Trees small, shrubs, or vines, erect or scandent, evergreen or deciduous. Leaves alternate, exstipulate, petiolate; leaf blade odd-pinnate, 3-foliolate, or 1-foliolate; leaflets subopposite or alternate, usually leathery, margin entire, rarely lobulate. Inflorescences terminal, pseudoterminal, or axillary, paniculate or racemose, bracteate. Flowers bisexual, rarely unisexual, actinomorphic, small. Sepals (4 or) 5, free or united at very base only, imbricate or valvate, persistent and clasping base of fruit. Petals (4 or) 5, free, rarely slightly connate at middle, imbricate or valvate, rarely circinate. Stamens 5â€“10, hypogynous or perigynous, in 2 whorls alternately longer and shorter, those opposite petals often shorter and abortive; filaments free or shortly connate at base; anthers didymous, dorsifixed in proximal 1/2, introrse, short, dehiscing longitudinally. Disk thin or absent, surrounded by base of stamens. Carpels (1â€“) 5(â€“8), free, 1-celled, hirsute. Style subulate or filiform; stigma subcapitate, simple or 2-lobed. Ovules 2 in each carpel (1 sometimes sterile), collateral, erect. Fruit a usually solitary follicle, sessile or stipitate, dehiscing usually along adaxial suture, sometimes along abaxial one, very rarely circumscissile at base, sometimes indehiscent. Seed 1(or 2), erect, usually arillate, rarely exarillate; testa thick; aril colored, fleshy; endosperm present or absent; embryo straight; cotyledons thick and fleshy in exalbuminous seeds, thin in albuminous ones.
Between 12 and 24 genera and 180â€“390 species: mainly in Africa and tropical Asia, some species in the subtropics, only a few species in the New World; six genera and nine species (one endemic) in China.
The Family Connaraceae is further organized into finer groupings including:
- Tribe (4): Cnestideae · Connareae · Jollydoreae · Manoteae
- Genus (42): Agelaea · Anisostemon · Anthagathis · Bernardinia · Burttia · Byrsocarpus · Canicidia · Castanola · Cnestidium · Cnestis · Connarus · Cynotoxicum · Dinklagea · Ebandoua · Eichleria · Ellipanthus · Erythrostigma · Hemandradenia · Hemiandrina · Jaundea · Jollydora · Manotes · Omphalobium · Paxia · Pseudellipanthus · Pseudoconnarus · Robergia · Rourea · Roureopsis · Santalodes · Santaloidella · Santaloides · Schellenbergia · Spiropetalum · Spondioides · Taeniochlaena · Tali · Thysanus · Tricholobus · Troostwykia · Vismianthus · Yaundea
- Species: ZipcodeZoo has pages for 1,055 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in the Family Connaraceae.
Agelaea is a genus of beetles in the family Carabidae, containing the following species: [more]
Lianas or scandent shrubs, rarely small trees. Leaves exstipulate, petiolate, odd-pinnate; leaflets opposite or subalternate, margin entire. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, solitary or fascicled, terminal one usually paniculate, axillary ones racemose and often borne in axils of fallen leaves on old branches; bracts minute, scalelike or lanceolate. Flowers bisexual. Sepals 5, imbricate or valvate in bud, sometimes petaloid, slightly connate at base. Petals 5, slightly shorter than or equaling sepals, connate at base, emarginate and incurved at apex. Stamens ca. 10, free, all fertile, alternately longer and shorter, those opposite sepals usually longer; filaments free or slightly connate at base. Carpels 5, free; ovary pubescent; ovules 2, erect, collateral. Style longer than ovary; stigma capitate. Follicles 1â€“5, sessile, pyriform, usually elongated into hornlike processes, dehiscing by a longitudinal, adaxial slit, densely tomentose abaxially, appressed hirsute adaxially; persistent sepals not enlarged. Seed 1, mostly black or dark brown, glossy, flattened; aril basal, oblique; endosperm present. [more]
Lianas, climbing shrubs, or small trees. Branchlets glabrous. Leaves alternate, exstipulate, petiolate, odd-pinnate or 3-foliolate, rarely 1-foliolate; leaflets subopposite or alternate; leaflet blade entire at margin, usually with pellucid glands. Inflorescences mostly terminal, paniculate, large, or rarely subcymose or racemose in distal leaf axils. Flowers bisexual, fragrant. Sepals, petals, and stamens usually glandular. Sepals (4 or) 5, broadly imbricate or subvalvate in bud, slightly connate at base, thick and fleshy, persistent but not enlarged after anthesis. Petals 5, free, subequaling or slightly longer than sepals, often coherent at middle, imbricate in bud. Stamens ca. 10, alternately longer and shorter, 5 long ones opposite sepals, 5 short ones opposite petals and often abortive; filaments connate at base; anthers oblong, locules often glandular at base; connective glandular at apex. Carpel 1; ovary globose, 1-loculed, pilose; ovules 2, collateral. Style slender, proximal 1/2 pilose, distal 1/2 glandular pubescent; stigma uniform, oblique. Follicle slightly compressed, sometimes narrowed at base into a long, slender stipe (stipe sometimes thick or almost absent), striate, dehiscing longitudinally along adaxial or sometimes abaxial suture, with persistent calyx, apex obtuse and usually shortly beaked; pericarp woody or leathery. Seed 1, somewhat reniform; testa mostly black-purple, glossy; aril cupular, crenulate or laciniate, fleshy; endosperm absent. [more]
Shrubs or small trees. Leaves 1-foliolate; petiole articulate; leaf blade entire at margin. Inflorescences axillary, paniculate to glomerulate-racemose, small; bracts lanceolate, small, soon falling. Flowers bisexual (when protandrous) or unisexual (when plants dioecious), 4-or 5-merous. Sepals 4 or 5, valvate in bud, densely hairy abaxially, persistent but not enlarged after anthesis. Petals 4 or 5, free, imbricate in bud, longer than sepals. Stamens 2 × as many as petals, those opposite sepals well developed, those opposite petals much smaller and staminodal; filaments connate at base into a tube. Carpel 1, somewhat laterally inserted; ovary obliquely ovoid, flattened, hairy; ovules 2, erect, collateral. Style slender, hairy; stigma disk-shaped to 2-lobed, large. Follicle yellowish to brownish when mature, ovoid, tomentose abaxially, slightly to strongly abaxially geniculate, basal part narrowed into a short to long stipe, fertile part dehiscing by a longitudinal slit, with persistent calyx; pericarp woody. Seed 1, ellipsoid, obtuse at both ends; testa mostly black and glossy, basal part covered with a yellowish to orange, thin aril; endosperm ca. 1 mm thick, hard. [more]
Hemandradenia is a genus of in family Connaraceae. It contains the following species (but this list may be incomplete): [more]
Jollydora is a genus of in family Connaraceae. It contains the following species (but this list may be incomplete): [more]
Lianas scandent or shrubs, sometimes trees. Leaves alternate, exstipulate, petiolate, odd-pinnate, rarely 1-foliolate; leaflets often many paired, subopposite or alternate. Inflorescences axillary or pseudoterminal, paniculate; bracts ovate-lanceolate; bracteoles lanceolate, margin fimbriate. Flowers bisexual, small. Sepals 5, imbricate, hairy or glabrous, persistent and enlarged after anthesis, closely clasping base of follicle. Petals 5, longer than sepals, glabrous. Stamens ca. 10, alternately longer and shorter, those opposite sepals longer than those opposite petals; filaments connate at base, glabrous. Carpels 5, free, only 1 maturing, hairy or glabrous; ovules 2, erect, collateral. Style slender; stigma capitate, inconspicuously 2-lobed. Follicle 1, sessile, glabrous, smooth or longitudinally delicately thinly striate, dehiscing usually along adaxial suture, rarely at base, often surrounded by campanulate persistent calyx. Seed 1, flattened; testa glossy, glabrous, with a cupular, fleshy aril adnate at base; endosperm absent. [more]
Shrubs erect or scandent. Leaves exstipulate, petiolate, odd-pinnate, rarely 1-foliolate; lateral leaflets usually very oblique. Inflorescences axillary, racemose or paniculate, fascicled or very short and densely glomerate; bracts lanceolate, small, pubescent. Flowers bisexual, 5-merous; pedicel slender. Sepals 5, erect, imbricate, enlarged in fruit, base not connivent, apex barbate. Petals 5, strap-shaped, circinate in bud, much longer than sepals, apex acute. Stamens ca. 10, all fertile, alternately longer and shorter, those opposite sepals often longer; filaments cylindric, connate at base or free, glabrous; anthers dorsifixed. Carpels usually 5, hirsute abaxially, glabrous adaxially. Style slender; stigma capitate, 2-lobed. Follicle sessile, cylindric or ellipsoid, glabrous, dehiscing by an adaxial slit, apex mucronate. Seed 1; aril adnate to base; endosperm absent. [more]
At least 3 species and subspecies belong to the Genus Yaundea.
More info about the Genus Yaundea may be found here.
- Chen Shao-xing. 1986. Connaraceae. In: Yü Te-tsun, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 38: 133150.
- Lingdi Lu & Nicholas J. Turland "Connaraceae". in Flora of China Vol. 9 Page 435. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
- Lingdi Lu & Nicholas J. Turland "Cnestis". in Flora of China Vol. 9 Page 435. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
- "Connarus". in Flora of China Vol. 9 Page 437. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
- "Ellipanthus". in Flora of China Vol. 9 Page 439. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
- "Rourea". in Flora of China Vol. 9 Page 436. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
- "Roureopsis". in Flora of China Vol. 9 Page 436. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
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