Common Names in English:
Common Copperleaf, Deam's Copperleaf, Deam's Threeseed Mercury, Deams Copperleaf, Deams Threeseed Mercury, Diamond Three-Seeded Mercury, Mercuryweed, Rhomboid Copperleaf, Three-Seeded Mercury, Threeseeded Mercury, Virginia Copperleaf, Virginia Three-Seed-Mercury, Virginia Three-Seeded-Mercury, Virginia Threeseed Mercury, Wax Balls
The Euphorbiaceae are mostly monoecious herbs, shrubs , and trees , sometimes succulent and cactus-like, comprising one of the largest families of plants with about 300 genera and 7,500 species that are further characterized by the frequent occurrence of milky sap . The leaves are mostly alternate but may be opposite or whorled and they are simple , or compound , or sometimes highly reduced. Stipules are generally present but may be reduced to hairs , glands or spines. The flowers are unisexual and usually actinomorphic . They may be highly reduced by suppression of parts, in the extreme form consisting of a naked stamen as a male flower and a naked pistil as a female flower. A specialized type of miniature inflorescence called a cyathium occurs in about 1,500 species comprising the genera Euphorbia and Chamaesyce. The cyathium consists of a single naked pistillate flower surrounded by cymes of naked staminate flowers, each consisting of a single stamen. These flowers are all enclosed in a cup-like involucre that typically is provided with peripheral nectaries and petaloid appendages such that the whole aggregation closely resembles a single flower. In other members of the family the flowers and inflorescences are more ordinary in appearance , with male and female flowers typically bearing a 5-merous calyx and corolla of distinct segments, although the corolla is sometimes absent. In these forms the androecium most commonly consists of 5, 10 or sometimes numerous distinct or monadelphous stamens. The gynoecium of female flowers consists of a single compound pistil of typically 3 carpels, an equal number of styles or primary style branches, and a superior ovary with typically 3 locules, each bearing 1 or 2 collateral , axile-apical pendulous ovules. The fruit is usually a capsular schizocarp. -- Gerald Carr.
Flowers: Bloom Period: June, July, August, September. • Flower Color: chartreuse, inconspicuous, none, yellow-green • Flower Conspicuous: Yes
Seeds: Seed per Pound: 678000 • Seed Spread Rate: Slow • Seedling Vigor: Medium • Fruit/Seed Abundance: High • Fruit/Seed Color: Red • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: No • Cold Stratification Required: No
Foliage: Foliage Color: Green • Foliage Porosity Summer: Moderate • Foliage Porosity Winter: Porous • Foliage Texture: Coarse • Fall Conspicuous: Yes • Leaf Retention: No
Active Growth Period: Spring , Summer, Fall • Growth Rate: Rapid • After Harvest Regrowth Rate: Slow • Mature Height (feet): 3.0 • Size: 18-24" tall. • Vegetative Spread Rate: None • Lifespan: Lifespan
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,085 meters (0 to 6,841 feet).
Duration: Annual • Coppice Potential: No • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: Yes • Propagated by Container: Yes • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: Yes • Propagated by Seed: Yes • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: No • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Summer • Fruit/Seed Period End: Fall • Fruit/Seed Persistence: No
Culture: Space 15-18" apart.
Soil: Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: No • Anaerobic Tolerance: None • Salinity Tolerance: None • CaCO3 Tolerance: Low • Minimum pH: 5.9 • Maximum pH: 7.0 • Fertility Requirement: Medium
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun . • Shade Tolerance: Intermediate
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: Medium • Minimum Precipitation: 13 • Maximum Precipitation: 60 • Moisture Use: Medium
Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): 33 • Minimum Frost Free Days: 80 • Cold Hardiness: 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Euphorbianae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Acalypha virginica f. intermedia Millsp. • Acalypha virginica L. Müll. Arg. • Acalypha virginica var. angustifolia Torr. • Acalypha virginica var. genuina Müll. Arg. • Ricinocarpus virginicus (L.) Kuntze
Publishing author : L. Publication : Sp. Pl. 2: 1003 1753 [1 May 1753]
Members of the genus Acalypha
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 42 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
A. alopecuroidea (Fox-Tail Copper-Leaf) · A. amentacea (Acalypha) · A. amentacea wilkesiana (Wilkes' Acalypha) · A. aristata (Field Copperleaf) · A. australis (Australian Acalypha) · A. berteriana (Berteron Acalypha) · A. bisetosa (Streambank Copperleaf) · A. californica (California Acalypha) · A. chamaedrifolia (Cat Tails) · A. chamaedryfolia (Bastard Copperleaf) · A. godseffiana 'Firestorm' (Acalypha) · A. godseffiana 'Inferno' (Copper Leaf) · A. gracilens (Slender Copperleaf) · A. gracilens monococca (Slender Threeseed Mercury) · A. hispida (Bristly Copperleaf) · A. indica (India Copper-Leaf) · A. mexicana (Mexican Copperleaf) · A. monococca (Slender Threeseed Mercury) · A. monostachya (Round Cooper-Leaf) · A. neomexicana (New Mexico Copper-Leaf) · A. ostryifolia (Hophornbeam Copperleaf) · A. pendula (Dwarf Chenille) · A. phleoides (Shrubby Copper-Leaf) · A. poiretii (Poiret's Cooper-Leaf) · A. portoricensis (Puerto Rico Copperleaf) · A. radians (Cardinal's Feather) · A. setosa (Cuban Copper-Leaf) · A. virginica (Common Copperleaf) · A. wilkesiana 'Bourbon Street' (South Pacific Copperleaf) · A. wilkesiana 'Ceylon' (Copperleaf) · A. wilkesiana 'Cypress Elf' (Copper Leaf) · A. wilkesiana 'Godseffiana' (Copper Leaf) · A. wilkesiana 'Kona Coast' (Copperleaf) · A. wilkesiana 'Macafeana' (Copper Leaf) · A. wilkesiana 'Macafeeana' (Jacob's Coat) · A. wilkesiana 'Miltoniana' (Copper Leaf) · A. wilkesiana 'Mosaica' (Copper Leaf) · A. wilkesiana 'Obovata' (Copper Leaf) · A. wilksiana 'Hoffmanii' (Irish Petticoat) · A. 'Fairy Dust' (Copper Leaf) · A. 'Inferno' (Acalypha) · A. 'Raggedy Ann' (Copper Leaf)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 15, 2007:
- Canadian Museum of Nature, Canadian Museum of Nature Herbarium
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Utah State University, USU-UTC Specimen Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2651863
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-1359
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 14259783
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:337927-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 1049
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 28193
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 337927-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDEUP010L2 PDEUP010L1 PDEUP010L3
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ACRH ACDE4
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 12998