Common Names in English:
Bidibidi, New Zealand Burr, Piripiri, Pirri-Pirri
, or herbs, deciduous or evergreen
. Stems erect
, or creeping
. Buds usually with several exposed scales
, sometimes with only 2. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, simple
; stipules paired
, rarely absent, persistent
or deciduous; petiole usually 2-glandular apically; leaf blade
often serrate at margin
, rarely entire. Inflorescences various, from single flowers to umbellate
, racemose or cymose-paniculate. Flowers usually actinomorphic
, rarely unisexual
and then plants
dioecious. Hypanthium (formed from basal parts of sepals, petals, and stamens) free from or adnate to ovary, short or elongate
. Sepals usually 5, rarely fewer or more, imbricate; epicalyx
segments sometimes also present. Petals as many as sepals, inserted
below margin of disk, free, imbricate, sometimes absent. Disk lining hypanthium, usually entire, rarely lobed
. Stamens usually numerous
, rarely few, always in a complete
at margin of or above disk; filaments
usually free, very rarely connate
, rarely elongate, 2-locular. Carpels 1 to many, free, or ± connate and then adnate to inner surface of cupular receptacle; ovary inferior, semi-inferior, or superior; ovules usually 2 in each carpel, rarely 1 or several, anatropous
. Styles as many as carpels, terminal
, or basal, free or sometimes connate. Fruit a follicle, pome, achene, or drupe, rarely a capsule, naked or enclosed in persistent hypanthium and sometimes also by sepals. Seeds erect or pendulous, sometimes winged
, usually exalbuminous
, very rarely with thin endosperm; cotyledons mostly fleshy
abaxially, rarely folded or convolute.
Between 95 and 125 genera and 2825-3500 species: cosmopolitan , mostly in N temperate zone; 55 genera (two endemic) and 950 species (546 endemic) in China.
Many plants of this family are of economic importance and contribute to people s livelihoods. The Rosaceae contain a great number of fruit trees of temperate regions . The fruits contain vitamins, acids, and sugars and can be used both raw and for making preserves, jam, jelly, candy, various drinks, wine, vinegar, etc. The dried fruits of the genera
Amygdalus and Armeniaca are of high commercial value. Some plants in the genus Rosa containing essential oils or with a high vitamin content are used in industry . Rosaceae wood is used for making various articles, stems and roots are used for making tannin extract, and young leaves are used as a substitute for tea. Numerous species are used for medical purposes or are cultivated as ornamentals .
The Rosaceae are very well represented in China, with great economic and scientific importance. The Co-chairs of the Editorial Committee (Wu and Raven) here note that the patterns of relationship are complex and the group is taxonomically difficult. 
Habit: Evergreen .
Flowers: Bloom Period: April, May. • Flower Color: near white, white
Size: under 6" tall.
Culture: Space 6-9" apart.
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: High
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Acaena
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 26 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
A. anserinifolia var. microphylla (Biddy Biddy) · A. buchananii (New Zealand Burr) · A. caesiiglauca (New Zealand Bur) · A. echinata var. echinata (Sheep´s-Bur) · A. echinata var. retrorsumpilosa (Sheep´s-Bur) · A. echinata var. robusta (Sheep´s-Bur) · A. echinata var. subglabricalyx (Sheep´s-Bur) · A. echinata var. tylacantha (Sheep´s-Bur) · A. exigua (Liliwai) · A. fissistipula (New Zealand Bur) · A. inermis 'Purpurea' (New Zealand Burr) · A. magellanica (New Zealand Burr) · A. microphylla (Bidibidi) · A. novae-zelandiae (Bidgee-Widgee Acaena Novae-Zelandiae) · A. novae-zelandica (Biddy Biddy) · A. ovalifolia (New Zealand Bur) · A. ovina var. laxissima (Hairy Sheep´s-Bur) · A. ovina var. ovina (Hairy Sheep´s-Bur) · A. ovina var. subglabricalyx (Hairy Sheep´s-Bur) · A. ovina var. tenuispica (Hairy Sheep´s-Bur) · A. ovina var. velutina (Hairy Sheep´s-Bur) · A. pallida (Biddy Biddy) · A. pinnatifida (Argentinian Biddy-Biddy) · A. pinnatifida var. californica (California Sheepbur) · A. saccaticupula (Blue Goose Leaf) · A. saccaticupula 'Blue Haze' (Bidibidi)
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- Alpine flowers for gardens: rock, wall, marsh plants, and mountain shrubs / by W. Robinson. London: John Murray, 1903. url p. 147.
- Alpine flowers for gardens; rock, wall, marsh plants, and mountain shrubs, by W. Robinson. London, J. Murray, 1910. url p. 147.
- An illustrated encyclopaedia of gardening, by Walter P. Wright London, J. M. Dent & sons, ltd.; url p. 130.
- Annals of horticulture in North America for the year 1893. A witness of passing events and a record of progress. Comprising and account of the horticulture of the Columbian exposition, by L. H. Bailey. New York, Judd, c1894. url p. 185.
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- Hardy flowers. Descriptions of upwards of thirteen hundred of the most ornamental species, with directions for their arrangement, culture, etc.. .. By W. Robinson. London, Macmillan, 1878. url p. 41.
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- Plant culture; a working handbook of every day practice for all who grow flowering and ornamental plants in the garden and greenhouse. New York, A. T. De La Mare Printing and Publishing Co., 1900. url p. 188.
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- Rock gardening for amateurs, by H. H. Thomas assisted by S. Arnott; beautifully illustrated with twelve direct colour photographs by H. Essenhigh Corke, sixty-four half-tone plates and numerous sketches. London, Cassell and company, limited, 1914. url p. 193, p. 266.
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- The English rock-garden, by Reginald Farrer. London, Jack, 1919. url p. 1.
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- The hardy flower book, by E. H. Jenkins, ed. by F. W. Harvey. London, C. Scribner's sons url p. 138.
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- The rock garden, London, C. Scribner's sons, 1920. url .
- The students' flora of New Zealand and the outlying islands. Wellington, N. Z., John Mackay, govt. printer url , .
- Transactions and proceedings of the New Zealand Institute. Wellington: New Zealand Institute. url , p. 124, p. 126, p. 128, p. 129, p. 16, p. 22, p. 3, p. 31, p. 38, p. 39, p. 40, p. 48, p. 63.
- Yü Te-tsun, Lu Ling-ti, Ku Tsue-chih, Li Chao-luan, Kuan Ke-chien & Chiang Wan-fu. 1974, 1985, 1986. Rosaceae. In: Yü Te-tsun, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 36: 1443; 37: 1516; 38: 1133.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal December 04, 2007:
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 1671578
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ros-548
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13689832
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:720051-1
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 720051-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 647988
- Cuizhi Gu, Chaoluan Li, Lingdi Lu, Shunyuan Jiang, Crinan Alexander, Bruce Bartholomew, Anthony R. Brach, David E. Boufford, Hiroshi Ikeda, Hideaki Ohba, Kenneth R. Robertson & Steven A. Spongberg "Rosaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 9 Page 46. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]