Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
American Indian-Mallow, Country mallow, Indian Abutilon, Monkey bush, Monkeybush
Common Names in French:
Guimauve, Herbe de douze heures, Mauve du pays
Common Names in Greek:
Avutilon to indikon
Common Names in Hindi:
Common Names in Italian:
Common Names in Japanese:
Common Names in Portuguese:
Common Names in Spanish:
Boton de oro
Common Names in Thai:
Khrop chak krawaan
, or less often trees
; indumentum usually with peltate scales
. Leaves alternate, stipulate
; leaf blade
usually palmately veined, entire or various lobed
. Flowers solitary, less often in small cymes or clusters
, often aggregated into terminal
or panicles, usually conspicuous
, usually bisexual
in Kydia) . Epicalyx
often present, forming an involucre around calyx, 3- to many lobed. Sepals 5, valvate
. Petals 5, free, contorted, or imbricate, basally adnate
. Stamens usually very many, filaments connate into tube; anthers
1-celled. Pollen spiny
. Ovary superior, with 2-25 carpels, often separating from one another and from axis; ovules 1 to many per locule; style as many or 2 Ã— as many as pistils, apex branched or capitate. Fruit a loculicidal capsule or a schizocarp, separating into individual mericarps, rarely berrylike when mature
(Malvaviscus) ; carpels sometimes with an endoglossum (a crosswise projection from back wall of carpel to make it almost completely septate
. Seeds often reniform
, sometimes conspicuously so.
About 100 genera and ca. 1000 species: tropical and temperate regions of N and S Hemisphere; 19 genera (four introduced ) and 81 species (24 endemic, 16 introduced) in China.
Molecular studies have shown that the members of the Bombacaceae, Malvaceae, Sterculiaceae, and Tiliaceae form a very well-defined monophyletic group that is divided into ten also rather well-defined clades, only two of which correspond to the traditional families Bombacaceae and Malvaceae. Some of the remaining groups are included entirely within either of the remaining families but others cut across the traditional divide between the Sterculiaceae and Tiliaceae. A majority of authors , most notably Bayer and Kubitzki (Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 5: 225-311. 2003), has favored including everything within a greatly enlarged Malvaceae, and treating the individual clades as subfamilies. The alternative view is that the individual clades should be treated as a series of ten families: Bombacaceae (Bombacoideae), Brownlowiaceae (Brownlowioideae), Byttneriaceae (Byttnerioideae), Durionaceae (Durionoideae), Helicteraceae (Helicteroideae), Malvaceae (Malvoideae), Pentapetaceae (Dombeyoideae), Sparrmanniaceae (Grewioideae), Sterculiaceae (Sterculioideae), and Tiliaceae (Tilioideae) (Cheek in Heywood et al. , Fl. Pl. Fam. World. 201-202. 2007) . For the present treatment, we prefer to retain the familiar, traditional four families, so as to maintain continuity with the treatments in FRPS, and to await a consensus on the two alternative strategies for dealing with the very widely accepted clades.
The traditional Malvaceae coincides exactly with one of the major clades. The only possible problem is the relationship with the Bombacaceae, which also has primarily 1-loculed anthers, and some authorities have suggested that the Bombacaceae should be included within the Malvaceae.
Members of the Malvaceae are important as fiber crops (particularly cotton, Gossypium) . Young leaves of many species can be used as vegetables, and species of Abelmoschus and Hibiscus are grown as minor food crops. Many species have attractive flowers and an ever-increasing selection is grown as ornamentals . Several have been cultivated for a very long time, particularly species of Hibiscus, and some of these are not known in the wild.
, or small trees
. Stipules usually caducous
; leaf blade
usually entire (lobed
in A. pictum), palmately veined, base
or serrate. Flowers axillary
, solitary, paired
or in small cymes, often aggregated into terminal
absent. Calyx campanulate
5. Corolla mostly yellow or orange (red in A. roseum), often with dark center, campanulate to wheel-shaped, rarely ± tubular
(A. pictum) ; petals 5, basally connate
many, clustered at filament tube apex. Ovary (5-) 7-20-loculed; ovules 2-9 per carpel; style branches as many as carpels. Fruit a schizocarp, often blackish when mature
, subglobose to hemispherical; mericarps (5-) 7-20, eventually dehiscent
, apex rounded
or acute, sometimes 2-awned, pericarp leathery. Seeds reniform
or slightly pubescent
About 200 species: mostly in tropics and subtropics; nine species (three endemic, one introduced ) in China.
Several species have become widespread tropical weeds . One species, Abutilon pictum, is widely grown as an ornamental .
Species Abutilon indicum
Herbs subshrublike, annual or perennial , erect , many branched, 1-2.5 m , entire plant gray puberulent . Stipules subulate , 1-2 mm, curved outward; petiole 2-4 cm, gray puberulent and sparsely hairy , hairs silklike, ca. 1 mm; leaf blade ovate-orbicular or nearly orbicular , 3-9 × 2.5-7 cm, densely gray stellate puberulent, base cordate, margin irregularly serrate, apex acute or acuminate. Flowers solitary, axillary , 2-2.5 cm in diam. Pedicel ca. 4 cm, articulate near apex, gray stellate puberulent. Calyx green, disk-shaped, 6-10 mm in diam., densely gray puberulent, lobes 5, broadly ovate , apex acute. Corolla uniformly yellow; petals 7-8 mm. Staminal column stellate scabrous. Ovary 15-20-loculed. Fruit black, flat topped, ca. 1.5 cm in diam.; mericarps 15-20, apex acute, slightly awned , long stellate scabrous. Seeds reniform , sparsely stellate. Fl. Jul-Oct. [source]
Habit: Subshrub , Shrub
Flowers: Bloom Period: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December. • Flower Color: gold, yellow-orange, yellow
Size: 4-6' tall.
Disturbed sites on sandy soils; below 800(-1500) m. [source]
Culture: Space 36-48" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.6 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 10a, 10b, 11. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Dumortier, 1829
- Family: Malvaceae () - A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons. - mallows, mauves
- Order: Malvales () - Dumortier, 1829
- Superorder: Malvanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Abutilon
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 119 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
A. abutiloides (American Indian-Mallow) · A. asiaticum (Asian Indian Mallow) · A. auritum (Asian Indian Mallow) · A. berlandieri (Berlandier Indian Mallow) · A. chittendenii (Canary Tree) · A. eremitopetalum (Hidden-Petaled Abutilon) · A. fruticosum (Indian Mallow) · A. grandiflorum (Hairy Indian Mallow) · A. grandifolium (Hairy Indian Mallow) · A. hirtum (Florida Key Indian-Mallow) · A. hulseanum (Mauve) · A. hybridum (Chinese-Lantern) · A. hybridum 'Albus' (White Flowering Maple) · A. hybridum 'Kathy Bells' (Abutilon) · A. hybridum 'Luteus' (Yellow Flowering Maple) · A. hypoleucum (White-Leaf Indian-Mallow) · A. incanum (Indian Mallow) · A. incanum incanum (Edible Hibiscus) · A. incanum pringlei (Pringle's Abutilon) · A. incanum subsp. pringlei (Pringle's Abutilon) · A. indicum (American Indian-Mallow) · A. malacum (Yellow Indian Mallow) · A. megapotamicum (Chinese Lanterns) · A. megapotamicum 'Little Imp' (Chinese Lanterns) · A. megapotamicum 'Melon Delight' (Chinese Lanterns) · A. megapotamicum 'Paisley' (Chinese Lanterns) · A. megapotamicum 'Pink' (Chinese Lanterns) · A. megapotamicum 'Red' (Chinese Lanterns) · A. megapotamicum 'Seashell' (Chinese Lanterns) · A. megapotamicum 'Sunset' (Chinese Lanterns) · A. megapotamicum 'Variegatum' (Chinese Lanterns) · A. megapotamicum 'Victory' (Chinese Lanterns) · A. megapotamicum 'Victor's Folly' (Chinese Lanterns) · A. menziesii (Ko'oloa 'ula) · A. molle (Hairy Abutilon) · A. mollicomum (Sonora Indian-Mallow) · A. palmeri (Palmer Indian Mallow) · A. parishii (Parish Indian Mallow) · A. parvulum (Dwarf Abutilon) · A. permolle (Coastal Indian Mallow) · A. pictum (Painted Indian Mallow) · A. pictum 'Gold Dust' (Abutilon) · A. pictum 'Marginata' (Flowering Maple) · A. pictum 'Thompsonii' (Flowering Maple) · A. pictum 'Thompsonii Yellow' (Abutilon) · A. pictum 'Vesuvius' (Abutilon) · A. purpurascens (Night Flowering Maple) · A. reventum (Yellow-Flower Indian-Mallow) · A. roseum (Red-Flowered Abutilon) · A. sandwicense (Greenflower Indian Mallow) · A. 'Savitzii' (Chinese Bell Flower) · A. spinifex (Gingerbush) · A. striatum (Redvein Indian Mallow) · A. theophrasti (Butter Print) · A. thurberi (Thurber Abutilon) · A. trisulcatum (Angle-Stem Indian-Mallow) · A. virginianum (Jost Van Dyke's Indian Mallow) · A. vitifolium (Abutilon) · A. vitifolium 'Tennant's White' (Tennant's White Flowering Maple) · A. wrightii (Wright Abutilon) · A. incanum (Glossy Abelia) · A. x hybridum (Chinese Bellflower) · A. x suntense (Indian Mallow) · A. × suntense 'Violetta' (Suntense Flowering Maple) · A. x 'Moned' (Super Red® Flowering Maple) · A. 'Apollo' (Chinese Bell Flower) · A. 'Apricot' (Flowering Maple) · A. 'Ashford Red' (Flowering Maple) · A. 'Baby Orange' (Flowering Maple) · A. 'Bartley Schwartz' (Chinese Bell Flower) · A. 'Bella Coral' (Abutilon) · A. 'Bella Pink' (Abutilon) · A. 'Bella Select Mix' (Abutilon) · A. 'Bella Vanilla' (Abutilon) · A. 'Canary Bird' (Canary Bird Flowering Maple) · A. 'Chinese Red' (Flowering Maple) · A. 'Clementine' (Flowering Maple) · A. 'Dame Vanessa' (Chinese Bell Flower) · A. 'Dwarf Red' (Dwarf Red Flowering Maple) · A. 'Eric Lilac' (Abutilon 'eric Lilac') · A. 'Fon Vai' (Flowering Maple) · A. 'Frieda' (Flowering Maple) · A. 'Fruit Punch' (Flowering Maple) · A. 'Gingerbomb' (Flowering Maple) · A. 'Harvest Moon' (Flowering Maple) · A. 'Huntington Pink' (Flowering Maple) · A. 'Ines' (Abutilon 'ines') · A. 'Kentish Belle' (Flowering Maple) · A. 'Kristen's Pink' (Kristen's Pink Flowering Maple) · A. 'Linda Vista Peach' (Chinese Bell Flower) · A. 'Louis Marignac' (Flowering Maple) · A. 'Luteus' (Flowering Maple) · A. 'Magic Lantern' (Flowering Maple) · A. 'Marianne' (Flowering Maple) · A. 'Melon Sorbet' (Chinese Bell Flower) · A. 'Millie Houghton' (Abutilon 'millie Houghton') · A. 'Mobile Pink' (Flowering Maple) · A. 'Moonchimes' (Chinese Bell Flower) · A. 'Orange Hot Lava' (Abutilon 'orange Hot Lava') · A. 'Pablo's Tangelo' (Flowering Maple)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 12, 2007:
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, NSW herbarium collection
- Taiwan Biodiversity Information Facility, Magnoliophyta
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2647676
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-21682
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13733561
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:53106-3
- GRIN Nomen Number: 746
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 21682
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 1101632-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDMAL020A0
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ABIN3
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 998
- Ya Tang, Michael G. Gilbert & Laurence J. Dorr "Malvaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 12 Page 240, 264,299, 302. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Abutilon". in Flora of China Vol. 12 Page 265, 275. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]