida Maple) · A. barbinerve (Red-Twig Korean Maple) · A. buergerianum (Three-Toothed Maple) · A. buergerianum formosanum (Taiwan Trident Maple) · A. buergerianum var. formosanum (Taiwan Trident Maple) · A. buergerianum 'ABTIR' (Street Wise® Trident Maple) · A. buergerianum 'Mino Yatsubusa' (Three-Toothed Maple) · A. buergerianum 'Naruto' (Three-Toothed Maple) · A. buergerianum 'Streetwise' (Trident Maple) · A. buergerianum 'Tancho' (Three-Toothed Maple) · A. caesium caesium (Indian Maple) · A. campbellii sinense (Campbell Maple) · A. campestre (Champion Field Maple) · A. campestre f. pulverulentum (Speckled Hedge Maple) · A. campestre L. 'Compactum' (Hedge Maple) · A. campestre 'Carnival' (Variegated Hedge Maple) · A. campestre 'Eastleigh Weeping' (Weeping Hedge Maple) · A. campestre 'Eco Sentry' (Field Maple 'eco Sentry') · A. campestre 'Evelyn' (Hedge Maple) · A. campestre 'Fastigiatum' (Hedge Maple) · A. campestre 'Nanum' (Hedge Maple) · A. campestre 'Postulense' (Hedge Maple) · A. campestre 'Queen Elizabeth' (Hedge Maple) · A. campestre 'Royal Ruby' (Hedge Maple) · A. campestre 'Schwerinii' (Hedge Maple) · A. capillipes (Japanese Striped Maple) · A. cappadocicum (Cappadocian Maple) · A. cappadocicum 'Aureum' (Cappadocian Maple) · A. carpinifolium (Hornbeam Maple) · A. caudatifolium (Kawakami Maple) · A. cinnamomifolium (Southern Maple) · A. circinatum (Mountain Maple) · A. circinatum 'Little Gem' (Mountain Maple) · A. circinatum 'Monroe' (Cutleaf Vine Maple) · A. circinatum 'Pacific Fire' (Mountain Maple) · A. circinatum 'Sunglow' (Mountain Maple) · A. circinatum 'Sunny Sister' (Mountain Maple) · A. cissifolium (Vine-Leaf Maple) · A. cissifolium henryi (Henry's Maple) · A. conspicuum (Snakebark Maple) · A. conspicuum 'Phoenix' (Snakebark Maple) · A. crataegifolium (Hawthorn Maple) · A. crataegifolium 'Veitchii' (Hawthorn Maple) · A. davidii (David Maple) · A. davidii 'Dawn Rainbow' (Davids Maple) · A. davidii 'George Forrest' (Davids Maple) · A. davidii 'Scarlet Forest' (Davids Maple) · A. davidii 'Serpentine' (Davids Maple) · A. discolor (Chinese Maple) · A. divergens (Divergent Maple) · A. elegantulum (Elegant Maple) · A. fabri (Fabers Maple) · A. forrestii (Forrests Maple) · A. freemanii (Freeman Maple) · A. ginnala (Amur Maple) · A. ginnala var. semenovii (Semenovs Amur Maple) · A. ginnala 'Compacta' (Dwarf Amur Maple) · A. ginnala 'Emerald Elf' (Amur Maple) · A. ginnala 'Flame' (Amur Flame Maple) · A. ginnala 'Mondy' (Red Rhapsody® Amur Maple) · A. ginnala 'Red Fruit' (Amur Maple) · A. glabrum (California Mountain Maple) · A. glabrum douglasii var. douglasii (Douglas Maple) · A. glabrum torreyi var. torreyi (California Mountain Maple) · A. glabrum Torr. var. diffusum (Greene) Smiley (Rocky Mountain Maple) · A. glabrum Torr. var. greenei Keller (Greene's Maple) · A. glabrum Torr. var. neomexicanum (Greene) Kearney & Peebles (New Mexico Maple) · A. glabrum Torr. var. torreyi (Greene) Smiley (Torrey Maple) · A. glabrum var. diffusum (Rocky Mountain Maple) · A. glabrum var. douglasii (Douglas Maple) · A. glabrum var. glabrum (Rocky Mountain Maple) · A. glabrum var. greenei (Greene's Maple) · A. glabrum var. neomexicanum (New Mexico Maple) · A. glabrum var. torreyi (Mountain Maple) · A. grandidentatum (Big Tooth Maple) · A. grandidentatum Nutt. var. sinuosum (Rehder) Little (Canyon Maple) · A. grandidentatum var. grandidentatum (Bigtooth Maple) · A. grandidentatum var. sinuosum (Canyon Maple) · A. griseum (Paper Bark Maple) · A. griseum 'Gingerbread' (Paper Bark Maple) · A. grosseri (Snakebark Maple) · A. henryi (Henrys Maple) · A. hyrcanum (Balkan Maple) · A. japonicum (Full Moon Maple) · A. japonicum var. Moonfire (Moonfire Japanese Maple) · A. japonicum 'Aconitifolium' (Fernleaf Full Moon Maple) · A. japonicum 'Ao Jutan' (Full Moon Maple) · A. japonicum 'Attaryi' (Full Moon Maple) · A. japonicum 'Fairy Lights' (Japanese Maple) · A. japonicum 'Green Cascade' (Full Moon Maple) · A. japonicum 'Itaya' (Full Moon Maple) · A. japonicum 'Kujaku Nishiki' (Full Moon Maple) · A. japonicum 'Lovett' (Japanese Maple) · A. japonicum 'Meigetsu' (Full Moon Maple) · A. japonicum 'Mikasayama' (Japanese Maple) · A. japonicum 'Oregon Fern' (Full Moon Maple) · A. japonicum 'Otaki' (Full Moon Maple) · A. japonicum 'O Isami' (Full Moon Maple) · A. japonicum 'Taki-No-Gawa' (Full Moon Maple)

More Info

[ Back to top ]

Further Reading

[ Back to top ]

Notes

[ Back to top ]

Contributors

Identifiers

Footnotes

  1. Nianhe Xia & Paul A. Gadek "Sapindaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 12 Page 1, 6. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
  2. World Conservation Monitoring Centre 1998. Acer caesium ssp. caesium. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 29 January 2012. [back]
Last Revised: 2014-04-17