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Arecaceae

(Family)

Overview

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Trees or shrubs [lianas], perennial, branched or unbranched, solitary or clustered. Roots adventitious, thick. Stems woody, subterranean or terrestrial, creeping or erect [climbing], slender or massive, sometimes conspicuously enlarged and storing starch and water, smooth or covered with fibrous or prickly remains of leaf bases. Leaves spirally arranged; sheaths tubular, often forming crownshaft, sometimes with ligular appendages; petioles terete, channeled, or ridged, unarmed or bearing prickles or marginal teeth; hastula (flap of tissue from petiole apex at junction with surface of blade) absent or present adaxially, rarely present abaxially. Leaf blade palmate, costapalmate (intermediate between palmate and pinnate), pinnate, or 2-pinnate [undivided]; plication (folding lengthwise into pleats or furrows) ^ - or tent-shaped (reduplicate, splitting along abaxial ridges) or V-shaped (induplicate, splitting along adaxial ridges) ; segments lanceolate, linear, or cuneate [rhombic], glabrous or variously scaly, unarmed or bearing prickles (proximal segments modified into spines in Phoenix) . Inflorescences from solitary [clustered] axillary buds, borne within, below, or above crown of leaves, paniculate, rarely spicate, usually branched to 1--5 orders; prophyll (1st bract on main inflorescence axis) 2-keeled; peduncular bract(s) (empty bract[s] between 1st prophyll and 1st bract subtending branch) present [absent]; flowers bisexual, unisexual with staminate and pistillate on same plants or on different plants, or both bisexual and unisexual on same plant. Flowers solitary or variously clustered along rachillae of inflorescence, radially symmetric; perianth 1--2-seriate; sepals [2--]3[--4], distinct or connate; petals [2--]3[--4], distinct or variously connate; androecium: stamens [3--]6--34[--1000]; filaments distinct or connate or basally adnate to petals; anthers basifixed or dorsifixed, dehiscing latrorsely or introrsely; staminodes in pistillate flowers distinct or variously connate or adnate to pistil or petals; pistils 1 or 3, distinct or partially connate, each bearing 1 ovule and 1 stigma, or 1 pistil bearing 1--3 ovules and 3 stigmas; styles distinct or connate, short; stigmas dry; pistillode in staminate flower present or absent. Fruits drupaceous or berrylike; stigmatic remains basal or apical; exocarp smooth, warty, prickly, or hirsute [corky or scaly]; mesocarp fleshy or dry and fibrous; endocarp papery, leathery, or bony, sometimes with 3 germination pores. Seeds 1(--2+), free or adhering to endocarp; seed coat thin; endosperm homogeneous or ruminate, sometimes penetrated by seed coat; embryo basal, lateral, or apical, peglike, minute; eophyll (1st seedling leaf with blade) undivided and lanceolate or 2-cleft [pinnate].

Genera 1914, species ca. 2500 (19 genera, 29 species in the flora) : worldwide, especially abundant in Central America, South America, se Asia.

Although palms appeared in various taxonomic schemes since the time of Linnaeus, the first attempt at a modern phylogenetic classification of the palms was published by H. E. Moore Jr. (1973) . Moore left his "major groups" unranked, and his untimely death in 1980 prevented his completing a formal synthesis. J. Dransfield and N. W. Uhl (1986) gave formal ranks to Moore€™s groups and divided the family into six subfamilies and numerous tribes and subtribes. Their Genera Palmarum (N. W. Uhl and J. Dransfield 1987, 1999) is a model of accuracy and completeness and will long serve the needs of the scientific, horticultural, and resource-management communities. With the advent of molecular techniques and a resurgence in palm research, however, realignments in the classification may be expected, and indeed additional data already require some changes in the current scheme (A. Barford 1991; R. G. Bernal et al. 1991; J. L. Dowe and N. W. Uhl 1989; J. Dransfield 1989, 1991; J. Dransfield and H. J. Beentje 1995, 1995b; A. Henderson and M. J. Balick 1991; N. W. Uhl and J. Dransfield 1999; N. W. Uhl et al. 1990, 1995.)

Modern cladistic analyses place the palms as the sister group to the Commelinanae clade (M. W. Chase et al. 1993; J. I. Davis 1995; M. R. Duvall et al. 1993b), with which they share ultraviolet-fluorescent phenolic compounds in their cell walls and Strelitzia-type epicuticular wax morphology (W. Barthlott and D. Frölich 1983; P. J. Harris and R. D. Hartley 1980) . Palms are currently treated as the sole representative of the superorder Arecanae, order Arecales (R. M. T. Dahlgren et al. 1985; R. F. Thorne 1992b) .

Morphologically the family is diverse and complex (see especially P. B. Tomlinson 1990) . The majority of palms produce a single indeterminate stem with axillary inflorescences; several noteworthy departures, however, also occur in numbers of vegetative and floral axes, position of inflorescence, and displacement of terminal bud. Stems may be solitary (monopodial) or clustered (sympodial), erect, prostrate, or lianoid. A majority of palms have unbranched vegetative axes, although aerial branching, sometimes dichotomous, is known in a variety of unrelated genera (e.g., Korthalsia Blume, Nannorrhops H. Wendland) . Branching may also be nonaxiallary in some genera (J. B. Fisher et al. 1989) .

Studies of pollination (F. Borchsenius 1997; F. Ervik and J. P. Feil 1997; A. Henderson 1986; C. Listabarth 1992, 1993, 1993b, 1994; A. O. Scariot et al. 1991) indicate that insect pollination, especially by beetles (Coleoptera), bees and wasps (Hymenoptera), and flies (Diptera), is apparently more common than wind pollination. Bats (Chiroptera) play a role in the pollination of some species (S. A. Cunningham 1995) .

Dispersal of seeds is generally by means of animals for fleshy-fruited palms (S. Zona and A. Henderson 1989) . Many species of mammals include palm fruits in their diets (S. H. Bullock 1980; R. F. Harlow 1961; W. D. Klimstra and A. L. Dooley 1990; D. S. Maehr 1984; D. S. Maehr and J. R. Brady 1984), but birds also play a significant role. In the Eastern Hemisphere, Cocos Linnaeus and Nypa Steck have achieved a wide distribution as the result of dispersal by water. For the relationship between palms and seed-eating bruchid beetles (Bruchidae: Pachymerinae: Pachmerini), see C. D. Johnson et al. (1995) .[1]

Photos

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Taxonomy

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The Family Arecaceae is a member of the Order Arecales. Here is the complete "parentage" of Arecaceae:

The Family Arecaceae is further organized into finer groupings including:

Genera

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Acanthococos

Acrocomia is a genus of palms which is native to the Neotropics, ranging from Mexico in the north, through Central America and the Caribbean, and through South America south to Argentina. [more]

Acanthophoenix

Acanthophoenix is a monoecious genus of flowering plant in the palm family from the Mascarene Islands in the Indian Ocean, where they are commonly called palmiste rouge. A genus long in flux, three species are currently recognized, though unsustainable levels of harvesting for their edible palm hearts have brought them all to near extinction in habitat. They are closely related to the Tectiphiala and Deckenia genera, differing in the shape of the staminate flower. The name combines the Greek words for "thorn" and "date palm". [more]

Acanthorhiza

[more]

Acanthorrhiza

Cryosophila is a genus of medium-sized fan palms which range from central Mexico to northern Colombia. They can be readily distinguished from related genera by their distinctive downward-pointing stem-spines, which are actually modified roots. [more]

Acanthosabal

Acoelorrhaphe is a genus of palms, comprising the single species Acoelorrhaphe wrightii (Paurotis palm, also known as the Everglades palm, Madiera palm and Silver saw palmetto). [more]

Acoelorrhaphe

Acoelorrhaphe is a genus of palms, comprising the single species Acoelorrhaphe wrightii (Paurotis palm, also known as the Everglades palm, Madiera palm and Silver saw palmetto). [more]

Acrista

Prestoea is a genus of palms native to the Caribbean, Central and South America. Its ten species extends from Costa Rica and the Greater Antilles in the north to Brazil and Bolivia in the south. [more]

Acromia

[more]

Acrostigma

Wettinia is a palm genus, consisting of flowering plants in the Arecaceae family. The genus, established in 1837, contains some 20 species, but more seem to await discovery considering that 4 species - W. aequatorialis, , W. minima and W. panamensis - were described as late as 1995. The genus is broadly divided into two groups. One group has the fruits tightly packed, while the other, formerly classified as genus Catoblastus, has fruits scattered along the inflorescence branches. It is not known whether these groups are both monophyletic. The genus is named after Frederick Augustus II of Saxony, of the House of Wettin. [more]

Actinokentia

Actinokentia is a genus of flowering plant in the Arecaceae family, comprising two species. [more]

Actinophloeus

Ptychosperma is a genus of flowering plant in the Arecaceae family. Most are native to Australia and/or New Guinea, but some have been cultivated abroad as house or garden plants. [more]

Actinorhytis

Actinorhytis is a monotypic genus of flowering plant in the palm family found in Oceania. The lone species, Actinorhytis calapparia is a rain forest inhabitant and has the largest fruit of any palm in the . The genus name is from two Greek words meaning 'ray' and 'fold' which describe the endosperm of the seed. [more]

Adonidia

Adonidia is a monotypic genus of flowering plants in the Arecaceae family. It consists of one species, the Manila Palm (Adonidia merrillii, synonyms : Normanbya merrillii Becc. and Veitchia merrillii(Becc.) H.E.Moore). It is commonly known as the "Christmas Palm" because its fruits become bright scarlet and tend to be that color in winter. This palm is typically fairly small and slender, normally attaining 15-25 feet in height but has attained 36 feet grown in greenhouse conditions. [more]

Aeria

Gaussia is a in the palm family, native to Mexico, Central America and the Greater Antilles. They are solitary, unarmed, and have pinnately compound leaves. The trees have enlarged bases and prop-roots. [more]

Alfonsia

[more]

Allogoptera

[more]

Amylocarpus

Amylocarpus is a genus of fungi in the Helotiales order. The relationship of this taxon to other taxa within the order is unknown (incertae sedis), and it has not yet been placed with certainty into any family. [more]

Ancistrophyllum

[more]

Antongilia

Dypsis is a genus of flowering plant in the Arecaceae family. [more]

Aphandra

Aphandra is a monotypic genus of flowering plant in the palm family native to the Amazon Rainforest vegetation in South America (Ecuador, Brazil, and Peru). Its only species is Aphandra natalia, sometimes called mastodon palm or fiber palm, and is used by indigenous peoples in the construction of brooms and other products. This plant is commercially exploited for its edible fruits, and for its leaf sheath and petiole fibers. This fiber is almost equal to the fiber extracted from and Leopoldinia piassaba, which is called piassava. [more]

Arecastrum

Syagrus is a genus of 30 to 42 species of Arecaceae (palms), native to South America, with one species endemic to the Lesser Antilles. The genus is closely related to the Cocos, or coconut genus, and many Syagrus species produce edible seeds similar to the coconut. [more]

Arikury

Syagrus is a genus of 30 to 42 species of Arecaceae (palms), native to South America, with one species endemic to the Lesser Antilles. The genus is closely related to the Cocos, or coconut genus, and many Syagrus species produce edible seeds similar to the coconut. [more]

Arikuryroba

Syagrus is a genus of 30 to 42 species of Arecaceae (palms), native to South America, with one species endemic to the Lesser Antilles. The genus is closely related to the Cocos, or coconut genus, and many Syagrus species produce edible seeds similar to the coconut. [more]

Aristeyera

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Arrudaria

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Asterogyne

Asterogyne is a genus of flowering plant in the Arecaceae family. It contains the following species: [more]

Atitara

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Attabignya

Attalea may refer to: [more]

Augustinea

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Avoira

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Bacularia

Linospadix is a genus of flowering plant in the Arecaceae family. [more]

Barbosa

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Barcella

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Barkerwebbia

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Basselinia

Basselinia is a genus of in the Arecaceae family. It contains the following species: [more]

Beata

[more]

Beethovenia

[more]

Bejaudia

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Bentinckia

Bentinckia is a genus of in the Arecaceae family. It contains the following species: [more]

Bentnickiopsis

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Bessia

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Blancoa

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Bornoa

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Brahea

Brahea is a of palms in the Arecaceae family. They are commonly referred to as Hesper Palms and are endemic to Mexico and Central America. All Hesper Palms have large, fan-shaped leaves. There are 11 species described in the genus as follows: [more]

Brassiophoenix

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Butia X Jubaea

Butiarecastrum

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Butyagrus

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Calamosagus

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Calappa

Calappa is either: [more]

Calospatha

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Calyptrogyne

Calyptrogyne is a genus in the palm family (Arecaceae). The distribution of this genus is restricted to Central America. Calyptrogyne ghiesbreghtiana is the best studied species in this genus. [more]

Campecarpus

[more]

Carpentaria

Carpentaria acuminata (Carpentaria Palm), the sole species in the genus Carpentaria, is a native to tropical coastal regions in the north of Northern Territory, Australia. [more]

Catis

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Catoblastus

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Catostigma

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Chamaethrinax

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Chambeyonia

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Chambeyronia

Chambeyronia is a genus of in the Arecaceae family. It contains the following species: [more]

Chelyocarpus

Chelyocarpus is a genus in the (palm) family. It contains three species of tropical South America: [more]

Chrysalidocarpus

[more]

Chrysallidosperma

[more]

Chuniophoenix

Chuniophoenix is a genus of in the Arecaceae family. It contains the following species: [more]

Cleophora

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Clinostigma

Clinostigma is a genus of in the Arecaceae family. It contains the following species: [more]

Cocops

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Coelococcus

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Coleospadix

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Colpothrinax

Colpothrinax is a genus of palms native to Central America and the Caribbean. Colpothrinax aphanopetala is found in southern Central America (from southeast Nicaragua to Panama), while Colpothrinax cookii is found in northern Central America (from Belize to Honduras). The third species, Colpothrinax wrightii, is endemic to southwest Cuba including the Isle of Youth. [more]

Cryosophila

Cryosophila is a genus of in the Arecaceae family. It includes the following species: [more]

Crysophila

[more]

Crytostachys

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Cucifera

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Curima

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Cyclospathe

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Cyphokentia

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Dasystachys

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Deckeria

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Denea

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Dictyocaryum

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Dictyosperma

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Didymosperma

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Diglossophyllum

Diplothemium

[more]

Douma

A Genus in the Kingdom Plantae. [more]

Dransfieldia

Drymophloeus

Drymophloeus is a genus of in the Arecaceae family. It contains the following species: [more]

Dypsidium

Edanthe

Elate

[more]

Eleiodoxa

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Elephantusia

Eleutheropetalum

Englerophoenix

Eora

Erythea

A Genus in the Kingdom Plantae. [more]

Ethnora

Eugeissonia

Eupritchardia

[more]

Exorrhiza

[more]

Fulchironia

Gastrococos

Acrocomia crispa (Cuban belly palm, Corojo Palm), a palm species which is endemic to Cuba. Formerly placed in its own genus, Gastrococos, recent work found that that genus was nested within Acrocomia. It is a tall, spiny palm with a trunk that is slender at the base, but swollen in the middle, giving it the name "Cuban belly palm" in English. It is closely related to the genus Acrocomia. [more]

Gembanga

Genoma

Geonoma

Geonoma is a genus of small to medium-sized palms native to the forest understorey of tropical Central and South America. [more]

Geonomites

Gigliolia

Glaucothea

Gomutus

Goniocladus

Grisebachia

[more]

Gronophyllum

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Guihaia

[more]

Guilielma

Gulubia

Hydriastele is a diverse and widespread genus of flowering plant in the palm family found throughout Australia and New Zealand, Melanesia, Polynesia, and Southeast Asia. It consisted of just nine species until 2004, when molecular research, supported by morphologic similarities, led taxonomists to include the members of the Gulubia, Gronophyllum, and Siphokentia genera. 48 species are now recognized, of which 38 are new combinations, two are new names and one is a new species. It is named in Greek, combining "hydriad", a water nymph in mythology, and "column". [more]

Gynestum

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Haitiella

Halea

Halmoorea

[more]

Haplodypsis

Haplophloga

Harina

Hemithrinax

Hemithrinax is a genus of palms which is endemic to eastern Cuba. [more]

Hexopetion

Howeia

[more]

Hyospathe

Hyospathe is a genus of in the Arecaceae family. It contains the following species: [more]

Hyphaena

Inodes

A Genus in the Kingdom Plantae. [more]

Jessenia

[more]

Johannesteijsmannia

[more]

Johannesteysmannia

Kajewskia

[more]

Kalbreyera

Kentia

[more]

Kentiopsis

Kentiopsis is a genus of in the Arecaceae family. It contains the following species: [more]

Kerriodoxa

[more]

Kinetostigma

Klopstockia

[more]

Kunthia

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Laccospadix

[more]

Langsdorfia

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Lepidococcus

Lepidorrhachis

[more]

Leptophoenix

[more]

Leucothrinax

Liberbaileya

Lontarus

Loroma

Louvelia

[more]

Lytocaryum X Syagrus

Macrocladus

Macrophloga

Malortiea

[more]

Marara

Markleya

Mascarena

[more]

Mauranthe

Mauritiella

[more]

Maxburretia

Maximiliana

[more]

Meiota

Metasocratea

Micrococos

Microcoelum

[more]

Mischophloeus

Myrialepis

[more]

Nannorhops

Neanthe

[more]

Nengella

[more]

Neoancistrophyllum

Neodypsis

[more]

Neonicholsonia

[more]

Neophloga

[more]

Neowashingtonia

Nephrosperma

Nephrosperma is a genus of in the Arecaceae family. It contains the following species: [more]

Nipa

Normanbya

The Black Palm (Normanbya normanbyi) is a species of in the Arecaceae family. It is found only in Queensland, Australia. It is threatened by habitat loss. [more]

Nunnezharia

[more]

Nunnezharoa

Omanthe

Oothrinax

Ophiria

Opsiandra

[more]

Orania

A genus in the Kingdom Animalia. [more]

Oraniopsis

[more]

Orbignya

[more]

Oreodoxa

[more]

Orophoma

Palandra

[more]

Palma

Palmijuncus

Palmocarpon

Paragulubia

Parajubaea

Parajubaea is a genus of in the Arecaceae family. It contains the following species: [more]

Paralinospadix

[more]

Paschalococos

Paurotis

[more]

Pelagodoxa

Pelagodoxa is a genus of in the Arecaceae family. It contains the following species: [more]

Pericycla

Pholidocarpus

Pholidocarpus is a genus of in the Arecaceae family. It contains the following species: [more]

Pholidostachys

[more]

Pichisermollia

[more]

Pilophora

Pindarea

Plectis

Pogonotium

[more]

Polyandrococos

[more]

Ponapea

Porothrinax

Pritchardiopsis

Pritchardiopsis is a genus of in the Arecaceae family. It contains the following species: [more]

Ptychococcus

[more]

Ptychoraphis

[more]

Pyrenoglyphis

[more]

Raphia

Raphia may mean: [more]

Rapidophyllum

Regelia

Regelia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Myrtaceae. This genus is composed of six species of small leaved, evergreen shrubs and trees that are endemic to Australia. Five of the six species are endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. The sixth species that has been assigned to this genus (R. punicea) is endemic to Kakadu National Park in the Northern Territory and is now considered to belong to a new separate genus, Petraeomyrtus. Regelia species range from 1 to 6 meters in height. They are noted for bearing essential oils. Typically showy blooms are aggregate inflorescences which take the form of heads or spikes depending upon the species. Fruits are a woody, 3-valved capsule which often split upon maturity. [more]

Rehderophoenix

[more]

Reineckia

[more]

Retispatha

[more]

Rhaphis

[more]

Rhopaloblaste

Rhopaloblaste is a genus of in the Arecaceae family. It contains the following species: [more]

Rhyticocos

Roebelia

Rooseveltia

[more]

Roscheria

Roscheria is an endangered, monotypic genus of flowering plant in the palm family. The genus is named for , 19th-century German explorer, and the epithet for its single species R. melanochaetes derives from Latin and Greek meaning 'black' and 'bristle', alluding to the spines covering the trunks. They naturally occur on the Mah? and Silhouette Islands of Seychelles where they grow in mountainous rainforest and are threatened by habitat loss. [more]

Rotang

Saguaster

[more]

Saguerus

[more]

Sagus

[more]

Sargentia

[more]

Saribus

[more]

Scheelea

[more]

Seaforthia

[more]

Sindroa

Siphokentia

[more]

Slackia

Slackia is a genus of , in the family Coriobacteriaceae. [more]

Solfia

Stachyophorbe

[more]

Stephanostachys

Stevensonia

Styloma

[more]

Synechanthus

[more]

Taenianthera

[more]

Taliera

Tessmanniophoenix

Teysmannia

[more]

Thringis

[more]

Thuessinkia

Tilmia

Toxophoenix

Trichodypsis

Verschaffeltia

Verschaffeltia is a genus of in the Arecaceae family. It contains the following species: [more]

Vitiphoenix

[more]

Vonitra

[more]

Welfia

[more]

Wendlandiella

[more]

Wettinella

Wettiniicarpus

Wodyetia X Veitchia

Woodsonia

Wrightea

X Butiagrus

Yarina

Ynesa

Yuyba

[more]

Zombia

Zombia antillarum, commonly known as the zombie palm, is a species of palm tree and the only member of the genus Zombia. It is endemic to the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles. Usually found in dry, hilly areas of northern and southern Haiti and the northwest of the Dominican Republic, Z. antillarum is a relatively short fan palm with clustered stems and a very distinctive appearance caused by its persistent spiny leaf sheaths. Threatened by habitat destruction in Haiti, Z. antillarum is a popular ornamental species due to its distinctive appearance, low maintenance requirements and salt tolerance. [more]

More info about the Genus Zombia may be found here.

Bibliography

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Footnotes

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  1. Scott Zona "Arecaceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 22 Page 95. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.

Sources

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Last Revised: August 26, 2014
2014/08/26 05:12:14