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Caryophyllaceae

(Family)

Overview

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Herbs annual or perennial, rarely subshrubs or shrubs. Stems and branches usually swollen at nodes. Leaves opposite, decussate, rarely alternate or verticillate, simple, entire, usually connate at base; stipules scarious, bristly, or often absent. Inflorescence of cymes or cymose panicles, rarely flowers solitary or few in racemes, capitula, pseudoverticillasters, or umbels. Flowers actinomorphic, bisexual, rarely unisexual, occasionally cleistogamous. Sepals (4 or) 5, free, imbricate, or connate into a tube, leaflike or scarious, persistent, sometimes bracteate below calyx. Petals (4 or) 5, rarely absent, free, often comprising claw and limb; limb entire or split, usually with coronal scales at juncture of claw and limb. Stamens (2--) 5--10, in 1 or 2 series. Pistil 1; carpels 2--5, united into a compound ovary. Ovary superior, 1-loculed or basally imperfectly 2--5-loculed. Gynophore present or absent. Placentation free, central, rarely basal; ovules (1 or) few or numerous, campylotropous. Styles (1 or) 2--5, sometimes united at base. Fruit usually a capsule, with pericarp crustaceous, scarious, or papery, dehiscing by teeth or valves 1 or 2 × as many as styles, rarely berrylike with irregular dehiscence or an achene. Seeds 1 to numerous, reniform, ovoid, or rarely dorsiventrally compressed, abaxially grooved, blunt, or sharply pointed, rarely fimbriate-pectinate; testa granular, striate or tuberculate, rarely smooth or spongy; embryo strongly curved and surrounding perisperm or straight but eccentric; perisperm mealy.

Between 75 and 80 genera and ca. 2000 species: widespread but mainly of temperate or warm-temperate occurrence in the N hemisphere, with principal centers of distribution in the Mediterranean region and W Asia to W China and the Himalayas, fewer species in Africa S of the Sahara, America, and Oceania; 30 genera (two endemic) and 390 species (193 endemic) in China.

Arenaria, Silene, and Stellaria contain over half the species in the family in China. They are mostly concentrated in the Qinghai-Xizang plateau, and are especially rich from the Hengduan Mountains to the Himalayas. The main uses of this family are medicinal and ornamental. Dianthus superbus, Pseudostellaria heterophylla, Stellaria dichotoma var. lanceolata, and Vaccaria hispanica are commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine. Some species of Arenaria, Dianthus, Gypsophila, Psammosilene, and Silene are used as medicinal herbs among the people or are habitually used in local Chinese medicine. Many species of Dianthus, Gypsophila, Lychnis, Saponaria, and Silene are grown as ornamentals. Atocion armeria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque ( Silene armeria Linnaeus), native to Russia and Europe, is also cultivated in China. It differs from Silene in having a corymbose inflorescence and obscure calyx veins. Wu Cheng-yih, Ke Ping, Zhou Li-hua, Tang Chang-lin & Lu De-quan. 1996. Caryophyllaceae. In: Tang Chang-lin, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 26: 47–449.[1]

Photos

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Taxonomy

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The Family Caryophyllaceae is a member of the Order Caryophyllales. Here is the complete "parentage" of Caryophyllaceae:

The Family Caryophyllaceae is further organized into finer groupings including:

Genera

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Acanthophyllum

Herbs suffruticose. Stems caespitose, erect, many branched. Leaves subulate or linear-lanceolate, spinose. Flowers in panicles, corymbs, or capitula; bracts leaflike, ovate, lanceolate, or needlelike, margin sometimes spinose. Calyx tubular or campanulate, membranous between veins, 5(--15) -veined, apex 5-toothed. Petals 5, red, rarely white; claw long, narrow; limb apically entire, rarely retuse. Gynophore short, rarely long. Stamens 10, in 2 series, those inserted opposite petals shorter. Ovary 1-loculed; ovules 4--10. Styles 2. Capsule suboblong or subglobose, membranous proximally, irregularly transversely dehiscent or toothed. Seeds 1 or 2, subreniform, slightly compressed; embryo annular.[2] [more]

Achyronychia

Achyronychia is a monotypic genus of flowering plant containing the single species Achyronychia cooperi, which is known by the common names onyxflower and frost-mat. This plant is native to the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts of northern Mexico and the U.S. states of California and Arizona. Onyxflower is a diminutive plant which lies in a small mat flat on the ground. Its habitat is sand. It radiates several prostrate stems in all directions, each only a few centimeters long. The thick pale green leaves are paddle-shaped and under 2 centimeters long. In the leaf axils grow dense bunches of tiny flowers. There are no petals, but each flower has five thin shiny white sepals that look like tiny fingernails; the genus name Achyronychia is Greek for "chaff fingernail". [more]

Adenarium

[more]

Adenonema

[more]

Agrostemma

Agrostemma is a genus of annual plants in the Caryophyllaceae family, containing the species known as corncockles. Its best-known member is A. githago, the Common Corncockle, which is a native of Europe where it is simply called "the Corncockle". The species is a weed of cereals and other crops, probably with a centre of origin in the eastern Mediterranean. Nowadays declining in its native range because of improved seed cleaning, it is found as a weed worldwide. , the Slender Corncockle, is only found in central Greece near the city of Farsala. Corncockle is an attractive plant, and its seeds are still commercially available to gardeners. [more]

Allochrusa

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Alsinanthe

[more]

Alsinella

[more]

Alsinidendron

Alsinidendron is a genus of plant in family Caryophyllaceae, whose species are often included in the genus Schiedea. There are four species, all federally listed endangered species endemic to Hawaii. [more]

Alsinopsis

[more]

Alsinula

[more]

Ammodenia

[more]

Ankyropetalum

[more]

Anotites

[more]

Arenaria

Arenaria, a Latin word meaning sand-loving (or ), may refer to : [more]

Arrostia

[more]

Assoella

[more]

Atocion

[more]

Aylmeria

[more]

Balardia

[more]

Banffya

[more]

Behen

[more]

Behenantha

[more]

Bergeretia

[more]

Bolanthus

[more]

Bootia

[more]

Brachystemma

Herbs annual. Stems subscandent, branched. Leaves opposite, petiolate; leaf blade ovate-lanceolate; stipules absent. Inflorescence a thyrse, terminal or axillary. Flowers numerous, 5-merous, pedicellate. Sepals free, subscarious, persisting in fruit. Petals lanceolate, much shorter than sepals, margin entire. Stamens ca. as many as sepals, alternating with anther-less staminodes. Ovary 1-loculed, with 3 or 4 ovules; styles 2. Fruit a capsule, oblate, 4-valved, 1-seeded. Seed reniform or globose; testa tuberculate.[3] [more]

Brewerina

[more]

Bryomorpha

[more]

Buda

A Genus in the Kingdom Plantae. [more]

Buffonia

[more]

Bufonia

[more]

Cardionema

Herbs, perennial. Taproots often stout. Stems prostrate, much-branched proximally, terete to angular. Leaves opposite, not connate, connected by thickened margins from which stipules arise, sessile; stipules 2 per node, silvery, lanceolate to ovate, margins entire to irregularly fimbriate, apex 2-lobed; blade prominently 1-veined, needlelike, not succulent, apex spinose. Inflorescences axillary, 1-3-flowered clusters; bracts paired, resembling stipules, smaller. Flowers sessile; hypanthium cup-shaped, not abruptly expanded distally; sepals 5, distinct, olive-green, oblong to obovate, 1.2-2.8 mm (excluding awns), indurate, herbaceous, margins whitish, scarious, apex spinose, prominently hooded, awned, hoods projecting inward and enclosing developing fruit, awns arising from near apex, widely divergent, very stout, spinose, 3 awns and associated sepals well developed, alternating with 2 reduced sepals; nectaries not apparent; stamens 3-5; filaments distinct to base; staminodes 5, adnate basally with alternating filaments, ovate-triangular, apex acuminate; styles 2, distinct, subcapitate, 0.2 mm, glabrous proximally; stigmas 2, subterminal, obscurely papillate (50×). Utricles ellipsoid to cylindric, teeth absent, indehiscent. Seeds tan with red spot at hilum, narrowly ovate, not compressed, smooth, marginal wing absent, appendage absent; embryo peripheral, straight to slightly curved.[4] [more]

Caryophyllus

[more]

Cerastium

Cerastium (Mouse-ear chickweed) is a genus of plant belonging to the family Caryophyllaceae. [more]

Cerdia

[more]

Cernohorskya

[more]

Cherleria

[more]

Coccyganthe

Lychnis () is a genus of 15-25 species of flowering plants in the family Caryophyllaceae, native to Europe, Asia and north Africa. The genus is closely related to (and sometimes included in) Silene, differing in the flowers having five styles (three in Silene), the seed capsule having five teeth (six in Silene), and in the sticky stems of Lychnis. Common names include campion (shared with Silene) and catchfly, the latter name based on the sticky stems. [more]

Colobanthus

Colobanthus is a large genus of small, -like herbaceous plants, sometimes known as "pearlworts", a name they share with plants of the related genus Sagina. [more]

Cometes

[more]

Conosilene

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Corion

[more]

Coronaria

Lychnis () is a genus of 15-25 species of flowering plants in the family Caryophyllaceae, native to Europe, Asia and north Africa. The genus is closely related to (and sometimes included in) Silene, differing in the flowers having five styles (three in Silene), the seed capsule having five teeth (six in Silene), and in the sticky stems of Lychnis. Common names include campion (shared with Silene) and catchfly, the latter name based on the sticky stems. [more]

Corrigiola

Herbs, annual or biennial [perennial]. Taproots slender. Stems decumbent to ascending, branched, terete. Leaves alternate or rarely subopposite, sometimes forming basal rosette, not connate, petiolate or sessile; stipules 2 per node, white, ovate, margins mostly entire, apex acuminate; petiole minute (subopposite leaves) ; blade 1-veined, narrowly oblanceolate to spatulate, not succulent, apex obtuse. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, dense cymes; bracts paired, smaller, scarious. Pedicels erect. Flowers: perianth and androecium slightly perigynous; hypanthium cup-shaped, not abruptly expanded distally; sepals 5, distinct, green or reddish brown, 1-1.5 mm, herbaceous, margins white-scarious, apex blunt, not hooded, not awned; nectaries not apparent; stamens 5; filaments distinct; staminodes 5, arising from hypanthium rim, ovate to oblong; styles 3, distinct, capitate, 0.1-0.2 mm, glabrous proximally; stigmas 3, capitate, obscurely papillate (at 50×). Utricles at least partly enclosed by persistent calyx/hypanthium, obscurely 3-gonous, indehiscent. Seeds white with tan band, reniform or subglobose, not compressed, finely papillose, marginal wing absent, appendage absent; embryo peripheral, curved. x = 8, 9.[5] [more]

Cucubalus

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Cyathophylla

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Cylichnanthus

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Delia

Delia can refer to: [more]

Dianthella

[more]

Dianthus

Dianthus is a genus of about 300 species of flowering plants in the family Caryophyllaceae, native mainly to Europe and Asia, with a few species extending south to north Africa, and one species (D. repens) in arctic North America. Common names include carnation (D. caryophyllus), pink (D. plumarius and related species) and sweet william (D. barbatus). The name Dianthus is from the Greek words dios ("god") and anthos ("flower"), and was cited by the Greek botanist Theophrastus. [more]

Diaphanoptera

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Dicheranthus

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Dichodon

Dichoglottis

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Diosanthos

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Drudea

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Drymaria

Herbs, annual or perennial, caudices often branched. Taproots slender, elongate. Stems sprawling to erect, simple or branching proximally or throughout, terete. Leaves opposite or appearing whorled, connate by membranous to thickened line, petiolate or sessile, stipulate (D. pachyphylla not stipulate) ; stipules 2 per node, white to tan, simple or divided into segments, subulate to filiform, often minute, margins entire, apex acute to acuminate; blade 1-5-veined, linear to lanceolate, spatulate, ovate, reniform, or orbiculate, not succulent, apex rounded to acuminate. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, open to congested, bracteate cymes or umbelliform clusters or flowers solitary, axillary; bracts paired, scarious or central portion herbaceous. Pedicels erect to spreading or reflexed. Flowers: perianth and androecium hypogynous; sepals 5, distinct, white, lanceolate to oblong, ovate, or orbiculate, 1.5-4.8(-5) mm, herbaceous, margins white to purple, scarious, apex acuminate to rounded, hooded or not; petals (3-) 5, sometimes absent, white, claw narrow, tapering distally or with oblong or expanded, sessile or short-clawed trunk, auricles absent, blade apex divided into 2 or 4 lobes; nectaries at base of filaments opposite sepals; stamens 5; filaments distinct or briefly connate proximally; styles 3, occasionally 2, connate proximally for 2 of length, rarely to nearly distinct (D. cordata), filiform, 0.1-0.3 mm, glabrous proximally; stigmas 3, occasionally 2, linear along adaxial surfaces of styles (or branches), obscurely papillate (30×). Capsules ellipsoid to globose, opening by (2-) 3 spreading to recurved valves; carpophore absent. Seeds 3-25, tan, reddish brown, dark brown, black, or transparent (white embryo visible), horseshoe-, snail-shell- or teardrop-shaped, compressed laterally, at least somewhat, tuberculate, marginal wing absent, appendage absent. x = (11), 12.[6] [more]

Drypis

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Dymondia

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Elisanthe

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Eremogone

Plants perennial, often densely matted, usually with branched, woody base. Taproots slender or usually stout; rhizomes absent. Stems prostrate (nonflowering stems) or ascending to erect (flowering stems), simple or branched, terete. Leaves usually congested at or near base of flowering stems, usually connate, mostly sessile; blade 1-veined, needlelike or filiform to subulate or narrowly linear, succulent or not, apex blunt to usually apiculate or spinose. Inflorescences terminal, open to congested or umbellate cymes or sometimes flowers solitary; bracts paired (or clustered at summit of peduncle in some E. congesta varieties), reduced, foliaceous or scarious. Pedicels erect or flowers sessile. Flowers: perianth and androecium weakly perigynous; hypanthium shallowly cup-shaped; sepals 5, distinct or barely connate proximally, green (sometimes purplish in E. capillaris and E. eastwoodiae), linear-lanceolate to ovate, 1.8-12 mm, margins white, scarious, apex obtuse or rounded to acute, acuminate, or spinose, not hooded; petals 5, white, yellowish white, or occasionally pink or brownish, clawed or not, blade apex entire, erose, emarginate, or rarely 2-fid; nectaries usually 5, prominent at (or adjacent to in E. eastwoodiae) base of filaments opposite sepals, rarely absent; stamens 10, arising from hypanthium; filaments distinct; staminodes absent; styles 3, filiform, 2.5-3 mm, glabrous proximally; stigmas 3, subcapitate, smooth to papillate (50×). Capsules ovoid to urceolate, opening by 6 ascending to recurved teeth; carpophore present or usually absent. Seeds 1-10, dark reddish or greenish brown, tan, blackish purple, black, or gray, ovoid to pyriform or suborbicular, laterally compressed, smooth, rugulose, or tuberculate, marginal wing absent, appendage absent. x = 11.[7] [more]

Esmarchia

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Eucladus

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Eudianthe

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Euthalia

Euthalia is a of brush-footed butterflies. They are commonly called barons or (like some relatives in Bassarona and Dophla) dukes. [more]

Evactoma

[more]

Facchinia

Fasciculus

[more]

Fiedleria

[more]

Fimbripetalum

[more]

Gastrolychnis

[more]

Geocarpon

Herbs, annual or winter annual. Taproots slender. Stems erect or spreading-ascending, simple or few-branched basally, terete. Leaves connate basally into sheath, sessile; blade 1-veined, narrowly oblong, not succulent, apex acute. Inflorescences axillary, flowers borne singly at alternate nodes; bracts paired at upper nodes, foliaceous. Pedicels: flowers sessile. Flowers: perianth and androecium perigynous; hypanthium green or reddish, cup-shaped, 10-veined, commisural veins branched ca. at base of sepals; sepals 5, connate proximally ca. 1 mm, green or reddish, 3-veined (lateral pair 1/8 length of midvein), triangular-ovate, margins white, scarious, apex acute; petals absent; nectaries unknown; stamens 5, arising between sepals; filaments distinct; staminodes 5, alternating with stamens, scalelike; styles 3, filiform, ca. 0.3 mm, without stiff hairs proximally; stigmas 3, linear along adaxial surface, minutely papillate (50×). Capsules ovoid, opening by 3 apical, spreading valves; carpophore absent. Seeds ca. 30(-60), yellowish green to brown, translucent, elliptic to ovoid, reniform, slightly laterally compressed, muriculate, marginal wing absent, appendage absent.[8] [more]

Githago

Gooringia

[more]

Gouffeia

Greniera

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Gypsophila

Gypsophila ()?commonly known as baby's-breath in the United States and Canada, "soap wort"[citation needed] in the United Kingdom, elsewhere Gypsophila?is a genus of about 100 species of flowering plants in the family Caryophyllaceae, native to Europe, Asia and north Africa. Many species are found on calcium-rich soils, including gypsum, hence the name of the genus. Some species are also sometimes called "baby's breath" or simply, "Gyp", among the floral industry. Its botanical name means "lover of chalk", which is accurate in describing the type of soil in which this plant grows. [more]

Hagaea

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Halianthus

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Hedona

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Heliosperma

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Herniaria

Herbs, annual, biennial, or perennial. Taproots slender. Stems ascending or spreading to often prostrate, much-branched from base, mat-forming, terete. Leaves opposite, or distalmost alternate (from reduction of 1 member of a pair), connate by a line of tissue between adjacent stipules, sessile or virtually so; stipules 2 per node, inconspicuous, white, ovate to deltate, margins ciliate, apex acute; blade 1-veined, oblanceolate to elliptic or suborbiculate, not succulent, apex acute to rounded. Inflorescences densely clustered cymes usually on short lateral branches opposite a leaf; bracts paired, resembling stipules, smaller. Pedicels: flowers sessile. Flowers: hypanthium cup-shaped, not abruptly expanded distally; sepals 5, distinct, greenish to whitish green, lanceolate to oblong, 0.5-1.5 mm, herbaceous, margins green, herbaceous, apex acute to subobtuse, not hooded, not awned; nectaries near inner surface of filament bases; stamens (2-) 4-5; filaments distinct; staminodes 5, arising from hypanthium rim, subulate-filiform, inconspicuous; styles 2, connate in proximal 3, filiform, 0.1-0.4 mm, glabrous proximally; stigmas 2, linear along adaxial surfaces of style branches, papillate (100×). Utricles at least partly enclosed by hypanthium, opening irregularly. Seeds dark brown or black, ovoid to lenticular, slightly laterally compressed, shiny, smooth, marginal wing absent, appendage absent; embryo peripheral, curved. x = 9.[9] [more]

Heterochiton

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Heterochloa

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Heterochroa

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Honckenya

Herbs, perennial, forming large mats or clumps by leafy rhizomes; rhizomes fleshy, often with prominent nodal buds and small membranous leaves. Taproots slender. Stems prostrate to decumbent, flowering stems ascending or weakly erect, simple or branched, terete or weakly 4-angled. Leaves not basally connate, sessile; blade 1-veined or obscurely so, usually elliptic to ovate, less commonly lanceolate to oblanceolate, obovate, or broadly elliptic, succulent, apex acute to acuminate or apiculate. Inflorescences terminal, open, leafy, 1-6-flowered cymes or axillary and flowers solitary; bracts paired, foliaceous. Pedicels erect. Flowers functionally unisexual or, occasionally, staminate plants also with some bisexual; perianth and androecium subperigynous; hypanthium minimal; sepals 5(-6), distinct, green, narrowly ovate to elliptic, 3.5-7 mm, herbaceous, margins pale, scarious, apex obtuse or acute to apiculate, not hooded; petals absent or 5(-6), white, base clawed, blade apex emarginate; nectaries at base of filaments opposite sepals enlarged on both sides of filament, slightly reduced in pistillate flowers; stamens 10, fertile in staminate flowers, fewer or abortive in pistillate flowers, arising from rim of very brief hypanthium disc; filaments distinct; staminodes absent; styles (2-) 3-5(-6), filiform, 1-2 mm, shorter and erect in staminate flowers, glabrous proximally; stigmas (2-) 3-5(-6), linear along adaxial surface of styles, minutely papillate (30×). Capsules globose, inflated, opening by 3 spreading valves; carpophore absent. Seeds 3-15, reddish brown to dark reddish or yellowish brown, narrowly to broadly obovate, laterally compressed, smooth to minutely papillate, marginal wing absent, appendage absent. x = 15.[10] [more]

Honkenya

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Hylebia

[more]

Illecebrum

[more]

Ixoca

Kabulia

A Genus in the Kingdom Animalia. [more]

Kalmiothamnus

[more]

Kohlrauschia

[more]

Krascheninikovia

[more]

Krauseola

Lahaya

[more]

Larbrea

[more]

Lepigonum

[more]

Leptosilene

[more]

Lepyrodiclis

Herbs, annual. Taproots slender. Stems ascending to decumbent or sprawling, simple or branched, terete or angled. Leaves connate proximally, sessile; blade 1-veined, lanceolate or rarely elliptic, not succulent, apex acute. Inflorescences axillary and terminal, compound cymes; bracts paired, foliaceous, smaller. Pedicels reflexed in fruit. Flowers: perianth and androecium weakly perigynous; hypanthium minimal; sepals 5, distinct, green, lanceolate to elliptic or ovate, 4-5 mm, herbaceous, margins white, scarious, apex somewhat acute, not hooded; petals 5, white or pink, not clawed, blade apex entire or emarginate; nectaries at base of filaments opposite sepals; stamens 10, arising from nectariferous disc at ovary base; filaments distinct nearly to base; staminodes absent; styles 2, clavate, 3.5-4 mm, glabrous proximally; stigmas 2, subterminal, minutely roughened to papillate (50×). Capsules globose-ovoid, opening by 2 straight valves; carpophore absent. Seeds 1-2(-4), dark brown, reniform, laterally compressed, tuberculate, marginal wing absent, appendage absent. x = 17.[11] [more]

Leucodonium

[more]

Loeflingia

Herbs, annual. Taproots slender. Stems prostrate to erect, usually dichotomously branched at or near base, terete. Leaves opposite, basal leaves absent, axillary leaf clusters often present, weakly connate, sessile; stipules 2 per node, ± white to silvery, bristlelike, margins entire, apex acuminate; blade 1-veined or obscurely so, subulate to oblong, not succulent, apex blunt to spine-tipped. Inflorescences axillary, 1(-2) -flowered; bracts absent. Pedicels: flowers sessile. Flowers: perianth and androecium hypogynous; sepals ± distinct, green, linear to lanceolate, 1.8-6.5 mm, herbaceous, margins silvery, often scarious, apex acute to spinose; petals absent or rudimentary; nectaries not apparent; stamens 3-5, arising from base of ovary; filaments distinct; styles 3, distinct, filiform, shorter than 0.1 mm, glabrous proximally; stigmas 3, linear along adaxial surface of styles, papillate (30×). Capsules lanceoloid to ovoid, opening by 3 slightly recurved valves; carpophore absent. Seeds 25-35, tan with reddish brown band on curved edge, tear-shaped, plump, minutely papillate on broadly grooved edge, marginal wing absent, appendage absent.[12] [more]

Lyallia

[more]

Lychnanthos

[more]

Lychnis

Lychnis () is a genus of 15-25 species of flowering plants in the family Caryophyllaceae, native to Europe, Asia and north Africa. The genus is closely related to (and sometimes included in) Silene, differing in the flowers having five styles (three in Silene), the seed capsule having five teeth (six in Silene), and in the sticky stems of Lychnis. Common names include campion (shared with Silene) and catchfly, the latter name based on the sticky stems. [more]

Lychnisilene

[more]

Malachium

[more]

Melandrium

[more]

Melandryum

Melargyra

[more]

Mesostemma

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Micropetalon

[more]

Microphyes

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Minuartia

Minuartia is a genus of small flowering plants collectively known as the sandworts or stitchworts. The genus is classed within the family Caryophyllaceae, the pink family, characterised by its opposite and decussate leaves. [more]

Moehringia

Moehringia is a genus of plant in family Caryophyllaceae. It contains the following species (but this list may be incomplete): [more]

Moenchia

Moenchia is a genus of plants in the family Caryophyllaceae with three species native to the Mediterranean region of southern Europe and naturalised in southern Africa and parts of North America and Australia. They are herbs, with an annual life span. They have slender roots and thin stems that are upright or ascending. Inflorescences are one- to three-flowered and terminally end the stems. The flowers are in spreading cymes or solitary, with bracts paired that are leaf like. Named for Conrad Moench. Common names for the plants in this genus include upright chickweed. [more]

Moerhingia

Mollugophytum

[more]

Muscipula

[more]

Myosanthus

[more]

Myosoton

Herbs, perennial. Taproots slender, rhizomes slender. Stems decumbent to ascending, simple or branched, terete to angular. Leaves sessile leaves clasping proximally, petiolate (proximal leaves) or sessile (most cauline leaves) ; blade 1-veined, ovate to broadly elliptic, not succulent, apex acute. Inflorescences axillary or terminal, open cymes; bracts paired, foliaceous, smaller. Pedicels ascending to erect, reflexed in fruit. Flowers bisexual, occasionally pistillate or reduced and sterile; perianth and androecium weakly perigynous; hypanthium minimal; sepals 5, distinct, green, ovate, 4-6(-9) mm, herbaceous, margins green or white, herbaceous or scarious, apex acute, not hooded; petals 5, white, claw absent, blade apex deeply 2-fid; nectaries at base of filaments opposite sepals; stamens 10, occasionally fewer, arising from nectariferous disc at ovary base; filaments distinct; staminodes sometimes present, linear; styles 5(-6), distinct, filiform, 0.7-1.8 mm, glabrous proximally; stigmas 5(-6), linear along adaxial surface of styles, papillate (30×). Capsules ovoid to globose-ovoid, opening by 5(-6), slightly recurved, briefly 2-fid valves; carpophore absent. Seeds 50-100, brown-blackish, reniform, laterally compressed, papillate, marginal wing absent, appendage absent. x = 14.[13] [more]

Nertera

Nertera is a genus of about 15 species of flowering plants in the family Rubiaceae, native to the Southern Hemisphere, in South America and Australasia, with one species extending into the Northern Hemisphere in Central America and eastern Asia. The name derives from the Greek word nerteros, meaning low down. Common names include pincushion, coral bead or bead plant. They are prostrate, creeping, mat-forming herbaceous perennial plants growing to 20?40 cm (7.9?16 in) across or more but no more than a few centimetres high. The leaves are usually quite small, and when crushed may in some species release a foul smell (methanethiol) like the related woody genus Coprosma. The flowers are insignificant and probably wind-pollinated. The fruit is usually a bright orange berry, but in some species may be a dry capsule. [more]

Neumayera

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Nyachia

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Oberna

Oncerum

[more]

Ortegia

Otites

[more]

Parahebe

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Paronichia

Paronychia

Herbs, annual, biennial, or perennial, sometimes with woody base. Taproots filiform to stout. Stems prostrate, ascending, or erect, simple or branched, terete to angular. Leaves opposite, connate by stipules from adjacent leaves, petiolate (basal) or sessile (cauline) ; stipules 2 per node, often conspicuous, white or silvery, subulate to lanceolate or ovate, margins entire or fimbriate, apex subobtuse or acute to acuminate, unlobed or sometimes deeply 2-fid; blade 1-veined, linear to elliptic, oblanceolate, or spatulate, sometimes thickened and succulent, apex obtuse or acute to acuminate or spinose. Inflorescences terminal or sometimes axillary, frequently much-branched or congested cymes, or flowers solitary; bracts paired, dimorphic (resembling leaf blades and stipules), often concealing flowers. Pedicels erect in fruit. Flowers bisexual or rarely unisexual, some plants also having staminate unisexual flowers, others also having pistillate unisexual flowers, not woolly, with hairs ± straight or tips coiled, 0.1-0.3 mm; hypanthium cup-shaped, tapering or expanded distally; sepals (3-) 5, connate proximally, white or yellowish to green or reddish or purplish brown, subulate to linear-oblong, lanceolate, spatulate, or ovate, 0.4-4.5 mm, margins translucent to white, scarious or papery, apex defined by a usually prominent adaxial hood, ascending to slightly descending, rounded to triangular, sometimes absent (P. americana, P. erecta), apex obtuse or rounded, usually with terminal or subterminal cusp, crest, mucro, or prominent awn (often thickened-conic proximally, spinose distally) ; nectar secreted from within hypanthium; stamens usually 5; filaments distinct or connate proximally with alternating staminodes; staminodes absent or 5, arising from hypanthium rim, subulate to narrowly triangular, filiform, or oblong; styles 1-2(-3), distinct or often connate proximally 10- 10 of length, subcapitate to filiform, 0.07-3.2 mm, glabrous proximally; stigmas 2(-3), subterminal or linear along adaxial surface of style branches, obscurely papillate (50×). Utricles ovoid to globose or rarely 4-angular, membranous, indehiscent. Seeds brown, subglobose to ellipsoid, laterally compressed, smooth, marginal wing absent, appendage absent; embryo peripheral, curved. x = 7, 8, 9.[14] [more]

Pentastemonodiscus

Petrocoma

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Petrocoptis

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Petrophagia

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Petrorhagia

Petrorhagia is a small genus of annual and perennial plants of the pink or carnation family, native to the Mediterranean region. The genus is often referred to as Tunica, which is an obsolete synonym. It is low-growing with wiry stems and narrow, grass-like leaves. The flowers are small, in clusters similar to members of the genus Dianthus, in pink, lilac, or white. Petrorhagia saxifraga is the tunic flower or coat flower, similar to Baby's Breath, but shorter, and used in rock gardens. [more]

Petrorrhagia

Phaloe

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Phryna

[more]

Physocarpon

[more]

Physolychnis

[more]

Pinosia

[more]

Pirinia

[more]

Pleconax

Pleioneura

[more]

Polia

A Genus in the Kingdom Animalia.[15] [more]

Polium

[more]

Polycarpaea

Polycarpaea is a genus of plant in family Caryophyllaceae. It contains the following species (but this list may be incomplete): [more]

Polycarpea

Polycarpon

Herbs, annual. Taproots slender. Stems prostrate to erect, branched, terete to finely ridged. Leaves opposite or in whorls of 4, not connate, petiolate; stipules 2 per node, silvery, lanceolate to triangular-ovate, margins entire or irregularly cut, apex acuminate to aristate; blade 1-veined, spatulate or oblanceolate to ovate or elliptic, not succulent, apex obtuse, sometimes mucronate. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, dense or lax cymes; bracts paired or absent. Pedicels erect. Flowers: perianth and androecium perigynous; hypanthium minute, cup-shaped, not abruptly expanded distally; sepals distinct, green, lanceolate to elliptic or ovate, often keeled, 1-2.5 mm, herbaceous, margins white, scarious, apex acute, ± hooded, ± awned; petals often fugacious, 5, white, blade apex emarginate; nectaries between filament bases; stamens 3-5; filaments shortly connate distally around ovary; style 1, obscurely 3-branched, filiform, 0.1-0.3 mm, glabrous proximally; stigmas 3, linear along adaxial surface of style branches, papillate (30×). Capsules ovoid to spherical, opening by 3 incurved or twisting valves; carpophore present. Seeds ca. 8-15, whitish, ovoid to lenticular or triangular, laterally compressed to angular, papillate or granular, marginal wing absent, appendage absent. x = [7], 8, 9.[16] [more]

Polyschemone

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Provencheria

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Psammophila

[more]

Psammophiliella

[more]

Psammosilene

Herbs perennial. Roots long conical, fleshy. Stems several, diffuse, branched. Leaves ovate, subcarnose, midvein prominent. Flowers bisexual, subsessile, small. Inflorescence a thyrse, densely glandular pubescent; bracts herbaceous. Calyx tubular-campanulate, herbaceous, 15-veined, slightly convex, veins free at apex, 5-toothed. Petals 5, purple-red, narrowly spatulate, margin entire, claw attenuate. Stamens 5, opposite calyx teeth. Ovary 1-loculed; ovules 2, anatropous; styles 2. Capsule clavate, thin, nearly unsplit. Seed 1, narrowly obovoid, plano-convex.[17] [more]

Pseudocerastium

Herbs perennial. Stems erect or ascending. Leaves ovate to obovate-spatulate; stipules absent. Inflorescence a leafy dichasium; bracts immediately subtending calyx absent. Sepals 5. Petals 5, white, deeply bifid. Stamens 10. Ovary 1-loculed; ovules numerous; styles 5, opposite sepals, attached to deciduous disc. Capsule shortly cylindric, dehiscing with 10 apical teeth. Seeds numerous, reniform, tuberculate; embryo curved.[18] [more]

Pseudostellaria

Herbs, perennial. Taproots absent, rhizomes usually with spherical or elongate, tuberous thickenings or vertical fleshy roots, rooting at nodes. Stems ascending to erect, simple or branched, terete or 4-angled. Leaves connate proximally into sheath, sessile; blade 1-veined, linear to lanceolate or elliptic, not succulent, apex acute. Inflorescences terminal, open cymes, or flowers solitary; bracts paired, smaller, herbaceous or scarious. Pedicels recurved to reflexed from base or abruptly bent downward near distal end in fruit. Flowers: perianth and androecium hypogynous; sepals 5, distinct, green, narrowly ovate to lanceolate, 3-7 mm, herbaceous, margins white, scarious, apex obtuse or acute to acuminate, not hooded; petals 5 [absent in cleistogamous flowers], white, not clawed, blade apex 2-fid to V-shaped notch 10-1/ 5 of length; nectaries adnate to base of filaments opposite sepals, circular, thickened, 2-2 1/2 times filament width; stamens 5 or 10, arising from base of ovary; filaments distinct; styles 3, capitate to clavate, 2-4.5 mm, glabrous proximally; stigmas 3, terminal or linear along adaxial surface of styles, minutely papillate (30×). Capsules ovoid, opening by 6, ± 2-3 times recoiled valves; carpophore absent. Seeds 1-3, red-brown or brown, circular to oblong or elliptic, plump or laterally compressed, tuberculate, marginal wing absent, appendage absent. x = 8.[19] [more]

Pteranthus

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Pycnophyllopsis

[more]

Pycnophyllum

[more]

Queria

Rhodalsine

[more]

Rigidella

[more]

Robbairea

[more]

Sabulina

[more]

Sagina

Sagina (like Colobanthus called "pearlworts") is a genus of 20?30 species of flowering plants in the family Caryophyllaceae. These are flowering herbs native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere extending south to tropical mountain areas at high altitudes, reaching just south of the equator in Africa. They are small annual or perennial herbaceous plants, erect or prostrate, growing to 5?15 cm tall or broad. The leaves are opposite, often in tight whorl-like clusters, simple linear, typically 5?20 mm long. The flowers are solitary or in small cymes, with four or five green sepals and an equal number of white petals; the petal size relative to the sepal size is useful in species identification. The fruit is a small capsule containing several seeds. [more]

Sanctambrosia

[more]

Saponaria

Saponaria, also known as soapwort, is a genus of about 20 species of perennial herbs in the Caryophyllaceae, native to southern Europe and southwest Asia. They grow to a height of 10-60 cm, with opposite leaves 1-6 cm long. The flowers are produced in tight clusters on the stem, 4-25 mm diameter, with five white, yellow, pink, or pale purple petals. [more]

Schiedea

Schiedea is a genus of in family Caryophyllaceae. It contains the following species (but this list may be incomplete): [more]

Scleranthus

Herbs, annual, biennial, or perennial. Taproots slender. Stems erect to prostrate, branched, terete. Leaves connate proximally, sessile; blade 1-veined, subulate to linear, not succulent, apex acute or obtuse. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, lax to dense cymes; bracts paired, foliaceous. Flowers sessile to subsessile; perianth and androecium perigynous; hypanthium urceolate, abruptly expanded distally; sepals 5, distinct, greenish, lanceolate to awl-shaped, 1.5-4 mm, herbaceous, margins whitish, scarious, apex acute to blunt or obtuse; petals absent; nectariferous disc at base of stamens; stamens 2-10, arising from hypanthium rim; filaments distinct; staminodes absent or 5-8, arising from hypanthium rim, filiform; styles 2, capitate, 0.8-1 mm, glabrous proximally; stigmas 2, terminal, minutely papillate (50×). Utricles ovoid, enclosed in persistent, indurate, shallowly or strongly furrowed, sepal-crowned hypanthium and falling with it, the whole constituting the indehiscent fruit; carpophore present. Seeds 1, yellowish, globose, not compressed, smooth, marginal wing absent, appendage absent. x = 11 [12].[20] [more]

Scopulophila

Herbs, perennial, dioecious, with thick, woody crown. Taproots stout. Stems ascending to erect, branched distally, terete to angular, base densely woolly. Leaves opposite, connected by thickened ridge or transverse wing from which stipules arise, sessile; stipules 2 per node, white, triangular, margins jagged to ciliate, apex entire to 2-lobed; blade obscurely 1-veined, linear to lanceolate, somewhat succulent, apex acute to apiculate. Inflorescences reduced axillary cymes, proliferating with age; bracts paired, resembling stipules, smaller, scarious. Flowers functionally unisexual, sessile; hypanthium conic to urceolate, abruptly expanded distally; sepals 5, distinct, green, linear-elliptic to orbiculate, 1.1-2.1 mm, herbaceous, margins white, scarious, apex broadly rounded, not hooded, not awned; nectaries minute, reddish thickenings adaxially subtending filament bases; stamens 5, abortive or sterile in pistillate flowers; filaments distinct to base; staminodes 5, arising from hypanthium rim, alternating with stamens, petaloid, oblong; ovary sterile in staminate flowers; styles 3, connate in proximal 1/3- 3, filiform, ca. 1.5 mm, glabrous proximally; stigmas 3, linear along adaxial surface of styles, obscurely papillate (50×). Modified utricles ellipsoid, opening by 3 spreading, minute, toothlike valves. Seeds tan with red spot near one end, ovoid, slightly laterally compressed, minutely roughened, marginal wing absent, appendage absent; embryo central, straight to slightly curved.[21] [more]

Scribaea

[more]

Seriphidium

[more]

Silene

Silene is a genus of flowering plants in the family Caryophyllaceae. Common names include campion (shared with the related genus Lychnis) and catchfly. [more]

Silenopsis

[more]

Smegmathamnium

[more]

Somerauera

[more]

Spergella

[more]

Spergula

Spergula is a genus of about five plants belonging to the family Caryophyllaceae. Their usual English name is spurrey. Commonly found in grassland, the genus originated in the Northern Hemisphere, but is now found worldwide. [more]

Spergularia

Spergularia is a genus of the Caryophyllaceae family, and consists of sea-spurreys. [more]

Spergulastrum

[more]

Sphaerocoma

[more]

Stellaria

Plants annual, winter annual, or perennial. Taproots usually slender, perennial taxa often rhizomatous, rooting at nodes. Stems prostrate to ascending or erect, simple or branched, terete or 4-angled. Leaves sometimes connate basally into sheath, often sessile; blade 1-veined, linear or lanceolate to ovate or deltate, succulent (S. crassifolia [gemmae], S. fontinalis, S. humifusa, and S. irrigua) or not, apex acute or obtuse. Inflorescences terminal, open cymes, rarely axillary (S. alsine, S. americana) or umbellate (S. umbellata), or terminal or axillary solitary flowers; bracts paired (1 in S. dicranoides), foliaceous, scarious and reduced, or absent. Pedicels erect, sometimes reflexed in fruit, glabrous or pubescent, not glandular. Flowers usually bisexual (S. dicranoides unisexual) ; perianth and androecium hypogynous or weakly perigynous; hypanthium cup- or disc-shaped; sepals (4-) 5, distinct, green, occasionally purple tinged (S. irrigua) or red proximally (S. pallida), lanceolate to ovate-triangular, 2-12 mm, herbaceous (rarely coriaceous), margins often white, scarious, apex acute, acuminate, or obtuse, not hooded; petals (1-) 5 or absent, white (sometimes translucent in S. borealis), not clawed, blade apex 2-fid usually for 3- 5 its length (S. holostea occasionally laciniate) ; nectaries at base of filaments opposite sepals usually present, disc sometimes prominent; stamens (1-) 5 or 10 or absent, arising from nectariferous disc (prominent in S. dicranoides and S. irrigua) at ovary base; filaments distinct; staminodes absent; styles [2-]3(-5), capitate to clavate, 0.2-7 mm, glabrous proximally; stigmas [2-]3(-5), terminal or subterminal, papillate (30×). Capsules globose to conic, opening by 3 or 6, occasionally 4, 8, or 10 ascending to recurved valves; carpophore present or absent. Seeds (1-) 3-20+, yellow-brown to dark brown, globose to ellipsoid, laterally compressed, rarely shiny, papillate or rugose, rarely smooth, marginal wing absent, appendage absent. x = 10, 11, 12, 13, 15.[22] [more]

Stellularia

[more]

Steris

[more]

Stichophyllum

[more]

Stipulicida

Herbs, annual (or short-lived perennial?). Taproots filiform to stout. Stems diffuse to erect, repeatedly dichotomous, terete. Leaves opposite (cauline) or rosulate (basal), connate (distally) or not (proximally), petiolate (basal) or sessile (cauline) ; stipules 2 per node (cauline leaves) or forming tuft of to 14+ per node (basal leaves), white to tan, filiform, forming incised or notched nodal fringe; blade 1-veined, spatulate to suborbiculate (basal) or scalelike, subulate to triangular (cauline), not succulent, apex obtuse. Inflorescences terminal, compact, few-flowered cymes; bracts paired, scalelike. Pedicels erect. Flowers: perianth and androecium hypogynous; sepals distinct, reddish brown, elliptic to obovate, 0.8-2 mm, scarious, margins scarious, apex acute to obtuse or mucronate; petals 5, white, blade apex entire to erose; nectaries as minute, rounded lobes flanking filament bases; stamens 3-5; filaments distinct; styles 3, distinct or nearly so, capitate, ca. 0.2 mm, glabrous proximally; stigmas 3, terminal, obscurely papillate (30×). Capsules ellipsoid to globose, opening by 3 recurved valves; carpophore absent. Seeds ca. 20, golden chestnut to reddish brown, ± triangular, laterally compressed, lustrous, reticulate, marginal wing absent, appendage absent.[23] [more]

Strophium

[more]

Tahina

Telephium

[more]

Thurya

[more]

Thylacospermum

Cushion shrubs, perennial. Taproot woody. Stems densely caespitose, becoming woody when old. Leaves densely imbricate, sessile, small; leaf blade ovate, small; stipules absent. Inflorescence a solitary flower in terminal leaf axil. Flower 5(or 4) -merous. Pedicel nearly absent. Sepals connate below middle, tube obconic. Petals entire. Stamens ca. 2 × as many as sepals; filaments glandular at base, inserted at disc edges. Ovary 1-loculed with several ovules; styles 3(or 2), linear. Fruit a capsule, globose, leathery, 6(or 4) -toothed, several seeded. Seeds reniform, large; testa spongy, ± smooth.[24] [more]

Tissa

[more]

Tryphane

[more]

Tunica

[more]

Uebelinia

[more]

Vaccaria

Herbs, annual. Taproots stout. Stems simple proximally, branched distally, terete. Leaves opposite, somewhat clasping or connate proximally into sheath, petiolate (basal) or sessile (cauline) ; blade 1-veined, lanceolate to oblong- or ovate-lanceolate, apex acute to obtuse. Inflorescences terminal, lax to erect, open, often flat-topped cymes; bracts paired, foliaceous; involucel bracteoles absent. Pedicels erect. Flowers: sepals connate proximally into tube, 9-17 cm, tube whitish green, 5-veined, cylindric to ovoid, 5-angled or winged, especially in fruit, commissures between sepals absent; lobes green, 1-veined, obovate to broadly triangular, shorter than tube, margins green or reddish, scarious, apex acute or acuminate; petals 5, pink to purplish, clawed, auricles absent, coronal appendages absent, blade apex entire or sometimes briefly 2-fid; nectaries at filament bases; stamens 10, adnate to petals; filaments distinct; staminodes absent; ovary 1-locular or sometimes 2-locular proximally; styles 2(-3), filiform, 10-12 mm, glabrous proximally; stigmas 2(-3), linear along adaxial surface of styles, papillate (30×). Capsules oblong to subglobose, exocarp opening by 4(-6) slightly spreading teeth, endocarp opening irregularly; carpophore present. Seeds ca. 10, black, subglobose, laterally compressed, papillose, marginal wing absent, appendage absent; embryo peripheral, curved. x = 15.[25] [more]

Velezia

Herbs, annual. Taproots slender. Stems simple or branched, terete. Leaves connate proximally by line of tissue or sheath, sessile; blade 3-veined, linear to subulate, apex acute. Inflorescences axillary, flowers generally solitary; bracts foliaceous; involucel bracteoles absent. Pedicels erect. Flowers: sepals 11-15 mm; tube green, 15-veined, narrowly cylindric, terete, commissures between sepals absent, lobes green or reddish, 3-veined proximally, lanceolate-acuminate, shorter than tube, margins silvery, scarious, apex acute; petals 5, pink or purple, clawed, auricles absent, corona of 6-8, linear to lanceolate segments, blade apex entire or notched; nectaries at filament bases; stamens 5; filaments distinct; staminodes absent; ovary 1-locular; styles 2, 9-10 mm, glabrous proximally; stigmas 2, linear along adaxial surface of styles, papillate (30×). Capsules narrowly cylindric, opening by 4 ascending teeth; carpophore present. Seeds 6-8, black, ovate-oblong, dorsiventrally compressed, finely papillate, marginal wing absent, appendage absent; embryo central, straight. x = 14.[26] [more]

Viscago

[more]

Viscaria

[more]

Wahlbergella

[more]

Wierzbickia

[more]

Wilhelmsia

Herbs, perennial; rhizomes somewhat fleshy, often with prominent nodal buds. Taproots usually not evident. Stems prostrate to decumbent, flowering stems erect or ascending, simple or branched, subterete, main stems often rooting at nodes. Leaves not connate proximally, sessile; blade 1-veined, elliptic-obovate to ovate-rhombic or ovate, slightly succulent, apex weakly acuminate. Inflorescences terminal, solitary flowers; bracts absent. Pedicels erect in fruit. Flowers: perianth and androecium weakly perigynous; hypanthium minute, cup-shaped; sepals 5, distinct, green, lanceolate to ovate or elliptic, usually navicular, 2-2.5 mm, herbaceous, margins white to pink or purple, scarious, apex obtuse to acute or short-acuminate, not hooded; petals 5, white, not or narrowly clawed, blade apex entire to weakly emarginate; nectaries as mounds around filaments opposite sepals, swollen on adaxial side; stamens 10, arising from narrow disc; filaments distinct; staminodes absent; ovary 3-locular when young (incompletely 3-celled by inward extension of margins of carpels in fruit) ; styles 3, narrowly clavate, 2.5-3 mm, glabrous proximally; stigmas 3, subterminal, minutely papillate (30×). Capsules subglobose, inflated, 6-lobed, eventually opening along false septa, sometimes irregularly, into 3, 2-toothed parts; carpophore absent. Seeds 8-16, dark red or brown, subpyriform, laterally compressed, smooth, marginal wing absent, appendage absent. x = 15.[27] [more]

Willwebera

[more]

Wycliffea

[more]

Xamilenis

[more]

Xanthophthalmum

[more]

Xerotia

[more]

More info about the Genus Xerotia may be found here.

Bibliography

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Footnotes

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  1. Dequan Lu, Zhengyi Wu, Lihua Zhou, Shilong Chen, Michael G. Gilbert, Magnus Lidén, John McNeill, John K. Morton, Bengt Oxelman, Richard K. Rabeler, Mats Thulin, Nicholas J. Turland & Warren L. Wagner "Caryophyllaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 6 Page 1. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  2. Lu Dequan, Nicholas J. Turland "Acanthophyllum". in Flora of China Vol. 6 Page 107. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  3. Lu Dequan, Michael G. Gilbert "Brachystemma". in Flora of China Vol. 6 Page 66. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  4. Ronald L. Hartman "Cardionema". in Flora of North America Vol. 5. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  5. John W. Thieret, Richard K. Rabeler "Corrigiola". in Flora of North America Vol. 5. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  6. Ronald L. Hartman "Drymaria". in Flora of North America Vol. 5. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  7. Ronald L. Hartman, Richard K. Rabeler, Frederick H. Utech "Eremogone". in Flora of North America Vol. 5. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  8. Mark A. Nienaber "Geocarpon". in Flora of North America Vol. 5. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  9. John W. Thieret, Ronald L. Hartman, Richard K. Rabeler "Herniaria". in Flora of North America Vol. 5. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  10. Warren L. Wagner "Honckenya". in Flora of North America Vol. 5. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  11. Richard K. Rabeler "Lepyrodiclis". in Flora of North America Vol. 5. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  12. Ronald L. Hartman, Richard K. Rabeler "Loeflingia". in Flora of North America Vol. 5. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  13. Richard K. Rabeler "Myosoton". in Flora of North America Vol. 5. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  14. Ronald L. Hartman, John W. Thieret, Richard K. Rabeler "Paronychia". in Flora of North America Vol. 5. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  15. http://bugguide.net/index.php?q=search&keys=Polia&search=Search
  16. John W. Thieret, Richard K. Rabeler "Polycarpon". in Flora of North America Vol. 5. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  17. Dequan Lu, Zhengyi Wu, Lihua Zhou, Shilong Chen, Michael G. Gilbert, Magnus Lidén, John McNeill, John K. Morton, Bengt Oxelman, Richard K. Rabeler, Mats Thulin, Nicholas J. Turland & Warren L. Wagner "Psammosilene". in Flora of China Vol. 6 Page 108. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  18. Dequan Lu, Zhengyi Wu, Lihua Zhou, Shilong Chen, Michael G. Gilbert, Magnus Lidén, John McNeill, John K. Morton, Bengt Oxelman, Richard K. Rabeler, Mats Thulin, Nicholas J. Turland & Warren L. Wagner "Pseudocerastium". in Flora of China Vol. 6 Page 38. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  19. Ronald L. Hartman, Richard K. Rabeler "Pseudostellaria". in Flora of North America Vol. 5. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  20. John W. Thieret, Richard K. Rabeler "Scleranthus". in Flora of North America Vol. 5. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  21. Ronald L. Hartman "Scopulophila". in Flora of North America Vol. 5. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  22. John K. Morton "Stellaria". in Flora of North America Vol. 5. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  23. Ann Swanson, Richard K. Rabeler "Stipulicida". in Flora of North America Vol. 5. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  24. Lu Dequan, Michael G. Gilbert "Thylacospermum". in Flora of China Vol. 6 Page 38. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  25. John W. Thieret, Richard K. Rabeler "Vaccaria". in Flora of North America Vol. 5. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  26. Ronald L. Hartman, Richard K. Rabeler "Velezia". in Flora of North America Vol. 5. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  27. Warren L. Wagner "Wilhelmsia". in Flora of North America Vol. 5. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.

Sources

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Last Revised: August 26, 2014
2014/08/26 05:20:22