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An order of the Sarcodina (amoebae) in the Protozoa, having a shell of various materials which project fine pseudopodia, and a highly vacuolated outer layer of cytoplasm.


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The Class Foraminifera is further organized into finer groupings including:


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Carterinida is a small, recent, order of foraminiferans (in Kingdom Rhizaria), once included in the Rotaliida as the superamily Carterinacea, named by Loeblich and Tappan in 1955. Its present status as an order is based on the composition of the test (or shell) which is composed of large, fusiform, low-magnesium calcite spicules, commonly oriented parallel to the periphery, in a matrix of smaller spicules. The tests themselves are trochospiral with later chambers that may be subdivided by secondary septa known as septula. [more]


The Globigerinida are a common group of foraminiferans that are found as marine plankton (other groups are primarily benthic). They produce hyaline calcareous tests, and are known as fossils from the Jurassic period onwards. The group has included more than 100 genera and over 400 species, of which about 30 species are extant. One of the most important genera is Globigerina; vast areas of the ocean floor are covered with Globigerina ooze (named by Murray and Renard in 1873), dominated by the shells of planktonic forams. [more]




Miliolida is an order of protists which comprise foraminifera with calcareous, porcelacous tests that are imperforate and commonly have a pseudochitinous lining. (Loeblick and Tappen, 1964). Tests are composed of randomly oriented calcite needles that have a high proportion of magnesium along with organic material. Tests lack pores and generally have multiple chambers. [more]




The Rotaliida are a large and abundant group of foraminiferans. They are primarily oceanic benthos, although some are common in shallower waters such as estuaries. They also include many important fossils, such as nummulites. Rotaliids produce hyaline tests, in which the microscopic crystals may be oriented either radially (as in other forams) or obliquely. [more]


Spirillinida is an order of Foraminifera in which the test, or shell, primitively consists of an enrolled open tube, coming after the proloculus, wound planospirally or conically, commonly composed of an optically single crystal of calcite. The aperture is a simple opening at the end of the tube. Advanced forms with more than one chamber may consist of a few crystals, or rarely, a mosaic of crystals of calcite. [more]


The Textulariida is a group of common foraminiferans that produce agglutinated shells, composed of foreign particles held in an organic or calcareous cement. Commonly the order is taken to include all such species, but genetic studies indicate that they are not all closely related, and several superfamilies have been moved to the order Allogromiida. The remaining forms are sometimes divided into three orders: the Trochamminida and Lituolida which have organic cement and the Textulariida sensu stricto which uses calcareous cement. All three are known as fossils from the Cambrian onwards. [more]

At least 678 species and subspecies belong to the Order Textulariida.

More info about the Order Textulariida may be found here.


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Last Revised: October 03, 2013
2013/10/03 16:01:42