Herbs, annual or perennial, erect or twining, dioecious or sometimes monoecious, often with cystoliths (a hard calcium carbonate structure at base of a hair) . Stems furrowed or winged. Stipules free. Leaves alternate or opposite, palmately lobed or compound, sometimes simple. Male inflorescences a bracteate cymose panicle. Male flowers: pedicellate; sepals 5, free; petals absent; stamens 5, opposite sepals; filaments short; anthers 2-loculed, dehiscent by longitudinal slits. Female inflorescences a bracteate spicate cyme much reduced in Cannabis, pendent or erect. Female flowers: sessile; calyx appressed to ovary, membranous; petals absent; ovary 1-loculed; ovule solitary, pendulous from locule apex; style 2-parted, branches filiform. Fruit an achene, covered by persistent calyx; endosperm fleshy; embryo curved or spirally involute.
Because all the Chinese species in this family are cultivated and are often found naturalized in disturbed habitats, it is difficult to know the true wild distributions.
Cannabaceae has sometimes been included in Moraceae or Urticaceae but is now usually recognized as a distinct family. The subfamily Celtidoideae of Ulmaceae could possibly be included within Cannabaceae (see the discussion after the Ulmaceae family description) .
The Family Cannabaceae is further organized into finer groupings including:
- Subfamily (7): Asteroideae · Celtidoideae · Chenopodioideae · Cichorioideae · Citroideae · Epidendroideae · Rhododendroideae
- Tribe (8): Anthemideae · Cardueae · Chenopodieae · Citreae · Coreopsideae · Cymbidieae · Narcisseae · Rhododendreae
- Genus (11): Aphananthe · Cannabis · Celtis · Chaetachme · Gironniera · Humulopsis · Humulus · Lozanella · Parasponia · Pteroceltis · Trema
- Species: ZipcodeZoo has pages for 683 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in the Family Cannabaceae.
Trees or shrubs, deciduous or semi-evergreen, dioecious or monoecious. Branchlets never spinose, never corky or winged. Stipules 2, free, caducous, leaving a short transverse scar on each side of the leaf base. Leaves alternate, distichous or in several ranks; papery to leathery, margin serrate or entire. Flowers appearing at same time as leaves, unisexual. Male inflorescences cymes. Female inflorescences 1-flowered. Male flowers: perianth 4- or 5-parted, tepals imbricate. Ovary absent or inconspicuous and hair-shaped. Stamens equal in number to tepals; filaments erect or apically incurved; anthers oblong. Female flowers: perianth 4- or 5-parted, tepals narrow and ± imbricate. Drupes ovoid to ± globose; exocarp ± fleshy; endocarp bony. Seed with thin endosperm or not; embryo involute; cotyledons narrow. [more]
Cannabis (C?n-na-bis; English pronunciation: ) is a genus of flowering plants that includes three putative varieties, Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis. These three taxa are indigenous to Central Asia, and South Asia. Cannabis has long been used for fibre (hemp), for seed and seed oils, for medicinal purposes, and as a recreational drug. Industrial hemp products are made from Cannabis plants selected to produce an abundance of fiber. To satisfy the UN Narcotics Convention, some hemp varieties have been developed which contain minimal levels of THC (?9- tetrahydrocannabinol), one of the psychoactive molecules that produces the "high" associated with marijuana. The psychoactive product consists of dried flowers of plants selectively bred to produce high levels of THC and other psychoactive chemicals. Various extracts including hashish and hash oil are also produced from the plant. [more]
Celtis, commonly known as hackberries, is a genus of about 60-70 species of deciduous trees widespread in warm temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, in southern Europe, southern and eastern Asia, and southern and central North America, south to central Africa, and northern and central South America. The genus is present in the fossil record at least since the Miocene of Europe. [more]
Trees or shrubs, evergreen, dioecious or rarely monoecious. Branchlets never spinose, never corky or winged. Stipules firm, caducous, usually basally connate, enclosing bud, leaving a single transverse scar that completely encircles stem at each node. Leaves alternate, in several ranks; leaf blade margin entire or shallowly serrate; venation pinnate; secondary veins anastomosing before reaching margin. Inflorescences cymes or 1-flowered. Flowers unisexual. Male flowers: tepals 5, imbricate. Stamens 5; filaments short and erect. Ovary rudimentary, hair-shaped. Female flowers: tepals 5. Ovary sessile. Stigmas papillate. Drupes compressed or not; endocarp bony. Seed with endosperm or not; embryo twisted; cotyledons narrow. [more]
Humulus, Hop, is a small genus of flowering plants native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The hop is part of the family Cannabaceae, which also includes the genera Cannabis (hemp), and Celtis (hackberries). [more]
Trees, deciduous, monoecious. Branchlets never spinose, never corky or winged. Stipules 2, free, linear, caducous, leaving a short transverse scar on each side of leaf base. Leaves often distichous, blade serrate, 3-veined from base; secondary veins branching and often anastomosing before reaching marginal teeth. Male flowers: clustered in proximal leaf axil of one-year-old branchlets. Perianth 5-parted, tepals imbricate. Stamens 5; filaments erect; anthers apically pubescent. Female flowers: solitary in distal leaf axil of one-year-old branchlets. Perianth 4-parted, tepals lanceolate. Ovary laterally compressed. Nut broadly winged, endocarp bony. Endosperm scarce; embryo curved; cotyledons broad. [more]
Trema (Trema) is a genus of about 15 species of evergreen trees closely related to the hackberries (Celtis), occurring in subtropical and tropical regions of southern Asia, northern Australasia, Africa and South and Central America. They are generally small trees, reaching 10-20 m tall. [more]
At least 101 species and subspecies belong to the Genus Trema.
More info about the Genus Trema may be found here.
- Chang Siushih. 1998. Cannaboideae. In: Chang Siushih & Wu Chengyih, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 23(1): 220224.
- Fu Likuo, Chen Chiajui & Tang Yancheng. 1998. Ulmaceae. In: Chun Woonyong & Huang Chengchiu, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 22: 334, 413.
- Zhengyi Wu, Zhe-Kun Zhou & Bruce Bartholomew "Cannabaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 5 Page 74. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
- "Aphananthe". in Flora of China Vol. 5 Page 11. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
- "Gironniera". in Flora of China Vol. 5 Page 11. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
- "Pteroceltis". in Flora of China Vol. 5 Page 9. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
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