Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Afrikaans:
Essenblaarahorn, Kaliforniese Esdoring
Common Names in English:
Ashleaf Maple, Ash-Leaf Maple, Box Elder, Box-Elder, Boxelder, Boxelder Maple, California Boxelder, Manitoba Maple, Three-Leaf Maple, Western Boxelder
Common Names in French:
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Japanese:
Common Names in Romanian:
Common Names in Russian:
Klen Jasenelistnyj, клен ясенелистный
Common Names in Swedish:
Common Names in unspecified:
Ashleaf Maple, Box Elder, Boxelder, Boxelder Maple, California Boxelder, Manitoba Maple, Western Boxelder
(or woody vines
in Cardiospermum and allied genera), rarely herbaceous climbers
. Indumentum usually of simple
, often glandular
on young parts, buds, and inflorescences. Leaves alternate, usually estipulate; leaf blade
pinnate or digitate, rarely simple; leaflets
alternate to opposite, entire or dentate
to serrate. Inflorescence a terminal
; bracts and bracteoles small. Flowers unisexual
, rarely polygamous or bisexual
or zygomorphic, usually small. Sepals 4 or 5(or 6), equal or unequal, free
, imbricate or valvate
. Petals 4 or 5(or 6), sometimes absent, free, imbricate, usually clawed, often with scales
or hair-tufted basal appendages
. Disk conspicuous
, rarely absent. Stamens 5-10(-74), usually 8, rarely numerous
, variously inserted
but usually within disk, often exserted in male flowers; filaments
free, rarely connate; anthers
, longitudinally dehiscent
; staminodes sometimes present in carpellate
flowers, but filaments shorter and anthers with a thick wall, indehiscent. Ovary superior, (1-) 3(or 4) -loculed; ovules 1 or 2(or several) per locule, placentation axile
, rarely parietal
, campylotropous, or amphitropous
; style usually apical (terminal), semigynobasic in Allophylus [gynobasic
in Deinbollia Schumacher & Thonning]; stigma entire or 2 or 3(or 4) -lobed, usually rudimentary
in male flowers. Fruit a loculicidal capsule, berry, or drupe, or consisting of 2 or 3 samaras, often 1-seeded and 1-loculed by abortion
. Seeds 1(or 2 or more) per locule; testa black or brown, hard, often with a conspicuous fleshy aril or sarcotesta
; embryo curved
, or twisted, oily and starchy; endosperm usually absent. 2n = 20-36.
One hundred thirty-five genera and ca. 1500 species: widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, especially well represented in tropical SE Asia; 21 genera (one endemic) and 52 species (16 endemic, one introduced ) in China.
There is some variation in the circumscription of Sapindaceae in taxonomic treatments, particularly with regard to the inclusion of genera from the closely related, predominately temperate families Aceraceae and Hippocastanaceae. Several studies including Müller and Leenhouts (in Ferguson & Müller, Evolutionary Significance Exine: 407-445. 1976), and more recently those based on molecular data (Stevens, Angiosperm Phylogeny Website, 2001 onward; Harrington et al. , Syst. Bot. 30: 366-382. 2005), supported the recognition of a broadly defined Sapindaceae incorporating Aceraceae and Hippocastanaceae. Harrington et al. (loc. cit. ) proposed four subfamilies or clades, comprising Sapindoideae (including
Koelreuteria and Ungnadia Endlicher), Dodonaeoideae, Hippocastanoideae (including taxa previously referred to Aceraceae and Hippocastanaceae, plus Handeliodendron), and a monotypic "Xanthoceratoideae". Within Hippocastanoideae, Acer Linnaeus and Dipteronia Oliver comprise a monophyletic group and are treated in this Flora as Aceraceae. Similarly, Aesculus Linnaeus, Billia Peyritsch, and the Chinese endemic Handeliodendron Rehder form a monophyletic group and are treated here as Hippocastanaceae. There is some support for "Xanthoceratoideae" being the first lineage to diverge within the broadly defined Sapindaceae assemblage; consequently, Xanthoceras is treated separately from genera in Sapindoideae and Dodonaeoideae in the following account of Sapindaceae s.s. The sequence of genera reflects Müller and Leenhouts (loc. cit.) as modified by recent analyses based on molecular and morphological data, rather than following the order developed by Radlkofer (Sitzungsber. Math.-Phys. Cl. Königl. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. München 20: 105-379. 1890; and in Engler, Pflanzenreich 98a-h(IV . 165) : 1-1539. 1931-1934), which was previously followed in FRPS.
The main economic uses of this family include (1) timber: Amesiodendron chinense, Dimocarpus longan, D. confinis, Litchi chinensis, Pavieasia kwangsiensis, and Pometia pinnata; (2) fruit: Dimocarpus longan, Litchi chinensis, and Nephelium lappaceum; (3) medicine: Dimocarpus longan (arillode ), Litchi chinensis (seeds), and Sapindus saponaria (roots ) ; (4) oil : Amesiodendron chinense, Delavaya toxocarpa, and Xanthoceras sorbifolium. Saponins occur widely in the family, commonly used as a fish poison and for their detergent properties.
ID Features: Pinnately compound leaves resemble those of Fraxinus, but leaflets. are irregularly shaped. Green twigs with reddish brown upper surface have waxy bloom that can be. rubbed off. Broken twig has a strong, acrid smell. Buds covered with silky white hairs. White, solid pith in twigs.
Seeds: Fruit: Samara, set in pairs at a narrow angle . September to October. Profuse; persist into winter.
Foliage: Summer foliage: Opposite, pinnately-compound leaves with 3 to 9 leaflets , each leaflet 2". to 4" long; petiole 2" to 3" long. Light green color above, gray-green below. • Fall foliage: One of the earliest maples to color. Yellow-green to very pale yellow, often brownish. Not very ornamental .
Growth Rate: Extremely fast-growing, especially when young. • Size: 30' to 60' tall.
Landscape Uses: An "alley cat" tree . Often used in shelterbelt plantings in the Northwest. Has possibilities on difficult sites and areas that flood seasonally. Huge flocks of migratory birds (Evening Grosbeak, Cedar Waxwing) usually. strip all seeds from this tree as they pass through. • Liabilities: Susceptible to a wide range of diseases and insect pests: leaf spot. diseases (anthracnose can be extreme in rainy weather); cankers , sapstreak and. trunk decay; caterpillars (including forest tent caterpillar, green striped. maple worms; boxelder bug; assorted leafhoppers, borers , mites , aphids and. scales . Trunks can "weep" from internal decay for 15 years or more before the. tree disintegrates in a storm.. Seeds germinate well, creating a weed problem. Weak wood breaks easily in storms. A short-lived tree.
Occurs natively on stream banks, edges of swamps and lake shores .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,212 meters (0 to 13,819 feet).
Culture: Transplants easily. Performs well on poor, wet or dry sites, in areas or soils of extreme pH. levels; withstands flooding.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Negundo mexicanum Dc. • Rulac negundo (Linnaeus) Hitchcock • Rulac texana (Pax) Small
Members of the genus Acer
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 642 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
A. barbatum (Florida Maple) · A. barbatum var. caddo (Caddo Florida Maple) · A. barbinerve (Red-Twig Korean Maple) · A. buergerianum (Three-Toothed Maple) · A. buergerianum formosanum (Taiwan Trident Maple) · A. buergerianum var. formosanum (Taiwan Trident Maple) · A. buergerianum 'ABTIR' (Street Wise® Trident Maple) · A. buergerianum 'Mino Yatsubusa' (Three-Toothed Maple) · A. buergerianum 'Naruto' (Three-Toothed Maple) · A. buergerianum 'Streetwise' (Trident Maple) · A. buergerianum 'Tancho' (Three-Toothed Maple) · A. caesium caesium (Indian Maple) · A. campbellii sinense (Campbell Maple) · A. campestre (Champion Field Maple) · A. campestre f. pulverulentum (Speckled Hedge Maple) · A. campestre L. 'Compactum' (Hedge Maple) · A. campestre 'Carnival' (Variegated Hedge Maple) · A. campestre 'Eastleigh Weeping' (Weeping Hedge Maple) · A. campestre 'Eco Sentry' (Field Maple 'eco Sentry') · A. campestre 'Evelyn' (Hedge Maple) · A. campestre 'Fastigiatum' (Hedge Maple) · A. campestre 'Nanum' (Hedge Maple) · A. campestre 'Postulense' (Hedge Maple) · A. campestre 'Queen Elizabeth' (Hedge Maple) · A. campestre 'Royal Ruby' (Hedge Maple) · A. campestre 'Schwerinii' (Hedge Maple) · A. capillipes (Japanese Striped Maple) · A. cappadocicum (Cappadocian Maple) · A. cappadocicum 'Aureum' (Cappadocian Maple) · A. carpinifolium (Hornbeam Maple) · A. caudatifolium (Kawakami Maple) · A. cinnamomifolium (Southern Maple) · A. circinatum (Mountain Maple) · A. circinatum 'Little Gem' (Mountain Maple) · A. circinatum 'Monroe' (Cutleaf Vine Maple) · A. circinatum 'Pacific Fire' (Mountain Maple) · A. circinatum 'Sunglow' (Mountain Maple) · A. circinatum 'Sunny Sister' (Mountain Maple) · A. cissifolium (Vine-Leaf Maple) · A. cissifolium henryi (Henry's Maple) · A. conspicuum (Snakebark Maple) · A. conspicuum 'Phoenix' (Snakebark Maple) · A. crataegifolium (Hawthorn Maple) · A. crataegifolium 'Veitchii' (Hawthorn Maple) · A. davidii (David Maple) · A. davidii 'Dawn Rainbow' (Davids Maple) · A. davidii 'George Forrest' (Davids Maple) · A. davidii 'Scarlet Forest' (Davids Maple) · A. davidii 'Serpentine' (Davids Maple) · A. discolor (Chinese Maple) · A. divergens (Divergent Maple) · A. elegantulum (Elegant Maple) · A. fabri (Fabers Maple) · A. forrestii (Forrests Maple) · A. freemanii (Freeman Maple) · A. ginnala (Amur Maple) · A. ginnala var. semenovii (Semenovs Amur Maple) · A. ginnala 'Compacta' (Dwarf Amur Maple) · A. ginnala 'Emerald Elf' (Amur Maple) · A. ginnala 'Flame' (Amur Flame Maple) · A. ginnala 'Mondy' (Red Rhapsody® Amur Maple) · A. ginnala 'Red Fruit' (Amur Maple) · A. glabrum (California Mountain Maple) · A. glabrum douglasii var. douglasii (Douglas Maple) · A. glabrum torreyi var. torreyi (California Mountain Maple) · A. glabrum Torr. var. diffusum (Greene) Smiley (Rocky Mountain Maple) · A. glabrum Torr. var. greenei Keller (Greene's Maple) · A. glabrum Torr. var. neomexicanum (Greene) Kearney & Peebles (New Mexico Maple) · A. glabrum Torr. var. torreyi (Greene) Smiley (Torrey Maple) · A. glabrum var. diffusum (Rocky Mountain Maple) · A. glabrum var. douglasii (Douglas Maple) · A. glabrum var. glabrum (Rocky Mountain Maple) · A. glabrum var. greenei (Greene's Maple) · A. glabrum var. neomexicanum (New Mexico Maple) · A. glabrum var. torreyi (Mountain Maple) · A. grandidentatum (Big Tooth Maple) · A. grandidentatum Nutt. var. sinuosum (Rehder) Little (Canyon Maple) · A. grandidentatum var. grandidentatum (Bigtooth Maple) · A. grandidentatum var. sinuosum (Canyon Maple) · A. griseum (Paper Bark Maple) · A. griseum 'Gingerbread' (Paper Bark Maple) · A. grosseri (Snakebark Maple) · A. henryi (Henrys Maple) · A. hyrcanum (Balkan Maple) · A. japonicum (Full Moon Maple) · A. japonicum var. Moonfire (Moonfire Japanese Maple) · A. japonicum 'Aconitifolium' (Fernleaf Full Moon Maple) · A. japonicum 'Ao Jutan' (Full Moon Maple) · A. japonicum 'Attaryi' (Full Moon Maple) · A. japonicum 'Fairy Lights' (Japanese Maple) · A. japonicum 'Green Cascade' (Full Moon Maple) · A. japonicum 'Itaya' (Full Moon Maple) · A. japonicum 'Kujaku Nishiki' (Full Moon Maple) · A. japonicum 'Lovett' (Japanese Maple) · A. japonicum 'Meigetsu' (Full Moon Maple) · A. japonicum 'Mikasayama' (Japanese Maple) · A. japonicum 'Oregon Fern' (Full Moon Maple) · A. japonicum 'Otaki' (Full Moon Maple) · A. japonicum 'O Isami' (Full Moon Maple) · A. japonicum 'Taki-No-Gawa' (Full Moon Maple)
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- Miscellaneous publication - University of Kansas, Museum of Natural History. 1974 Lawrence: University of Kansas, 1946-1996. url p. 28, p. 44, p. 48, p. 5.
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 12, 2007:
- GBIF-Spain, Jardín Botánico de Córdoba: Herbarium COA
- Jyväskylä University Museum - The Section of Natural Sciences, Vascular plant collection of Jyvaskyla University Museum
- Marine Science Institute, UCSB, Paleobiology Database
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Arizona State University Vascular Plant Herbarium
- The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx River Bioblitz
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Lund Botanical Museum
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Plants
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2652250
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-28749
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4490920
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:1093659-2
- GRIN Nomen Number: 1170
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 28749
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 781412-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDACE01090
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ACNEV
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 13749
- Nianhe Xia & Paul A. Gadek "Sapindaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 12 Page 1, 6. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 385.070 meters (1,263.353 feet), Standard Deviation = 533.470 based on 1,279 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]