The Cynareae are a tribe of flowering plants in the daisy family Asteraceae. Most of them are commonly known as thistles3]; four of the best known genera are Carduus,Cynara (containing the widely eaten artichoke), Cirsium, and Onopordum.
They are annual, biennial or perennial herbs. Many species are thorny on leaves, stems or involucre, and some have laticifers or resin conduits. Almost 80 genera with 2500 species are assigned to this tribe, native of tempered regions of Europe and Asia (specially of the Mediterranean region and Minor Asia), some of
Australia and tropical Africa; only three genera have native species of America.
Cardueae is a synonym for Cynareae, but the name Cynareae was published almost a decade earlier and so has precedence.
Some authors have divided the plants traditionally held to be in this tribe into three tribes: Cynareae in the narrow sense, Carlineae, and Echinopeae. However, other authors have retained the traditional broader classification.
Acantholepis is a genus of flowering plants in the daisy family. [more]
Russian Knapweed (Acroptilon repens) is a bushy rhizomatous perennial, up to 8 dm tall. Stems and leaves are finely arachnoid-tomentose becoming glabrous and green with age. The rosette leaves are oblanceolate, pinnately lobed to entire, 2?3 cm wide by 3?8 cm long. The lower cauline leaves are smaller, pinnately lobed; the upper leaves become much reduced, sessile, serrate to entire. The heads are numerous terminating the branches. Flowers are pink to purplish, the marginal ones not enlarged. The outer and middle involucral bracts are broad, striate, smooth with broadly rounded tips; the inner bracts are narrower with hairy tips. Pappus present with bristles 6?11 mm long. Fruit is a whitish, slightly ridged achene. [more]
Alfredia is a genus of flowering plants in the daisy family. [more]
Amberboa is a genus of flowering plants in the daisy family. [more]
Carduus is a genus of about 90 species of thistles in the family Asteraceae, native to Europe, Asia and Africa. Carduus is Latin for a thistle. [more]
Carlina (carline thistle) is a genus of about 30 species of thistles in the family Asteraceae, native to Europe, north Africa and Asia. The highest species diversity in the Mediterranean region, and only one species (C. biebersteinii) as far east as China. [more]
The Carthamus (CÃ¡r-tha-mus) genre has mostly Mediterranean thorny plants of the Asteraceae family. [more]
Centaurea ( "Cen-tau-r?-a") is a genus of between 350 and 600 species of herbaceous thistle-like flowering plants in the family Asteraceae. Members of the genus are found only north of the equator, mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere; the Middle East and surrounding regions are particularly species-rich. Common names for this genus are starthistles, knapweeds, centaureas and the more ambiguous "bluets"; a vernacular name used for these plants in parts of England is "loggerheads". The Plectocephalus group ? possibly a distinct genus ? is known as basketflowers. "Cornflowers" is used for a few species, but that term more often specifically means C. cyanus (sometimes also called "Basket Flower"). And while one sometimes finds the name "centauries", this properly refers to the unrelated plant genus Centaurium. [more]
Centaurodendron is a genus of in the Asteraceae family. It contains the following species: [more]
Cephalotaxus, commonly called Plum Yew or Cowtail Pine, is a genus of conifers comprising 11 species, treated in either the Cephalotaxaceae, or in the Taxaceae when that family is considered in a broad sense. The genus is endemic to eastern Asia, though fossil evidence shows it had a wider Northern Hemisphere distribution in the past. The species are evergreen shrubs and small trees reaching 1-10 m (rarely to 20 m) tall. [more]
Ptilostemon (syn. Chamaepeuce DC.) is a genus of the botanical family Asteraceae. [more]
Cirsium is a genus of perennial and biennial flowering plants in the Asteraceae, one of several genera known commonly as thistles. They are more accurately known as Plume thistles. These differ from other thistle genera (Carduus, Silybum and Onopordum) in having feathered hairs to their achenes. The other genera have a pappus of simple unbranched hair. [more]
Cnicus benedictus (St. Benedict's thistle, blessed thistle, holy thistle or spotted thistle), was the sole species in the genus Cnicus, but has been reclassified as Centaurea benedicta. (Note, this is not the same as milk thistle.) [more]
The genus Cousinia of the tribe Cardueae (= ) is in its current circumscription one of the larger genera in the Asteraceae, with approximately 600-700 species distributed in central and western Asia. [more]
Annuals, 20-100 cm, not spiny.Stemserect, openly branched distally.Leavesbasal and cauline (distally reduced to bracts) ; sessile (basal) orpetiolate (cauline) ; blademarginsentire or toothed to pinnatelydivided (basal) or 1-2-pinnately divided (cauline). Headsradiant, borne singly or clustered at branch tips. Involucrescylindric to ovoid.Phyllaries overlapping in 4-6 series, unequal, oblong-lanceolate, acute, unappendaged . Receptacles flat. epaleate, bearing subulatescales.Florets 3-15, outer 2-14 neuter, inner 1-2 fertile; corollaspurple, ± bilateral, tubes slender, gradually expanded into narrowly funnelform throats. lobeslinear; antherbases short-tailed, apicalappendages narrowly triangular; style branches: fused portions with minutely puberulentnodes, distinct portions very short, triangular. Cypselae cylindric [or ± compressed], bases puberulent, facessmooth, not ribbed, distally softly pubescent, attachment scarsbasal. or lateral. ; pappipersistent.
present only on fertile florets, outer 1-2 series of numerous stiff, minutely barbed bristles. inner of 5-10 short lacerate-dentate scales. x = 28, 30.[more]
Cynara is a genus of about 10 species of thistle-like perennial plants in the family Asteraceae, originally from the Mediterranean region, northwestern Africa, and the Canary Islands. [more]
Echinops is a genus of about 120 species of thistles in the daisy family Asteraceae, commonly known as globe thistles. They are native to Europe east to central Asia and south to the mountains of tropical Africa. [more]
Humulus, Hop, is a small genus of flowering plants native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The hop is part of the family Cannabaceae, which also includes the genera Cannabis (hemp), and Celtis (hackberries). [more]
Onopordum L. is a genus of about 40 species of thistles belonging to the family Asteraceae, native to Europe (mainly the Mediterranean region), northern Africa, the Canary Islands, the Caucasus, and southwest and central Asia. They grow on disturbed land, roadsides, arable land and pastures. [more]
Ptilostemon (syn. Chamaepeuce DC.) is a genus of the botanical family Asteraceae. [more]
Rhaponticum is a Genus of plants in the Asteraceae family. [more]
Saussurea is a genus of about 300 species of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae, native to cool temperate and arctic regions of Asia, Europe, and North America, with the highest diversity in alpine habitats in the Himalaya and central Asia. Common names include saw-wort and snow lotus, the latter used for a number of high altitude species in central Asia. [more]
Serratula is a genus of at least 17 species in the daisy family native to the old world. Serratula as traditionally defined contains at least two groups: one of which is basal within the subtribe Centaureinae and one of which is derived; the former group can be moved to the genus . [more]
The milk thistle is a thistle of the genus Silybum Adans., a flowering plant of the daisy family (Asteraceae). They are native to the Mediterranean regions of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. The name "milk thistle" derives from two features of the leaves; they are mottled with splashes of white and they contain a milky sap. [more]
Annuals, to 50 cm. taprooted, not spiny.Stemserect, branched, leafy. branches few-many. ascending.Leavesbasal and cauline; winged-petiolate (basal and proximalcauline.orsessile (mid and distal cauline. ; blademarginsentire to dentate or pinnatelydivided, facesvillous
(hairsseptate), minutely glandular.Headsradiant, borne singly or in few-headed corymbiform arrays. Involucresovoid, 10-15 mm diam. Phyllaries many in several series, unequal, appressed, ovate to lanceolate, margins entire, apicesacute, tipped by ascending, spreading or reflexed, flattened spines. Receptacles flat, epaleate, bristly.Florets:peripheralneuter.corollas pink to purple, [blue, or yellow]. spreading, lobes (5-6), linear; inner fertile, corollas pink to purple, [blue, yellow, or oarea, colored like the outer or not], tubes slender, throats narrowly cylindric, lobes linear-oblong; antherbasestailed, apicalappendages lanceolate; style branches: fused portions with minutely hairynodes, distinct portions short, linear.Cypselae ± barrel-shaped. weakly compressed, ribbed, apices with prominentcollars, faces pitted, attachment scarslateral (excavated, surrounded by prominent rims, with eliasomes) ; pappipersistent, of several series of many distinct.white to tawny, narrow scales.x = 8, 12, 13, 14.[more]
Xeranthemum is a of the genus Xeranthemum native to Southern Europe. It has silvery flower heads with purplish tubular flowers. [more]