or rarely shrubs
or deciduous, monoecious. Branchlets
: long branchlets with clearly spirally arranged
, sometimes scalelike leaves; short branchlets often reduced to slow growing lateral
spurs bearing dense clusters
of leaves at apex. Leaves solitary or in bundles of (1 or) 2-5(-8) when basally subtended by a leaf sheath
; leaf blade linear
or needlelike, not decurrent. Cones unisexual
. Pollen cones solitary or clustered, with numerous
spirally arranged microsporophylls
; microsporophyll with 2 microsporangia; pollen usually 2-saccate (nonsaccate in Cedrus, Larix, Pseudotsuga, and most species of Tsuga) . Seed cones erect
or pendulous, maturing in 1st, 2nd, or occasionally 3rd year, dehiscent
or occasionally indehiscent, with many spirally arranged ovulate
and bracts; ovulate scales usually smaller than bracts at pollination, with 2 upright ovules adaxially, free
or only basally adnate
with bracts, maturing into seed scales. Seed scales appressed
, woody or leathery, variable in shape
and size, with 2 seeds adaxially, persistent
or deciduous after cone maturity. Bracts free or adnate basally with seed scales, well developed or rudimentary
, exserted or included
. Seeds terminally winged
(except in some species of Pinus) . Cotyledons 2-18. Germination hypogeal or epigeal. 2n = 24* (almost always) .
Ten or eleven genera and ca. 235 species: N hemisphere; ten genera (two endemic) and 108 species (43 endemic, 24 introduced ) in China.
Species of the Pinaceae are among the most valuable and commercially important plants in the world. Most species are trees, and are often excellent sources of lumber, wood products, and resins; many are cultivated for afforestation and as ornamentals .
, crown usually spirelike to conic, sometimes flat to round
topped in age. Bark
initially thin, smooth
, bearing resin blisters, in age furrowed
. Branches whorled
, irregular internodal
branches occasionally produced
sprouting (growing from a dormant
bud) ; short (spur) shoots
absent; leaf scars
, ± circular to broadly elliptic
, flush with twig
surface, slightly depressed
, or slightly raised evenly all around. Buds ovate
or not, apex rounded
. Leaves borne singly, persisting 5 or more years, spirally arranged
but often proximally twisted so as to appear either 1-ranked (pointing up like toothbrush bristles
) or 2-ranked, sessile, typically constricted
and often twisted above the somewhat broadened base
absent; leaves on vegetative
branches flattened, frequently grooved
adaxially, usually notched
to rounded at apex; leaves on fertile
branches sometimes appearing 4-sided, upright, sharp-pointed to rounded at apex; resin canals 2. Cones borne on year-old twigs
. Pollen cones grouped, ovate or oblong-cylindric, leaving gall-like protuberances
after falling, yellow to red, green, blue, or purple. Seed cones maturing in 1 season
to oblong-cylindric or cylindric
, not falling whole but scale by scale, cone axis persisting as an erect "spike" on branch
shed individually, fan-shaped, lacking apophysis and umbo; bracts included
to exserted. Seeds winged
, the wing-seed juncture bearing resin sac; cotyledons 4--10. x
Species ca. 42: widespread in north temperate regions , North America, Mexico, Central America, Eurasia (s to Himalayas, s China, and Taiwan), n Africa.
In Abies several traditionally accepted species have closely allied sibling species , e.g. , A. balsamea -- A. fraseri, A. bifolia -- A. lasiocarpa, and A. magnifica -- A. procera. Other species may be more distinct morphologically, but many of these still appear to have evolved in geographic isolation without strong reproductive barriers developing. Thus, when distributions of species overlap, introgression between the taxa is the rule ; this may make it difficult to assign certain individuals to a species. In the interests of nomenclatural stability , I have accepted the taxa recognized by the U.S. Forest Service (E.L. Little Jr. 1979). This classification does not recognize varieties based on variations in bract characteristics but recognizes species that perhaps would be treated as varieties in other conifer genera. The only exceptions to this treatment are some necessary changes within A. concolor and A. lasiocarpa. Cases of introgression are discussed under the taxa involved. Some distinct or possibly distinct geographic populations deserve further study and may warrant future taxonomic recognition.
Most North American firs are major components of vegetation, especially in the boreal, Pacific Coast coniferous , and western montane coniferous forests, where they are important for watershed management . They are cut for pulpwood and lumber and, largely from plantations, for Christmas trees . All our species, especially Abies concolor, and several exotics are grown---some more than others---as ornamentals . Firs provide cover , and their leaves are important as food, for various birds and mammals. Species of Abies frequently have a pleasant odor; their foliage has been used as a stuffing material for pillows . Most commercial products with "pine odors" are in fact scented with essential oils distilled from Abies foliage by Russian farmers. A similar oil could be derived from balsam fir in North America.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Burnett
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Abies forrestii var. chengii (Rushforth) Silba
Publishing author : Rushforth Publication : Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 41(2): 333 1983
Members of the genus Abies
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 115 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
A. alba (European Silver Fir) · A. alba f. pendula (European Silver Fir) · A. alba 'Green Spiral' (European Silver Fir) · A. amabilis (Beautiful Fir) · A. balsamea (Balsam Fir) · A. balsamea fraseri (Balsam Fir) · A. balsamea f. hudsonia (Hudsonia Dwarf Silver Fir) · A. balsamea lasiocarpa (Subalpine Fir) · A. balsamea var. nana (Dwarf Balsam Fir) · A. balsamea x sibirica (Balsam Fir) · A. beshanzuensis (Baishan Fir) · A. borisii-regis (King Boris Fir) · A. bracteata (Bristlecone Fir) · A. cephalonica (Greek Fir) · A. cephalonica 'Meyer's Dwarf' (Greek Fir) · A. chensiensis (Shensi Fir) · A. chensiensis chensiensis (Shensi Fir) · A. chensiensis salouenensis (Salween Fir) · A. cilicica (Cilician Fir) · A. concolor (Balsam Fir) · A. concolor var. concolor (White Fir) · A. concolor 'Candicans' (Colorado Fir) · A. concolor 'Gables Weeping' (Gable's Weeping Colorado Fir) · A. concolor 'Green Globe' (Colorado Fir) · A. concolor 'Rockford' (Colorado Fir) · A. delavayi (Delavay's Fir) · A. delavayi fansipanensis (Fansipan Fir) · A. delavayi var. delavayi (Delavay's Silver Fir) · A. delavayi var. motuoensis (Medoc Fir) · A. delavayi var. nukiangensis (Nukiang Fir) · A. densa (Sikkim Fir) · A. fabri (Fabers Fir) · A. fargesii (Farges' Fir) · A. fargesii var. sutchuensis (Farges´ Fir) · A. firma (Japanese Fir) · A. forrestii (Forrest's Fir) · A. forrestii var. georgei (George's Fir) · A. fraseri (Fraser Fir) · A. fraseri 'Franklin' (Fraser Fir) · A. fraseri 'Julian Potts' (Fraser Fir) · A. fraseri 'Klein' (Fraser Fir) · A. grandis (Giant Fir) · A. grandis var. grandis (Grand Fir) · A. grandis x concolor (Giant Fir) · A. guatemalensis (Guatemalan Fir) · A. guatemalensis var. guatemalensis (Guatemalan Fir) · A. holophylla (Manchurian Fir) · A. homolepis (Nikko Fir) · A. homolepis var. homolepis (Nikko Fir) · A. kawakamii (Taiwan Fir) · A. koreana (Korean Fir) · A. koreana 'Aurea' (Golden Korean Fir) · A. koreana 'Gelbbunt' (Korean Fir) · A. koreana 'Goldener Traum' (Golden Korean Fir) · A. koreana 'Horstmann's Silberlocke' (Korean Fir) · A. koreana 'Piccolo' (Fir) · A. koreana 'Prostrate Beauty' (Korean Fir) · A. koreana 'Silberperl' (Korean Fir) · A. koreana 'Silber Mavers' (Korean Fir) · A. koreana 'Silver Show' (Korean Fir) · A. koreana 'Starkers Dwarf' (Korean Fir) · A. lasiocarpa (Alpine Fir) · A. lasiocarpa arizonica var. arizonica (Cork Bark Fir) · A. lasiocarpa var. arizonica (Corkbark Fir) · A. lasiocarpa x homolepis (Balsam Fir) · A. lasiocarpa 'Arizona Compacta' (Cork-Bark Fir) · A. lasiocarpa 'Duflon' (Alpine Fir) · A. lasiocarpa 'Green Globe' (Alpine Fir) · A. magnifica (California Red Fir) · A. magnifica 'Prostrata' (California Red Fir) · A. nebrodensis (Sicilian Fir) · A. nephrolepis (Manchurian Fir) · A. nordmanniana (Caucasian Fir) · A. nordmanniana equi-trojani (Kazdagi Fir) · A. nordmanniana nordmanniana (Bornmuellers Fir) · A. nordmanniana 'Golden Spreader' (Caucasian Fir) · A. nordmanniana 'Tortifolia' (Caucasian Fir) · A. numidica (Algerian Fir) · A. numidica de (Algerian Silver Fir) · A. phanerolepis (Fir) · A. pindrow (Pindrow Fir) · A. pinsapo (Spanish Fir) · A. pinsapo var. pinsapo (Spanish Fir) · A. pinsapo 'Aurea' (Golden Spanish Fir) · A. pinsapo 'Glauca' (Blue Spanish Fir) · A. procera (Noble Fir) · A. procera 'Blau Hexe' (Noble Fir) · A. procera 'Blue Spire' (Fir) · A. procera 'Frijsenborg' (Noble Fir) · A. procera 'Glauca' (Noble Fir) · A. procera 'Glauca Prostrata' (Noble Fir) · A. procera 'La Graciosa' (Noble Fir) · A. procera 'Robustifolia' (Noble Fir) · A. procera 'Sherwoodii' (Noble Fir) · A. procera 'Silver' (Fir) · A. recurvata (Min Fir) · A. recurvata var. ernestii (Chien-Lu Fir) · A. recurvata var. recurvata (Min Fir) · A. religiosa (Sacred Fir) · A. sachalinensis (Sakhalin Fir)
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- 1997 IUCN red list of threatened plants Cambridge: IUCN, World Conservation Union, 1998 url p. 22.
- Conservation and sustainable management of trees, report of the third regional workshop, held at Army Hotel, Hanoi, Viet Nam, 18-21 August, 1997 WCMC url p. 89.
- The World List of Threatened Trees WCMC, IUCN url p. 26.
- Cheng Wan-chün, Fu Li-kuo, Law Yu-wu, Fu Shu-hsia, Wang Wen-tsai, Chu Cheng-de, Chao Chi-son & Chen Chia-jui. 1978. Pinaceae. In: Cheng Wan-chün & Fu Li-kuo, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 7: 32-281.
- Liu, T. S. 1971. A Monograph of the Genus Abies. Taipei.
- Matzenko, A.E. 1968. Conspectus generis Abies Mill. Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 5: 9--12.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 9, 2012.
- Conifer Specialist Group 1998. In IUCN 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCNRedList.org. Downloaded July 19, 2008.
- The International Plant Names Index. Accessed Dec 27, 2011.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 1867978
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 14706227
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:901313-1
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 901313-1
- IUCN ID: 34116
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 713792
- Liguo Fu, Nan Li, Thomas S. Elias & Robert R. Mill "Pinaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 4 Page 11. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Richard S. Hunt "Abies". in Flora of North America Vol. 2. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]