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Fungi

(Kingdom)

Overview

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A plural of fungus.

Photos

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Taxonomy

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The Kingdom Fungi is a member of the Domain Eukaryota. Here is the complete "parentage" of Fungi:

The Kingdom Fungi is further organized into finer groupings including:

Phyla

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Anamorph

The terms teleomorph, anamorph, and holomorph apply to portions of the life cycles of fungi in the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. [more]

Ascomycota

The Ascomycota are a Division/Phylum of the kingdom Fungi, and subkingdom Dikarya. Its members are commonly known as the Sac fungi. They are the largest phylum of Fungi, with over 64,000 species. The defining feature of this fungal group is the "ascus" (from Greek: ?s??? (askos), meaning "sac" or "wineskin"), a microscopic sexual structure in which nonmotile spores, called ascospores, are formed. However, some species of the Ascomycota are asexual, meaning that they do not have a sexual cycle and thus do not form asci or ascospores. Previously placed in the Deuteromycota along with asexual species from other fungal taxa, asexual (or anamorphic) ascomycetes are now identified and classified based on morphological or physiological similarities to ascus-bearing taxa, and by phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences. [more]

Basidiomycota

Basidiomycota () is one of two large phyla that, together with the Ascomycota, comprise the subkingdom Dikarya (often referred to as the "higher fungi") within the kingdom Fungi. More specifically the Basidiomycota include these groups: mushrooms, puffballs, stinkhorns, bracket fungi, other polypores, jelly fungi, boletes, chanterelles, earth stars, smuts, bunts, rusts, mirror yeasts, and the human pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus. Basically, Basidiomycota are filamentous fungi composed of hyphae (except for yeasts), and reproducing sexually via the formation of specialized club-shaped end cells called basidia that normally bear external meiospores (usually four). These specialized spores are called basidiospores. However, some Basidiomycota reproduce asexually in addition or exclusively. Basidiomycota that reproduce asexually (discussed below) can be recognized as members of this phylum by gross similarity to others, by the formation of a distinctive anatomical feature (the clamp connection - see below), cell wall components, and definitively by phylogenetic molecular analysis of DNA sequence data. [more]

Blastocladiomycota

[more]

Chytridiomycota

Chytridiomycota is a division of the Fungi kingdom. The name is derived from the Greek chytridion, meaning "little pot", describing the structure containing unreleased spores. In older classifications, chytrids (except the recently established order Spizellomycetales) were placed in the Class Phycomycetes under the subdivision of the Kingdom Fungi. Also, in an older and more restricted sense (not used here), the term "chytrids" referred just to those fungi in the order Chytridiales. The chytrids have also been included among the Protista, but are now regularly classed as fungi. [more]

Glomeromycota

Glomeromycota (informally glomeromycetes) is one of seven currently recognized phyla within the kingdom Fungi, with approximately 230 described species. Members of the Glomeromycota form arbuscular mycorrhizas (AMs) with the roots or thalli (e.g. in bryophytes) of land plants. Geosiphon pyriformis forms an endocytobiotic association with Nostoc cyanobacteria. AM formation has not yet been shown for all species. The majority of evidence shows that the Glomeromycota are obligate biotrophs, dependent on symbiosis with land plants (Nostoc in the case of Geosiphon) for carbon and energy, but there is recent circumstantial evidence that some species may be able to lead an independent existence. The arbuscular mycorrhizal species are terrestrial and widely distributed in soils worldwide where they form symbioses with the roots of the majority of plant species (>80%). They can also be found in wetlands, including salt-marshes, and associated with epiphytic plants. [more]

Microsporidia

The microsporidia constitute a phylum of spore-forming unicellular parasites. They were once thought to be protists but are now known to be fungi. Loosely 1500 of the probably more than one million[] species are named now. Microsporidia are restricted to animal hosts, and all major groups of animals host microsporidia. Most infect insects, but they are also responsible for common diseases of crustaceans and fish. The distinguished species of microsporidia usually infect one specific host or a related group of hosts. Several species, most of which are opportunistic, also infect humans. [more]

Zygomycota

Zygomycota, or zygote fungi, is a phylum of fungi. The name comes from , where resistant spherical spores are formed during sexual reproduction. Approximately 1060 species are known. They are mostly terrestrial in habitat, living in soil or on decaying plant or animal material. Some are parasites of plants, insects, and small animals, while others form symbiotic relationships with plants. Zygomycete hyphae may be coenocytic, forming septa only where gametes are formed or to wall off dead hyphae. [more]

At least 1,929 species and subspecies belong to the Phylum Zygomycota.

More info about the Phylum Zygomycota may be found here.

Sources

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Last Revised: October 03, 2013
2013/10/03 15:21:52