A slow-growing selection reaching only about 5' tall and is 10' wide.
Develops a nice spreading
that hugs the ground
The Fraser fir is endemic to high elevations in the southern Appalachian Mountains. It is named after John Fraser, the Scottish botanist/explorer who discovered it in the late 18th century. This coniferous evergreen tree grows from 30-80 ft . tall, around 12 inches in diameter, and has a narrow crown and shallow root system .
As one of the few trees to grow at high elevations, this species appears to play an important role in controlling erosion in southern watersheds by holding shallow soil to the steep wet slopes that it grows on. Unfortunately, in the past fifty years the number of mature , reproductive Fraser fir trees has declined by as much as 91% in areas where it naturally occurs. This decline is primarily attributed to the presence of an introduced insect, the balsam wooly adelgid (Dull et al. 1988), but other environmental factors , including acid rain , may also be a contributing problem.
Although the survival of this species in the wild is threatened, it is thriving in cultivation, where regular application of insecticides can control the balsam wooly adelgid. In fact, it has recently become a favorite in the Christmas tree world. The Fraser fir's natural shape, combined with its fragrant dark green foliage and long needle retention time have made it one of the most popular Christmas tree species nationwide. A 1993 report noted 2,500 North Carolina growers who planted 30,000 acres of Fraser fir, about 2,700 trees per acre. It has been recently designated 'The Cadillac of Christmas Trees' (Dirr 1998).
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
Balsam Fir, Fraser Fir, Eastern Fir, Fraser Balsam Fir, Fraser's fir, She Balsam, Southern Balsam, Southern Balsam Fir, Southern Fir
Common Names in Estonian:
Common Names in Finnish:
Common Names in French:
sapin de Fraser
Common Names in German:
Fraser Tanne, Frasers Balsam Tanne, Frasers Tanne
Common Names in Hungarian:
Common Names in Italian:
Abete di Fraser
, crown usually spirelike to conic, sometimes flat to round
topped in age. Bark
initially thin, smooth
, bearing resin blisters, in age furrowed
. Branches whorled
, irregular internodal
branches occasionally produced
sprouting (growing from a dormant
bud) ; short (spur) shoots
absent; leaf scars
, ± circular to broadly elliptic
, flush with twig
surface, slightly depressed
, or slightly raised evenly all around. Buds ovate
or not, apex rounded
. Leaves borne singly, persisting 5 or more years, spirally arranged
but often proximally twisted so as to appear either 1-ranked (pointing up like toothbrush bristles
) or 2-ranked, sessile, typically constricted
and often twisted above the somewhat broadened base
absent; leaves on vegetative
branches flattened, frequently grooved
adaxially, usually notched
to rounded at apex; leaves on fertile
branches sometimes appearing 4-sided, upright, sharp-pointed to rounded at apex; resin canals 2. Cones borne on year-old twigs
. Pollen cones grouped, ovate or oblong-cylindric, leaving gall-like protuberances
after falling, yellow to red, green, blue, or purple. Seed cones maturing in 1 season
to oblong-cylindric or cylindric
, not falling whole but scale by scale, cone axis persisting as an erect "spike" on branch
shed individually, fan-shaped, lacking apophysis and umbo; bracts included
to exserted. Seeds winged
, the wing-seed juncture bearing resin sac; cotyledons 4--10. x
Species ca. 42: widespread in north temperate regions , North America, Mexico, Central America, Eurasia (s to Himalayas, s China, and Taiwan), n Africa.
In Abies several traditionally accepted species have closely allied sibling species , e.g. , A. balsamea -- A. fraseri, A. bifolia -- A. lasiocarpa, and A. magnifica -- A. procera. Other species may be more distinct morphologically, but many of these still appear to have evolved in geographic isolation without strong reproductive barriers developing. Thus, when distributions of species overlap, introgression between the taxa is the rule ; this may make it difficult to assign certain individuals to a species. In the interests of nomenclatural stability , I have accepted the taxa recognized by the U.S. Forest Service (E.L. Little Jr. 1979). This classification does not recognize varieties based on variations in bract characteristics but recognizes species that perhaps would be treated as varieties in other conifer genera. The only exceptions to this treatment are some necessary changes within A. concolor and A. lasiocarpa. Cases of introgression are discussed under the taxa involved. Some distinct or possibly distinct geographic populations deserve further study and may warrant future taxonomic recognition.
Most North American firs are major components of vegetation, especially in the boreal, Pacific Coast coniferous , and western montane coniferous forests, where they are important for watershed management . They are cut for pulpwood and lumber and, largely from plantations, for Christmas trees . All our species, especially Abies concolor, and several exotics are grown---some more than others---as ornamentals . Firs provide cover , and their leaves are important as food, for various birds and mammals. Species of Abies frequently have a pleasant odor; their foliage has been used as a stuffing material for pillows . Most commercial products with "pine odors" are in fact scented with essential oils distilled from Abies foliage by Russian farmers. A similar oil could be derived from balsam fir in North America.
Species Abies fraseri
to 25m; trunk
to 0.75m diam.; crown spirelike. Bark
, with age developing appressed
at trunk base.
Branches diverging from trunk at right
reddish. Buds exposed, light brown, conic,
, apex acute; basal scales
short, broad, equilaterally
, resinous, margins
entire, apex sharp-pointed.
Leaves 1.2--2.5cm × 1.5--2mm, 2-ranked, particularly in lower
parts of tree, to spiraled, flexible
adaxially; odor turpentinelike, strong
surface with (8--)
on each side of midrib
green, sometimes slightly glaucous, with 0--3 stomatal rows
at midleaf, these more numerous
toward leaf apex; apex slightly notched
; resin canals large, ± median
, away from margins
and midway between abaxial and adaxial epidermal layers. Pollen cones
at pollination reddish yellow or yellowish green. Seed cones cylindric
3.5--6 ´ 2.5--4cm, dark purple overlaid with yellowish green
bracts, sessile, apex round
; scales ca. 0.7--1 ´ 1--1.3cm,
; bracts exserted and reflexed
over cone scales. Seeds 4--5
´ 2--3mm, body brown; wing
about as long as body, purple; cotyledons
5. 2 n =24. [source]
Some (e.g. , B .F. Jacobs et al. 1984) have argued that Fraser fir is at the end of a disjunct cline of balsam fir and perhaps does not deserve separate specific status. A.E. Matzenko (1968) took the opposite view, classifying Fraser fir and balsam fir in different taxonomic series of the genus. [source]
ID Features: Two-ranked needles in a V-shape. New stems covered with gray hairs. Circular leaf scars. Smooth bark with resin blisters. Notched needle tip. Resinous buds.
Habit: Evergreen .
Flowers: No ornamental value. Monoecious. • Bloom Period: n/a • Flower Color: inconspicuous, none
Seeds: Fruit: Brown resinous cones. Cones shatter soon after maturing. Cones typically found only in upper third of the canopy . 3" to 4" long.
Foliage: Summer foliage: Needles are variable, up to 1" long. 2 lateral sets of leaves arranged horizontally, V-shaped parting between. sets. Leaf tip is notched . Dark, shiny green with 2 white stomatal lines on underside. Buds are resinous . • Fall foliage: No fall color (evergreen ).
Growth Rate: Slow growth rate • Size: 4-6' tall.
Landscape Uses: Specimen tree . Widely used as Christmas tree . Bird and animal shelter . • Liabilities: Loses nice "Christmas tree " shape with age. Problem pests and diseases include: spruce budworm, woolly aphid, and. several cankers . Often performs poorly under landscape conditions. Often damaged by deer.
; of conservation
Fraser fir is adapted to a cool, moist climate of the 'microthermal rain forest' with average annual temperatures of about 45°F and annual precipitation of 75 to 100 inches that is evenly distributed during the year (Beck 1990). Fog is a very important environmental factor adding considerably to precipitation , as it is present during more than half of the growing season .
Abies fraseri most commonly grows at elevations ranging from 5,500 to 6,684 feet (1,767 to 2037 m ) on shallow, rocky soil that is acidic, with a very thin black soil horizon lying directly on the bedrock .
Ecology: The spruce-fir forests of the southern Appalachian Mountains occur in an island-like distribution on the peaks of the seven highest mountain areas in southwestern Virginia, Tennessee, and North Carolina. These forests are thought to be relicts from the last period of glaciation, and contain a number of rare and endemic species. (Smith and Nicholas 1998) In terms of climate, the spruce-fir forest relates to areas such as Maine and Quebec, Canada. The main components of the spruce-fir forest are red spruce and Fraser fir. Other important species include yellow birch, mountain-ash, hobblebush, and blackberries. (McKinley 2001). Red squirrels are the primary consumers of seeds.
Culture: Space 12-15" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 5.6 • Maximum pH: 6.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b. (map)
- Chatton, 1925
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997, nom. inval.
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Novák ex Takht. (1967)
- Subclass: Pinidae () - Cronquist et al., 1966
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Novák ex Takht. (1967)
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997, nom. inval.
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Abies americana Prov. • Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. Var. fraseri (Pursh) Spach • Abies Balsamea Fraseri • Abies balsamea fraseri (Pursh) E. Murray • Abies balsamea var. fraseri (Pursh) Spach • Abies Fraseri • Abies humilis Bach. Pyl. • Picea balsamea (L.) Loudon Var. fraseri (Pursh) Nelson • Picea Balsamea Fraseri • Picea balsamea var. fraseri (Pursh) J. Nelson • Picea fraseri (Pursh) Loudon • Pinus Balsamea Fraseri • Pinus balsamea L. var. fraseri (Pursh) Nutt. • Pinus balsamea var. fraseri (Pursh) Nutt. • Pinus fraseri Pursh
Publishing author : Lindl. Publication : in Penny Cyclop. i. 30.
Frampton (1998) explains the relationship among the Appalachian firs
as the following: Fraser fir is closely related to the balsam fir.
The most conspicuous trait that distinguishes these two species is
the relative length on the cone scales and bracts. In Fraser fir,
the bracts are much longer than the cone scales and curved downward.
In balsam fir the bracts are much shorter, and fully enclosed within
the cone scales.
In West Virginia and the Shenandoah National Park in northern Virginia a number of isolated balsam fir have been found with cones that have a relative length of bract to scale that is intermediate between Fraser and balsam fir. Fir in these populations are called intermediate or bracted balsam fir, and designated a variety of balsam fir (Abies balsamea var. phanerolepis Fern.).
Members of the genus Abies
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 126 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
A. alba (European Silver Fir) · A. alba f. pendula (European Silver Fir) · A. alba 'Green Spiral' (European Silver Fir) · A. amabilis (Beautiful Fir) · A. balsamea (Balsam Fir) · A. balsamea fraseri (Balsam Fir) · A. balsamea f. hudsonia (Hudsonia Dwarf Silver Fir) · A. balsamea lasiocarpa (Subalpine Fir) · A. balsamea var. nana (Dwarf Balsam Fir) · A. balsamea x sibirica (Balsam Fir) · A. beshanzuensis (Baishan Fir) · A. bifolia (Rocky Mountain Subalpine Fir) · A. borisii-regis (King Boris Fir) · A. bracteata (Bristlecone Fir) · A. cephalonica (Greek Fir) · A. cephalonica 'Meyer's Dwarf' (Greek Fir) · A. chensiensis (Shensi Fir) · A. chensiensis chensiensis (Shensi Fir) · A. chensiensis salouenensis (Salween Fir) · A. cilicica (Cilician Fir) · A. concolor (Balsam Fir) · A. concolor lowiana (California White Fir) · A. concolor var. concolor (White Fir) · A. concolor 'Candicans' (Colorado Fir) · A. concolor 'Gables Weeping' (Gable's Weeping Colorado Fir) · A. concolor 'Green Globe' (Colorado Fir) · A. concolor 'Rockford' (Colorado Fir) · A. delavayi (Delavay's Fir) · A. delavayi fansipanensis (Fansipan Fir) · A. delavayi motuoensis (Medoc Fir) · A. delavayi nukiangensis (Nukiang Fir) · A. delavayi var. delavayi (Delavay's Silver Fir) · A. delavayi var. motuoensis (Medoc Fir) · A. delavayi var. nukiangensis (Nukiang Fir) · A. densa (Sikkim Fir) · A. durangensis (Durango Fir) · A. fabri (Fabers Fir) · A. fabri fabri (Faber’s Fir) · A. fabri minensis (Minshan Fir) · A. fargesii (Farges' Fir) · A. fargesii var. sutchuensis (Farges´ Fir) · A. firma (Japanese Fir) · A. forrestii (Forrest's Fir) · A. forrestii var. georgei (George's Fir) · A. fraseri (Fraser Fir) · A. fraseri 'Franklin' (Fraser Fir) · A. fraseri 'Julian Potts' (Fraser Fir) · A. fraseri 'Klein' (Fraser Fir) · A. grandis (Giant Fir) · A. grandis var. grandis (Grand Fir) · A. grandis x concolor (Giant Fir) · A. guatemalensis (Guatemalan Fir) · A. guatemalensis var. guatemalensis (Guatemalan Fir) · A. hickelii (Hickel's Fir) · A. holophylla (Manchurian Fir) · A. homolepis (Nikko Fir) · A. homolepis var. homolepis (Nikko Fir) · A. kawakamii (Taiwan Fir) · A. koreana (Korean Fir) · A. koreana 'Aurea' (Golden Korean Fir) · A. koreana 'Gelbbunt' (Korean Fir) · A. koreana 'Goldener Traum' (Golden Korean Fir) · A. koreana 'Horstmann's Silberlocke' (Korean Fir) · A. koreana 'Piccolo' (Fir) · A. koreana 'Prostrate Beauty' (Korean Fir) · A. koreana 'Silberperl' (Korean Fir) · A. koreana 'Silber Mavers' (Korean Fir) · A. koreana 'Silver Show' (Korean Fir) · A. koreana 'Starkers Dwarf' (Korean Fir) · A. lasiocarpa (Alpine Fir) · A. lasiocarpa arizonica var. arizonica (Cork Bark Fir) · A. lasiocarpa var. arizonica (Corkbark Fir) · A. lasiocarpa x homolepis (Balsam Fir) · A. lasiocarpa 'Arizona Compacta' (Cork-Bark Fir) · A. lasiocarpa 'Duflon' (Alpine Fir) · A. lasiocarpa 'Green Globe' (Alpine Fir) · A. lowiana (Sierra White Fir) · A. magnifica (California Red Fir) · A. magnifica 'Prostrata' (California Red Fir) · A. mariesii (Maries' Fir) · A. nebrodensis (Sicilian Fir) · A. nephrolepis (Manchurian Fir) · A. nordmanniana (Caucasian Fir) · A. nordmanniana equi-trojani (Kazdagi Fir) · A. nordmanniana nordmanniana (Bornmuellers Fir) · A. nordmanniana 'Golden Spreader' (Caucasian Fir) · A. nordmanniana 'Tortifolia' (Caucasian Fir) · A. numidica (Algerian Fir) · A. numidica de (Algerian Silver Fir) · A. phanerolepis (Fir) · A. pindrow (Pindrow Fir) · A. pinsapo (Spanish Fir) · A. pinsapo var. pinsapo (Spanish Fir) · A. pinsapo 'Aurea' (Golden Spanish Fir) · A. pinsapo 'Glauca' (Blue Spanish Fir) · A. procera (Noble Fir) · A. procera 'Blau Hexe' (Noble Fir) · A. procera 'Blue Spire' (Fir) · A. procera 'Frijsenborg' (Noble Fir) · A. procera 'Glauca' (Noble Fir)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- 1997 IUCN red list of threatened plants Cambridge: IUCN, World Conservation Union, 1998 url p. 22.
- A catalogue of North American Diptera (or two-winged flies) / by J.M. Aldrich. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1905. url p. 161.
- A manual of dangerous insects likely to be introduced in the United States through importations. Ed. by W. Dwight Pierce, entomologist, southern field crop insect investigations. Washington: Govt. print. off., 1918. url p. 78.
- American forest trees, by Henry H. Gibson; ed. by Hu Maxwell. Chicago, Hardwood record, 1913. url .
- American forest trees; edited by Hu Maxwell. ChicagoHardwood Record1913 url .
- American forests. Washington [etc.]American Forestry Association [etc.] url p. 506.
- Annual report / Albany: University of the State of New York, 1902-1918. url , .
- Annual report of the Ohio State Academy of Science. Columbus: The Academy, 1893-1930. url p. 120, p. 29.
- Biltmore Nursery, Biltmorse, N.C. [North Carolina?: The Nursery?], c1912 url p. 5.
- Biltmore lectures on sylviculture / by C. A. Schenck. Albany, N.Y.: Brandow Printing Co., 1907. url p. 152, p. 159, p. 57, p. 57, p. 71.
- Biosphere Reserves, Compilation 5, October 1990: programme on man and the biosphere (MAB) IUCN url p. 159, p. 164.
- Botanical abstracts. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co. url p. 250.
- Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society. Brooklyn, N.Y.: The Society, url p. 125.
- Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College. 144 1972 Cambridge, Mass.: The Museum, 1863- url p. 155.
- Bulletin of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. [Washington, D.C.?]: Supt. of Docs., G.P.O., 1913-1923. url p. 24, p. 27.
- Carnegie Institution of Washington publication. Washington, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1902- url p. 43.
- Catalog of hymenoptera in America north of Mexico / prepared cooperatively by specialists on the various groups of Hymenoptera under the direction of Karl V. Krombein. .. [et al.]. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1979- url p. 128.
- Check list of the forest trees of the United States: their names and ranges / by George B. Sudworth. Washington, D.C.: Dept. of Agriculture, Forestry Division, 1898. url p. 113, p. 127, p. 25.
- Contributions from the Botanical Laboratory and the Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia: [s.n., url .
- Cryptogamic plants of the USSR. (Flora sporovykh rastenii SSSR) Translated from Russian. Jerusalem[Published for the National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C. by the Israel Program for Scientific Translations, 19 - url p. 337.
- Diseases of cultivated plants and trees, by George Massee. .. London, Duckworth & co., 1910. url p. 332.
- Entomological news. [Philadelphia]American Entomological Society, 1925- url p. 311.
- Entomology [Miscellaneous publications] Washington, [etc., etc.]1888-1910. url .
- Experiment station record. Washington: G.P.O., 1889-1946. url p. 460, p. 461.
- Field manual of trees; including southern Canada and the northern United States to the southern boundary of Virginia, Kentucky and Missouri, westward to the limits of the prairie, by John H. Schaffner. Columbus, Ohio, R. G. Adams, 1922. url p. 48.
- Forest mensuration / by C. A. Schenck. Sewanee, Tenn.: The University Press, 1905. url p. 71.
- Forest protection; guide to lectures delivered at the Biltmore Forest School, Asheville, N.C., The Inland Press, 1909. url p. 159.
- Forest utilization. [Biltmore? N.C.] url p. 151.
- Forest vegetation in Maryland / Baltimore: The Department, 1974. url p. 63.
- Great Basin naturalist memoirs. 1992 [Provo, Utah]Brigham Young University, 1976-1992. url p. 1241, p. 297, fig. 111, page 389, p. 730, p. 870, p. 891.
- Harmful non-indigenous species in the U.S.: hearings before the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, second session, March 11 and 15, 1994. Washington: For sale by the U.S. G.P.O., Supt. of Docs., Congressional Sales Office, 1994. url p. 187.
- Herbicides for conifer seedbeds / New Haven: Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 1976. url .
- How to make a country place; an account of the successes and the mistakes of an amateur in thirty-five years of farming, building, and development: together with a practical plan for securing a home and an independent income, starting with small capital, by Joseph Dillaway Sawyer. .. New York: Orange Judd company; [etc., etc.], 1914. url p. 372.
- Identification of the economic woods of the United States: including a discussion of the structural and physical properties of wood / New York: J. Wiley & Son, 1912. url .
- Illustrations of conifers / by H. Clinton-Baker. Hertford: Privately printed [by Simson], 1909-1913. url , .
- Insects affecting park and woodland trees / by Ephraim Porter Felt. Albany: New York State Education Dept., 1905-1906. url , , p. 685, p. 685.
- Journal of the Kentucky Academy of Science. Lexington, KY: The Academy, 1998- url p. 174, p. 174.
- Lectures on forest policy. Second part: "Forestry conditions in the United States." s.p.: s.n., 1900-1950? url p. 71.
- MAB Information System: Biosphere Reserves, Compilation 4, October 1986: Supplement September 1989 UNESCO url , .
- Manual of plant diseases, by Paul Sorauer. Wilkes-Barré, Pa.The Record Press, c1914-22 url p. 716.
- Message from the President of the United States, transmitting a report of the secretary of agriculture in relation to the forests, rivers and mountains of the southern Appalachian region. Washington, Gov't print. off., 1902. url p. 94.
- Museum bulletin / Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, 1908-1916. url p. 15, p. 9.
- Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, U. S. Govt. print. off., 1938. url , , , , p. 36.
- Naturalist's guide to the Americas, prepared by the Committee on the Preservation of Natural Conditions of the Ecological Society of America, with assistance from numerous organizations and individuals, assembled and edited by chairman, Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1926. url p. 388.
- New illustrated encyclopedia of gardening, unabridged. Edited by T.H. Everett, with contributions from twenty horticulturists and authorities in the United States and Canada. New York, Greystone Press[1964-] url p. 17.
- North American trees (exclusive of Mexico and tropical United States) A handbook designed for field use, with plates and distribution maps. Ames, Iowa State University Press url p. 75.
- Ornithologist and oo?logist Pawtucket, R.I. url p. 116.
- Pamphlets on forestry in North Carolina. [1900?- url p. 136, p. 225, p. 5.
- Pamphlets on forestry in Tennessee. [1900?- url p. 16, p. 45.
- Phytologia. Bronx Park, New York, H.A. Gleason and H.N. Moldenke, url p. 435.
- Preliminary study of forest conditions in Tennessee. By R. Clifford Hall. Nashville, McQuiddy printing company, 1910. url p. 45.
- Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Philadelphia, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia url p. 120, p. 616, p. 616.
- Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. Washington, etc.: Entomological Society of Washington url p. 181, p. 184, p. 185, p. 190, p. 326, p. 328, p. 395, p. 700.
- Proceedings. Washington: American Forestry Congress, 1882-1897. url p. 121.
- Report of the State Botanist. Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, 1898-1925. url , .
- Report on forest 1899. Trenton, N. J.State printers, 1900. url .
- Report on forests. Trenton, N.J.: MacCrellish & Quigley, 1900. url p. 239.
- Rhynchophora or weevils of north eastern America, by W.S. Blatchley and C.W. Leng. .. Indianapolis, The Nature Publishing Company, 1916. url p. 607.
- Smithsonian miscellaneous collections. 46 1905 Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1862-1968. url p. 161.
- Special papers / Ohio Academy of Sciences. Columbus, Ohio: The Academy, 1899-1929. url p. 120.
- Standardized plant names; a catalogue of approved scientific and common names of plants in American commerce. Salem, Mass., 1923. url p. 152.
- Technical papers on miscellaneous forest insects. I. Contributions toward a monograph of the bark-weevils of the genus Pissodes. By A.D. Hopkins. .. Washington: Govt. Print. Off., 1911. url p. 42.
- Technical series. Washington, Govt. print. off., 1895-1915. url p. 165, p. 32, p. 36, p. 41, p. 42, p. 45.
- The American woods: exhibited by actual specimens and with copious explanatory text / by Romeyn B. Hough. Lowville, N.Y.: Pub., and sections prepared by the author, 1910, c1888 url , , p. 52, p. 55.
- The Auk. Washington, D.C.: American Ornithologists' Union, etc., 1884- url p. 122.
- The Buprestidae of North America, exclusive of Mexico, a catalogue including synonomy, bibliography, distribution, type locality and hosts of each species, by W. J. Chamberlin. Eugene, Or., c1926 url p. 168.
- The Florists' exchange: a weekly medium of interchange for florists, nurserymen, seedsmen and the trade in general. New York, N.Y.: [A.T. De la Mare Ptg. and Pub. Co., url p. 678, p. 760.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url p. 215, p. 684.
- The Guide to nature. Stamford, Conn.: Agassiz Association, c1908-1935. url .
- The Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science. Des moines, Iowa: The Academy, [1889-1987] url p. 552.
- The Review of applied entomology. Farnham Royal, Eng., etc.: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, etc. url p. 159, p. 553.
- The Southern Appalachian forests, WashingtonGovt. Print. Off.1905 url p. 283.
- The University of Kansas science bulletin. 48 1968 [Lawrence]: University of Kansas, 1902-1996. url p. 30, p. 966.
- The World List of Threatened Trees WCMC, IUCN url p. 27.
- The art of the second growth, or American sylviculture / by C.A. Schenck. Albany: The Brandow Printing Co., 1912. url p. 171, p. 67.
- The complete garden, by Albert D. Taylor, assisted by Gordon D. Cooper. Illustrated with fifty full page cuts, four line charts, and nine coloured plates. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, Page, 1921. url p. 113, p. 113.
- The distribution of vegetation in the United States, as related to climatic conditions [by] Burton E. Livingston and Forrest Shreve. [Washington]Carnegie institution of Washington, 1921. url p. 43.
- The important timber trees of the United States, a manual of practical forestry, for the use fo foresters, students and laymen in forestry, lumbermen, farmers and other land-owners, and all who contem BostonH. Mifflin1912 url p. 189, p. 371, p. 373.
- The silva of North America a description of the tree which grow naturally in North America exclusive of Mexico / by Charles Sprague Sargent; illustrated with figures and analyses drawn from nature by Charles Edward Faxon. Boston;Houghton, Mifflin, 1898 url , .
- The silva of North America: a description of the trees which grow naturally in North America exclusive of Mexico /by Charles Sprague Sargent. .. illustrated with figures and analyses drawn from nature by Charles Edward Faxon. .. 12 1898 Boston, New York: Houghton, Mifflin and company, 1891-1902. url , p. 105, p. 106.
- The study of plant communities: an introduction to plant ecology. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman, 1948. url p. 244, p. 245.
- The trees of Great Britain & Ireland / by Henry John Elwes and Augustine Henry. Edinburgh: Priv. print., 1906-13. url p. 806.
- Timber trees and forests of North Carolina, by Gifford Pinchot and W. W. Ashe. Winston, M. I. & J. C. Stewart, public printers, 1897. url p. 136, p. 225, p. 5.
- Torreya. Burlington, Vt., Torrey Botanical Club, 1901-1945. url p. 118.
- Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science. [Lexington, Ky.]Kentucky Academy of Science, 1923-1997. url p. 147.
- Transactions of the Royal Scottish Arboricultural Society. Edinburgh: Douglas & Foulis, 1888-1926. url p. 199.
- Trees of Ohio and surrounding territory, including the area westward to the limits of the prairie and south to the thirty seventh parallel. Columbus, Ohio1909 url p. 120.
- Trees, shrubs and vines of the northeastern United States. .. together with an account of the principal foreign hardy trees, shrubs and vines cultivated in our country, and found in Central Park, New York City by H.E. Parkhurst. New York, C. Scribner's sons, 1903. url p. 237.
- Trees: the yearbook of agriculture 1949. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture: 1949. url p. 252, p. 767, p. 773, p. 924.
- Trees: the yearbook of agriculture, 1949 / the United States Department of Agriculture. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1949 url p. 252, p. 767, p. 924.
- West Virginia trees. Morgantown, 1920. url p. 45, p. 45.
- [Forestry reports] Washington, 1893-1910 url .
- Liu, T. S. 1971. A Monograph of the Genus Abies. Taipei.
- Matzenko, A.E. 1968. Conspectus generis Abies Mill. Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 5: 9--12.
- "Abies fraseri". in Flora of North America Vol. 2. Published by Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 9, 2012.
- Conifer Database. Release date: June 5, 2008
- Conifer Specialist Group 1998. Abies fraseri. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 29January2012.
- Conifer Specialist Group 1998. In IUCN 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCNRedList.org. Downloaded July 19, 2008.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed November 21, 2007. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 7 providers.
- IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on January 28, 2012.
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
- The International Plant Names Index. Accessed Dec 27, 2011.
- USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL (April 30, 2008)
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 21, 2007:
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2663245
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Con-1465
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 14706212
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:261528-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 100491
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 181829
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 1030488-1
- IUCN ID: 188009
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PGPIN01050
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: PIFR
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 56352