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Fungi

(Kingdom)

Overview

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A plural of fungus.

Photos

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Taxonomy

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The Kingdom Fungi is a member of the Domain Eukaryota. Here is the complete "parentage" of Fungi:

The Kingdom Fungi is further organized into finer groupings including:

Families

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Acarosporaceae

The Acarosporaceae are a family of fungi in the order Acarosporales. Members of this family have a widespread distribution, and are lichenized with green algae. [more]

Acaulosporaceae

[more]

Acrospermaceae

The Acrospermaceae are a family of fungi with an uncertain taxonomic placement in the class Dothideomycetes. [more]

Agaricaceae

The Agaricaceae are a family of basidiomycete fungi and includes the genus Agaricus, as well as basidiomycetes previously classified in the families Tulostomataceae, Lepiotaceae, and Lycoperdaceae. The genus contains 85 genera and 1340 species. [more]

Agyriaceae

The Agyriaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Agyriales. [more]

Albatrellaceae

The Albatrellaceae are a family of fungi in the Polyporales order. The family contains 7 genera and 45 species. [more]

Aleurodiscaceae

[more]

Aliquandostipitaceae

The Aliquandostipitaceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota, class Dothideomycetes. The family was described by Patrik Inderbitzin in 2001, and the order Jahnulales was created in 2002 to accommodate the family. The distinguishing characteristic for members of the family are the unusually wide hyphae ("widest hyphae reported in the ascomycetes") that support the spore-bearing structures, and the presence of ascomata both with and without stalks. The genus has a pantropical distribution, having been found in Central America and southeast Asia; Jahnula has a wider distribution. Species in the family are saprobic, and are typically found growing on rotting wood. [more]

Amanitaceae

Amanitaceae are a family of fungi or mushrooms. The family, also commonly called the Amanita family, is in order Agaricales, gilled mushrooms. The family consists primarily of the genus Amanita, but also includes the genera Catatrama and Limacella. [more]

Amphisphaeriaceae

The Amphisphaeriaceae are a family of fungi that is mainly found in parts of New Zealand, South America, Asia and parts of Europe. According to the 2007 Outline of Ascomycota, there are 41 genera placed within the family, although the position of 13 of those genera is uncertain. [more]

Anamorphic

Anamorphic format is a term that can be used either for: the cinematography technique of capturing a widescreen picture on standard 35 mm film, or other visual recording media, with a non-widescreen native aspect ratio; or a photographic projection format in which the original image requires an optical anamorphic lens to recreate the original aspect ratio. It should not be confused with anamorphic widescreen, which is a very different electronically based video encoding concept that uses similar principles to the anamorphic format but different means. The word "anamorphic" and its derivatives stem from the Greek words meaning formed again, due to reshaping the image onto the film or recording media. [more]

Ancylistaceae

The Ancylistaceae are a family of fungi in the order Entomophthorales. [more]

Annulatascaceae

The Annulatascaceae are a family of fungi in the class Sordariomycetes of the Ascomycota. The family has not been assigned to any order (incertae sedis). Species in this family are saprobic, often growing on rotten wood in freshwater habitats. They have a widespread distribution, with many found in tropical areas. [more]

Antennulariellaceae

[more]

Anthracoideaceae

The Anthracoideaceae are a family of smut fungi in the order Ustilaginales. Collectively, the family contains 20 genera and 198 species. Anthracoideaceae was circumscribed by the Bulgarian mycologist Cvetomir M. Denchev in 1997. [more]

Anziaceae

[more]

Aporpiaceae

[more]

Arthoniaceae

The Arthoniaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Pezizales. Species have a widespread distribution, but are especially prevalent in tropical areas. Collectively, the family has a highly variable ecology, some species lichenized with green algae, and others lichenicolous?growing on other lichens. Species can grow on leaves, bark and rock. The genus was first described by Reichenbach in 1841. [more]

Arthopyreniaceae

The Arthopyreniaceae are a family of fungi with an uncertain taxonomic placement in the class Dothideomycetes. [more]

Arthrodermataceae

The Arthrodermataceae are a family of fungi containing three dermatophytes -- genera Epidermophyton, Microsporum and Trichophyton. [more]

Ascobolaceae

The Ascobolaceae are a family of fungi in the order Pezizales. The family contains 6 genera, and 129 species. [more]

Ascodichaenaceae

The Ascodichaenaceae are a family of fungi in the Rhytismatales order. [more]

Ascosphaeraceae

[more]

Asellariaceae

[more]

Aspidotheliaceae

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Asterinaceae

The Asterinaceae are a family of fungi with an uncertain taxonomic placement in the class Dothideomycetes. [more]

Asterothyriaceae

[more]

Atheliaceae

The Atheliaceae are a family of fungi in the monotypic order Atheliales. Both the order and the family were described by W. J?lich in 1981. According to a 2008 estimate, the family contains 22 genera and 106 species. [more]

Aulographaceae

The Aulographaceae are a family of fungi with an uncertain taxonomic placement in the class Dothideomycetes. [more]

Auriculariaceae

The Auriculariaceae are a family of fungi in the order Auriculariales. Species within the family were formerly referred to the "heterobasidiomycetes" or "jelly fungi", since many have gelatinous basidiocarps (fruit bodies) that produce spores on septate basidia. Around 100 species are known worldwide. All are believed to be saprotrophic, most growing on dead wood. Fruit bodies of several Auricularia species are cultivated for food on a commercial scale, especially in China. [more]

Auriscalpiaceae

The Auriscalpiaceae are a family of fungi in the Russulales order. Like much of the Russulales, it has been defined through molecular phylogeny, and includes physically dissimilar species, such as the tooth fungus Auriscalpium and the gilled, often shelf-like members of Lentinellus. The family contains 6 genera and 38 species. [more]

Bacidiaceae

[more]

Baeomycetaceae

The Baeomycetales are an order of fungi in the class Lecanoromycetes. It consists of the single family Baeomycetaceae. [more]

Bankeraceae

The Bankeraceae are a family of fungi in the order Boletales. Taxa are terrestrial, and ectomycorrhizal with species such as Pinaceae or Fagaceae. [more]

Biatoraceae

[more]

Biatorellaceae

The Biatorellaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Lecanorales. The family is monotypic, and contains the single genus Biatorella. Species are found in northern temperate regions, especially in Europe. [more]

Bionectriaceae

The Bionectriaceae are a family of fungi in the order Hypocreales, consisting of 35 genera, and 281 species. [more]

Blastocladiaceae

[more]

Bolbitiaceae

The Bolbitiaceae are a family of basidiomycete fungi. There are 17 genera and 171 species in the family. [more]

Boletaceae

Boletaceae are a family of mushrooms, primarily characterized by developing their spores in small pores on the underside of the mushroom, instead of gills, as are found in agarics. Nearly as widely distributed as agarics, they include the Cep or King Bolete (Boletus edulis), much sought after by mushroom hunters. As a whole, the typical members of the family are commonly known as boletes. [more]

Boliniaceae

[more]

Bondarzewiaceae

Bondarzewiaceae are a family of fungi in the order Russulales. The type species for both its genus and the family as a whole, Bondarzewia montana, closely resembles members of Polyporales (and was formerly placed there), but has ornamented spores like those of Lactarius or Russula. This characteristic suggested the relationship between physically dissimilar species that eventually led to the restructuring of Russulales (and other taxa) using molecular phylogeny. According to the Dictionary of the Fungi (10th edition, 2008), the family contains 8 genera and 48 species. [more]

Boreostereaceae

[more]

Botryobasidiaceae

The Botryobasidiaceae are a family of fungi in the order Cantharellales. The family contains a group of corticioid fungi that form thin, web-like basidiocarps. Some species form asexual anamorphs producing chlamydospores. All are believed to be wood-rotting or litter-rotting saprotrophs. None is known to be of any economic importance. [more]

Botryosphaeriaceae

The Botryosphaeriaceae are a family of sac fungi. It is the only representative of the order Botryosphaeriales. According to a 2008 estimate, the family contains 26 genera and over 1500 species. [more]

Brachybasidiaceae

[more]

Brigantiaeaceae

The Brigantiaeaceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota, class Lecanoromycetes. Its relationship to other taxa in the Lecanoromycetes is not well understood, so it is considered to be incertae sedis with respect to ordinal placement. Species in this family are lichenized with green algae, and are usually found growing on bark. [more]

Broomeiaceae

[more]

Bulgariaceae

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Caliciaceae

The Caliciaceae are a family of mostly lichen-forming fungi belonging to the class Lecanoromycetes in the division Ascomycota. The family contains 31 genera and 731 species. [more]

Calosphaeriaceae

[more]

Calostomataceae

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Candelariaceae

The Candelariales are an order of fungi in the class Lecanoromycetes. It is a monotypic taxon, and contains the single family Candelariaceae. [more]

Cantharellaceae

The Cantharellaceae are a family of fungi in the order Cantharellales. The family contains the chanterelles and related species, a group of fungi that superficially resemble agarics (gilled mushrooms) but have smooth, wrinkled, or gill-like hymenophores (spore-bearing undersurfaces). Species in the family are ectomycorrhizal, forming a mutually beneficial relationship with the roots of trees and other plants. Many of the Cantharellaceae, including the chanterelle (Cantharellus cibarius), the Pacific golden chanterelle (Cantharellus formosus), the horn of plenty (Craterellus cornucopioides), and the trumpet chanterelle (Craterellus tubaeformis), are not only edible, but are collected and marketed internationally on a commercial scale. [more]

Capnodiaceae

The Capnodiaceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota, class Dothideomycetes. Species in the family have a wdiespread distribution, and are especially prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas, as well as temperate rainforests. [more]

Catenariaceae

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Catillariaceae

The Catillariaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Lecanorales. Species of this family have a widespread distribution, especially in temperate areas. [more]

Ceratobasidiaceae

[more]

Ceratocystidaceae

The Ceratocystidaceae are a family of fungi in the Sordariomycetes class, subclass Hypocreomycetidae. [more]

Ceratomycetaceae

The Ceratomycetaceae are a family of fungi in the order Laboulbeniales. Taxa have a widespread distribution, and are or parasitic on insect cuticles. [more]

Ceratostomataceae

The Ceratostomataceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota, class Sordariomycetes. Species in the family have a widespread distribution, and are found growing on other fungi, on soil, or rotting vegetation. The family may not be monophyletic as currently defined. [more]

Chaconiaceae

The Chaconiaceae are a family of rust fungi in the order Pucciniales. The family contains 8 genera and 75 species. Most species have a tropical distribution. has been used with success as a biocontrol agent against rubber vine in Australia. [more]

Chadefaudiellaceae

[more]

Chaetomiaceae

The Chaetomiaceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota, class Sordariomycetes. [more]

Chaetosphaerellaceae

The Chaetosphaerellaceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota, class Lecanoromycetes. The family was described in 2004. Species in the family have a widespread distribution, and are found in both temperate and tropical areas, where they grow saprobically on fallen wood. [more]

Chaetosphaeriaceae

The Chaetosphaeriaceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota, class Sordariomycetes. The family was named by M. R?blov? in 1999. Species in the family have a cosmopolitan distribution, and are found in both temperate and tropical climates. [more]

Chaetothyriaceae

The Chaetothyriaceae are a family of ascomycetous fungi within the order Chaetothyriales and within the class Eurotiomycetes. [more]

Chionosphaeraceae

[more]

Choanephoraceae

The Choanephoraceae are a family of fungi in the order Mucorales. Members of this family are found mostly in the tropics or subtropics, and only rarely in temperate zones. The family currently includes species formerly classified in the family Gilbertellaceae. [more]

Chrysothricaceae

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Chytridiaceae

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Cintractiaceae

The Cintractiellaceae are a family of smut fungi in the order Ustilaginales. The family contains two genera and three species. [more]

Cladochytriaceae

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Cladoniaceae

The Cladoniaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Lecanorales. The reindeer moss and cup lichens (Cladonia) belong to this family. [more]

Clavariaceae

The Clavariaceae are a family of fungi in the Agaricales order of mushrooms. The family contains 7 genera and 120 species. Collectively, they are commonly known as coral fungi due to their resemblance to aquatic coral, although other vernacular names including antler fungi, finger fungi, worm mold, and spaghetti mushroom are sometimes used for similar reasons. [more]

Clavariadelphaceae

[more]

Clavicipitaceae

Clavicipitaceae is a family of fungi within the order Hypocreales. It consists of 43 genera, and 321 species. [more]

Clavulinaceae

The Clavulinaceae are a family of fungi in the order Cantharellales. The family is not well defined, but currently comprises species of clavarioid (club and coral) fungi as well as some corticioid (crust- and patch-forming) fungi. These species are nutritionally diverse, some being ectomycorrhizal, others wood-rotting saprotrophs, others lichenized, and yet others (growing on or parasitizing lichens). [more]

Clypeosphaeriaceae

The Clypeosphaeriaceae are a family of fungi in the order Xylariales. [more]

Coccocarpiaceae

[more]

Coccodiniaceae

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Coccoideaceae

The Coccoideaceae are a family of fungi with an uncertain taxonomic placement in the class Dothideomycetes. [more]

Coccotremataceae

The Coccotremataceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Pertusariales. Species in this widely distributed family grow on bark or rocks, especially in maritime regions. [more]

Coleosporiaceae

The Coleosporiaceae are a family of rust fungi in the order Pucciniales. The family contains 6 genera and 131 species. [more]

Collemataceae

The Collemataceae are a lichenized family of fungi in the order Peltigerales (suborder ). Species in this family have a widespread distribution. [more]

Coniochaetaceae

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Coniocybaceae

The Coniocybaceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota phylum. This family can not yet be taxonomically classified in any of the ascomycetous classes and orders with any degree of certainty (incertae sedis). [more]

Coniophoraceae

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Cookellaceae

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Coprinaceae

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Coritinariaceae

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Corticiaceae

The Corticiaceae are a family of fungi in the order Corticiales. The family formerly included almost all the corticioid (patch- or crust-forming) fungi, whether they were related or not, and as such was highly artificial. In its current sense, however, the name Corticiaceae is restricted to a comparatively small group of mainly corticioid genera within the Corticiales, though the family is as yet not well defined. [more]

Cortinariaceae

The Cortinariaceae are a large family of gilled mushrooms found worldwide, containing over 2100 species. The family takes its name from its largest genus, the varied species of the genus Cortinarius. Many genera formerly in the Corinariaceae have been placed in various other families, including Hymenogastraceae, Inocybaceae and Bolbitiaceae. [more]

Coryneliaceae

[more]

Corynesporascaceae

The Corynesporascaceae are a family of fungi with an uncertain taxonomic placement in the class Dothideomycetes. [more]

Craterellaceae

[more]

Crepidotaceae

[more]

Crocyniaceae

The Crocyniaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Lecanorales. This is a monotypic family with the sole genus Crocynia], which has primarily a tropical distribution. [more]

Cronartiaceae

Cronartiaceae are a family of rust fungi in the order Uredinales. [more]

Cryptobasidiaceae

[more]

Cucurbitariaceae

The Cucurbitariaceae are a family of fungi in the order Pleosporales. Taxa are widespread in temperate regions and are necrotrophic or saprobic on woody plants. [more]

Cudoniaceae

[more]

Cunninghamellaceae

[more]

Cyphellaceae

The Cyphellaceae are a family of fungi in the Agaricales order. The family contains 16 genera and 31 species. [more]

Cystostereaceae

The Cystostereaceae are a family of fungi in the Agaricales order. [more]

Cyttariaceae

[more]

Dacampiaceae

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Dacrymycetaceae

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Dactylosporaceae

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Delitschiaceae

The Delitschiaceae are a family of fungi in the order Pleosporales. Taxa are widespread, especially in temperate regions, and are saprobic, often found growing in herbivore dung. [more]

Dematiaceae

The Dermateaceae is a family of cup fungi. Many species in this family are plant pathogens or decay plant material. [more]

Dermateaceae

The Dermateaceae is a family of cup fungi. Many species in this family are plant pathogens or decay plant material. [more]

Dermatosoraceae

[more]

Diademaceae

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Diaporthaceae

Diaporthaceae is a plant pathogen family. [more]

Diatrypaceae

The Diatrypaceae are a family of fungi in the order Xylariales. According to a 2008 estimate, the family has 13 genera and 229 species. [more]

Didymosphaeriaceae

The Didymosphaeriaceae are a family of fungi in the order Pleosporales. Taxa have a cosmopolitan distribution, and are saprobic in both woody and herbaceous plants. Some species are parasitic on other fungi. [more]

Dipodascaceae

The Dipodascaceae are a family of yeasts in the order Saccharomycetales. According to the 2007 Outline of Ascomycota, the family contains four genera; however, the placement of Sporopachydermia and Yarrowia are uncertain. Species in the family have a widespread distribution, and are found in decaying plant tissue, or as spoilage organisms in the food industry. [more]

Discinaceae

[more]

Doassansiaceae

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Dothideaceae

The Dothideaceae are a family of fungi in the order Dothideales. Species in this family have a widespread distribution, especially in tropical areas. [more]

Dothideomycetes

[more]

Dothioraceae

The Dothioraceae are a family of fungi in the order Dothideales. Species in this family have a widespread distribution, and are biotrophic or necrotrophic, usually associated with woody plants. [more]

Eccrinaceae

[more]

Echinodontiaceae

[more]

Ectolechiaceae

[more]

Elaphomycetaceae

The Elaphomycetaceae are a family of the Eurotiales fungi. The family contains two genera and 27 species. [more]

Elsinoaceae

Elsinoaceae is a family of sac fungi. [more]

Endochytriaceae

[more]

Endogonaceae

Endogonales is an order of fungi within the phylum of Zygomycota. It contains only one family, Endogonaceae, with four genera and 27 species. [more]

Endomycetaceae

The Endomycetaceae are a family of yeasts in the order Saccharomycetales. According to the 2007 Outline of Ascomycota, the family contains three genera; however, the placement of the genus Phialoascus is uncertain. Species in this poorly-understood family have a cosmopolitan distribution, and typically grow in association with other fungi, perhaps parasitically. [more]

Englerulaceae

The Englerulaceae are a family of fungi with an uncertain taxonomic placement in the class Dothideomycetes. [more]

Entolomataceae

The Entolomataceae, also known as Rhodophyllaceae are a large family of pink spored terrestrial gilled mushrooms which includes the genera Entoloma, Rhodocybe, and Clitopilus. The family collectively contains over 1500 species, the large majority of which are in Entoloma. Genera formerly known as Leptonia and Nolanea, amongst others, have been subsumed into Entoloma. Mushrooms in the Entolomataceae typically grow in woodlands or grassy areas and have attached gills, differentiating them from the Pluteaceae which have free gills. [more]

Entomophthoraceae

[more]

Entylomataceae

[more]

Epitheliaceae

[more]

Eremotheciaceae

[more]

Erysiphaceae

The Erysiphaceae are fungal family of the order Erysiphales. The family contains many of the powdery mildews. [more]

Euantennariaceae

[more]

Euceratomycetaceae

Euceratomycetaceae is a family of fungi in the order Laboulbeniales. These fungi, found mostly in temperate zones, tend to be parasitic or on insect exoskeletons. [more]

Exidiaceae

The Auriculariaceae are a family of fungi in the order Auriculariales. Species within the family were formerly referred to the "heterobasidiomycetes" or "jelly fungi", since many have gelatinous basidiocarps (fruit bodies) that produce spores on septate basidia. Around 100 species are known worldwide. All are believed to be saprotrophic, most growing on dead wood. Fruit bodies of several Auricularia species are cultivated for food on a commercial scale, especially in China. [more]

Exobasidiaceae

The Exobasidiaceae are a family of fungi in the Basidiomycota, Exobasidiales order. The family contains 5 genera and 56 species. Species in the family have a widespread distribution, especially in temperate areas. Members of the Exobasidiaceae are plant pathogens that grow on the leaves of plants, especially those in the Ericaceae family. [more]

Farysiaceae

[more]

Fenestellaceae

[more]

Filobasidiaceae

The Filobasidiales are an order in the fungal class Tremellomycetes. The one family in the order, the Filobasidiaceae, contains four species. They are distinguished from other tremelloid species by the lack of a macroscopic basidiocarp. [more]

Fomitopsidaceae

The Fomitopsidaceae are a family of fungi in the order Polyporales. Most species are parasitic on woody plants, and tend to cause brown rots. [more]

Fuscideaceae

The Fuscideaceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota, class Lecanoromycetes. Its relationship to other taxa in the Lecanoromycetes is not well understood, so it is considered to be incertae sedis with respect to ordinal placement. [more]

Ganodermataceae

The Ganodermataceae are a family of fungi in the Polyporales order. [more]

Geastraceae

The earthstars are the family Geastraceae of gasterocarpic basidiomycetes (mushrooms). It includes the genera Geastrum and Myriostoma. About sixty-four species are classified in this family, divided among eight genera. [more]

Geoglossaceae

Geoglossaceae is a family of fungi in the class Geoglossomycetes. It was previously defined with 6 genera and 48 species and was broadly known as earth tongues. Molecular phylogenetics has shown that genera with mainly light or colored spores and sexual structures belong in the Leotiomycetes. The remaining genera with dark spores and sexual structures in the family is only distantly related and are now placed in a new class (Geoglossomycetes) and order (Geoglossales). Earth tongues live in soil or among rotting vegetation. Earth tongues are generally small, black, and poker shaped fungi with a height of 2?8 cm. These fungi can sometimes be found covered in white spores. A microscope is needed to identify them. [more]

Gigaspermaceae

Gigaspermaceae is a family of mosses in order Funariales. [more]

Gloeophyllaceae

[more]

Glomaceae

Glomus is a genus of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and all species form symbiotic relationships (mycorrhizas) with plant roots. Glomus is the largest genus of AM fungi, with ca. 85 species described, but as currently defined is non-monophyletic. [more]

Glomeraceae

Glomus is a genus of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and all species form symbiotic relationships (mycorrhizas) with plant roots. Glomus is the largest genus of AM fungi, with ca. 85 species described, but as currently defined is non-monophyletic. [more]

Glomosporiaceae

[more]

Glugeidae

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Gnomoniaceae

The Gnomoniaceae are a family of fungi in the Diaporthales order. The family was first described by German botanist in 1886. [more]

Gomphaceae

The Gomphaceae are a diverse family of fungi belonging in what is classically known as the Phallales or cladistically as the gomphoid-phalloid clade. The family has 13 genera and 287 species. [more]

Gomphidiaceae

Gomphidiaceae are a family of mushrooms in Boletales or pored fungi. Unlike other boletes, all members of Gomphidiaceae (except for Gomphogaster) are agarics, having gills instead of pores. Member genera include Chroogomphus, , Gomphidius and Gomphogaster, the last being a monotypic genus (i.e. with a single species) which may be incorporated into Gomphidius in the future after molecular assessment. The similarly named genus Gomphus is unrelated to this family. Another genus Brauniellula has since been sunk into Chroogomphus. [more]

Gomphillaceae

The Gomphillaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Ostropales. Species in this family are found mostly in tropical regions. [more]

Gonapodyaceae

[more]

Graphidaceae

The Graphidaceae are a family of fungi in the order Ostropales. [more]

Graphiolaceae

[more]

Gyalectaceae

The Gyalectaceae are a family of fungi in the order Ostropales. [more]

Gymnoascaceae

The Gymnoascaceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota, class Eurotiomycetes. [more]

Gyroporaceae

[more]

Haematommataceae

The Haematommataceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Lecanorales. This is a monotypic family, containing the single genus Haematomma, which has a widespread distribution in tropical and temperate areas. [more]

Halosphaeriaceae

The Halosphaeriaceae are a family of fungi in the Sordariomycetes class, subclass Hypocreomycetidae. [more]

Hapalopilaceae

The Hapalopilaceae are a family of fungi in the order Polyporales. [more]

Helminthosphaeriaceae

The Helminthosphaeriaceae are a family of fungi in the class Sordariomycetes. The family has not been assigned to any order (incertae sedis). Species in this family are saprobic, often growing on rotten wood or on the fruit bodies of old mushrooms. They are distributed in temperate areas. [more]

Helotiaceae

The Helotiaceae are a family of fungi in the Helotiales order. The distribution of species in the family are widespread, and typically found in tropical areas. There are 117 genera and 826 species in the family. [more]

Helvellaceae

The Helvellaceae are a family of ascomycete fungi, the best known members of which are the elfin saddles of the genus Helvella. Originally erected by Elias Magnus Fries in 1823 as Elvellacei, it contained many genera. Several of these, such as Gyromitra and Discina, have been found to be more distantly related in a molecular study of ribosomal DNA by mycologist Kerry O'Donnell in 1997, leaving a much smaller core clade now redefined as Helvellaceae. Instead, this narrowly defined group is most closely related to the true truffles of the Tuberaceae. According to the Dictionary of the Fungi (10th edition, 2008), the family contains six genera and 63 species. [more]

Hemiphacidiaceae

The Hemiphacidiaceae are a family of fungi in the order Helotiales. Although the type genus was originally Hemiphacidium, it has since been renamed to Sarcotrochila. The 26 species in this family are limited in distribution to northern temperate zones. [more]

Heppiaceae

The Heppiaceae are a family of ascomycete fungi. Most species are lichenized with cyanobacteria. [more]

Hericiaceae

The Hericiaceae are a family of fungi in the order Russulales. The best known genus is Hericium, species of which are valued for their medicinal properties in Oriental medicine. Taxa are mainly known from north temperate regions, and are saprobic on rotting wood. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that Hericiaceae belongs to the russuloid clade of homobasidiomycetes, and morphological and molecular evidence links it with the families Auriscalpiaceae, Bondarzewiaceae and Echinodontiaceae. [more]

Herpotrichiellaceae

The Herpotrichiellaceae are a family of ascomycetous fungi within the order Chaetothyriales and within the class Eurotiomycetes. [more]

Hoehnelomycetaceae

[more]

Hyaloscyphaceae

The Hyaloscyphaceae are a family of fungi in the Helotiales order. Species in this family have a cosmopolitan distribution, and are saprobic, growing on dead wood and other plant matter. [more]

Hydnaceae

The Hydnaceae are a family of fungi in the order Cantharellales. Originally the family encompassed all species of fungi that produced basidiocarps (fruit bodies) having a hymenium (spore-bearing surface) consisting of slender, downward-hanging tapering extensions referred to as "spines" or "teeth", whether they were related or not. This artificial but often useful grouping is now more generally called the hydnoid or tooth fungi. In the strict, modern sense, the Hydnaceae are limited to the genus Hydnum and related genera, with basidiocarps having a toothed or poroid hymenium. Species in the family are ectomycorrhizal, forming a mutually beneficial relationship with the roots of trees and other plants. Hydnum repandum (the hedgehog fungus) is an edible species, commercially collected in some countries and often marketed under the French name "pied de mouton". [more]

Hydnangiaceae

The Hydnangiaceae are a family of fungi in the order of mushrooms known as the Agaricales. Widespread in temperate and tropical regions throughout the world, the family contains approximately 30 species amongst 4 genera. Species in the Hydnangiaceae form ectomycorrhizal relationships with various species of trees in both coniferous and deciduous forests. [more]

Hygrophoraceae

The Hygrophoraceae are a family of fungi in the order Agaricales. Originally conceived as containing white-spored, thick-gilled agarics (gilled mushrooms), including Hygrophorus and Hygrocybe species (the waxcaps or waxy caps), DNA evidence has extended the limits of the family, so that it now contains not only agarics but also basidiolichens and corticioid fungi. Species are thus diverse and are variously ectomycorrhizal, lichenized, associated with mosses, or saprotrophic. The family contains 18 genera and over 400 species. None is of any great economic importance, though fruit bodies of some Hygrocybe and Hygrophorus species are considered edible and may be collected for sale in local markets. [more]

Hygrophoropsidaceae

[more]

Hymeneliaceae

[more]

Hymenochaetaceae

The Hymenochaetaceae are a family of fungi in the order Hymenochaetales. The family contains several species that are implicated in many diseases of broad-leaved and coniferous trees, causing heart rot, canker and root diseases, and also esca disease of grapevines. According to a standard references text, the family contains 27 genera and 487 species. [more]

Hymenogasteraceae

The Hymenogastraceae is a family of fungi in the Agaricales. [more]

Hyphodermataceae

The Hyphodermataceae are a family of fungi in the order Polyporales. [more]

Hypocreaceae

The Hypocreaceae are a family within the class Sordariomycetes. Species of Hypocreaceae are usually recognized by their brightly colored, perithecial ascomata, typically yellow, orange or red. The family was proposed by in 1844. According to the Dictionary of the Fungi (10th edition, 2008), the family has 22 genera and 454 species. [more]

Hyponectriaceae

The Hyponectriaceae are a family of fungi in the order Xylariales. [more]

Hypsostromataceae

[more]

Hysterangiaceae

The Hysterangiaceae are a family of fungi in the order Hysterangiales. Species in the family are widely distributed in temperate areas and the tropics. According to a 2008 estimate, the family contains four genera and 54 species. [more]

Hysteriaceae

The Hysteriaceae (also known as Dothideomycetes, Ascomycotina, Eumycota) is a family of fungi in the order Hysteriales. They are characterised by having sexual structures called hysterothecia, an elongated structure that opens by a longitudinal slit and releases the sexually produced spores. Species of the family have a widespread distribution, especially in temperate regions, and most are saprobic on wood and bark, although a few are parasitic on plants. [more]

Icmadophilaceae

The Icmadophilaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Pertusariales. The family was circumscribed in 1993, and contains 6 genera and 58 species. [more]

Incierta

[more]

Kickxellaceae

[more]

Laboulbeniaceae

The Laboulbeniaceae are a family of fungi in the order Laboulbeniales. Taxa have a widespread distribution, and are parasitic to various orders of insects. [more]

Lachnocladiaceae

The Lachnocladiaceae are a family of fungi in the Russulales order. The family contains a total of 124 species in 8 genera. Species of this family, which have a widespread distribution in both tropical and temperate zones, are typically found on decaying coniferous or deciduous wood. [more]

Lasiosphaeriaceae

The Lasiosphaeriaceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota, class Sordariomycetes. [more]

Lecanoraceae

The Lecanoraceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Lecanorales. Species of this family have a widespread distribution. [more]

Lecideaceae

The Lecideaceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota, class Lecanoromycetes. Its relationship to other taxa in the Lecanoromycetes is not well understood, so it is considered to be incertae sedis with respect to ordinal placement. [more]

Legeriomycetaceae

The Legeriomycetaceae are a family of fungi in the Harpellales order. The family contains 31 genera and 158 species. [more]

Lentinaceae

[more]

Leotiaceae

The Leotiaceae are a family of fungi in the order Leotiales. Species in this family are saprobic, and have a wide distribution, especially in temperate regions. The family contains 7 genera and 34 species. [more]

Leptopeltidaceae

[more]

Leptosphaeriaceae

The Leptosphaeriaceae are a family of fungi in the order Pleosporales. The family was circumscribed by mycologist in 1987. According to the Dictionary of the Fungi (10th edition, 2008), the family contains 8 genera and 302 species. The family has a widespread distribution, but is especially prevalent in temperate regions. Species are either saprobic or grow as nectrotrophs on the stems or leaves of plants. [more]

Letrouitiaceae

[more]

Leucogastraceae

Leucogastraceae is a family of fungi in the order Boletales. [more]

Leucosporidiaceae

[more]

Lichenotheliaceae

[more]

Lichinaceae

The Lichinaceae are a family of ascomycete fungi. Most species are lichenized, and have a distribution largely in temperate regions. [more]

Lobariaceae

The Lobariaceae are a lichenized family of fungi in the order Peltigerales (suborder ). Species of this family have a widespread distribution, particularly in the tropics and southern temperate areas. [more]

Lopadiaceae

[more]

Lophiostomataceae

The Lophiostomataceae are a family of fungi in the order Pleosporales. Taxa have a widespread distribution, especially in temperate regions, and saprobic or necrotrophic on herbaceous and woody stems. [more]

Lycogalaceae

[more]

Lycoperdaceae

Lycoperdaceae is a family of approximately 150 fungi now known to lie in the Agaricales. Historically they were placed in their own order Lycoperdales. Members of the Lycoperdaceae family are known as the true puffballs. Unlike other types of fungi that hold spores in gills or teeth, puffballs contain the spores inside a layer of tougher outer skin. When a puffball reaches maturity, the tough skin will split open, allowing the billions of spores to be released. [more]

Magnaporthaceae

Magnaporthaceae is a family of fungi in the order Magnaporthales. [more]

Marasmiaceae

The Marasmiaceae are a family of basidiomycete fungi which have white spores. They mostly have a tough stem and the capability of shrivelling up during a dry period and later recovering. The widely consumed edible fungus Lentinula edodes, the Shiitake mushroom, is a member of this family. According to a 2008 estimate, the family contains 54 genera and 1590 species. [more]

Massariaceae

The Massariaceae are a family of fungi in the order Pleosporales. Taxa have a cosmopolitan distribution, but are better known in more temperate zones. Although the family is poorly known, it have been suggested that they are saprobic in wood and bark, with a few species being weak pathogens. [more]

Megalariaceae

The Megalariaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Lecanorales. Species of this family have a widespread distribution. [more]

Megalosporaceae

The Megalosporaceae are a family of mostly lichen-forming fungi belonging to the class Lecanoromycetes in the division Ascomycota. Most species have a tropical distribution. [more]

Melampsoraceae

Melampsoraceae are a family of rust fungi in the order Pucciniales. The family is monotypic, containing the single genus Melampsora, which contains about 90 species. [more]

Melanconidaceae

The Melanconidaceae are a family of fungi in the order Diaporthales, class Sordariomycetes. [more]

Melanogastraceae

[more]

Melanommataceae

The Melanommataceae are a family of fungi in the order Pleosporales. Taxa are widespread in temperate and subtropical regions, and are saprobic on wood and bark. [more]

Melanopsichiaceae

[more]

Melaspileaceae

The Melaspileaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Arthoniales. Containing a single genus, , they are poorly understood, and phylogenetic relationships to other taxa in the Ascomycota are not clearly defined. [more]

Meliolaceae

The Meliolaceae are a family of fungi in the order . Mostly tropical in distribution, species in this family are biotrophic on the leaves and stems of plants. Despite this, most species do not cause extensive damage to the host plant, and are not generally considered to be of economic significance. [more]

Meripilaceae

The Meripilaceae are a family of fungi in the order Polyporales. [more]

Meristacraceae

[more]

Meruliaceae

The Meruliaceae are a family of fungi in the order Polyporales. According to a 2008 estimate, the family contains 47 genera and 420 species. The family was formally circumscribed by English mycologist Carleton Rea in 1922. [more]

Metacapnodiaceae

The Metacapnodiaceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota, class Dothideomycetes. The family contains the single genus Metacapnodium. [more]

Metschnikowiaceae

[more]

Micareaceae

[more]

Microascaceae

The Microascaceae are a family of fungi in the Sordariomycetes class, subclass Hypocreomycetidae. [more]

Microbotryaceae

[more]

Micropeltaceae

[more]

Micropeltidaceae

The Micropeltidaceae are a family of fungi with an uncertain taxonomic placement in the class Dothideomycetes. [more]

Microstromataceae

[more]

Microthyriaceae

The Microthyriaceae are a family of fungi with an uncertain taxonomic placement in the class Dothideomycetes. [more]

Monascaceae

[more]

Monoblastiaceae

The Monoblastiaceae are a lichenized family of fungi in the order Pyrenulales. The taxonomical placement of this poorly-understood family is still uncertain and awaits verification from molecular data. [more]

Monoblepharidaceae

[more]

Montagnulaceae

The Montagnulaceae are a family of fungi in the order Pleosporales. [more]

Morchellaceae

The Morchellaceae are a family of ascomycete fungi. According to a standard reference work, the family contains 49 species distributed among 4 genera. The best-known members are the highly-regarded and commercially picked true morels of the genus Morchella, the thimble morels of the genus Verpa, and a genus of cup-shaped fungi Disciotis. [more]

Moriolaceae

[more]

Mortierellaceae

The Mortierellaceae are a family of fungi in the order Mortierellales. The Dictionary of the Fungi (10th edition, 2008) says that the family contains 6 genera and 93 species. A new genus, Echinochlamydosporium, was described in 2011. [more]

Mucoraceae

The Mucoraceae are a family of fungi of the order Mucorales, characterized by having the thallus not segmented or ramified. Pathogenic genera include Absidia, Apophysomyces, Mucor, Rhizomucor, and Rhizopus. According to a 2008 estimate, the family contains 25 genera and 129 species. [more]

Mycoblastaceae

The Mycoblastaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Lecanorales. Species from this family have a widespread distribution. [more]

Mycocaliciaceae

The Mycocaliciaceae are a family of fungi in the order Mycocaliciales. [more]

Mycosphaerellaceae

The Mycosphaerellaceae are a family of sac fungi. [more]

Myriangiaceae

[more]

Mytilinidiaceae

The Mytilinidiaceae are a family of fungi in the order Pleosporales. Taxa have a widespread distribution, especially in temperate zones, and are usually saprobic on woody tissue, especially gymnosperms. [more]

Myxotrichaceae

Myxotrichaceae is a family of fungi. Recent phylogenetic analysis suggests that the family's traditional classification in the order Onygenales is incorrect, and that it should be placed with the Leotiomycetes class. [more]

Naetrocymbaceae

The Naetrocymbaceae are a family of fungi with an uncertain taxonomic placement in the class Dothideomycetes. [more]

Nectriaceae

Nectriaceae is a family of fungi in the order Hypocreales. [more]

Nephromataceae

The Nephromataceae are a lichenized family of fungi in the order Peltigerales (suborder ). The family is monotypic, containing the single genus Nephroma. The Nephromataceae have a largely temperate distribution. [more]

Nidulariaceae

The Nidulariaceae are a family of fungi in the order Nidulariales. Commonly known as the bird's nest fungi, their fruiting bodies resemble tiny egg-filled birds' nests. As they are saprobic, feeding on decomposing organic matter, they are often seen growing on decaying wood and in soils enriched with wood chips or bark mulch; they have a widespread distribution in most ecological regions. The five genera within the family, namely, Crucibulum, Cyathus, Mycocalia, Nidula, and Nidularia, are distinguished from each other by differences in morphology and peridiole structure; more recently, phylogenetic analysis and comparison of DNA sequences is guiding new decisions in the taxonomic organization of this family [more]

Niessliaceae

The Niessliaceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota, class Sordariomycetes. [more]

Nitschkiaceae

[more]

Nosematidae

'Nosematidae is a family of microsporidians. The family includes the following genera. [more]

Ochrolechiaceae

[more]

Octavianiaceae

[more]

Octavianinaceae

[more]

Odontotremataceae

The Odontotremataceae are a family of saprobic fungi in the order Ostropales. Species of this family have a widespread distribution, but are especially known from northern temperate areas. [more]

Onygenaceae

The Onygenaceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota, class Eurotiomycetes. [more]

Opegraphaceae

[more]

Ophiostomataceae

The Ophiostomataceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota, class Sordariomycetes. The family was named by J.A. Nannfeldt in 1932. Species in the family have a widespread distribution, and are typically found in temperate regions, as pathogens of both coniferous and deciduous trees. [more]

Orbiliaceae

The Orbiliaceae are a family of saprobic sac fungi in the order Orbiliales. The family, first described by in 1932, contains 288 species in 12 genera. Members of this family have a widespread distribution, but are more prevalent in temperate regions. Some species in the Orbiliaceae are carnivorous fungi, and have evolved a number of specialized mechanisms to trap nematodes. [more]

Otideaceae

[more]

Pachnocybaceae

[more]

Pannariaceae

The Pannariaceae are a lichenized family of fungi in the order Peltigerales (suborder ). Species from this family have a widespread distribution, but are especially prevalent in southern temperate regions. [more]

Parataeniellaceae

[more]

Parmeliaceae

The Parmeliaceae is a large and diverse family of Lecanoromycetes. With over 2000 species in roughly 87 genera, it is currently regarded as the largest family of lichen forming fungi. The most speciose genera in the family are the well known groups: Xanthoparmelia (800+ species), Usnea (500+ species), Parmotrema (350+ species), and Hypotrachyna (190+ species). [more]

Parmulariaceae

The Parmulariaceae are a family of fungi with an uncertain taxonomic placement in the class Dothideomycetes. [more]

Parodiellaceae

The Parodiellaceae are a family of fungi with an uncertain taxonomic placement in the class Dothideomycetes. [more]

Parodiopsidaceae

[more]

Patellariaceae

The Patellariaceae are a family of sac fungi. It is the only representative of the order Patellariales. According to a 2008 estimate, the family contains 15 genera and 38 species. [more]

Paxillaceae

The Paxillaceae are a family of mushrooms bearing close affinity to the Boletes. Collectively, the family contains nine genera and 78 species. The type genus is Paxillus, containing fungi with decurrent gills, and Gyrodon, which has members with decurrent pores, among others. French mycologist Ren? Maire had erected the family in 1902, placing it between the agarics and boletes and recognizing the groups' similarities with the latter group. Maire's usage of the name was later deemed to be invalid, and the genus authority is attributed to Johannes Paulus Lotsy. More recent molecular research confirms the relations of Gyrodon, with the decurrent-pored mushroom G. lividus, and Paxillus as sister groups, together lying near the base of a phylogenetic tree from which the genus Boletus arises. The name Gyrodontaceae, published by Belgian botanist Paul Heinemann in 1951, is considered synonymous with Paxillaceae. [more]

Peltigeraceae

The Peltigeraceae are a lichenized family of fungi in the order Peltigerales. Species of this family have a widespread distribution but are especially prevalent in temperate regions. The family contains two genera and 101 species. [more]

Peltulaceae

The Peltulaceae are a family of ascomycete fungi. Most species are lichenized, and are widely distributed, found mostly in arid regions. [more]

Peniophoraceae

The Peniophoraceae are a family of fungi in the order Russulales. Species of this family have a cosmopolitan distribution and are mostly saprobic, causing rots of standing and fallen wood. According to a 2008 estimate, the family contains 7 genera and 88 species. [more]

Pertusariaceae

The Pertusariaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Pertusariales. [more]

Pezizaceae

The Pezizaceae (commonly referred to as cup fungi) are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota which produce mushrooms that tends to grow in the shape of a "cup". Spores are formed on the inner surface of the fruit body (mushroom). The cup shape typically serves to focus raindrops into splashing spores out of the cup. Additionally, the curvature enables wind currents to blow the spores out in a different manner than in most agarics and boletes. [more]

Phacidiaceae

The Phacidiaceae are a family of fungi in the order Helotiales. According to a 2008 estimate, the family contains seven genera and 148 species. [more]

Phaeochoraceae

Phaeochoraceae is a family of sac fungi in the order Phyllachorales. [more]

Phaeosphaeriaceae

The Phaeosphaeriaceae are a family of fungi in the order Pleosporales. Species in the family have a cosmopolitan distribution, and are generally or saprobic on a wide range of plants. [more]

Phaeotrichaceae

[more]

Phaffomycetaceae

[more]

Phakopsoraceae

The Phakopsoraceae are a family of rust fungi in the order Pucciniales. The family contains 18 genera and 205 species. [more]

Phallaceae

The Phallaceae are a family of fungi, commonly known as stinkhorn mushrooms. Belonging to the fungal order Phallales, the Phallaceae have a worldwide distribution, but are especially prevalent in tropical regions. They are known for their foul smelling sticky spore masses, or gleba, borne on the end of stalks called the receptaculum. The characteristic fruiting body structure?a single, unbranched receptaculum with an externally attached gleba on the upper part?distinguish the Phallaceae from other families in the Phalalles. The spore mass typically smells of carrion or dung, and attracts flies and other insects to help disperse the spores. Although there is a great diversity of body structure shape amongst the various genera, all species in the Phallaceae begin their development as oval or round structures known as "eggs". According to a 2008 estimate, the family contains 21 genera and 77 species. [more]

Phanerochaetaceae

The Phanerochaetaceae are a family of fungi in the order Polyporales. [more]

Phlyctidaceae

The Phlyctidaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Ostropales. Species in this family have primarily a tropical distribution, and are usually found growing on bark. [more]

Phragmidiaceae

The Phragmidiaceae are a family of rust fungi in the order Pucciniales. The family contains 14 genera and 164 species. [more]

Phycomycetaceae

The Phycomycetaceae are a family of fungi in the order Mucorales. Species in this family are widespread, but more common in temperate areas. [more]

Phyllachoraceae

Phyllachoraceae is a family of sac fungi. [more]

Physalacriaceae

[more]

Physciaceae

The Physciaceae are a family of mostly lichen-forming fungi belonging to the class Lecanoromycetes in the division Ascomycota. The family contains 17 genera and 512 species. [more]

Physodermataceae

[more]

Pileolariaceae

The Pileolariaceae are a family of rust fungi in the order Pucciniales. The family contains 4 genera and 34 species. [more]

Pilocarpaceae

The Parmeliaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Lecanorales. The species of this family have a cosmopolitan distribution and have been found in a variety of climatic regions. [more]

Piptocephalidaceae

The Piptocephalidaceae are a family of fungi in the Zoopagales order. The family contain contains 3 genera, and 70 species. [more]

Pisolithaceae

[more]

Placynthiaceae

The Placynthiaceae are a lichenized family of fungi in the order Peltigerales (suborder ). Species of this family are found largely in northern temperate regions. [more]

Platygloeaceae

[more]

Pleomassariaceae

The Pleomassariaceae are a family of fungi in the order Pleosporales. Taxa have a widespread distribution in both temperate and tropical regions, and are saprobic or necrotrophic on wood, bark, and other herbaceous material. [more]

Pleosporaceae

Pleosporaceae is a family of sac fungi. The taxonomic relationship of this family to associated genera is still not determined. [more]

Pleurotaceae

Pleurotaceae are a family of small to medium sized mushrooms which have white spores. The family contains 6 genera and 94 species. Members of Pleurotaceae can be mistaken for members of Omphalotaceae. Perhaps the best known member is the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus. [more]

Pluteaceae

The Pluteaceae are a family of small to medium-sized mushrooms which have free gill attachment and pink spores. Members of Pluteaceae can be mistaken for members of Entolomatacae but can be distinguished by their angled spores and attached gills. The four genera in the Pluteaceae include the widely distributed Volvariella and Pluteus, the rare Chamaeota, and Volvopluteus, newly described in 2011 as a result of molecular analysis. The Dictionary of the Fungi (10th edition, 2008) estimates there are 364 species in the family. [more]

Podoscyphaceae

[more]

Polyporaceae

The Polyporaceae are a family of bracket fungi belonging to the Basidiomycota. The flesh of their fruiting bodies varies from soft (as in the case of the Dryad's Saddle illustrated) to very tough. Most members of this family have their hymenium (fertile layer) in vertical pores on the underside of the caps, but some of them have gills (e.g. Panus) or gill-like structures (such as Daedaleopsis, whose elongated pores form a corky labyrinth). Many species are brackets, but others have a definite stipe - for example: Polyporus badius. [more]

Polystomellaceae

The Polystomellaceae are a family of fungi with an uncertain taxonomic placement in the class Dothideomycetes. [more]

Porpidiaceae

[more]

Protomycetaceae

[more]

Psathyrellaceae

The Psathyrellaceae are a family of dark-spored agarics that generally have rather soft, fragile fruiting bodies, and are characterized by black or dark brown, rarely reddish, or even pastel colored spore prints. About 50% of the species produce fruiting bodies that dissolve into ink-like ooze when the spores are mature via self digestion (autodigestion). Prior to phylogenetic research based upon DNA comparisons, most of the species that autodigested were previously classified in another family called the Coprinaceae that contained all of the inky cap mushrooms. The reclassification took place because the type species of Coprinus, Coprinus comatus, and a few other species were found to belong to another family, the Agaricaceae. The former group of old Coprinus was split between two families, and the name "Coprinaceae" became a synonym of the Agaricaceae in its 21st century phylogenetic redefinition. Note that in the 19th and early 20th centuries the family name Agaricaceae had far broader application, while in the late 20th century it had a narrower application. The family name Psathyrellaceae is based upon the subfamily name Psathyrelloideae, that had been classified in the Coprinaceae. The type genus, Psathyrella consists of species that produce fruitbodies do not liquify via autodigestion. Currently Psathyrella is a polyphyletic genus that will be further fragmented and reclassified. Lacrymaria is another genus that does not autodigest its fruitbodies. It is characterized by rough basidiospores and lamellar edges that exude beads of clear liquid when in prime condition, hence the Latin reference, 'lacrym-" to crying (tears). [more]

Pseudoperisporiaceae

The Pseudoperisporiaceae are a family of fungi with an uncertain taxonomic placement in the class Dothideomycetes. [more]

Psoraceae

The Psoraceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Lecanorales. Species of this family have a widespread distribution. [more]

Pterulaceae

The Pterulaceae are a family of fungi in the Agaricales order. According to a 2008 estimate, the family contains 99 species distributed among 12 genera. [more]

Pucciniaceae

The Pucciniaceae are a family of rust fungi that cause plant diseases, mainly on cereals such as wheat. The family contains 20 genera and over 4900 species. [more]

Pucciniastraceae

The Pucciniastraceae are a family of rust fungi in the order Pucciniales. The family contains 11 genera and 158 species. [more]

Pucciniosiraceae

The Pucciniosiraceae are a family of rust fungi in the order Pucciniales. The family contains 10 genera and 57 species. [more]

Pyrenulaceae

The Pyrenulaceae are a family of fungi in the order Pyrenulales. The family was first named by German botanist Gottlob Ludwig Rabenhorst in 1870. Species in the family have a widespread distribution, but are especially prevalent in the tropics, where they grow lichenized with green algae on bark. [more]

Pyronemataceae

The Pyronemataceae are a family of fungi in the order Pezizales. It is the largest family of the Pezizales, encompassing 75 genera and approximately 500 species. Recent phylogenetic analyses does not support the prior classifications of this family, and suggest that the family is not monophyletic as it is currently circumscribed. [more]

Pyxidiophoraceae

[more]

Radiomycetaceae

[more]

Ramalinaceae

The Ramalinaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Lecanorales. The family name is synonymous with the name Bacidiaceae. Species of this family have a widespread distribution. [more]

Ramariaceae

[more]

Raveneliaceae

The Raveneliaceae are a family of rust fungi in the order Pucciniales. The family contains 26 genera and about 323 species. [more]

Requienellaceae

The Requienellaceae are a family of fungi in the order Pyrenulales. Species in this family have a widespread distribution, and grow on wood and bark. [more]

Reticulariaceae

[more]

Rhizocarpaceae

The Rhizocarpaceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota, class Lecanoromycetes. Its relationship to other taxa in the Lecanoromycetes is not well understood, so it is considered to be incertae sedis with respect to ordinal placement. [more]

Rhizopogonaceae

Rhizopogonaceae are a family of fungi in the order Boletales. The family, first named and described by botanists and Carroll William Dodge in 1928, contains 3 genera and 152 species. [more]

Rhytismataceae

The Rhytismataceae are a family of fungi in the Rhytismatales order. According to the Dictionary of the Fungi (10th edition, 2008), the family contains 55 genera and 728 species. [more]

Roccellaceae

The Roccellaceae are a family of fungi in the order Arthoniomycetes. Most taxa are lichenized with green algae, although some are lichenicolous, growing on other lichens. [more]

Russulaceae

The Russulaceae are a family of fungi in the order Russulales. According to a 2008 estimate, the family contains 1243 species. Its species typically have fruit bodies with friable, chalk-like stalks, that break with a distinct crack, somewhat like a carrot but with porous flesh (see below). Microscopically, the cells are not all long thin hyphae, which would provide strength and more fibrous appearance when broken. Instead, the flesh contains also many large spherical cells ("sphaerocysts"), which give rise to the macroscopic consistency. [more]

Rutstroemiaceae

Rutstroemiaceae is a family of fungi in the order Helotiales. Species in this family have a cosmopolitan distribution, especially in temperate areas. [more]

Saccardiaceae

The Saccardiaceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota phylum. This family can not yet be taxonomically classified in any of the ascomycetous classes and orders with any degree of certainty (incertae sedis). [more]

Saccharomycetaceae

The Saccharomycetaceae are a family of yeast in the order Saccharomycetales that reproduce by budding. Species in the family have a cosmopolitan distribution distribution, and are present in a wide variety of habitats, especially those with a plentiful supply of carbohydrate sources. The family contains the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, arguably the most economically important fungus. [more]

Saccharomycodaceae

[more]

Saccharomycopsidaceae

The Saccharomycopsidaceae are a family of yeasts in the order Saccharomycetales. According to the 2007 Outline of Ascomycota, the family contains 3 genera, although the placement of the genus is uncertain. Species in this poorly-known family have a widespread distribution. [more]

Sarcoscyphaceae

The Sarcoscyphaceae are a family of cup fungi in the Pezizales order. There are 13 genera and 102 species in the family. Members of this family are cosmopolitan in distribution, being found in both tropical and temperate regions. [more]

Sarcosomataceae

The Sarcosomataceae are a family of fungi in the order Pezizales. According to a 2008 estimate, the family contains 10 genera and 57 species. Most species are found in temperate areas, and are typically saprobic on rotten or buried wood. [more]

Schizophyllaceae

The Schizophyllaceae are a family of fungi in the Agaricales order. The family contains two genera and seven species. Species cause white rot in hardwoods. The most common member of the genus Schizophyllum is Schizophyllum commune, a widely distributed mushroom. It looks like a mini Oyster mushroom which is one-fifth the size. [more]

Schizoporaceae

Schizoporaceae are a family of fungi in the order Hymenochaetales. These are saprobic, and cause white rots of standing and fallen wood of coniferous and broadleaved trees. According to one 2008 estimate, the family contains 14 genera and 109 species. [more]

Schizosaccharomycetaceae

Schizosaccharomycetaceae is a family of yeasts in the order Schizosaccharomycetales. [more]

Schizothyriaceae

The Schizothyriaceae are a family of fungi with an uncertain taxonomic placement in the class Dothideomycetes. [more]

Sclerodermataceae

The Sclerodermataceae are a family of fungi in the order Boletales, containing several genera of unusual fungi that little resemble boletes. Taxa, which include species commonly known as the ?hard-skinned puffballs?, ?earthballs?, or 'earthstars', are widespread in both temperate and tropical regions. The best known members include the earthball Scleroderma citrinum, the dye fungus Pisolithus tinctorius and the 'prettymouths' of the genus Calostoma. [more]

Sclerotiniaceae

The Sclerotiniaceae are a family of fungi in the order Helotiales. Many species in this family are plant pathogens. [more]

Sebacinaceae

The Sebacinales are an order of fungi in the class Agaricomycetes. Taxa have a widespread distribution and are mostly terrestrial, many forming mycorrhizas with a wide variety of plants, including orchids. The order is monotypic, containing a single family, the Sebacinaceae. There are 8 genera and 29 species in the family. [more]

Septobasidiaceae

[more]

Sigmoideomycetaceae

The Sigmoideomycetaceae are a family of fungi in the Zoopagales order. The family contain contains three genera, and six species. The family was circumscribed in 1992. [more]

Sistotremataceae

The Hydnaceae are a family of fungi in the order Cantharellales. Originally the family encompassed all species of fungi that produced basidiocarps (fruit bodies) having a hymenium (spore-bearing surface) consisting of slender, downward-hanging tapering extensions referred to as "spines" or "teeth", whether they were related or not. This artificial but often useful grouping is now more generally called the hydnoid or tooth fungi. In the strict, modern sense, the Hydnaceae are limited to the genus Hydnum and related genera, with basidiocarps having a toothed or poroid hymenium. Species in the family are ectomycorrhizal, forming a mutually beneficial relationship with the roots of trees and other plants. Hydnum repandum (the hedgehog fungus) is an edible species, commercially collected in some countries and often marketed under the French name "pied de mouton". [more]

Sordariaceae

The Sordariaceae are a family of perithecial fungi within the Sordariales order. [more]

Sparassidaceae

The Sparassidaceae are a family of fungi in the order Polyporales. [more]

Sphaerophoraceae

The Sphaerophoraceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Lecanorales. Species of this family have a widespread distribution, especially in southern temperate regions. The genus contains 5 genera and 32 species. [more]

Sphaerophragmiaceae

[more]

Sphinctrinaceae

The Sphinctrinaceae are a family of fungi in the order Mycocaliciales. [more]

Sporidiobolaceae

[more]

Sporormiaceae

The Sporormiaceae are a family of fungi in the order Pleosporales. Taxa have a cosmopolitan distribution and are saprobic on dung (coprophilous) and rotting vegetation. [more]

Steccherinaceae

The Meruliaceae are a family of fungi in the order Polyporales. According to a 2008 estimate, the family contains 47 genera and 420 species. The family was formally circumscribed by English mycologist Carleton Rea in 1922. [more]

Stereaceae

The Stereaceae are a family of corticioid fungi in the Russulales order. Species in the family have a widespread distribution, are lignicolous or terrestrial (in leaf litter), and typically saprobic. According to the Dictionary of the Fungi (10th edition, 2008), the family contains 22 genera and 125 species. [more]

Stereocaulaceae

The Stereocaulaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Lecanorales. Species of this family are widely distributed in temperate boreal and austral regions. [more]

Stictidaceae

The Stictidaceae are a family of fungi in the order Ostropales. The family was first described by Swedish mycologist Elias Magnus Fries in 1849. [more]

Strigulaceae

[more]

Strobilomycetaceae

[more]

Strophariaceae

The Strophariaceae are a family of fungi in the order Agaricales. The family contains 18 genera and 1316 species. The species of Strophariaceae have a red-brown to dark brown spore print, while the spores themselves are smooth and have an apical germ pore. These agarics are also characterized by having a cutis-type pileipellis. Ecologically, all species in this group are saprotrophs, growing on various kinds of decaying organic matter. [more]

Suillaceae

The Suillaceae are a family of fungi in the order Boletales (suborder Boletineae), containing the boletus-like Suillus, the small truffle-like Truncocolumella, as well as the monotypic genus Psiloboletinus. As of 2008, there are 54 species in the family. Gastrosuillus, once considered a distinct genus, has been shown with molecular analysis to be a recent evolutionary derivative of Suillus. Fuscoboletinus, described by Pomerleau and Smith in 1962, has also been subsumed into Suillus. [more]

Syncephalastraceae

The Syncephalastraceae are a family of fungi in the order Mucorales. Members of this family have a widespread distribution, but are more common in tropical and subtropical regions. [more]

Synchytriaceae

[more]

Syzygosporaceae

[more]

Taphrinaceae

[more]

Teloschistaceae

The Teloschistaceae are a family of mostly lichen-forming fungi belonging to the class Lecanoromycetes in the phylum Ascomycota. [more]

Thelebolaceae

The Thelebolales are an order of the class Leotiomycetes within the phylum Ascomycota. It contains the single family Thelebolaceae. [more]

Thelenellaceae

[more]

Thelephoraceae

Thelephoraceae are a family of fungi in the order Thelephorales. This grouping of mushrooms is commonly known as the "leathery earthfans". [more]

Thelohaniidae

[more]

Thelotremataceae

The Thelotremataceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Ostropales. [more]

Thyridiaceae

[more]

Tilletiaceae

The Tilletiales are an order of smut fungi in the class Exobasidiomycetes. It is a monotypic order, consisting of a single family, the Tilletiaceae, which contains seven genera. The roughly 150 species in the Tilletiales all infect hosts of the grass family, except for species of Erratomyces, which occur on legumes. [more]

Tremellaceae

The Tremellaceae are a family of fungi in the order Tremellales. The family is cosmopolitan and contains both teleomorphic and anamorphic genera, most of the latter being yeasts. All teleomorphic species of fungi in the Tremellaceae are parasites of other fungi, though the yeast states are widespread and not restricted to hosts. Basidiocarps (fruit bodies), when produced, are gelatinous. [more]

Trichocomaceae

Trichocomaceae is a family of the order Eurotiales. Taxa are saprobes with aggressive colonization strategies, adaptable to extreme environmental conditions. Family members are cosmopolitan in distribution, ubiquitous in soil and very common associates of decaying plant and food material. The family contains some of the most familiar fungi, such as Penicillium and Aspergillus. [more]

Tricholomataceae

The Tricholomataceae are a large family of mushrooms within the Agaricales. A classic "wastebasket taxon", the Tricholomataceae is inclusive of any white-, yellow-, or pink-spored genera in the Agaricales not already classified as belonging to the Amanitaceae, Lepiotaceae, Hygrophoraceae, Pluteaceae, or Entolomataceae. [more]

Trichosphaeriaceae

Trichosphaeriales is an order of sac fungi. It is monotypic, and consists of the single family, the Trichosphaeriaceae. [more]

Trypetheliaceae

The Trypetheliaceae are a family of mainly lichenised fungi with an uncertain taxonomic placement in the class Dothideomycetes, and the sole representative of the order Trypetheliales. According to a 2008 estimate, the family contains 13 genera and 192 species. [more]

Tuberaceae

The Tuberaceae are a family of mycorrhizal fungi. It includes the genus Tuber, which includes the so-called "true" truffles. It was characterized by the Belgian botanist Barth?lemy Charles Joseph du Mortier in 1822. A molecular study of ribosomal DNA by mycologist Kerry O'Donnell in 1997 found that a small clade now redefined as Helvellaceae is most closely related to the Tuberaceae. [more]

Tubeufiaceae

The Tubeufiaceae are a family of fungi in the class Dothideomycetes. [more]

Tubulicrinaceae

[more]

Tulasnellaceae

The Tulasnellaceae are a family of fungi in the order Cantharellales. The family comprises mainly effused (patch-forming) fungi formerly referred to the "jelly fungi" or heterobasidiomycetes. Species are wood- or litter-rotting saprotrophs, but many are also endomycorrhizal associates of orchids and some have also been thought to form ectomycorrhizal associations with trees and other plants. [more]

Tulostomataceae

The Agaricaceae are a family of basidiomycete fungi and includes the genus Agaricus, as well as basidiomycetes previously classified in the families Tulostomataceae, Lepiotaceae, and Lycoperdaceae. The genus contains 85 genera and 1340 species. [more]

Typhulaceae

The Typhulaceae are a family of fungi in the Agaricales order. The family contains 6 genera and 229 species. [more]

Umbilicariaceae

The Umbilicariaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the Ascomycota. Species of this family are known from a variety of climates, including temperate, boreal, austral, and warmer montane regions. [more]

Uncolaceae

[more]

Urocystaceae

[more]

Uropyxidaceae

The Uropyxidaceae are a family of rust fungi in the order Pucciniales. The family contains 15 genera and 149 species. [more]

Usneaceae

[more]

Ustilaginaceae

The Ustilaginaceae are a family of smut fungi in the order Ustilaginomycetes. Collectively, the family contains 17 genera and 607 species. [more]

Ustilentylomataceae

[more]

Valsaceae

The Valsaceae are a family of sac fungi in the Diaporthales order. [more]

Venturiaceae

The Venturiaceae are a family of fungi in the order Pleosporales. Several of the species in this family are plant pathogens. [more]

Verrucariaceae

The Verrucariaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Verrucariales. [more]

Vezdaeaceae

The Vezdaeaceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota, class Lecanoromycetes. Its relationship to other taxa in the Lecanoromycetes is not well understood, so it is considered to be incertae sedis with respect to ordinal placement. The family is monotypic, and contains the single genus Vezdaea. [more]

Vibrisseaceae

The Vibrisseaceae are a family of fungi in the order Helotiales. The family was circumscribed by mycologist in 1990 to include the genera Vibrissea, Chlorovibrissea, and Leucovibrissea. According to the Dictionary of the Fungi (10th edition, 2008), the family encompasses 5 genera and 59 species. [more]

Xanthopyreniaceae

[more]

Xenasmataceae

The Xenasmataceae are a family of fungi in the order Polyporales. [more]

Xylariaceae

The Xylariaceae are a family of mostly small ascomycetous fungi. It is one of the most commonly encountered groups of ascomycetes and is found throughout the temperate and tropical regions of the world. They are typically found on wood, seeds, fruits, or plant leaves, some even associated with insect nests. Most decay wood and many are plant pathogens. [more]

Zopfiaceae

The Zopfiaceae are a family of fungi in the order Pleosporales. Taxa have a widespread distribution, and appear to be saprobic, found largely on rhizomes and roots. Some species are found in marine environments. [more]

At least 26 species and subspecies belong to the Family Zopfiaceae.

More info about the Family Zopfiaceae may be found here.

Sources

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Last Revised: August 25, 2014
2014/08/25 12:08:14