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Herbs, perennial, wetland or terrestrial, occasionally emergent or floating, [often epiphytic or climbing], usually with milky or watery latex, rarely colored. Rhizomes, corms, or stolons present; rhizomes vertical or horizontal, creeping at or near surface, sometimes branched; corms underground, starchy; stolons at or near surface. Stems absent [sometimes aboveground or aerial]. Cataphylls usually present. Leaves rarely solitary, alternate or clustered; petiole rarely absent, with sheathing base; blade simple or compound [occasionally perforate], elliptic to obovate or spatulate, occasionally sagittate-cordate, larger than 1.5 cm; venation parallel or pinnate- or palmate-netted. Inflorescences spadices, each with 3--900 usually tightly grouped, sessile flowers, subtended by spathe; spathe rarely absent, persistent (sometimes only proximally) or deciduous, variously colored; spadix cylindric or ovoid, various parts occasionally naked or with sterile flowers. Flowers bisexual or unisexual, staminate and pistillate usually on same plants or functionally on different plants, staminate flowers distal to pistillate when unisexual; perianth absent or present; stamens 2--12, distinct or connate in synandria; ovaryies 1, 1--3(--many) -locular, sessile or embedded in spadix; styles 1; stigmas hemispheric, capitate, or discoid [sometimes strongly lobed]. Fruits berries, distinct or connate at maturity. Seeds 1--40(--many) per berry.

Genera 105, species more than 3300 (8 genera, 10 species in the flora; species in 10 additional genera may persist locally within flora area, see talbe 203.1) : nearly worldwide, primarily tropical regions.

Araceae are best characterized by the inflorescence, a fleshy cylindric or ovoid, unbranched spadix subtended or surrounded by a spathe. True spathes are absent in the Nearctic genus Orontium and in the Australian genus Gymnostachys. Other plant families with a compressed spadix-like inflorescence, such as Piperaceae and Cyclanthaceae, either do not have a structure equivalent to a spathe (Piperaceae) or have early-deciduous bracts (Cyclanthaceae) . Plants are usually glabrous, rarely pubescent or spiny (pubescent in Pistia) . Many Araceae exhibit typical monocotyledonous parallel leaf venation, but some genera have net leaf venation more typical of dicotyledons.

Infrafamilial classification of the Araceae is under active study. The only classification of the family to date to utilize modern phylogenetic techniques (S. J. Mayo et al. 1997) recognizes seven subfamilies, of which three are represented in native temperate North American aroid flora: Orontioideae (Orontium, Symplocarpus, Lysichiton) ; Calloideae (Calla) ; and Aroideae (Peltandra, Arisaema, and Pistia) . Acorus, a genus historically included in Araceae, is treated as a separate family in theat flora based on extensive morphologic and chemical evidence that supports its removal from Arales (M. H. Grayum 1987) .

The number of genera of Araceae occurring in temperate North America is low in comparison with other continents, and primitive taxa are disproportionately represented. Orontioideae and Calloideae, which include four of the seven native genera found in the flora area, are the basal clades within Araceae. Plants in these subfamilies possess the primitive states for many characteristics in Araceae and share few derived characteristics with other aroid genera (M. H. Grayum 1990) . The more advanced genera native to the flora area include one genus endemic to eastern North America (Peltandra), a pantropical genus with an uncertain native distribution (Pistia), and a genus clearly Eurasian in origin (Arisaema) .

Araceae contain crystals of calcium oxalate, which are often cited as causing the intense irritation experienced when handling or consuming the raw plant tissue of many genera in the family. This supposition is contradicted by the fact that although irritation generally is not produced by properly cooked plants, the crystals remain after heating. Other compounds must therefore be involved with causing this reaction. Studies of Dieffenbachia demonstrated that a proteolytic enzyme, as well as other compounds, are responsible for the severe irritation caused by this plant and that raphides of calcium oxalate do not play a major role (J. Arditti and E. Rodriguez 1982) . Whether irritation is caused by enzymes or crystals, that aspect of Araceae has resulted in aroid genera being included in many lists of poisonous plants (e.g., K. F. Lampe and M. A. McCann 1985; G. A. Mulligan and D. B. Munro 1990; K. D. Perkins and W. W. Payne 1978) .

Despite the toxic effects of Araceae, species of several genera are cultivated as food plants, mainly as subsistence crops in tropical areas. The major edible Araceae are Colocasia esculenta and several species of Xanthosoma, grown primarily for their corms and sometimes for their leaves. Most North American species of Araceae were historically used by Native Americans, as both food and medicine (T. Plowman 1969) . The family, is currently more valued for its many ornamental species, and is the most important family in North America for indoor foliage plants (T. B. Croat 1994) . Araceae commonly grown as ornamentals in American homes include species of Aglaonema (Chinese-evergreen), Anthurium, Caladium, Dieffenbachia (dumbcane), Epipremnum (golden pothos), Philodendron, Spathiphyllum, Syngonium, and Zantedeschia (calla-lily) .

Plants of some cultivated species of Araceae escape and may persist or naturalize, especially in warmer climates. One of these species, Colocasia esculenta, is widespread enough to warrant full inclusion in the flora, but other introduced species of Araceae are very local in occurrence. Uncommon species represented by herbarium specimens or literature reports as escaped or persisting from cultivation are listed (table 203.1) with distinguishing characteristics and areas of occurrence.[1]


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The Family Araceae is a member of the Order Alismatales. Here is the complete "parentage" of Araceae:

The Family Araceae is further organized into finer groupings including:


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Acontias, the lance skinks, is a genus of limbless skinks (family Scincidae) in the African subfamily Acontinae. Most are small animals, but the largest member of the genus is at approximately 40 cm. All members of this genus are live-bearing, sandswimmers with fused eyelids. A recent review moved species that were formerly placed in the genera Typhlosaurus, Acontophiops and Microacontias into this genus as together these form a single branch in the tree of life. This new concept of Acontias is a sister lineage to Typhlosaurus and these are the only genera within the subfamily Acontinae. [more]


Aglaodorum is a monotypic genus of flowering plants in the family Araceae. The only species that is a member of this genus is Aglaodorum griffithii. [more]


Aglaonema is a genus of about 40 species of in the family Araceae, native to the tropical swamps and rainforests of southeastern Asia, from Bangladesh east to the Philippines, and north to southern China. No common name is widely used, though they are sometimes called "Chinese Evergreens". [more]




Alloschemone is a genus of flowering plants in the Araceae family that is endemic to the Amazon region of Brazil. There are only two species in the genus and both are extremely rare. These two species are and Alloschemone inopinata. At one point in history the genus Alloschemone was dissolved and added to Scindapsus, but it has since been reinstated after further observations of the plants. [more]


Alocasia is a genus of broad-leaved rhizomatous or tuberous perennials from the family Araceae. There are 79 species of Alocasia occurring in tropical and subtropical Asia to Eastern Australia and widely cultivated in Oceania and South America. [more]




Ambrosina is a genus in the family Araceae that consists of only one species, Ambrosina basii. This species is the smallest aroid in the Mediterranean growing only to 8 cm tall. It is usually found growing in woodlands on north faces of hillsides and in humus soil that is covering limestone. It is widely distributed found in Sardinia, southern Italy, and Algeria. [more]


Amorphophallus (from Ancient Greek amorphos, "without form, misshapen" + phallos, "penis", referring to the shape of the prominent spadix) is a large genus of some 170 tropical and subtropical tuberous herbaceous plants from the Arum family (Araceae). A few species are edible as "famine foods" after careful preparation to remove irritating chemicals. [more]


Amydrium is a genus of flowering plants in the Araceae family that is endemic to Southeast Asia. It is distinguished from other members of the tribe having two ovules in each ovary. The seeds tend to be heart shaped. The leaves of Amydrium often show fenestration. [more]


Anadendrum is a genus of flowering plants in the Araceae family. [more]


Anaphyllopsis is a genus of flowering plants in the Araceae family. The genus was created in 1988 by Hay in order to account for the differences of from other Cyrtosperma species. The decision was to create a genus named Anaphyllopsis and rename Cyrtosperma americanum as Anaphyllopsis americanum. Two other species from the Amazon were subsequently added, Anaphyllopsis pinnata and Anaphyllopsis cururuana. The leaves of Anaphyllopsis are characteristic of being pinnate. Anaphyllopsis is quite similar in appearance to the genus Anaphyllum. [more]


Anaphyllum is a genus of flowering plants in the Araceae family. It consists of two species that are both endemic to southern India. They are found in marshes, have leaves with some pinnation, and have a twisted spathe. The two species in this genus are similar in appearance to those in the genus Anaphyllopsis. [more]




Anchomanes is a genus of flowering plants in the family Araceae. The genus consists of 7 or 8 species. Anchomanes is quite similar to species in the genus Dracontium and Amorphophallus, but there are a few apparent differences. One such difference is that the roots are perennial. Also, the stalks are spiny and the tuberous rhizomes has eyes. [more]






Anthurium (; Schott, 1829), is a large genus of about 600?800 (possibly 1,000) species, belonging to the arum family (Araceae). Anthurium can also be called "Flamingo Flower" or "Boy Flower", both referring to the structure of the spathe and spadix. [more]


Anubias is a genus of aquatic and semi-aquatic flowering plants in the family Araceae, native to tropical central and western Africa. They primarily grow in rivers and streams, but can also be found in marshes. They are characterized by broad, thick, dark leaves that come in many different forms. The genus was revised in 1979 and since then its nomenclature has been stable. Species can be determined by using mostly characteristics of the inflorescence. Because of the often shady places where the plants grow, the genus was named after the Egyptian god Anubis, the god of the afterlife. The genus was first described in 1857 by Heinrich Wilhelm Schott, with A. afzelii as its type species. [more]


Aridarum is a genus of flowering plants in the Araceae family that consists of seven species. There are likely more species yet to be discovered in this genus. All of the known plants in this genus are rheophytic and are found growing in Borneo. The plant is aquatic and has willow-shaped leaves that are able to take strong currents without sustaining damage. [more]


Ariopsis is a genus of flowering plants in the family Araceae. There are only two species of plants in the genus namely and Ariopsis protanthera. Both species are found in the understories of tropical forests, but they both live in different areas. Ariopsis peltata is found in the Western Ghats, Sikkim, and Assam whereas Ariopsis protanthera is found Myanmar and Bhutan. Ariopsis has heart shaped leaves and are tuberous plants. The spadix is cylindrical and has cavities into which the pollen falls into. [more]


Arisaema is a genus of about 150 species in the flowering plant family Araceae, native to eastern and central Africa, Asia and eastern North America. Its species are often called Cobra lilies, particularly the Asiatic species. A familiar species in North America is Arisaema triphyllum (Jack in the pulpit). [more]


Arisarum is a genus of flowering plants in the Araceae family. There are 3 species of plants in this genus namely: [more]


Arophyton is a genus of flowering plants in the Araceae family. It consists of 7 species that are found only in northeast Madagascar. Arophyton are tuberous plants with a few rhizomatous species that go through a dormant period during the dry season. [more]


Arum is a genus of about 25 species of flowering plants in the family Araceae, native to Europe, northern Africa, and western Asia, with the highest species diversity in the Mediterranean region. [more]


Asarina is a genus comprising 16 species of strongly sprawling or twining perennials, native to Mexico, southwestern USA, and southern Europe. Originally placed in the Scrophulariaceae (figwort family), they have more recently been moved to the Plantaginaceae (plantain family). Leaves are often triangular, toothed, downy and hairy with twining flower stalks. Flowers are attractive trumpet-shaped with broad green sepals and pale throat-spotted corolla in varying sizes, resemble snapdragons, and may be white, yellow, pink, purple, and shades in between. Some species are often placed in the genus Maurandya. [more]


Asterostigma is a genus of flowering plants in the Araceae family. It contains approximately 7 species of plants found in Peru, Brazil, Bolivia, and Ecuador. The leaves are pinnate and the plant is tuberous. [more]








Caladium () is a genus of flowering plants in the family Araceae. They are often known by the common name elephant ear (which they share with the closely related genera Alocasia, Colocasia, and Xanthosoma), Heart of Jesus, and Angel Wings. There are over 1000 named cultivars of Caladium bicolor from the original South American plant. [more]


Calla (Bog Arum, Marsh Calla) is a genus of flowering plant booop Araceae, containing the single species Calla palustris. It is native to cool temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, in central, eastern and northern Europe (France and Norway eastward), northern Asia and northern North America (Alaska, Canada, northeastern contiguous United States). [more]










Herbs perennial with a woody caudex or herbaceous base. Trichomes simple. Stems branched from caudex and above, sometimes woody at base. Basal leaves absent. Cauline leaves petiolate, dentate, uppermost sometimes entire. Racemes ebracteate, elongated in fruit. Fruiting pedicels slender, ascending, suberect, or reflexed. Sepals oblong, caducous, base of lateral pair not saccate. Petals white, longer than sepals; blade spatulate or oblong-obovate, apex rounded; claw purple, subequaling sepals. Stamens 6, tetradynamous; filaments not dilated at base; anthers oblong, apiculate at apex. Nectar glands confluent and subtending bases of all stamens; median glands present. Ovules 10-20 per ovary. Fruit dehiscent siliques, linear, oblong, or lanceolate, latiseptate, sessile; valves papery, with a distinct midvein, glabrous or puberulent, torulose; replum rounded, covered by connate valve margin; septum complete, membranous, translucent, veinless; style obsolete, rarely to 0.5 mm; stigma capitate, entire or slightly 2-lobed. Seeds uniseriate, wingless, sometimes distally appendaged, oblong, slightly flattened, often transversely oriented in locule; seed coat minutely reticulate, not mucilaginous when wetted; cotyledons incumbent.[2] [more]


Herbs stoloniferous perennial. Trichomes simple, mixed with short-stalked and forked or 3-rayed and stellate ones. Stems erect or decumbent. Basal leaves subsessile or shortly petiolate, rosulate, simple, entire, ciliate, with persistent petiolar bases. Cauline leaves similar to basal ones. Racemes several flowered, ebracteate or basally bracteate. Fruiting pedicels slender, divaricate. Sepals broadly ovate or oblong, ascending, pubescent, unequal, base of lateral pair subsaccate, margin membranous. Petals yellow, longer than sepals; blade obovate, apex subemarginate; claw short, obscurely differentiated from blade. Stamens 6, erect, tetradynamous; filaments filiform, dilated at base; anthers ovate, obtuse at apex. Median glands absent; lateral glands lunar. Ovules 8-10 per ovary. Fruit dehiscent silicles, broadly ovate to ovate-oblong, latiseptate, sessile; valves papery, prominently veined, glabrous or puberulent, smooth; replum rounded; septum complete; style to 0.7 mm; stigma capitate, entire. Seeds blackish, biseriate, wingless, oblong, flattened; seed coat reticulate; cotyledons accumbent.[3] [more]




Colocasia is a genus of 25 or more species of flowering plants in the family Araceae, native to tropical Polynesia and southeastern Asia. Common names include Elephant-ear, Taro, Cocoyam, Dasheen, Chembu, and Eddoe. Elephant-ear and Cocoyam are also used for some other large-leaved genera in the Araceae, notably Xanthosoma and Caladium. The generic name is derived from the Greek word for Nelumbo nucifera, ?????as??? (kolokasion). [more]







Pleurothallis, abbreviated Pths in horticultural trade, is a genus of orchids commonly named Bonnet Orchids. The genus name is derived from the Greek word 'pleurothallos', meaning 'riblike branches'. This refers to the rib-like stems of many species. [more]









Dieffenbachia () is a genus of tropical plants in the Family Araceae noted for their patterned leaves. Members of this genus are popular as houseplants because of their tolerance for shade. The common name is "dumb cane" due to its poisoning effect on the throat due to raphides. The dieffenbachia was named by Heinrich Wilhelm Schott, the director of the Botanical gardens in Vienna, to honor his head gardener Joseph Dieffenbach (1796?1863). [more]




A Genus in the Kingdom Plantae. [more]


Dracunculus is a genus of spiruroid nematode parasites in the family Dracunculidae. Humans are the host of some species. [more]
















Gonatopus is a genus of flowering plants in the family Araceae, consisting of about five species. This genus is native to eastern and southeastern Africa and is closely related to the genus Zamioculcas. The plant generally only produces one leaf from its tuber when in growth. In G. boivinii, the leaf is tripinnate, and with its stalk can reach up to 1 m in height and 40 cm broad; the individual leaflets are up to 10 cm long and 3.5 cm broad; in G. angustus, the leaf can reach 1.5 m tall. A spadix flower arises from the tuber during late spring. [more]






Hapaline can refer to the following: [more]


A Genus in the Kingdom Plantae. [more]


Heteropsis is a of flowering plant, in the family Araceae. It includes these species:- [more]















A Genus in the Kingdom Animalia.[4] [more]




Lemna is a genus of free-floating aquatic plants from the duckweed family. These rapidly-growing plants have found uses as a model system for studies in community ecology, basic plant biology, in ecotoxicology, in production of biopharmaceuticals, and as a source of animal feeds for agriculture and aquaculture. [more]


Lysichiton, or Lysichitum is a genus in the family Araceae. It includes two species: [more]


Lysichiton, or Lysichitum is a in the family Araceae. It includes two species: [more]





Monstera is a of 22 species of flowering plants in the family Araceae, native to tropical regions of the Americas. The genus is named from the Latin word for "monstrous" or "abnormal", the members of the genus are distinguished by their unusual leaves with natural holes. [more]





Herbs, wetland. Rhizomes vertical. Leaves appearing before flowers, several, emergent or sometimes floating, clustered; petiole longer than blade; blade abaxially paler green, adaxially dark bluish green with distinctive velvety sheen, simple, not peltate, oblong-elliptic, base acute to obtuse or sometimes oblique, apex rounded-apiculate or short-acuminate; venation parallel to midvein except near base. Inflorescences: peduncle reclining in fruit, usually equal to or longer than leaves, apex swollen; spathe absent; spadix long-conic. Flowers mostly bisexual, the distal staminate; perianth present. Fruits partially embedded in spadix, green to blue-green. Seed 1, embedded in mucilage. x = 13.[5] [more]




Peltandra is a genus of plants in the Araceae family. [more]


Philodendron is a large genus of flowering plants in the Araceae family, consisting of close to 900 or more species according to TROPICOS (a service of the Missouri Botanical Garden). Other sources quote different numbers of species. According to S.J. Mayo there are about 350-400 formally recognized species whereas according to Croat there are about 700. Whichever the exact number of species, the genus is the second largest member of the arum family. Taxonomically the genus Philodendron is still poorly known, with many undescribed species. Many are grown as ornamental and indoor plants. The name derives from the Greek words philo or "love" and dendron or "tree". [more]






Pinellia is a genus of plants in the family Araceae native to Asia. Its species are commonly called Green Dragons due to the color and shape of the inflorescence, which possesses a green, hooded spathe from which protrudes a long, tongue-like extension of the spadix. The leaves vary greatly in shape among different species, from simple and cordate to compound with three to many leaflets. Pinellia reproduces rapidly from seed and many species also produce bulbils on the leaves. Both characteristics have allowed some species to become weedy in temperate areas outside their native range, notably Pinellia pedatisecta and Pinellia ternata in eastern North America. [more]




Pistia is a genus of aquatic plant in the family Araceae, comprising a single species, Pistia stratiotes, often called water cabbage or water lettuce. Its native distribution in uncertain, but probably pantropical; it was first described from the Nile near Lake Victoria in Africa. It is now present, either naturally or through human introduction, in nearly all tropical and subtropical fresh waterways. [more]







Pothos can mean: [more]















Rhaphidophora is a genus in the family Araceae, occurring from tropical Africa eastwards through Malesia and Australasia to the Western Pacific. The genus consists of approximately 100 species. [more]


Rhodospatha is a genus of in family Araceae. [more]




Richardia (Mexican-clover) is a small genus of about 15 species of flowering plants in the family Rubiaceae, native to tropical to warm temperate regions of the Americas, with one species also native to Fiji in the Pacific Ocean. They are mostly annual plants, a few species being herbaceous perennial plants. [more]















Spathiphyllum is a genus of about 40 species of monocotyledonous flowering plants in the family Araceae, native to tropical regions of the Americas and southeastern Asia. Certain species of Spathiphyllum are commonly known as Spath or Peace Lilies. [more]


Spirodela is a genus of aquatic plant, commonly called duckweed. Spirodela species are members of the Araceae under the APG II system. They were formerly members of the Lemnaceae. [more]






Stenospermation is a genus of in family Araceae. [more]










Symplocarpus is a genus of flowering plants in the Araceae family native to North America and Asia. The genus is characterized by having large leaves and deep root systems with contractile roots used for changing the plant's level with the ground. Symplocarpus grow from a rhizome and their leaves release a foul odor when crushed. [more]




Syngonium is a genus of about 36 species of flowering plants in the family Araceae, native to tropical rain forests in Central and South America. They are woody vines growing to heights of 10?20 m or more in trees. They have leaves that change shape according to the plant's stage of growth, and adult leaf forms are often much more lobed than the juvenile forms usually seen on small house plants. [more]











Typhonium is a genus in the Araceae family endemic to tropical Asia, the South Pacific, and Australia. It consists of approximately 50 species that are typically found growing in wooded areas. [more]








Wolffia is a genus of 9 to 11 species which include the smallest flowering plants on Earth. Commonly called watermeal, these aquatic plants resemble specks of cornmeal floating on the water. Wolffia species are free-floating thalii, green or yellow-green, and without roots. The flower is produced in a depression on the top surface of the plant body. It has one stamen and one pistil. Individuals often float together in pairs or form floating mats with related plants, such as Lemna and Spirodela species. Most species have a very wide distribution across several continents. Wolffia species are composed of about 40% protein, about the same as the soybean, making them a potential high-protein human food source. They have historically been collected from the water and eaten as a vegetable in much of Asia. [more]


Roots absent. Fronds submersed (except when flowering or fruiting), proximal part near surface, 1 or 2--20 or more, coherent, linear, ribbon-, sabre- or tongue-shaped, or ovate, flat, longer than 2 mm, margins entire; air spaces in tissue; pouch 1, terminal, at base from which daughter fronds (no flowers) originate, triangular, lower wall of pouch with tract of elongated cells forming connection between node and attachment to mother frond; veins 0; scale at base of frond absent; anthocyanins absent; pigment cells present (visible in dead fronds as brown dots) ; turions absent. Flowers 1(--2) per frond, originating in cavity at side of median line of upper frond surface, not surrounded by utricular scale; stamen 1, 2-locular. Seeds 1, nearly smooth. x = 10, 20, 21.[6] [more]


Xanthosoma is a genus of about 50 species of tropical and sub-tropical arums in the flowering plant family, Araceae, all native to tropical America. Several species are grown for their starchy corms, an important food staple of tropical regions, known variously as malanga, otoy, otoe, new cocoyam, tannia, tannier, yaut?a, macabo, taioba, dasheen, quequisque, ?ape and (in Papua New Guinea) as Singapore taro (taro kongkong). Many other species (including especially X. roseum) are utilized as ornamental plants, and in popular horticultural literature are known as ?ape or elephant ear (from the purported resemblance of the leaf to an elephant's ear), although the latter name is sometimes also applied to members with similar appearance and uses in the closely related genera of Caladium, Colocasia (i.e., taro), and Alocasia. [more]




Zamioculcas (Common name "Zanzibar Gem") is a genus of flowering plant in the family Araceae, containing the single species Zamioculcas zamiifolia. It is a tropical perennial plant native to eastern Africa, from Kenya south to northeastern South Africa. Dutch nurseries started wide-scale commercial propagation of the plant around 1996. [more]


Zantedeschia () is a genus of herbaceous flowering plants in the family Araceae, native to southern Africa from South Africa north to Malawi. The name of the genus was given as a tribute to Italian botanist Giovanni Zantedeschi (1773?1846) by the German botanist Kurt Sprengel (1766?1833). Common names include arum lily for Z. aethiopica, calla, and calla lily for Z. elliottiana and Z. rehmannii although it is neither a true lily (Liliaceae), nor Arum or Calla (related genera in Araceae). It is also often erroneously spelled as "cala lily". It has often been used in many paintings, and is visible in many of Diego Rivera's works of art (see The Flower Vendor, amongst others). [more]





More info about the Genus Zomicarpella may be found here.


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  1. Sue A. Thompson "Araceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 22. Oxford University Press. Online at
  2. "Christolea". in Flora of China Vol. 8 Page 127. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at
  3. Tai-yien Cheo, Lianli Lu, Guang Yang, Ihsan Al-Shehbaz & Vladimir Dorofeev "Coelonema". in Flora of China Vol. 8 Page 65. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at
  5. "Orontium". in Flora of North America Vol. 22. Oxford University Press. Online at
  6. "Wolffiella". in Flora of North America Vol. 22 Page 150. Oxford University Press. Online at


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Last Revised: August 26, 2014
2014/08/26 05:11:41