Plantaginaceae Juss. or plantain family, are a family of flowering plants in the order Lamiales. The type genus is Plantago L..
In older classifications it used to be the only family of the order Plantaginales, but numerous phylogenetic studies, summarized by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, have demonstrated that this taxon should be included within the Lamiales.
The plantain family as traditionally circumscribed consisted of only three genera, Bougueria, Littorella, and Plantago. However, new phylogenetic research has indicated that Plantaginaceae s.s. (s.s. = sensu stricto, in the strict sense) were nested within Scrophulariaceae (but forming a group that did not include the type genus of that family, Scrophularia). Although Veronicaceae (1782) is the oldest family name for this group, Plantaginaceae (1789) is a conserved name under the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) and thus has
priority over any earlier family name for a family including Plantago. Furthermore, the ICBN does not consider family names published before 1789 to be names eligible for conservation, thus ruling out Veronicaceae. The name Antirrhinaceae has been proposed for conservation over Plantaginaceae. In the meantime, the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group has accepted the name Plantaginaceae. However, Olmstead (2003) has chosen to use the name Veronicaceae.
The Plantaginaceae s.l. (s.l. = sensu lato, in the broad sense) are a most diverse, cosmopolitan family, occurring mostly in temperate zones. It consists of herbs, shrubs and also a few aquatic plants with roots (such as the genus Callitriche). Being so diverse, the circumscription of this family is difficult to establish.2]
The leaves are spiral to opposite and simple to compound. Unusual in Lamiales is the absence of
vertical partitions in the heads of the glandular hairs.
The structure and form of the flowers can be very variable. Some genera are 4-merous (i.e. with 4 sepals and 4 petals), such as Aragoa (but this one has 5 sepals); others are 5-8-merous, such as Sibthorpia. The flowers of most genera are polysymmetric. The corolla is often two-lipped. In some taxa, the androecium is formed before the corolla.
The fruit is a capsule that dehisces through the partitions between the cells. In Veronica this partition is in the length; in species of Antirrhineae the dehiscence releases the pollen through the pores at the tip of the anther; or it may come about through a transverse circular line around the capsule.
A group of genera including has recently been segregated  as the
family Linderniaceae, and recognized by Haston et al. 2007, (also known as LAPG II) as "Post-APG II family".
The enlarged Plantaginaceae s.l. / Veronicaceae consists of 90 genera and about 1,700 species. The largest genus is Veronica with about 450 species. Veronica also includes the genera Hebe, Parahebe and Synthyris, formerly often treated as distinct. All genera of Plantaginaceae were former
ly included in Scrophulariaceae except
where otherwise stated.
Angelonia is a genus of about 30 species native to South America. [more]
Antirrhinum is a genus of plants commonly known as snapdragons or dragon flower from the flowers' fancied resemblance to the face of a dragon that opens and closes its mouth when laterally squeezed (thus the 'snap'). The antirrhinums used to be treated as the family Scrophulariaceae, but studies of DNA sequences have led to the inclusion of Antirrhinum in a vastly enlarged family Plantaginaceae. The word "Antirrhinum" is derived from a?t??????? "antirrhinon" which in turn was derived from Greek anti (a?t?), "like," and rhis (???, ????), "nose", inus (-????), "of" or "pertaining to". The name literally means "like a nose" in Ancient Greek and probably refers to the nose-like capsule in its mature state. [more]
Asarina is a genus comprising 16 species of strongly sprawling or twining perennials, native to Mexico, southwestern USA, and southern Europe. Originally placed in the Scrophulariaceae (figwort family), they have more recently been moved to the Plantaginaceae (plantain family). Leaves are often triangular, toothed, downy and hairy with twining flower stalks. Flowers are attractive trumpet-shaped with broad green sepals and pale throat-spotted corolla in varying sizes, resemble snapdragons, and may be white, yellow, pink, purple, and shades in between. Some species are often placed in the genus Maurandya. [more]
Bacopa is a genus of 70 - 100 aquatic plants belonging to the family Plantaginaceae. It is commonly known as Waterhyssop (or Water Hyssop, though this is more misleading as Bacopa is not very closely related to hyssop but simply has a somewhat similar habitus). [more]
Veronica is the largest genus in the flowering plant family Plantaginaceae, with about 500 species; it was formerly classified in the family Scrophulariaceae. Taxonomy for this genus is currently being reanalysed, with the genus Hebe and the related Australasian genera Derwentia, Detzneria, Chionohebe, Heliohebe, Leonohebe and Parahebe included by many botanists. Common names include speedwell, bird's eye, and gypsyweed. [more]
Callitriche (Cal-l?-tri-che) is a genus of largely aquatic plants known as water-starworts. Previously, it was the only genus in the family Callitrichaceae. However, according to the APG II system this family is now included in the Plantaginaceae (plantain family). The family name Callitrichaceae retains its status as nomen conservandum (name to be retained). [more]
Collinsia is a genus of about 25 species of annual flowering plants, consisting of the Blue-eyed Marys and the Chinese Houses. It was traditionally placed in the snapdragon family Scrophulariaceae, but following recent research in molecular genetics, it has now been placed in a much enlarged family Plantaginaceae. [more]
Digitalis ( or /?d?d??'t?l?s/) is a genus of about 20 species of herbaceous perennials, shrubs, and biennials that are commonly called foxgloves. This genus was traditionally placed in the figwort family Scrophulariaceae, but recent reviews of phylogenetic research have placed it in the much enlarged family Plantaginaceae. This genus is native to western and south western Europe, western and central Asia, and northwestern Africa. The scientific name means "finger-like" and refers to the ease with which a flower of Digitalis purpurea can be fitted over a human fingertip. The flowers are produced on a tall spike, are tubular, and vary in color with species, from purple to pink, white, and yellow. The best-known species is the "Common Foxglove", Digitalis purpurea. This is a biennial plant which is often grown as an ornamental plant due to its vivid flowers. These range in color from various purple tints through various shades of light gray, and to purely white. The flowers
can also possess various marks and spottings. [more]
Globularia is a genus of about 22 species of flowering plants in the family Plantaginaceae, native to central and southern Europe, Macaronesia, northwest Africa and southwest Asia. They are dense low evergreen mat-forming herbs or subshrubs, with leathery oval leaves 1-10 cm long. The flowers are produced in dense inflorescences (capitula) held above the plant on a 1-30 cm tall stem; the capitula is 1-3 cm in diameter, with numerous tightly packed purple, violet, pink or white flowers. [more]
Hippuris, the Mare's tail, was previously the sole genus in the family Hippuridaceae. Following genetic research by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, it has now been transferred to the family Plantaginaceae, with Hippuridaceae being reduced to synonymy under Plantaginaceae. [more]
Keckiella is a genus of plants in the . It includes several species of plants known commonly as keckiellas. A few species may be called beardtongues or penstemons because some keckiellas once belonged to genus Penstemon. Keckiellas are native to the American southwest, especially California. They bloom in attractive snapdragon-like flowers. Genus Keckiella was named after the American botanist David D. Keck. [more]
Kickxia is a genus of plants in the . It includes several species of plants known commonly as cancerworts or fluellins. They are mostly native to Europe, but two species, K. elatine and K. spuria are well-known elsewhere as invasive weeds. Genus Kickxia was named after the Belgian botany professor J. J. Kickx. [more]
Lagopus is a small genus of birds in the grouse subfamily. It contains three existing species. [more]
Linaria is a genus of about 100 species of herbaceous annuals and perennials that was traditionally placed in the foxglove family Scrophulariaceae. Due to new genetic research, it has now been placed in the vastly expanded family Plantaginaceae. The genus is native to temperate regions of Europe, northern Africa and Asia, with the highest species diversity in the Mediterranean region. [more]
Lindenbergia is a genus of plant in family Orobanchaceae. It contains the following species (but this list may be incomplete): [more]
Lophospermum ( Maurandia Orteg or Maurandya sect. Lophospermum (D.Don) A.DC.) is a genus in the family Plantaginaceae. This genus was traditionally placed in the foxglove family Scrophulariaceae. Owing to new genetic research, however, it is now placed in the vastly expanded family Plantaginaceae. [more]
Nuttallanthus is a genus of four species of herbaceous annuals and perennials that was traditionally placed in the foxglove family Scrophulariaceae. Due to new genetic research, it has now been placed in the vastly expanded family Plantaginaceae. Three species of Nuttallanthus are native to North America and one to South America. Nuttallanthus was until the 1980s included in a wider circumscription of the genus Linaria, a genus now considered restricted to the Old World. [more]
Penstemon (), Beard-tongue, is a large genus of North American and East Asian plants traditionally placed in the Scrophulariaceae family. Due to new genetic research, it has now been placed in the vastly expanded family Plantaginaceae. In the earlier Cronquist system, it was placed in Scrophulariaceae. [more]
Plantago is a genus of about 200 species of small, inconspicuous plants commonly called plantains. They share this name with the very dissimilar plantain, a kind of banana. Most are herbaceous plants, though a few are subshrubs growing to 60 cm (23.5 in) tall. The leaves are sessile, but have a narrow part near the stem which is a pseudo-petiole. They have three or five parallel veins that diverge in the wider part of the leaf. Leaves are broad or narrow, depending on the species. The inflorescences are borne on stalks typically 5?40 cm (2.25-15.75 in) tall, and can be a short cone or a long spike, with numerous tiny wind-pollinated flowers. [more]
Rehmannia is a genus of six species of flowering plants in the order Lamiales, endemic to China. [more]
The Russelia is among the most common of , and is easily recognized by its brilliant red flowers that are shaped like tall thin vases. It is also known as the Firecracker plant or Coralblow. Russelia grows in many parts of the world, and is mildly drought resistant. [more]
Stemodia is a genus of flowering plants in the plantain family, Plantaginaceae. The roughly 20 species it contains are commonly known as twintips. They are found across the tropical Americas and into the subtropics. These perennials have toothed leaves and racemes of colorful flowers which are usually a shade of purple. This genus is sometimes placed in the families Scrophulariaceae or Gratiolaceae. The generic name is derived from the Latin word stemodiacra, which means "stamens with two tips." [more]
Herbs, perennial.Roots usually densely yellowtomentose when young. Rhizomes short to long, rarely absent. Stemserectorarching and rooting at apex. Leaves alternate, opposite, or whorled.Inflorescencesterminal or axillary, spicate.Flowers usually crowded. Calyx 5-lobed, upper lobe slightly smaller than others. Corolla 4-lobed; tubetubular, straight or slightly curved, usually with a ring of villoushairs inside, rarely glabrous; limbactinomorphic or 2-lipped; lobes unequal in width, upper widest, lower narrowest. Stamens 2; filaments usually basally villous, rarely glabrous, adnate to upper part of corolla tube; antherloculesconnivent, not confluent.Stigmasmall, slightly dilated.Capsuleovoid to ovoid-globose, slightly compressed laterally, 2-grooved, 4-valved. Seedsnumerous per capsule.[more]
^ Oxelman, B.; Kornhall, P.; Olmstead, R. G.; Bremer, B. (2005). "Further disintegration of Scrophulariaceae". Taxon54 (2): 411?425. doi:10.2307/25065369. JSTOR 25065369.
^ Rahmanzadeh, R., K. M?ller, E. Fischer, D. Bartels & T. Borsch. 2005. The Linderniaceae and Gratiolaceae are further lineages distinct from the Scrophulariaceae (Lamiales). Pl. Biol. ( Stuttgart) 7: 67-78.
^ Haston, E., Richardson, J. E., Stevens, P. F., Chase, M. W., Harris, D. J. (2007). "A linear sequence of Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II families". Taxon56 (1): 7?12. doi:10.2307/25065731.
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