Herbs, shrubs, or trees; young stems often quadrangular. Leaves opposite, often decussate, or whorled, rarely subalternate to alternate, simple, entire; pinnately veined, secondary veins typically joined in a series of intramarginal arches; stipules vestigial or absent. Inflorescences racemes, cymes, or panicles; flowers axillary or terminal, usually 4-, 6- or 8-merous, sometimes 3- or 5-merous, bisexual, regular or irregular. Floral tube perigynous, hemi-epigynous, or epigynous, persistent in fruit, membranous to leathery, often 6-12-ribbed; sepals valvate, equal to much shorter than floral tube, membranous to thickly leathery, persistent; epicalyx alternating with sepals or absent. Petals inserted at rim of floral tube, alternating with sepals, crinkled, clawed or not, frequently caducous, rarely absent. Stamens usually biseriate and 2 Ã— as many as sepals, sometimes uniseriate, inserted near base of floral tube or higher, or numerous, multiseriate, with at least some inserted at floral rim just below sepals (Punica, Sonneratia, and some Duabanga) ; anthers versatile [rarely basifixed]. Ovary superior, half-inferior, or inferior, 2-6- or multi-loculed, with many ovules per locule; style simple; stigma capitate, conic-peltate, or punctiform; placentation axile, sometimes free central at fruit maturity. Fruit partly or completely surrounded by persistent floral tube, loculicidally dehiscent or irregularly dehiscent capsules, infrequently indehiscent, leathery, or berrylike. Seeds usually numerous, without endosperm; embryo straight, cotyledons flat or convolute.
From the morphological standpoint, the Lythraceae sensu lato (including Trapaceae) have a very generalized morphology, without a single unique, defining character, i.e., there is no morphological synapomorphy that defines the family. At the same time, the genera are distinct. The position of the ovary in Duabanga, Punica, Sonneratia, and Trapa is variable: superior to partly inferior in Sonneratia; partly inferior in Duabanga; and partly, nearly, or completely inferior in Punica and Trapa. Several other features ally these genera to the Lythraceae sensu stricto, including opposite and simple leaves, commonly held wood anatomical characters (true for the Myrtales generally), development of a persistent floral tube, valvate sepals, 4- or 6-merous flowers, introrse and versatile anthers, axile placentation, and seeds without endosperm. Of the four genera, Trapa is the most divergent, but still sufficiently similar to the Lythraceae and Onagraceae to have been considered for membership within either family, or as a closely related family (as has been done in the present Flora) . The inclusion of Sonneratia, Duabanga, and Punica in the Lythraceae adds some additional derived features to the definition of the family, but at the same time, brings together taxa that we know, from molecular sequence data, represent a single historical lineage. That knowledge of evolutionary relationship is lost if the genera are maintained as separate families, whereas the taxonomic utility of the Flora is not affected by their inclusion in an expanded Lythraceae.
The molecular data from four genes (three chloroplast and one nuclear) unquestionably place not only Duabanga, Punica, and Sonneratia, but also Trapa, within the Lythraceae. Punica is well supported as a member of a clade of genera that includes Capuronia Lourteig, Galpinia N. E. Brown, and Pemphis (from East Africa and Madagascar) . Duabanga and Lagerstroemia are sister genera, and Sonneratia and Trapa, as unlikely as it may seem morphologically, are also sister genera. Duabanga, Lagerstroemia, Sonneratia, and Trapa together form one of seven clades in the family.
The Family Lythraceae is a member of the Order Myrtales. Here is the complete "parentage" of Lythraceae:
- Domain: Eukaryota
Whittaker & Margulis,1978 - eukaryotes
- Kingdom: Plantae
Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae
Cavalier-Smith, 1981 - Green Plants
- Phylum: Tracheophyta
Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina
- Phylum: Tracheophyta Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae Cavalier-Smith, 1981 - Green Plants
- Kingdom: Plantae Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
The Family Lythraceae is further organized into finer groupings including:
- Subfamily (15): Asteroideae · Cichorioideae · Faboideae · Iridoideae · Ixioideae · Magnolioideae · Nepetoideae · Orchidoideae · Polemonioideae · Potentilloideae · Punicoideae · Rhododendroideae · Rosoideae · Trollioideae · Ulmoideae
- Tribe (9): Amygdaleae · Anemoneae · Cardueae · Delphinieae · Lagerstroemieae · Lythreae · Maleae · Nepeteae · Polemonieae
- Genus (118): Acistoma · Adambea · Adenaria · Alcanna · Ameletia · Ammanella · Ammania · Ammannella · Ammannia · Antherylium · Aubletia · Balsamona · Blatti · Calyplectus · Capuronia · Chabraea · Chiratia · Chrysolyga · Cornelia · Cremastostemon · Crenea · Cryptotheca · Cuphea · Cyphea · Decodon · Decondon · Didiplis · Dipetalon · Diplostemon · Diplusodon · Ditheca · Dodecas · Duabanga · Editeles · Endecaria · Enigmocarpon · Eutelia · Fatioa · Friedlandia · Galpinia · Ginora · Ginoria · Granatum · Grislea · Haitia · Hapalocarpum · Heimia · Henslowia · Hexostemon · Hionanthera · Hoshiarpuria · Hydrolythrum · Hypobrichia · Hyssopifolia · Kambala · Koehneria · Lafoensia · Lagerstroemia · Lawsonia · Leptospartion · Lourtella · Lythron · Lythropsis · Lythrum · Lytrhum · Macclellandia · Maja · Melanium · Melfona · Melvilla · Middendorfia · Millania · Mirkooa · Munchausia · Murtughas · Nesaea · Nesoea · Nimmoia · Orias · Ortegioides · Parsonsia · Pehria · Pemphis · Pentaglossum · Peplis · Physocalymma · Plectronia · Pleurophora · Portula · Pterocalymma · Ptilina · Ptychodon · Punica · Pythagorea · Quartinia · Quilamum · Quirina · Rhoea · Rhyacophila · Ronconia · Rotala · Salica · Salicaria · Sellowia · Socotria · Sonneratia · Sotularia · Suffrenia · Tetradia · Tetrataxis · Thorelia · Tolypeuma · Trapa · Tritheca · Trotula · Winterlia · Woodfordia · Xenodendron
- Species: ZipcodeZoo has pages for 2,995 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in the Family Lythraceae.
Adenaria is a genus of plants of family Lythraceae. [more]
Ammannia (alternate spelling Ammania) is a genus of about 25 to 30 species of plants often referred to as redstems from wet areas in America, Africa, Asia, Australia and Europe. Several species are grown as decorative plants in aquariums. [more]
Cuphea () is a genus containing about 260 species of annual and perennial flowering plants native to warm temperate to tropical regions of the Americas. The species range from low-growing herbs to semi-woody shrubs up to 2 m tall. Commonly they are known as cupheas, or, in the case of some species, as cigar plants. The generic name is derived from the Greek word ??f?? (kyphos), meaning "bent," "curved," or "humped." [more]
Duabanga is a small genus of lowland evergreen rainforest trees in southeast Asia, comprising two or three species. [more]
Ginoria is a genus of in family Lythraceae. It contains the following species (but this list may be incomplete): [more]
Heimia is a genus of flowering plants in the loosestrife family, Lythraceae. It contains two or three species of closely related shrubs commonly known as sun opener or shrubby yellowcrest. They are native to the Americas, from northern Argentina north to the southernmost United States (southern Texas). The leaves are 2?5 cm long and 1 cm broad, entire, and variably arranged alternate, opposite or whorled on the stems. All species produce five-petaled yellow flowers. The plants have a history of medicinal use in a variety of American cultures. Several pharmacologically active alkaloids have been detected in the plants. The generic names honours German physician Ernst Ludwig Heim (1747?1834). [more]
Lafoensia is a genus of in family Lythraceae. It contains the following species (but this list may be incomplete): [more]
Lagerstroemia (), commonly known as Crape myrtle or Crepe myrtle, is a genus of around 50 species of deciduous and evergreen trees and shrubs native to the Indian subcontinent, southeast Asia, northern Australia and parts of Oceania, cultivated in warmer climates around the world. It is a member of the Lythraceae, which is also known as the Loosestrife family. The genus is named after the Swedish merchant Magnus von Lagerstr?m, who supplied Carolus Linnaeus with plants he collected. [more]
Lawsonia may refer to [more]
Lythrum is a genus commonly known as loosestrife. It is one of 32 genera of the family Lythraceae. [more]
Nesaea was one of the Nereids who gathered round Thetis in her sympathetic grief for Achilles' loss of Patroclus. This name is used to describe a genus of plants in the family Lythraceae. [more]
Lianas woody, latex white. Leaves opposite. Cymes corymbose or paniculate, dichotomous, terminal or axillary, pedunculate. Flowers small. Calyx with basal glands inside or 5-scaled. Corolla salverform, tube short, hairy inside distally, faucal scales absent, lobes overlapping to right. Stamens inserted at middle of corolla tube or at throat; filaments long, strongly intertwisted or geniculate; anthers narrowly sagittate, exserted, glutinous, connivent into a subcylindric cone, adherent to middle of pistil head, cells with an empty tail; disc 5-lobed or 5-scaled. Ovaries 2; ovules numerous in each carpel. Style filiform; pistil head thickened, apex entire or 2-cleft. Follicles 2, terete, parallel or divergent. Seeds linear or oblong, apex crowned with coma; endosperm scanty; cotyledons very narrowly oblong, flat, radicle superior. [more]
Shrubs to densely branched, small trees, maritime; all parts densely covered by grayish silky trichomes. Leaves opposite, sessile or subsessile. Flowers axillary, solitary or paired, 6-merous, actinomorphic, distylous. Floral tube turbinate, 12-ribbed; sepals short; epicalyx segments present, ca. 1/2 as long as or equaling sepals. Petals white or pale pink. Stamens 12, scarcely biseriate, inserted somewhat above base of floral tube, 6 exserted in short-styled flowers, all included in long-styled flowers. Ovary vestigially 3- or 4-locular, appearing 1-loculed with free, central placentation. Capsule dry, circumscissile, slightly exserted at maturity. Seeds irregularly obpyramidal, wingless. [more]
Herbs, annual, decumbent or creeping, adventitiously rooting at nodes, glabrous. Stem ± 4-angled. Leaves opposite or alternate, sessile. Flowers solitary or infrequently paired, sessile or subsessile, 6-merous, actinomorphic. Floral tube broadly campanulate, broader than long, thinly membranous, 8-12-veined; sepals short; epicalyx segments linear, long. Petals 6 or absent, pale, small, caducous. Stamens (2-) 6, deeply inserted. Ovary sessile, ± globose, incompletely 2-loculed; style short; stigma capitate. Capsule dry, thin walled, splitting irregularly. Seeds numerous, obovoid, convex-concave, small. [more]
Ptychodon is a genus of in the Charopidae family. It contains the following species: [more]
Punica is a small genus of fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small trees. Its best known species is the pomegranate (Punica granatum). The only other species in the genus, the Socotra pomegranate (Punica protopunica), is endemic on the island of Socotra. It differs in having pink (not red) flowers and smaller, less sweet fruit. [more]
Rhyacophila is a genus of in family Rhyacophilidae. It contains the following species: [more]
Herbs, annual or perennial, aquatic, amphibious, or terrestrial, often anthocyanic with age. Stems glabrous, simple or branched, commonly 4-angled or 4-winged. Leaves decussate or whorled, sessile or subsessile; bracts of inflorescences like foliage leaves or smaller and different in shape. Flowers actinomorphic, monomorphic [or dimorphic], (3 or) 4(-6) -merous, solitary, sessile or shortly pedicellate, in axils of bracts on main stem, on spikelike lateral branchlets, or in terminal spikes. Floral tube campanulate or urceolate, generally globose in fruit; bracteoles 2, at base of floral tube; sepals 3-6, ca. 1/3 length of floral tube or less, deltate; epicalyx alternating with sepals or absent. Petals 3-6, pink-purple to whitish. Stamens 1-6, opposite the sepals. Ovary 2-4-loculed; style long or short; stigma capitate, rarely more massive, discoid. Capsule finely transversely striate (10 × magnification), hyaline, septicidally dehiscent, 2-4-valved. Seeds numerous, brown or reddish brown, ovoid to ellipsoidal, concave-convex, less than 1 mm. [more]
Sonneratia is a genus of plants in the family Lythraceae. Formerly the Sonneratia were placed in a family called Sonneratiaceae which included both the Sonneratia and the Duabanga, but these two are now placed in their own monotypic subfamilies of the family Lythraceae. The genus was also named Blatti by James Edward Smith, but Sonneratia had botanical nomenclature priority. [more]
Tetrataxis is a genus of in family Lythraceae. It contains the following species (but this list may be incomplete): [more]
Trapa is the genus of the water caltrop, T. natans, and the horn nut, T. bicornis. It is classified in the order Myrtales. [more]
Woodfordia is a genus of bird in the Zosteropidae family. It contains the following species: [more]
More info about the Genus Xenodendron may be found here.
- Cook, A revision of the genus Rotala (Lythraceae) (Boissiera 29: 1-156. 1979).
- Lee Shu-kang & Lau Lan-fang; Ko Wan-chueng; Lo Hsien-shui. 1983. Lythraceae; Sonneratiaceae; Punicaceae. In: Fang Wen-pei & Chang Che-yung, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 52(2): 67-111; 111-118; 120-121.
- Haining Qin, Shirley A. Graham & Michael G. Gilbert "Lythraceae". in Flora of China Vol. 13 Page 274, 290, 400. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
- "Parsonsia". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 172. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
- Haining Qin & Shirley A. Graham "Pemphis". in Flora of China Vol. 13 Page 274, 275, 282. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
- Haining Qin & Shirley A. Graham "Peplis". in Flora of China Vol. 13 Page 274, 283. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
- Haining Qin & Shirley A. Graham "Rotala". in Flora of China Vol. 13 Page 275, 283. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
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