Trees or shrubs, hermaphroditic, monoecious, dioecious, or polygamous, evergreen or deciduous; trunk, branches, and branchlets sometimes spiny; hairs simple, rarely T-shaped or stellate. Leaves simple, usually alternate, rarely opposite or verticillate, sometimes crowded at apices of branches; stipules usually small and caducous, sometimes larger, leaflike and persistent, rarely absent; petiole generally present, sometimes with apex 2-glandular and/or with additional glands along petiole length; leaf blade usually pinnate-veined, sometimes 3-5-veined from base or palmate-veined, with or without pellucid dots or lines, sometimes with a pair of glands at junction of blade and petiole, margin entire or toothed, teeth glandular or not. Inflorescences axillary, terminal, or cauliflorous, of various forms: racemose, spicate, cymose, corymbose, or paniculate, sometimes flowers fasciculate, or solitary; pedicels often articulate; bracts and bracteoles usually small to minute. Flowers radially symmetric, bisexual or unisexual, hypogynous, perigynous, or epigynous; perianth cyclic, rarely spiral, in unisexual flowers remnants of opposite sex present or absent. Sepals imbricate or valvate, rarely spathaceous, mostly (2 or) 3-6, rarely more, usually free or connate at base only, sometimes partly united into a tube, caducous or persistent, rarely accrescent. Petals 3-8, rarely more, often isomerous and alternating with sepals, free, imbricate or valvate, rarely contorted, similar to sepals or not, sometimes with a fleshy adaxial basal scale, or petals absent. Disk present, entire, lobed, or comprised of free or connate disk glands, these extrastaminal, interstaminal, or intrastaminal (bisexual or staminate flowers), or extragynoecial (pistillate flowers), or disk absent. Stamens 1 to many (ca. 100), 1- or many seriate, sometimes in epipetalous bundles, or on margin of cupular disk or rim of calyx tube; filaments free, rarely united into a column; anthers 2-thecate, usually longitudinally dehiscent, rarely opening by terminal pores, connective sometimes shortly projected or glandular. Ovary superior or semi-inferior, 1-loculed, with 2-9 parietal placentas, rarely incompletely 2-9(or more) -celled by placentas protruding deeply into locule; ovules 2 or more on each placenta, orthotropous, anatropous, or hemi-anatropous; styles isomerous with placentas, free or partly to completely united, rarely absent, stigmas small or large, capitate to flattened and branched. Fruit capsular or baccate, rarely a drupe, pericarp mostly smooth, sometimes winged or bristly. Seeds 1 to many, with or without a fleshy sometimes brightly colored sarcotesta and/or aril, sometimes with long hairs, or broadly winged; endosperm usually copious and fleshy; embryo straight or curved; cotyledons usually broad, often cordate.
About 87 genera and ca. 900 species: mostly in tropical and subtropical regions, some extending into the temperate zone; 12 genera (one endemic) and 39 species (nine endemic) in China; four additional species (all endemic) are poorly known (see Homalium) .
The Family Flacourtiaceae is further organized into finer groupings including:
- Tribe (4): Erythrospermeae · Pangieae · Prockieae · Scolopieae
- Genus (116): Aberia · Adenogyrus · Anavinga · Anetia · Antigona · Antinisa · Arechavaletaia · Ascra · Asteriastigma · Astranthus · Baileyoxylon · Banara · Bartholomaea · Bedousia · Bennettia · Bergsmia · Bigelovia · Bivinia · Blackwellia · Blakwellia · Boca · Cathayeia · Cerolepis · Chaetocrater · Chetocrater · Christannia · Clasta · Corizospermum · Craepaloprumnon · Crateria · Dasylepis · Dasypetalum · Dendrostigma · Dendrostylis · Doryalis · Eichlerodendron · Euceraea · Gertrudia · Gestroa · Glossodiscus · Gossypiospermum · Grandidiera · Guayabilla · Guidonia · Hecatostemon · Henningsocarpum · Hisingera · Homalilum · Homaliopsis · Iroucana · Kiggelaria · Koelera · Kuhlia · Lasiochlamys · Licopolia · Mayna · Melistaurum · Mesaulosperma · Monandrodendron · Monospora · Myriantheia · Myriotriche · Napimoga · Neopringlea · Neoptychocarpus · Nisa · Oncoba · Ophiobotrys · Paraphyadanthe · Patrisa · Patrisia · Pectinea · Peterodendron · Phoberos · Phyllobotryum · Pierrea · Pineda · Piparea · Pitumba · Polycarpa · Pseudosmelia · Ptychocarpus · Pyramidocarpus · Pythagorea · Quadrasia · Racoubea · Raleighia · Rawsonia · Rhamnicastrum · Richeopsis · Rumea · Ryania · Ryparosa · Sadymia · Samyda · Scolopia · Spruceanthus · Stachycrater · Synandrina · Taraktogenos · Tattia · Tetracocyne · Tetrathylacium · Thamnia · Thiodia · Trichadenia · Trichostephanus · Trimeria · Valentinia · Vareca · Ventenatia · Vermoneta · Vermontea · Xyladenius · Zuelania · Zuelenia
- Species: ZipcodeZoo has pages for 589 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in the Family Flacourtiaceae.
Dovyalis is a genus of shrubs and small trees. Recent genetic evidence has shown the genus to belong to the family Salicaceae; formerly it was classified in the family Flacourtiaceae. The 15 species are native to Africa (Ethiopia south to South Africa) and southern Asia (India, Sri Lanka). [more]
Anetia is a genus of nymphalid butterfly in the Danainae subfamily. [more]
Antigona (Antigone) is an opera in three acts in Italian by the composer Tommaso Traetta. The libretto, by Marco Coltellini, is based on the tragedy Antigone by Sophocles. [more]
Homalium is a genus of plant in family Salicaceae. [more]
Azara is a genus of ten species of flowering plants in the family Salicaceae, native to temperate to subtropical regions of South America. Azara was formerly classed in the family Flacourtiaceae. [more]
Ascra (Ancient Greek: , ?skre) was an ancient town in Boeotia which is best known today as the home of the poet Hesiod. It was located upon Mount Helicon, five miles west of Thespiae. According to a lost poetic Atthis by one Hegesinous, a maiden by the name of Ascra lay with Poseidon and bore a son Oeoclus who, together with the Aloadae, founded the town named for his mother. In the Works and Days, Hesiod says that his father was driven from Aeolian Cyme to Ascra by poverty, only to find himself situated in a most unpleasant town (lines 639?40): [more]
Banara is a genus of plant in family Salicaceae (formerly in Flacourtiaceae). [more]
Galearia is a of plant of the family Pandaceae. There are 6 species present from Myanmar to the Malesia. They are large trees or shrubs which exudate a white liquid. [more]
Bivinia is a genus of in family Flacourtiaceae. It contains the following species (but this list may be incomplete): [more]
The flagtails (ahole or aholehole in the Hawaiian language) are a family (Kuhliidae) of perciform fish of the Indo-Pacific area. The family consists of several species in one genus, Kuhlia, of which, one, (K. rupestris), is freshwater. The others are marine. [more]
Lasiochlamys is a genus of in family Salicaceae. [more]
Oncoba is a genus of in family Salicaceae. [more]
Claoxylon is a flowering plant genus in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae, comprising dioecious subshrubs to small trees. The genus comprises about 80 species, distributed in paleotropical areas: Madagascar through South and Southeast Asia, Malesia to Melanesia, Hawaii, and Australia. Half of the species are in Malesia. According to a molecular phylogenetic study by Wurdack, Hoffmann & Chase (2005), Claoxylon is sister to Erythrococca (50 species, Africa), and together they form the top of a Hennigian comb-like phylogeny. [more]
Abatia (syn. Raleighia Gardner) is a genus of about nine species of Central and South American trees in the willow family Salicaceae (following the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification). Previously it was treated in the family Flacourtiaceae, or tribe Abatieae of the family Passifloraceae (Lemke 1988) or Samydaceae by G. Bentham & J.D. Hooker and Hutchinson. [more]
Rawsonia is a genus of in family Flacourtiaceae. It contains the following species (but this list may be incomplete): [more]
Ryparosa is a genus of in family Flacourtiaceae. [more]
Samyda is a genus of in family Salicaceae. [more]
Scolopia is a genus of plants in family Salicaceae. [more]
Spruceanthus is a genus of in family Lejeuneaceae. It contains the following species (but this list may be incomplete): [more]
Taraktogenos is a genus of in family Flacourtiaceae. It contains the following species (but this list may be incomplete): [more]
Trichadenia is a genus of in family Flacourtiaceae. [more]
Euphorbia is a genus of plants belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. Consisting of 2008 species, Euphorbia is one of the most diverse genera in the plant kingdom, exceeded possibly only by Senecio. Members of the family and genus are sometimes referred to as Spurges. Euphorbia antiquorum is the type species for the genus Euphorbia; it was described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753 in Species Plantarum. The genus is primarily found in the tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and the Americas, but also in temperate zones worldwide. Succulent species originate mostly from Africa, the Americas and Madagascar. There exists a wide range of insular species: on the Hawaiian Islands where spurges are collectively known as "akoko", and on the Canary Islands as "tabaibas". [more]
More info about the Genus Zuelenia may be found here.
- Lai Shushen. 1999. Flacourtiaceae. In: Ku Tsuechih, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 52(1): 1-80.
- Qiner Yang & Sue Zmarzty "Flacourtiaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 13 Page 112, 138. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
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