Trees or shrubs (or woody vines with tendrils in Cardiospermum and allied genera), rarely herbaceous climbers. Indumentum usually of simple hairs, often glandular on young parts, buds, and inflorescences. Leaves alternate, usually estipulate; leaf blade pinnate or digitate, rarely simple; leaflets alternate to opposite, entire or dentate to serrate. Inflorescence a terminal or axillary thyrse; bracts and bracteoles small. Flowers unisexual, rarely polygamous or bisexual, actinomorphic or zygomorphic, usually small. Sepals 4 or 5(or 6), equal or unequal, free or connate at base, imbricate or valvate. Petals 4 or 5(or 6), sometimes absent, free, imbricate, usually clawed, often with scales or hair-tufted basal appendages. Disk conspicuous, fleshy, complete or interrupted, lobed or annular, rarely absent. Stamens 5-10(-74), usually 8, rarely numerous, variously inserted but usually within disk, often exserted in male flowers; filaments free, rarely connate; anthers dorsifixed, longitudinally dehiscent, introrse; staminodes sometimes present in carpellate flowers, but filaments shorter and anthers with a thick wall, indehiscent. Ovary superior, (1-) 3(or 4) -loculed; ovules 1 or 2(or several) per locule, placentation axile, rarely parietal, anatropous, campylotropous, or amphitropous; style usually apical (terminal), semigynobasic in Allophylus [gynobasic in Deinbollia Schumacher & Thonning]; stigma entire or 2 or 3(or 4) -lobed, usually rudimentary in male flowers. Fruit a loculicidal capsule, berry, or drupe, or consisting of 2 or 3 samaras, often 1-seeded and 1-loculed by abortion. Seeds 1(or 2 or more) per locule; testa black or brown, hard, often with a conspicuous fleshy aril or sarcotesta; embryo curved, plicate, or twisted, oily and starchy; endosperm usually absent. 2n = 20-36.
One hundred thirty-five genera and ca. 1500 species: widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, especially well represented in tropical SE Asia; 21 genera (one endemic) and 52 species (16 endemic, one introduced) in China.
There is some variation in the circumscription of Sapindaceae in taxonomic treatments, particularly with regard to the inclusion of genera from the closely related, predominately temperate families Aceraceae and Hippocastanaceae. Several studies including Müller and Leenhouts (in Ferguson & Müller, Evolutionary Significance Exine: 407-445. 1976), and more recently those based on molecular data (Stevens, Angiosperm Phylogeny Website, 2001 onward; Harrington et al., Syst. Bot. 30: 366-382. 2005), supported the recognition of a broadly defined Sapindaceae incorporating Aceraceae and Hippocastanaceae. Harrington et al. (loc. cit.) proposed four subfamilies or clades, comprising Sapindoideae (including
Koelreuteria and Ungnadia Endlicher), Dodonaeoideae, Hippocastanoideae (including taxa previously referred to Aceraceae and Hippocastanaceae, plus Handeliodendron), and a monotypic "Xanthoceratoideae". Within Hippocastanoideae, Acer Linnaeus and Dipteronia Oliver comprise a monophyletic group and are treated in this Flora as Aceraceae. Similarly, Aesculus Linnaeus, Billia Peyritsch, and the Chinese endemic Handeliodendron Rehder form a monophyletic group and are treated here as Hippocastanaceae. There is some support for "Xanthoceratoideae" being the first lineage to diverge within the broadly defined Sapindaceae assemblage; consequently, Xanthoceras is treated separately from genera in Sapindoideae and Dodonaeoideae in the following account of Sapindaceae s.s. The sequence of genera reflects Müller and Leenhouts (loc. cit.) as modified by recent analyses based on molecular and morphological data, rather than following the order developed by Radlkofer (Sitzungsber. Math.-Phys. Cl. Königl. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. München 20: 105-379. 1890; and in Engler, Pflanzenreich 98a-h(IV. 165) : 1-1539. 1931-1934), which was previously followed in FRPS.
The main economic uses of this family include (1) timber: Amesiodendron chinense, Dimocarpus longan, D. confinis, Litchi chinensis, Pavieasia kwangsiensis, and Pometia pinnata; (2) fruit: Dimocarpus longan, Litchi chinensis, and Nephelium lappaceum; (3) medicine: Dimocarpus longan (arillode), Litchi chinensis (seeds), and Sapindus saponaria (roots) ; (4) oil: Amesiodendron chinense, Delavaya toxocarpa, and Xanthoceras sorbifolium. Saponins occur widely in the family, commonly used as a fish poison and for their detergent properties.
The Family Sapindaceae is a member of the Order Sapindales. Here is the complete "parentage" of Sapindaceae:
- Domain: Eukaryota
Whittaker & Margulis,1978 - eukaryotes
- Kingdom: Plantae
Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae
Cavalier-Smith, 1981 - Green Plants
- Phylum: Tracheophyta
Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina
- Phylum: Tracheophyta Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae Cavalier-Smith, 1981 - Green Plants
- Kingdom: Plantae Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
The Family Sapindaceae is further organized into finer groupings including:
- Subfamily (5): Dodonaeoideae · Hippocastanoideae · Polemonioideae · Rhododendroideae · Sapindoideae
- Tribe (15): Cossignieae · Cupanieae · Dodonaeeae · Doratoxyleae · Harpullieae · Hippeastreae · Koelreuterieae · Lepisantheae · Melicocceae · Nephelieae · Paullinieae · Rhododendreae · Sapindeae · Schleichereae · Thouinieae
- Genus (306): Acer · Acladodea · Aesculus · Akea · Akeesia · Alectryon · Allophylastrum · Allophyllus · Allophylus · Allosanthus · Amesiodendron · Amirola · Anomosanthes · Anoumabia · Aphania · Aphanococcus · Apiocarpus · Aporetica · Aporrhiza · Arfeuillea · Arytera · Atalaya · Athyana · Averrhoidium · Azamara · Balsas · Beguea · Belingia · Bemarivea · Billia · Bizonula · Blancoa · Blighia · Blighiopsis · Blomia · Bohlenia · Bonannia · Boniodendron · Bottegoa · Bridgesia · Bumalda · Calothyrsus · Camptolepis · Capura · Cardiophyllarium · Cardiospermum · Carpidopterix · Carruthia · Casimira · Castanella · Castanospora · Chiarinia · Chimborazoa · Chonopetalum · Chouxia · Chytranthus · Cnemidiscus · Cnesmocarpon · Cnesmocarpus · Comatoglossum · Conchopetalum · Conghas · Corindum · Corvinia · Cossignia · Cossinia · Cotylodiscus · Crossonephelis · Crula · Cubilia · Cupania · Cupaniopsis · Curtisina · Cururu · Cussambium · Dabanus · Dalrympelea · Deinbollia · Delavaya · Delpya · Diacarpa · Dialiopsis · Diatenopteryx · Dicranopetalum · Dictyoneura · Didymococcus · Digonocarpus · Dilodendron · Dimereza · Dimocarpus · Diplerisma · Diplocardia · Diploglottis · Diplokeleba · Diplopeltis · Diplopetalon · Dipterodendron · Distichostemon · Dittelasma · Dodonaea · Dodonea · Donatophorus · Doratoxylon · Doratoxylum · Dubanus · Eccremanthus · Elattostachys · Empleurosma · Enourea · Ephielis · Eriandrostachys · Eriocoelum · Erioglossum · Erythrophysa · Erythrophysopsis · Euacer · Euchorium · Euonymoides · Euphoria · Euphorianthus · Euphoriopsis · Eurycorymbus · Exothea · Eyrea · Filicium · Ganophyllum · Gelonium · Gemella · Gereaua · Glenniea · Gloeocarpus · Glossolepis · Gongrodiscus · Gongrospermum · Guindilia · Guioa · Handeliodendron · Haplocoelopsis · Haplocoelum · Harpullia · Hebecoccus · Hebokia · Hedyachras · Hemigyrosa · Heterodendrum · Hippobromus · Hirania · Hoilbrenckia · Hooibrenkia · Hornea · Houssayanthus · Howethoa · Hypelate · Hypseloderma · Irina · Isypus · Jagera · Koelreutaria · Koelreuteria · Koernickea · Laccodiscus · Lachnopetalum · Laetji · Lamprospermum · Lasianthemum · Lecaniodiscus · Lepiderema · Lepidopetalum · Lepisanthes · Litchi · Llagunoa · Lophostigma · Loxodiscus · Lychnodiscus · Macphersonia · Macrothyrsus · Magonia · Majidea · Manongarivea · Matayba · Melanodiscus · Melicocca · Melicoccus · Melicopsidium · Mesonephelium · Mildea · Mischarytera · Mischocarpus · Mischocodon · Molinaea · Monopteris · Moulinsia · Murbeckia · Namataea · Nassavia · Natalia · Nebropsis · Negundium · Negundo · Neotina · Nephelium · Ochranthe · Omalocarpus · Orbignya · Ornitrophe · Otolepis · Otonephelium · Otonychium · Otophora · Ozotis · Palaoea · Pancovia · Pappea · Paranephelium · Paullinia · Pavia · Paviana · Pavieasia · Pawia · Pedicellia · Pentascyphus · Phialodiscus · Phoenicimon · Pistaciopsis · Placioscyphus · Placodiscus · Plagioscyphus · Poculodiscus · Podonephelium · Pometia · Ponaea · Porocystis · Prostea · Pseudatalaya · Pseudima · Pseudolitchi · Pseudonephelium · Pseudopancovia · Pseudoprotorhus · Pseudopteris · Putzeysia · Racaria · Radlkofera · Ratonia · Rhaganus · Rhysotoechia · Sacropteryx · Sapindopsis · Sapindus · Sarcopteryx · Sarcotoechia · Schleichera · Schmidelia · Scorodendron · Scyphonychium · Scyphopetalum · Scytalia · Semarillaria · Seriania · Serjanea · Serjania · Sinoradlkofera · Sisyrolepis · Smelophyllum · Spanoghea · Stadmania · Stadmannia · Stocksia · Storthocalyx · Streptostigma · Strophiodiscus · Synima · Talisia · Talisiopsis · Thamnocalamus · Thinouia · Thouinia · Thouinidium · Thouinopsis · Thraulococcus · Thyana · Tikalia · Tina · Tinopsis · Toechima · Toulicia · Trigonachras · Trigonis · Tripterocarpus · Tripterodendron · Tristira · Tristiropsis · Tsingya · Uitenia · Ungnadia · Urvillea · Usubis · Valenzuelia · Vitenia · Vouarana · Xanthoceras · Xerospermum · Zahna · Zanha · Zollingeria · Zygolepis
- Species: ZipcodeZoo has pages for 7,795 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in the Family Sapindaceae.
The genus Aesculus ( or /'a?skj?l?s/) comprises 13-19 species of woody trees and shrubs native to the temperate northern hemisphere, with 6 species native to North America and 7-13 species native to Eurasia; there are also several hybrids. Species are deciduous or evergreen. This genus has traditionally been treated in the ditypic family Hippocastanaceae along with Billia, but recent phylogenetic analysis of morphological and molecular data has led to this family, along with the Aceraceae (Maples and Dipteronia), being included in the soapberry family (Sapindaceae). [more]
Allophylus is a genus of plants in the family Sapindaceae. This list of species is incomplete: [more]
Amesiodendron is a genus of plant in family Sapindaceae. It contains the following species (but this list may be incomplete): [more]
Aphania is a genus of trees and shrubs of the family Sapindaceae. Some taxonomists have moved plants in this genus into the genus Lepisanthes. The species of this genus include: [more]
Arytera is a genus of 25 species of trees and shrubs in the soapberry family Sapindaceae. They are distributed across the Philippines, Indonesia, New Guinea, New Caledonia and Australia. [more]
Atalaya (in Spanish means "defensive tower"): [more]
Athyana is a monospecific genus of plant in the Sapindaceae family, containing only Athyana weinmannifolia. It is found in Argentina and Bolivia. It is threatened by habitat loss. [more]
Azamara Club Cruises (formerly Azamara Cruises) is an up-market cruise line owned by the Norwegian-American company, Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd., as one of their subsidiaries. The line currently operates two ships, Azamara Journey and Azamara Quest. The company offers higher-end cruises with a number of amenities included in the fare, similar to various other competitors. The cruise line is positioned to be at an up-market status but avoids the designation of a "luxury" cruise line. Azamara's style can be described as "upscale service and food, small ship coziness, and unusual itineraries." [more]
Blighia is a of four species of flowering plants in the soapberry family Sapindaceae, native to tropical Africa from Guinea east to Kenya. The fruit is partly edible, with the Ackee (B. sapida) being grown commercially for fruit production. [more]
Bonannia resinifera is a species of in the Apiaceae, the only member of the genus Bonannia. It is endemic to southern Europe. [more]
Trees, small, evergreen. Leaves alternate, paripinnate, estipulate; leaflets alternate or subopposite, base asymmetric, margin obtusely serrate. Thyrses terminal and axillary, large, multibranched, each inflorescence with many male flowers and few female flowers. Flowers unisexual; buds globose. Pedicels jointed. Sepals 5, imbricate, outer 1 smaller. Petals 5, longer than sepals, obovate or oblong, clawed, each side with 1 inflexed earlike scale at base. Disk annular, 5-lobed. Stamens (male flowers) 8; filaments long exserted above petals, glabrous; anthers small, ovoid. Ovary (female flowers) hairy, 3-loculed, each locule with 2 or 3 ovules; stigma shallowly 2- or 3-lobed. Capsules ovoid or globose, 3-winged; schizocarps 3, membranous, abaxially veined, adaxially shiny. Seeds 1 per locule; testa 2-layered; outer layer black, shiny, crustaceous; inner layer thinner; embryo spirally curved, radicle short. [more]
Bottegoa is a genus of in family Sapindaceae. It contains the following species (but this list may be incomplete): [more]
Bridgesia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Sapindaceae. The sole species, Bridgesia incisifolia, is a shrub native to South America in Chile. [more]
Camptolepis is a genus of in family Sapindaceae. It contains the following species (but this list may be incomplete): [more]
Herbaceous or woody climbers, rarely shrubs. Leaves usually biternate or bitrilobate; stipules small, deciduous; leaflets pinnately lobed or dentate, usually with pellucid glands. Panicles axillary; peduncles rather long, first pair of branches forming tendrils or spines; bracts and bracteoles subulate. Flowers unisexual, zygomorphic, with slender noded pedicels. Sepals 4 or 5, imbricate, outer 2 smaller. Petals 4, with a large scale inside and slightly above base; scales of abaxial petals with broadly winged appendage, scales of adaxial petals simple. Disk lobed into 2 large glandular lobes at base of petals. Stamens (male flowers) 8, slightly longer than petals. Ovary (female flowers) ellipsoid, trigonous, 3-loculed; ovules 1 per locule, inserted at middle of middle axis; style short; stigma 3-lobed. Capsules inflated, saclike, 3-loculed; pericarp membranous or papery, veined. Seeds 1 per locule, subglobose; hilum cordate or suborbicular; embryo with large cotyledons, outer one arched, inner one reflexed. 2n = 20, 22. [more]
Castanospora is a genus of tree in the soapberry family Sapindaceae. It is native to the rainforests of southeatern Queensland and northern New South Wales in Australia. [more]
Cupaniopsis is a genus of about 60 species of shrubs and trees in the soapberry family, Sapindaceae. They are native to New Guinea, New Caledonia, Australia and Fiji. In Australia, they are commonly known as tuckeroos. Carrotwood (C. anacardioides) is an invasive plant in some parts of the United States, primarily Florida and Hawaii. [more]
Dimocarpus is a genus of about 20 species of flowering plants in the soapberry family Sapindaceae, native to tropical southeast Asia and northern Australasia, from Sri Lanka and southern China south to northern Queensland. The fruit is edible, with the Longan (D. longan) being grown commercially for fruit production. [more]
Diploglottis is a genus of 10 species of in the soapberry family Sapindaceae. Eight of the species are found in eastern Australia, primarily as a rainforest tree and the other two are in eastern Malesia and New Caledonia. [more]
Dodonaea is a genus of about 70 species of flowering plants in the soapberry family, Sapindaceae, with a cosmopolitan distribution in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions of Africa, the Americas, southern Asia and Australasia. By far the highest species diversity is in Australia. The genus is named after Rembert Dodoens, also known as Rembertus Dodonaeus. [more]
Elattostachys is a genus of 13 trees in the soapberry family Sapindaceae. They are found in the Philippines, Indonesia, New Guinea, Australia and the Pacific Islands. [more]
Erythrophysa is a genus of in family Sapindaceae. It contains the following species (but this list may be incomplete): [more]
Euchorium is a genus of in family Sapindaceae. It contains the following species (but this list may be incomplete): [more]
Euphoria is recognized as an emotional and mental state defined as a sense of great elation and well-being. Technically, euphoria is an affect, but the term is often colloquially used to define emotion as an intense, transcendent happiness combined with an overwhelming sense of well-being. The word derives from Greek e?f???a, "power of enduring easily, fertility". Euphoria is generally considered to be an exaggerated state, resulting from psychological or pharmacological stressors and not typically achieved during the normal course of human experience, although some natural behaviors, such as activities resulting in orgasm or the triumph of an athlete, can induce brief states of euphoria. Euphoria has also been cited during certain religious or spiritual rituals and meditation. [more]
Eurycorymbus is a genus of plant in family Sapindaceae. It contains the following species (but this list may be incomplete): [more]
Suregada is a genus of the family Euphorbiaceae, comprising about 40 species found in the Old World Tropics. [more]
Glenniea is a genus of in family Sapindaceae. It contains the following species (but this list may be incomplete): [more]
Gloeocarpus is a genus of in family Sapindaceae. It contains the following species (but this list may be incomplete): [more]
The Glossolepis is a genus of the family - the rainbowfishes. It includes eight species [more]
Gongrospermum is a genus of in family Sapindaceae. It contains the following species (but this list may be incomplete): [more]
Guioa is a genus of 78 species of tree in the soapberry family Sapindaceae. They have a wide distribution, ranging from Malesia, down to the east coast of Australia and out into the Pacific Islands. [more]
Trees or shrubs, deciduous. Leaf blade 5-foliolate; leaflet blades on both surfaces with sparsely scattered, conspicuous, brown or dark red glands, margin entire. Thyrse shortly cylindric-conic; branches compound; bracts subulate, small. Flowers rather small. Sepals connate only at base. Petals ± equal, narrowly oblong or oblanceolate, not clawed, reflexed from middle, with 2 small scales at base adaxially. Ovary fusiform with a long gynophore; style short; stigma 3-lobed. Capsule pyriform, abruptly tapering at base into a long (1-1.5 cm) gynophore, 1-5-seeded; pericarp smooth. Seeds subovoid or ± ellipsoid, relatively small (0.8-1.1 cm) ; testa glossy black; hilum a 2-layered arillode occupying ca. 1/2 of seed. [more]
Haplocoelopsis is a genus of in family Sapindaceae. It contains the following species (but this list may be incomplete): [more]
Haplocoelum is a genus of in family Sapindaceae. It contains the following species (but this list may be incomplete): [more]
Harpullia is a genus of 37 species of small to medium-sized trees in the soapberry family Sapindaceae. They have a wide distribution ranging from India eastwards into the Pacific Ocean. They are usually found in or on the margins of rainforests. [more]
Jagera is a genus of 4 species of small in the soapberry family Sapindaceae. Three are found in the rainforests of eastern Australia, the other is found in the Moluccas and New Guinea. [more]
Koelreuteria () is a genus of three species in the family Sapindaceae, native to southern and eastern Asia. [more]
Lecaniodiscus is a genus of in family Sapindaceae. It contains the following species (but this list may be incomplete): [more]
Lepiderema is a genus of 8 species of tree in the soapberry family Sapindaceae. They are predominantly Australian with two species extending to New Guinea. In Australia, they are found in rainforests along the east coast of New South Wales and Queensland. [more]
Trees or shrubs, monoecious. Leaves usually paripinnate, alternate, estipulate, usually petiolate; leaflets 2 to several pairs, opposite or alternate, usually entire. Thyrses axillary, above axils or on old branches, solitary or several in fascicles. Flowers unisexual, actinomorphic or zygomorphic. Sepals 5, leathery, concave, imbricate, outer 2 smaller, orbicular, inner ones usually broadly ovate or elliptic. Petals 4 or 5, often spoon-shaped, longer than sepals, base clawed, apex with adaxial scale. Disk acetabuliform or semilunar, entire or lobed. Stamens (male flowers) 8, rarely more or fewer, with disk, longer than petals; filaments flat, usually hairy; anthers ellipsoid. Ovary (female flowers) 2- or 3-loculed, usually with grooves between locules; ovules 1 per locule; style short, apex inflated, entire or 2- or 3-lobed. Fruit ellipsoid or subglobose, 2- or 3-loculed; pericarp leathery or slightly fleshy, both sides or only abaxially hairy, rarely glabrous on both sides. Seeds ellipsoid, bilaterally slightly flat, without pseudotesta; testa brown, thinly leathery or crustaceous, often glabrous; embryo small, arched, cotyledons thick, radicles small, papillate. [more]
The lychee (Litchi chinensis, and also known as the leechi, litchi, laichi, lichu, lizhi) is the sole member of the genus Litchi in the soapberry family, Sapindaceae. It is a tropical and subtropical fruit tree native to southern China and Southeast Asia, and now cultivated in many parts of the world. The fresh fruit has a "delicate, whitish pulp" with a "perfume" flavor. Since this perfumy flavor is lost in canning, the fruit is usually eaten fresh. [more]
Melicoccus is a genus of ten species of flowering plants in the family Sapindaceae, native to tropical regions of northern and western South America. [more]
Mischocarpus is a genus of 15 species of tree in the soapberry family Sapindaceae. They are found in both Australia and Malesia. The Australian species (of which there are 9) are found in the rainforests of New South Wales and Queensland. [more]
Nephelium is a genus of about 25 species of flowering plants in the family Sapindaceae, native to southeastern Asia. [more]
Otophora is a genus of plants in family Sapindaceae. Many works consider it to be part of the genus Lepisanthes. It contains the following species (but this list may be incomplete): [more]
Paranephelium is a genus of plant in family Sapindaceae. It contains the following species (but this list may be incomplete): [more]
Paullinia is a genus of , small trees and lianas in the soapberry family Sapindaceae, native to tropical South America, Central America and the Caribbean. [more]
Trees, dioecious. Leaves paripinnate, alternate, estipulate, axis carinate abaxially, flat adaxially, triangular in transverse section; leaflets usually many jugate, entire or obtusely dentate. Thyrses axillary near apex, solitary or several fascicled; bracts and bracteoles small. Flowers unisexual, actinomorphic. Calyx shallowly cupular, deeply 5-lobed; sepals ovate or triangular, imbricate. Petals 5, ovate or subovate, with 1 large scale adaxially, scale thick, apex reflexed, abaxial surface and margin hirsute. Disk deeply cupular, slightly fleshy, margin thin, deeply wavy. Stamens (male flowers) 8, sometimes 7; filaments filiform, densely hairy; anthers broadly ovoid or ellipsoid-ovoid, connectives prominent and glandlike. Ovary (female flowers) 3-loculed; ovule 1 per locule, campylotropous; style terminal, longer than ovary; stigma inconspicuously 3-lobed. Capsules loculicidal into 3 schizocarps, 3-loculed or 1 or 2 small and sterile (without seed). Seeds 1-3; testa brown, shiny, leathery; hilum transversely elliptic, large, broad. [more]
Placodiscus is a genus of in family Sapindaceae. It contains the following species (but this list may be incomplete): [more]
Trees, large, monoecious, usually with buttress roots, with red exudate when cut. Leaves paripinnate, alternate, sessile; leaflets usually in many pairs, first pair (near base) small, like stipules, others evidently larger, usually serrate; lateral veins often many, extending to tips of dentate margins, parallel. Thyrses terminal or axillary. Flowers unisexual, actinomorphic. Calyx cupular; sepals half connate, valvate. Petals 5, usually broadly obovate or subtriangular, without scales or with 1 gland adaxially. Disk annular, 5-lobed. Stamens (male flowers) 5, long exserted; filaments glabrous or hairy at base; anthers small. Ovary (female flowers) obcordiform, 2-lobed, 2-loculed, lobes subglobose, glabrous or tomentose; ovules 1 per locule; style filiform, very long, apex twisted. Fruit deeply parted into 2 schizocarps, usually only 1 developed, ellipsoid; pericarp thick, spongy in middle, smooth adaxially. Seeds same shape as schizocarps; testa leathery, seeds fully covered by an aril and adnate to testa; embryo curved. [more]
Sapindus is a genus of about five to twelve species of shrubs and small trees in the Sapindaceae, native to warm temperate to tropical regions in both the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. The genus includes both deciduous and evergreen species. Common names include soapberry and soapnut, both names referring to the use of the crushed seeds to make soap. [more]
Serjania is a genus of in family Sapindaceae. It contains the following species (but this list may be incomplete): [more]
Sinoradlkofera is a genus of in family Sapindaceae. It contains the following species (but this list may be incomplete): [more]
Talisia is a genus of 52 species of flowering plants in the soapberry family, Sapindaceae, native to tropical regions of the Americas. The genus is closely related to Melicoccus, with some species sometimes included in that genus. [more]
Thamnocalamus is a genus of clumping bamboo. These species are found from the mountains of East Asia and Africa. They are similar to the genus Fargesia, which is sometimes put in synonymy with Thamnocalamus. [more]
Toechima is a genus of eight species of small to medium-sized in the soapberry family Sapindaceae. Five are endemic to Australia, one is endemic to New Guinea, and one occurs on both land masses. In Australia they occur in New South Wales and Queensland. [more]
Ungnadia speciosa, the Mexican Buckeye, is a or small tree native to northeastern Mexico and adjacent western Texas and southern New Mexico in the USA. It is monotypic, the only species in the genus Ungnadia. [more]
Xanthoceras sorbifolium (yellowhorn, shiny leaf yellowhorn, goldenhorn, Chinese flowering chestnut), the sole species in the genus Xanthoceras, is a flowering plant in the family Sapindaceae, native to northern China in the provinces of Gansu, Hebei, Henan, Liaoning, Nei Monggol, Ningxia, Shaanxi, and Shandong. [more]
Trees or shrubs. Leaves paripinnate, alternate, petiolate; leaflets usually 1 or 2 pairs, sometimes 3 pairs, entire. Thyrses axillary or terminal, unbranched or many branched; bracts and bracteoles small. Flowers unisexual, actinomorphic, small. Sepals 4 or 5, suborbicular, concave, imbricate. Petals 4 or 5, usually jointed long villous. Disk annular, crenately lobed, lobes opposite to sepals. Stamens (male flowers) 8, inserted on disk, exserted; filaments villous; anthers broadly ovoid, small. Ovary (female flowers) obcordiform, 2-lobed, 2-loculed, abaxially tuberculous; ovules 1 per locule; style inserted between ovary lobes, short, apex inflated, inconspicuously 2-lobed. Fruit deeply lobed into 2 schizocarps, usually only 1 developed, ellipsoid or subglobose, abaxially usually tuberculous, rarely smooth. Seeds same as schizocarps in shape; arillode adnate to testa; embryo thick. [more]
Zahna is a town and a former municipality in Wittenberg district in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany not far from Federal Highway (Bundesstra?e) B 2 and about 11 km east of Lutherstadt Wittenberg. It was the seat of the former administrative community (Verwaltungsgemeinschaft) of Elbaue-Fl?ming. Since 1 January 2011, it is part of the town Zahna-Elster. [more]
Zollingeria is a genus of in family Sapindaceae. It contains the following species (but this list may be incomplete): [more]
More info about the Genus Zygolepis may be found here.
- Fang Wen-pei. 1981. Hippocastanaceae. In: Fang Wen-pei, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 46: 274-289
- Lo Hsien-shui & Chen Te-chao. 1985. Handeliodendron. In: Law Yuh-wu & Lo Hsien-shui, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 47(1): 61-62.
- Lo Hsien-shui & Chen Te-chao. 1985. Sapindaceae (excluding Handeliodendron). In: Law Yuh-wu & Lo Hsien-shui, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 47(1): 1-72.
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