Herbs perennial, rhizomatous. Aerial stems present or absent. Leaves distichous, usually large; petiole sheathing at base, apex with a swollen pulvinus; leaf blade pinnately veined, lateral veins parallel, slightly S-shaped. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, borne on leafy shoots or occasionally on separate, leafless shoots from rhizomes, compound, headlike, spicate, or diffuse and much branched, bracteate; bracts each subtending a pair of flowers or a cincinus of paired flowers. Flowers bisexual, asymmetric, paired or rarely borne singly. Sepals 3, free. Corolla lobes 3, often slightly unequal, basally connate into a tube. Staminodes and stamen in 2 whorls: outer whorl with 1 or 2 petaloid staminodes, rarely absent; inner whorl with 1 hooded (cucullate) staminode enclosing terminal portion of pistil at anthesis and bearing a lateral appendage (trigger), 1 thickened and fleshy (callose) staminode, and 1 fertile stamen narrowly petaloid laterally; anther 1-loculed. Ovary inferior, 3-loculed, 1--3 locules fertile; ovules 1 per locule. Style cylindric, adnate to inside of corolla and staminode tube, free portion curved after explosive forward movement (tripping) when released Seeds 1--3, hard, usually arillate.from hooded staminode; stigma scoop-shaped or blunted and 3-cleft. Fruit a capsule, loculicidal, rarely indehiscent or berrylike.
The Family Marantaceae is a member of the Order Zingiberales. Here is the complete "parentage" of Marantaceae:
- Domain: Eukaryota
Whittaker & Margulis,1978 - eukaryotes
- Kingdom: Plantae
Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae
Cavalier-Smith, 1981 - Green Plants
- Phylum: Tracheophyta
Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina
- Phylum: Tracheophyta Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae Cavalier-Smith, 1981 - Green Plants
- Kingdom: Plantae Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
The Family Marantaceae is further organized into finer groupings including:
- Subfamily (11): Asteroideae · Coliadinae · Crotonoideae · Cyrtandroideae · Ixioideae · Rhododendroideae · Spiraeoideae · Trollioideae · Vaccinioideae · Violoideae · Yuccoideae
- Tribe (4): Diapensieae · Maranteae · Phrynieae · Rhododendreae
- Genus (55): Actoplanes · Afrocalathea · Arundastrum · Ataenidia · Calathea · Clinogyne · Cominsia · Ctenanthe · Ctenophrynium · Donax · Doritis · Endocodon · Goeppertia · Halopegia · Haumania · Hybophrynium · Hylaeanthe · Hymenocharis · Hypselodelphys · Ilythuria · Indianthus · Ischnosiphon · Kerchovea · Koernickanthe · Malacarya · Maranta · Marantachloa · Marantochloa · Marantopsis · Megaphrynium · Monophrynium · Monophyllanthe · Monostiche · Monotagma · Myrosma · Phacelophrynium · Phryngium · Phrynium · Phyllodes · Pleiostachya · Psydaranta · Sanblasia · Saranthe · Sarcophrynium · Schumannianthus · Spirostalis · Spirostylis · Stachyphrynium · Stromanthe · Thalia · Thalianthus · Thaumatococcus · Thymocarpus · Trachyphrynium · Zelmira
- Species: ZipcodeZoo has pages for 1,775 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in the Family Marantaceae.
Calathea is a genus of plants belonging to the family Marantaceae. There are several dozen species in this genus. Native to the tropical Americas, many of the species are popular as pot plants due to their decorative leaves and, in some species, colorful inflorescences. They are commonly called calatheas or (like their relatives) prayer plants. Several cultivars, e.g. Calathea cv. 'Silver Plate', have been bred. [more]
Donax is a genus of small, edible saltwater clams, marine bivalve mollusks. The genus is sometimes known as "bean clams"; however, Donax species have various different common names in different parts of the world. [more]
Maranta can refer to: [more]
Marantochloa is a genus of in family Marantaceae. It contains the following species (but this list may be incomplete): [more]
Monotagma is a genus of in family Marantaceae. It contains the following species (but this list may be incomplete): [more]
Rhizomes creeping. Basal leaves 1 or more; cauline leaf 1 or absent; leaf sheath and petiole long. Inflorescences borne basally or above an elongate internode on leafy shoots, subtended by a cauline leaf or a reduced, bladeless sheath, compound, capitate, often with additional spikes borne in axils of basal bracts of initially produced spike and later additional ones in basal bracts of secondary spikes, often in a very compact, congested group of few to many small spikes; bracts spirally arranged, often shredding into fibers after anthesis, at least at apex. Flower pairs 2 to many per bract. Sepals usually longer than corolla tube, membranous. Corolla tube proximally solid, distally hollow; lobes 3, oblong, subequal. Outer staminodes 2, obovate, staminode tube longer than corolla tube; callose staminode wholly callose, not petaloid at apex. Style curved after tripping; stigma enlarged, blunted. Fruit globose to ellipsoid, dehiscent, often late dehiscent; pericarp hard. Seeds 1--3; aril membranous. [more]
In , the petiole is the small stalk attaching the leaf blade to the stem. The petiole usually has the same internal structure as the stem. Outgrowths appearing on each side of the petiole are called stipules. Leaves lacking a petiole are called sessile, or clasping when they partly surround the stem. Clasping leaves of the Poaceae have an extra structure called the ligule. Petiolate leaves are ones where the petiole connects to the leaf before its apex. [more]
Sarcophrynium is a genus of in family Marantaceae. It contains the following species (but this list may be incomplete): [more]
Rhizomes creeping. Basal leaves 1 or more; cauline leaves absent. Inflorescences borne terminally on leafy shoots or on separate, leafless shoots arising directly from rhizomes, spikelike, ellipsoid or spindle-shaped to subcylindric, usually laterally compressed; bracts distichous, usually herbaceous. Flower pairs 1--5 per bract. Sepals less than 1/2 as long as corolla tube, usually much shorter, membranous. Corolla proximally ± solid, distally hollow; lobes 3, oblong, subequal. Outer staminodes 2, obovate; callose staminode wholly callose, not petaloid at apex. Ovary often 2-loculed by abortion. Style cylindric, curved after tripping; stigma enlarged, blunted. Fruit ellipsoid, dehiscent. Seeds usually 2; aril reflexed, 2-lobed. [more]
Stromanthe is a genus of in family Marantaceae. It contains the following species (but this list may be incomplete): [more]
Plants aquatic, upright, often dying back to rhizome in winter [dry season], 1--3.5 m. Rhizome not evidently enlarged or specialized for starch storage. Stems unbranched below inflorescence; leaves all basal or rarely with single cauline leaf borne above elongate (0.7--2.5 m) internode. Leaves homotropic; sheath not auriculate, spongy, containing prominent air spaces; blade plain green, ovate to elliptic. Inflorescences branched, branches short and upright to elongate and arching; rachis internodes conspicuously zigzagged; bracts deciduous, both bracts and prophylls falling with flower if fruit not set, leaving proximal portion of rachis bare, each bract subtending 1 flower pair, herbaceous to leathery; prophylls not evidently keeled, membranous; secondary bracts absent; bracteoles absent. Flowers self-fertilizing [outcrossing], pale to dark purple (corolla and staminodes) ; sepals persistent in fruit, 0.5--3 mm, membranous; corolla tube 1--6 mm, corolla lobes subequal to strongly unequal; outer staminode 1, petal-like, showy; callose staminode mainly fleshy, narrow apical rim petal-like; cucullate staminode with 2 appendages, subterminal, finger-like; stylar movement helical when tripped; styles with 1 appendage, elongate, straplike. Fruits capsules, 1-seeded, nearly globose to ellipsoid, pericarp thin, indehiscent. Seeds dark brown, nearly globose or ellipsoid, smooth; perisperm canals 2, curved; aril reduced. x = 6. [more]
At least 14 species and subspecies belong to the Genus Zelmira.
More info about the Genus Zelmira may be found here.
- Andersson, L. 1981b. Revision of the Thalia geniculata complex (Marantaceae). Nordic J. Bot. 1: 48--56.
- Classen-Bockhoff, R. 1991. Untersuchungen zur Konstruktion des Bestäubungsapparates Von Thalia geniculata (Marantaceen). Bot. Acta 104: 183--193.
- Dressler, R. L. et al. 1987. Identification Manual for Wetland Plant Species of Florida.... Gainesville. P. 119.
- Godfrey, R. K. and J. W. Wooten. 1979. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Southeastern United States: Monocotyledons. Athens, Ga. Pp. 621--622.
- Gris, A. 1859. Observations sur la fleur des Marantées. Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. sér. 4, 12: 193--219, plates 11--14.
- In: Wu Te-lin, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 16(2): 158--169.
- Koechlin, J. 1964. Marantacées. In: A. Aubréville and J.-F. Leroy. 1961+. Flore du Gabon. 354+ vols. Paris. Vol. 9, pp. 91--158.
- Wu Te-lin & Chen Sen-jen. 1981. Marantaceae.
- Wu Te-lin & Chen Sen-jen. 1981. Marantaceae. In: Wu Te-lin, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 16(2): 158--169.
- Delin Wu & Helen Kennedy "Marantaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 24 Page 379. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
- Delin Wu & Helen Kennedy "Phrynium". in Flora of China Vol. 24 Page 379. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
- "Stachyphrynium". in Flora of China Vol. 24 Page 381. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
- "Thalia". in Flora of North America Vol. 22. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
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