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Campanulaceae

(Family)

Overview

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The Campanulaceae are herbs, shrubs, or rarely small trees comprising about 70 genera and 2,000 species usually with milky sap. The leaves are nearly always alternate and simple; stipules are absent The flowers are bisexual, and actinomorphic in the subfamily Campanuloideae but zygomorphic in the Lobelioideae. The perianth and androecium are usually 5-merous, sometimes 3-10-merous. The calyx and corolla each consist of connate segments. The stamens equal the number of corolla lobes, alternate with them, and are adnate to the extreme base of the corolla or epigynous zone or more commonly arise from the annular epigynous nectary disk; the filaments are distinct and the anthers are introrse and only weakly connivent around the style in the Campanuloideae but in the lobelioideae the introrse anthers and also often the filaments are firmly connate. The gynoecium consists of a single compound pistil of usually 2 carpels and locules with numerous axile ovules in the subfamily Lobelioideae but usually consists of 3-5 carpels and locules with numerous axile ovules in the subfamily Campanuloideae. The single style commonly has a number of lobes or stigmas equal to the number of carpels. The ovary is nearly always inferior and is generally crowned with an epigynous annular nectary disk. The fruit is usually a capsule or berry. -- Gerald Carr.

Photos

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Taxonomy

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The Family Campanulaceae is further organized into finer groupings including:

Genera

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Adenophora

Adenophora (Lilyleaf Ladybell) is a genus of flowering plant within the family Campanulaceae. Its prevalent common name is ladybells. Many of its species are quite similar to species of Campanula, from which they differ only through the presence of a tubular or glandular disc at the base of the style. Low foliage rosette, blue, bell-like flowers on stems, heat tolerant, July-Aug., height 24"-36", spread 12"-18". Use for border garden. Prefers well-drained soil. [more]

Aikinia

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Annaea

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Apetahia

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Astrocodon

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Asyneuma

[more]

Asyneura

[more]

Azorina

Azorina is a plant genus within the family Campanulaceae. The sole species, Azorina vidalli, which is native to the Azores, was formerly known as Campanula vidalii. [more]

Berenice

A Genus in the Kingdom Plantae. [more]

Bolelia

[more]

Brighamia

The Hawaiian lobelioids are a group of flowering plants in the bellflower family, Campanulaceae, all of which are endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. This is the largest plant radiation in the Hawaiian Islands, and indeed the largest on any island archipelago, with over 125 species. The six genera can be broadly separated based on growth habit: Clermontia are typically branched shrubs or small trees, up to 7 metres (23 ft) tall, with fleshy fruits; Cyanea and Delissea are typically unbranched or branching only at the base, with a cluster of relatively broad leaves at the apex and fleshy fruits; Lobelia and Trematolobelia have long thin leaves down a single, non-woody stem and capsular fruits with wind-dispersed seeds; and the peculiar Brighamia have a short, thick stem with a dense cluster of broad leaves, elongate white flowers, and capsular fruits. [more]

Burmeistera

Burmeistera is a genus in the family Campanulaceae. [more]

Calcaratolobelia

[more]

Campanopsis

[more]

Campanula

Plants perennial or annual, erect trailing or decumbent, glabrous, pubescent, or hirsute. Leaves simple, alternate or forming rosettes at the base. Inflorescence 1-many flowered, with racemes or spikes. Flowers blue to purple or white. Sepals 5, with or without reflexed appendages between lobes; calyx tube adnate to the ovary, segments 5-lobed. Corolla campanulate, funnel-shaped or tubular. Stamens 5, free, filaments dilated at the base. Ovary 3-locular; style cylindrical; stigmas 3. Fruit a capsule, elongated to ovoid, obovoid or round, with membran¬ous walls; dehiscence by irregular pores at the bases or the sides. Seeds minute, numerous.[1] [more]

Campanulastrum

American bellflower (Campanula americana) is a tall bellflower native to eastern North America from the Great Lakes region south to Florida and from the Dakotas east to New York. Its flowers are light blue to violet and usually form in elongated clusters. It is an unusual bellflower in that its flowers are usually flat and not bell-shaped. It has a varying life-history with seeds germinating in the fall producing annual plants and spring-germinating seeds producing biannual plants. It is generally insect-pollinated, and does not usually self-pollinate. [more]

Campanumoea

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Campylocera

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Canaria

The Canary Islands (; Spanish: Islas Canarias ['izlas ka'na?jas, 'ihlah ka'na?jas]), also known as the Canaries (Spanish: Canarias), is a Spanish archipelago located just off the northwest coast of mainland Africa, 100 km west of the border between Morocco and the Western Sahara. The Canaries are a Spanish autonomous community and an outermost region of the European Union. The islands include (from largest to smallest): Tenerife, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Lanzarote, La Palma, La Gomera, El Hierro, La Graciosa, Alegranza, Isla de Lobos, Monta?a Clara, Roque del Este and Roque del Oeste. The Canary Islands are legally recognized as a nationality of Spain. Geographically it is a part of the African Continent. [more]

Canarina

Canarina is a genus of flowering plants within the family Campanulaceae. The best known species is C. canariensis from the laurel forests of the Canary Islands which is sometimes grown as an ornamental plant. Canarina canariensis is one of a group of unrelated Canarian plants that appear to be adapted for bird pollination, including the members of the genera Isoplexis and Lotus. It was once thought that the original pollinators of these plants were sunbirds which had become extinct on the Canary Islands, explaining why some of these species are rare and considered endangered (Vogel 1954; Vogel et al. 1984; Olesen 1985; Valido et al. 2004). However more recent work has shown that these plants are adequately pollinated by non-specialist flower visiting birds, particularly the Canary Island chiffchaff (Phylloscopus canariensis) and the Canary Island Spectacled Warbler (Sylvia conspicillata orbitalis) (Olesen 1985; Ollerton et al. 2008), and in fact show some specific adaptations to infrequent pollination by these birds, such as extended flower lifespans (Ollerton et al. 2008), and a hexose-dominated sugar ratio of the nectar (Dupont et al. 2004). [more]

Cenekia

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Centropogon

Centropogon is a plant genus in the family Campanulaceae. Some place this in the Lobeliaceae, if recognised. [more]

Cephalostigma

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Cervicina

[more]

Clermontia

The Hawaiian lobelioids are a group of flowering plants in the bellflower family, Campanulaceae, all of which are endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. This is the largest plant radiation in the Hawaiian Islands, and indeed the largest on any island archipelago, with over 125 species. The six genera can be broadly separated based on growth habit: Clermontia are typically branched shrubs or small trees, up to 7 metres (23 ft) tall, with fleshy fruits; Cyanea and Delissea are typically unbranched or branching only at the base, with a cluster of relatively broad leaves at the apex and fleshy fruits; Lobelia and Trematolobelia have long thin leaves down a single, non-woody stem and capsular fruits with wind-dispersed seeds; and the peculiar Brighamia have a short, thick stem with a dense cluster of broad leaves, elongate white flowers, and capsular fruits. [more]

Colensoa

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Craterocapsa

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Cryptocodon

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Cyananthus

[more]

Cyanea

Cyanea may be: [more]

Cyclocodon

[more]

Cylindrocarpa

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Cyphia

[more]

Cyphocarpus

[more]

Delissea

The Hawaiian lobelioids are a group of flowering plants in the bellflower family, Campanulaceae, all of which are endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. This is the largest plant radiation in the Hawaiian Islands, and indeed the largest on any island archipelago, with over 125 species. The six genera can be broadly separated based on growth habit: Clermontia are typically branched shrubs or small trees, up to 7 metres (23 ft) tall, with fleshy fruits; Cyanea and Delissea are typically unbranched or branching only at the base, with a cluster of relatively broad leaves at the apex and fleshy fruits; Lobelia and Trematolobelia have long thin leaves down a single, non-woody stem and capsular fruits with wind-dispersed seeds; and the peculiar Brighamia have a short, thick stem with a dense cluster of broad leaves, elongate white flowers, and capsular fruits. [more]

Depierrea

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Dialypetalum

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Diastatea

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Dielsantha

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Diosphaera

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Dobrowskya

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Dominella

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Dortmanna

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Dortmannia

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Downingia

Downingia is a of 13 annual plants native to western North America and Chile. Commonly known as "calicoflowers", they are notable for forming mass displays of small but colorful blooms around vernal pools. A number are uncommon endemics in California. [more]

Drymocodon

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Dysmicodon

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Echinocodon

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Edraianthus

Edrajanthus

Enchysia

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Erinia

A Genus in the Kingdom Plantae. [more]

Favratia

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Feeria

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Festulpia

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Fockeanthus

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Gadellia

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Githopsis

Githopsis is a small of flowering plants in the bellflower family which are known as bluecups. These are small annual wildflowers with white or purple white-throated blooms. Bluecups are native to western North America, especially California. There are four species within the genus. [more]

Glosocomia

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Glossocomia

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Grammatotheca

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Gunillaea

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Halacsyella

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Hanabusaya

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Haynaldia

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Heterochaenia

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Heterocodon

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Heterotoma

A Genus in the Kingdom Animalia.[2] [more]

Hippobroma

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Holostigma

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Homocodon

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Howellia

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Hypsela

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Hyssaria

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Ireon

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Isolobus

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Isotoma

Isotoma may refer to: [more]

Jasione

Jasione is a of flowering plants within the family Campanulaceae which are native to Europe. [more]

Jasionella

[more]

Laurentia

A Genus in the Kingdom Plantae. [more]

Legenere

Legenere limosa is an annual wildflower of the bellflower family endemic to limited portions of Northern California. This species is the sole member of the genus Legenere. The species common name is False Venus' looking glass. [more]

Legousia

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Leptocodon

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Lightfootia

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Lobelia

Lobelia () is a genus of flowering plant comprising 360?400 species, with a subcosmopolitan distribution primarily in tropical to warm temperate regions of the world, a few species extending into cooler temperate regions. English names include Lobelia, Asthma Weed, Indian Tobacco, Pukeweed, and Vomitwort. [more]

Lysipomia

Lysipomia is a genus of in family Campanulaceae. It contains the following species (but this list may be incomplete): [more]

Macrochilus

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Marianthemum

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Mecoschistum

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Medium

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Merciera

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Metzleria

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Mezleria

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Michauxia

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Microcodon

A Genus in the Kingdom Animalia. [more]

Mindium

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Monopsis

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Muehlbergella

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Musschia

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Mzymtella

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Namacodon

Namacodon is a genus of in family Campanulaceae. It contains the following species (but this list may be incomplete): [more]

Nemacladus

[more]

Neocodon

[more]

Neowimmeria

Nesocodon

Nesocodon is a genus of flowering plants within the family Campanulaceae. The sole species is Nesocodon mauritianus, formerly known as Wahlenbergia mauritiana, which is endemic to the island of Mauritius. It produces red-colored nectar, which is very uncommon in flowering plants, and is pollinated by birds. [more]

Ostrowskia

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Ourisia

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Ovilla

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Palmerella

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Parahebe

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Parastranthus

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Pardanthopsis

[more]

Parishella

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Peracarpa

Petkovia

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Petromarula

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Physoplexis

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Phyteuma

Phyteuma is a genus of about 40-45 species of in the family Campanulaceae, native to Europe and western Asia. The common name is Rampion. Rampion features prominently in some versions of the story of Rapunzel. In the Grimm's brothers' fairy tale "Rapunzel" it is noted that "rapunzel" is the name given to a local form of rampion. [more]

Piddingtonia

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Platicodon

Platycodon

Platycodon grandiflorus is a of perennial flowering plant of the family Campanulaceae and the only member of the genus Platycodon (from Greek "p?at???d??", meaning 'a broad bell'). This species is known as platycodon or Chinese bellflower. Depending upon the region, it is also referred to as the Japanese bellflower, common balloon flower, or balloon flower. It is native to East Asia (such as China, Korea, Japan, and East Siberia) and bears big blue flowers, although varieties with white and pink flowers are in cultivation. In Korea, white flowers are more common. [more]

Pleioblastus

Pleioblastus is a genus of monopodial bamboo. Genetic research indicates that this genus may properly be part of the genus Arundinaria. [more]

Podanthum

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Pongatium

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Popoviocodonia

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Porterella

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Pratia

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Prismatocarpus

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Pseudocampanula

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Pseudonemacladus

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Rapinia

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Rapunculus

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Rapuntium

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Rhigiophyllum

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Rhizocephalum

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Rhynchopetalum

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Roella

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Rollandia

Rollandia can be used to mean the following: [more]

Rotantha

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Roubieva

Roucela

[more]

Sachokiella

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Sclerotheca

Sergia

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Sicyocodon

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Siphocampylus

Siphocampylus is a of plant in family Campanulaceae. It contains the following species (but this list may be incomplete): [more]

Siphocodon

Solenopsis

Solenopsis is a scientific name for two genera: [more]

Specularia

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Sphenoclea

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Streleskia

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Symphyandra

Symphyandra is a genus of 10-12 species of in the family Campanulaceae, mainly native to the eastern part of the Mediterranean region in Asia Minor, the Balkans, and Crete, but with one species in eastern Asia in Korea. The genus is closely related to Campanula, but has connate anthers (fused or joined in the same whorl), while Campanula species have separated anthers. They are mostly biennial (monocarpic) to short lived perennials. They have fleshy roots, with the leaves in a basal rosette, and alternately up the flowering stems. The basal leaves are commonly heart-shaped with toothed margins and covered with short hairs and have long petioles. The flowers are produced in racemes, corymbs or panicles, flowering throughout the summer; they are nodding, tubular bell shaped, colored white or blue. [more]

Theilera

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Theodorovia

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Tracheliopsis

[more]

Trachelium

A Genus in the Kingdom Plantae. [more]

Treichelia

[more]

Trematolobelia

The Hawaiian lobelioids are a group of flowering plants in the bellflower family, Campanulaceae, all of which are endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. This is the largest plant radiation in the Hawaiian Islands, and indeed the largest on any island archipelago, with over 125 species. The six genera can be broadly separated based on growth habit: Clermontia are typically branched shrubs or small trees, up to 7 metres (23 ft) tall, with fleshy fruits; Cyanea and Delissea are typically unbranched or branching only at the base, with a cluster of relatively broad leaves at the apex and fleshy fruits; Lobelia and Trematolobelia have long thin leaves down a single, non-woody stem and capsular fruits with wind-dispersed seeds; and the peculiar Brighamia have a short, thick stem with a dense cluster of broad leaves, elongate white flowers, and capsular fruits. [more]

Trimeris

Trimeris is a genus of the plant family Campanulaceae endemic to the island of St Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean. The only species is Trimeris scaevolifolia (Roxb.) Mabb. - St Helena lobelia, milkwood [more]

Triodanis

Triodanis is a of flowering plants within the family Campanulaceae. [more]

Triodanus

Trochocodon

[more]

Tupa

Tupa, Tupá, or Tupã can refer to: [more]

Unigenes

Wahlembergia

Wahlenbergia

Wahlenbergia is a genus of between 150-270 species of in the family Campanulaceae, with a cosmopolitan distribution except for North America; the highest species diversity is in Africa and Australasia. Wahlenbergia species have dispersed widely, even to oceanic islands, and there are four species known from the island of St Helena, including the now extinct species W. roxburghii. [more]

Weitenwebera

Wimmerella

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Zeugandra

[more]

More info about the Genus Zeugandra may be found here.

Footnotes

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  1. E. Nasir "Campanula". in Flora of Pakistan . Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
  2. http://bugguide.net/index.php?q=search&keys=Heterotoma&search=Search

Sources

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Last Revised: October 03, 2013
2013/10/03 19:02:53