Lamiales is an order in the asterid group of dicotyledonous flowering plants. It includes approximately 11,000 species divided into about 20 families. Well-known or economically important members of this order include lavender, lilac, olive, jasmine, the ash tree, teak, snapdragon, sesame, psyllium, garden sage, and a number of table herbs such as mint, basil, and rosemary.
Species in this order typically have the following characteristics, although there are exceptions to all of them:
- superior ovary composed of two fused carpels
- five petals fused into a tube
- bilaterally symmetrical, often bilabiate corollas
- four (or fewer) fertile stamens
Lamiales formerly had a restricted circumscription (e.g., by Arthur Cronquist) that included the major families Lamiaceae (Labiatae), Verbenaceae, and Boraginaceae plus a few smaller families. Recent phylogenetic work has shown that Lamiales is polyphyletic with respect to order Scrophulariales and the two groups are now usually combined in a single order that also includes the former orders Hippuridales and Plantaginales. Lamiales has become the preferred name for this much larger combined group. The placement of Boraginaceae is unclear but phylogenetic work shows that this family does not belong in Lamiales.
Also, the circumscription of family Scrophulariaceae, formerly a paraphyletic group defined primarily by plesiomorphic characters and from within which numerous other families of the Lamiales were derived, has been radically altered to create a number of smaller, better-defined and putatively monophyletic families.
- A parsimony analysis of the Asterida e sensu lato based on rbcL sequences
- Distintegration of the Scrophulariaceae (deals with relationships throughout Lamiales)
- http://www.itis.usda.gov of 2002-05-31 TSN: 500018
- L. Watson and M.J. Dallwitz (1992 onwards). The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, information retrieval. http://delta-intkey.com
- http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/vascular/acanth.htm 2002-09-06
- http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/d52/52e.htm 2002-09-06
- http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/d52/52efam.htm 2002-09-06
- http://www.rbgkew.org.uk/web.dbs/genlist.html 2002-09-06
The Order Lamiales is further organized into finer groupings including:
- Family (23): Acanthaceae · Avicenniaceae · Bignoniaceae · Byblidaceae · Carlemanniaceae · Cyclocheilaceae · Gesneriaceae · Labiatae · Lamiaceae · Lentibulariaceae · Martyniaceae · Oleaceae · Orobanchaceae · Pedaliaceae · Phrymaceae · Plantaginaceae · Plocospermataceae · Scrophulariaceae · Stilbaceae · Symphoremata ceae · Tetrachondraceae · Verbenaceae · Viticaceae
- Species: ZipcodeZoo has pages for 76,388 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in the Order Lamiales.
The family Acanthaceae (or Acanthus family) is a taxon of dicotyledonous flowering plants containing almost 250 genera and about 2500 species. [more]
Avicennia is a genus of flowering plants currently placed in the bear's breeches family, Acanthaceae. It contains mangrove trees, which occur in the intertidal zones of estuarine areas and are characterized by aerial roots. It is commonly known as api api which in the Malay language means "fire fire", a reference to the fact that fireflies often congregate on these trees. Species of Avicennia occur worldwide south of the Tropic of Cancer. [more]
The Bignoniaceae, or Trumpet Creeper Family, is a family of flowering plants comprising about 650-750 species in 116-120 genera. Members of the family are mostly trees and lianas ( and Macfadyena), shrubs and more rarely herbaceous plants. As climber plants, they are twine climbers or tendril climbers, and rarely root climbers. Most lianas are found in tribe Bignonieae, that alone contains nearly half the number of species of the family. The family and its genus Bignonia was named after Jean-Paul Bignon by his prot?g? Joseph Pitton de Tournefort in 1694. [more]
Byblis () is a small genus of carnivorous plants, sometimes termed the rainbow plants for the attractive appearance of their mucilage-covered leaves in bright sunshine. Native to western Australia, it is the only genus in the family Byblidaceae. The first species in the genus was described by the English botanist Richard Anthony Salisbury in 1808. Seven species are now recognized (see below). [more]
The Carlemanniaceae are a tropical East Asian and Southeast Asian family of subshrub to herbaceous perennial flowering plants with 2 genera. Older systems of plant taxonomy place the two genera, Carlemannia, and Silvianthus within the Caprifoliaceae or the Rubiaceae. The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification of 2003 places the group in the Lamiales, as a plant family more closely related to the Oleaceae than to the Caprifoliaceae. [more]
Gesneriaceae is a family of flowering plants consisting of ca. 150 genera and ca. 3,200 species in the Old World and New World tropics and subtropics, with a very small number extending to temperate areas. Many species have colorful and showy flowers and are cultivated as ornamental plants. [more]
The mints, taxonomically known as Lamiaceae or Labiatae, are a family of flowering plants. They have traditionally been considered closely related to Verbenaceae, but in the 1990s, phylogenetic studies suggested that many genera classified in Verbenaceae belong instead in Lamiaceae. The currently accepted version of Verbenaceae may not be more closely related to Lamiaceae than some of the other families in the order Lamiales. It is not yet known which of the families in Lamiales is closest to Lamiaceae. [more]
Lentibulariaceae (bladderwort family) is a family of carnivorous plants containing three genera, Genlisea, the corkscrew plants, Pinguicula, the butterworts, and Utricularia, the bladderworts. [more]
Herbs annual or perennial, sometimes with tuberous roots, usually viscid pubescent with uniseriate glandular hairs. Leaves opposite, alternate on upper parts of stem, simple, without stipules. Inflorescences terminal racemes; bracts small, deciduous; bractlets 1 or 2. Flowers bisexual, zygomorphic. Calyx of 5 free or partly connate sepals. Corolla tubular, campanulate, or funnelform, laterally enlarged, bilabiate; lobes 5, imbricate. Stamens 2 or 4, inserted at base of corolla tube, adherent; anthers spreading. Disc annular. Ovary superior, 1-locular; parietal placentas T-shaped in section, false septa usually present; ovules few to numerous. Fruit with a fleshy exocarp soon disintegrating and exposing woody endocarp, with woody appendages including apical horns partly derived from style. Seeds black, rugose. [more]
Orobanchaceae, the broomrape family, is a family of flowering plants of the order Lamiales, with about 90 genera and more than 2000 species. Many of these genera were formerly included in the family Scrophulariaceae sensu lato. Together they are a monophyletic group, forming a distinct family. [more]
Pedaliaceae (pedalium family or sesame family) is a flowering plant family classified in the order Scrophulariales in the Cronquist system and Lamiales in the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system. Cronquist included the family Martyniaceae in Pedaliaceae, but phylogenetic studies have shown that the two families are not closely related and they are maintained as separate by the APG. Both families are characterized by having mucilaginous hairs, which often give the stems and leaves a slimy or clammy feel, and often have fruits with hooks or horns. [more]
Phrymaceae (Schauer 1847), also known as the Lopseed family, is a small plant family in the order Lamiales. It now consists of about 190 species, distributed worldwide but with the majority in western North America (about 130 species) and Australia (about 30 species). [more]
Plantaginaceae Juss. or plantain family, are a family of flowering plants in the order Lamiales. The type genus is Plantago L.. [more]
Scrophulariaceae, the figwort family, are a family of flowering plants. The plants are annual or perennial herbs with flowers with bilateral (zygomorphic) or rarely radial (actinomorphic) symmetry. Members of the Scrophulariaceae have a cosmopolitan distribution, with the majority found in temperate areas, including tropical mountains. The family name is based on the name of the included genus Scrophularia L.. [more]
Verbenaceae, commonly known as the verbena family or vervain family, is a family of mainly tropical flowering plants. It contains trees, shrubs and herbs notable for heads, spikes, or clusters of small flowers, many of which have an aromatic smell. [more]
More info about the Family Viticaceae may be found here.
- Tao Deding. 1990. Martyniaceae. In: Wang Wentsai, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 69: 67-68.
- Zhi-Yun Zhang & Heidrun E. K. Hartmann "Martyniaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 18 Page 228. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
- The text on this page is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It includes material from Wikipedia retrieved Wednesday, April 25, 2012.
- Photographs on this page are copyrighted by individual photographers, and individual copyrights apply.
- The technology underlying this page, including the controls behind Keep Exploring, is owned by the BayScience Foundation. All rights are reserved.