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Ascomycota

(Phylum)

Overview

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(Gr. askos: wineskin; mykês: fungus) A large phylum of fungi (over 30 000 species), formerly classified as a class (Ascomycetes) or a subdivision (Ascomycotina). It includes the yeasts, some species of edible fungi (truffles), Penicillium, Aspergillus and Claviceps purpurea, which causes ergot in rye. Many are fungal partners of lichens. These fungi are known as the sac fungi because their spores are formed in a saclike structure (called an ascus). Sexual reproduction is by means of ascospores produced within the ascus. The asci are usually grouped together in an ascocarp. Syn. Ascomycotina, Ascomycetes.

Photos

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Taxonomy

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The Phylum Ascomycota is a member of the Kingdom Fungi. Here is the complete "parentage" of Ascomycota:

The Phylum Ascomycota is further organized into finer groupings including:

Families

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Acarosporaceae

The Acarosporaceae are a family of fungi in the order Acarosporales. Members of this family have a widespread distribution, and are lichenized with green algae. [more]

Acrospermaceae

The Acrospermaceae are a family of fungi with an uncertain taxonomic placement in the class Dothideomycetes. [more]

Agyriaceae

The Agyriaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Agyriales. [more]

Aliquandostipitaceae

The Aliquandostipitaceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota, class Dothideomycetes. The family was described by Patrik Inderbitzin in 2001, and the order Jahnulales was created in 2002 to accommodate the family. The distinguishing characteristic for members of the family are the unusually wide hyphae ("widest hyphae reported in the ascomycetes") that support the spore-bearing structures, and the presence of ascomata both with and without stalks. The genus has a pantropical distribution, having been found in Central America and southeast Asia; Jahnula has a wider distribution. Species in the family are saprobic, and are typically found growing on rotting wood. [more]

Amphisphaeriaceae

The Amphisphaeriaceae are a family of fungi that is mainly found in parts of New Zealand, South America, Asia and parts of Europe. According to the 2007 Outline of Ascomycota, there are 41 genera placed within the family, although the position of 13 of those genera is uncertain. [more]

Annulatascaceae

The Annulatascaceae are a family of fungi in the class Sordariomycetes of the Ascomycota. The family has not been assigned to any order (incertae sedis). Species in this family are saprobic, often growing on rotten wood in freshwater habitats. They have a widespread distribution, with many found in tropical areas. [more]

Antennulariellaceae

[more]

Anziaceae

[more]

Arthoniaceae

The Arthoniaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Pezizales. Species have a widespread distribution, but are especially prevalent in tropical areas. Collectively, the family has a highly variable ecology, some species lichenized with green algae, and others lichenicolous?growing on other lichens. Species can grow on leaves, bark and rock. The genus was first described by Reichenbach in 1841. [more]

Arthopyreniaceae

The Arthopyreniaceae are a family of fungi with an uncertain taxonomic placement in the class Dothideomycetes. [more]

Arthrodermataceae

The Arthrodermataceae are a family of fungi containing three dermatophytes -- genera Epidermophyton, Microsporum and Trichophyton. [more]

Ascobolaceae

The Ascobolaceae are a family of fungi in the order Pezizales. The family contains 6 genera, and 129 species. [more]

Ascodichaenaceae

The Ascodichaenaceae are a family of fungi in the Rhytismatales order. [more]

Ascosphaeraceae

[more]

Aspidotheliaceae

[more]

Asterinaceae

The Asterinaceae are a family of fungi with an uncertain taxonomic placement in the class Dothideomycetes. [more]

Asterothyriaceae

[more]

Aulographaceae

The Aulographaceae are a family of fungi with an uncertain taxonomic placement in the class Dothideomycetes. [more]

Bacidiaceae

[more]

Baeomycetaceae

The Baeomycetales are an order of fungi in the class Lecanoromycetes. It consists of the single family Baeomycetaceae. [more]

Biatoraceae

[more]

Biatorellaceae

The Biatorellaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Lecanorales. The family is monotypic, and contains the single genus Biatorella. Species are found in northern temperate regions, especially in Europe. [more]

Bionectriaceae

The Bionectriaceae are a family of fungi in the order Hypocreales, consisting of 35 genera, and 281 species. [more]

Boliniaceae

[more]

Botryosphaeriaceae

The Botryosphaeriaceae are a family of sac fungi. It is the only representative of the order Botryosphaeriales. According to a 2008 estimate, the family contains 26 genera and over 1500 species. [more]

Brigantiaeaceae

The Brigantiaeaceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota, class Lecanoromycetes. Its relationship to other taxa in the Lecanoromycetes is not well understood, so it is considered to be incertae sedis with respect to ordinal placement. Species in this family are lichenized with green algae, and are usually found growing on bark. [more]

Bulgariaceae

[more]

Caliciaceae

The Caliciaceae are a family of mostly lichen-forming fungi belonging to the class Lecanoromycetes in the division Ascomycota. The family contains 31 genera and 731 species. [more]

Calosphaeriaceae

[more]

Candelariaceae

The Candelariales are an order of fungi in the class Lecanoromycetes. It is a monotypic taxon, and contains the single family Candelariaceae. [more]

Capnodiaceae

The Capnodiaceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota, class Dothideomycetes. Species in the family have a wdiespread distribution, and are especially prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas, as well as temperate rainforests. [more]

Catillariaceae

The Catillariaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Lecanorales. Species of this family have a widespread distribution, especially in temperate areas. [more]

Ceratocystidaceae

The Ceratocystidaceae are a family of fungi in the Sordariomycetes class, subclass Hypocreomycetidae. [more]

Ceratomycetaceae

The Ceratomycetaceae are a family of fungi in the order Laboulbeniales. Taxa have a widespread distribution, and are or parasitic on insect cuticles. [more]

Ceratostomataceae

The Ceratostomataceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota, class Sordariomycetes. Species in the family have a widespread distribution, and are found growing on other fungi, on soil, or rotting vegetation. The family may not be monophyletic as currently defined. [more]

Chadefaudiellaceae

[more]

Chaetomiaceae

The Chaetomiaceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota, class Sordariomycetes. [more]

Chaetosphaerellaceae

The Chaetosphaerellaceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota, class Lecanoromycetes. The family was described in 2004. Species in the family have a widespread distribution, and are found in both temperate and tropical areas, where they grow saprobically on fallen wood. [more]

Chaetosphaeriaceae

The Chaetosphaeriaceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota, class Sordariomycetes. The family was named by M. R?blov? in 1999. Species in the family have a cosmopolitan distribution, and are found in both temperate and tropical climates. [more]

Chaetothyriaceae

The Chaetothyriaceae are a family of ascomycetous fungi within the order Chaetothyriales and within the class Eurotiomycetes. [more]

Chrysothricaceae

[more]

Cladoniaceae

The Cladoniaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Lecanorales. The reindeer moss and cup lichens (Cladonia) belong to this family. [more]

Clavicipitaceae

Clavicipitaceae is a family of fungi within the order Hypocreales. It consists of 43 genera, and 321 species. [more]

Clypeosphaeriaceae

The Clypeosphaeriaceae are a family of fungi in the order Xylariales. [more]

Coccocarpiaceae

[more]

Coccodiniaceae

[more]

Coccoideaceae

The Coccoideaceae are a family of fungi with an uncertain taxonomic placement in the class Dothideomycetes. [more]

Coccotremataceae

The Coccotremataceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Pertusariales. Species in this widely distributed family grow on bark or rocks, especially in maritime regions. [more]

Collemataceae

The Collemataceae are a lichenized family of fungi in the order Peltigerales (suborder ). Species in this family have a widespread distribution. [more]

Coniochaetaceae

[more]

Coniocybaceae

The Coniocybaceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota phylum. This family can not yet be taxonomically classified in any of the ascomycetous classes and orders with any degree of certainty (incertae sedis). [more]

Cookellaceae

[more]

Coryneliaceae

[more]

Corynesporascaceae

The Corynesporascaceae are a family of fungi with an uncertain taxonomic placement in the class Dothideomycetes. [more]

Crocyniaceae

The Crocyniaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Lecanorales. This is a monotypic family with the sole genus Crocynia], which has primarily a tropical distribution. [more]

Cucurbitariaceae

The Cucurbitariaceae are a family of fungi in the order Pleosporales. Taxa are widespread in temperate regions and are necrotrophic or saprobic on woody plants. [more]

Cudoniaceae

[more]

Cyttariaceae

[more]

Dacampiaceae

[more]

Dactylosporaceae

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Delitschiaceae

The Delitschiaceae are a family of fungi in the order Pleosporales. Taxa are widespread, especially in temperate regions, and are saprobic, often found growing in herbivore dung. [more]

Dematiaceae

The Dermateaceae is a family of cup fungi. Many species in this family are plant pathogens or decay plant material. [more]

Dermateaceae

The Dermateaceae is a family of cup fungi. Many species in this family are plant pathogens or decay plant material. [more]

Diademaceae

[more]

Diaporthaceae

Diaporthaceae is a plant pathogen family. [more]

Diatrypaceae

The Diatrypaceae are a family of fungi in the order Xylariales. According to a 2008 estimate, the family has 13 genera and 229 species. [more]

Didymosphaeriaceae

The Didymosphaeriaceae are a family of fungi in the order Pleosporales. Taxa have a cosmopolitan distribution, and are saprobic in both woody and herbaceous plants. Some species are parasitic on other fungi. [more]

Dipodascaceae

The Dipodascaceae are a family of yeasts in the order Saccharomycetales. According to the 2007 Outline of Ascomycota, the family contains four genera; however, the placement of Sporopachydermia and Yarrowia are uncertain. Species in the family have a widespread distribution, and are found in decaying plant tissue, or as spoilage organisms in the food industry. [more]

Discinaceae

[more]

Dothideaceae

The Dothideaceae are a family of fungi in the order Dothideales. Species in this family have a widespread distribution, especially in tropical areas. [more]

Dothideomycetes

[more]

Dothioraceae

The Dothioraceae are a family of fungi in the order Dothideales. Species in this family have a widespread distribution, and are biotrophic or necrotrophic, usually associated with woody plants. [more]

Ectolechiaceae

[more]

Elaphomycetaceae

The Elaphomycetaceae are a family of the Eurotiales fungi. The family contains two genera and 27 species. [more]

Elsinoaceae

Elsinoaceae is a family of sac fungi. [more]

Endomycetaceae

The Endomycetaceae are a family of yeasts in the order Saccharomycetales. According to the 2007 Outline of Ascomycota, the family contains three genera; however, the placement of the genus Phialoascus is uncertain. Species in this poorly-understood family have a cosmopolitan distribution, and typically grow in association with other fungi, perhaps parasitically. [more]

Englerulaceae

The Englerulaceae are a family of fungi with an uncertain taxonomic placement in the class Dothideomycetes. [more]

Eremotheciaceae

[more]

Erysiphaceae

The Erysiphaceae are fungal family of the order Erysiphales. The family contains many of the powdery mildews. [more]

Euantennariaceae

[more]

Euceratomycetaceae

Euceratomycetaceae is a family of fungi in the order Laboulbeniales. These fungi, found mostly in temperate zones, tend to be parasitic or on insect exoskeletons. [more]

Fenestellaceae

[more]

Fuscideaceae

The Fuscideaceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota, class Lecanoromycetes. Its relationship to other taxa in the Lecanoromycetes is not well understood, so it is considered to be incertae sedis with respect to ordinal placement. [more]

Geoglossaceae

Geoglossaceae is a family of fungi in the class Geoglossomycetes. It was previously defined with 6 genera and 48 species and was broadly known as earth tongues. Molecular phylogenetics has shown that genera with mainly light or colored spores and sexual structures belong in the Leotiomycetes. The remaining genera with dark spores and sexual structures in the family is only distantly related and are now placed in a new class (Geoglossomycetes) and order (Geoglossales). Earth tongues live in soil or among rotting vegetation. Earth tongues are generally small, black, and poker shaped fungi with a height of 2?8 cm. These fungi can sometimes be found covered in white spores. A microscope is needed to identify them. [more]

Gnomoniaceae

The Gnomoniaceae are a family of fungi in the Diaporthales order. The family was first described by German botanist in 1886. [more]

Gomphillaceae

The Gomphillaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Ostropales. Species in this family are found mostly in tropical regions. [more]

Graphidaceae

The Graphidaceae are a family of fungi in the order Ostropales. [more]

Gyalectaceae

The Gyalectaceae are a family of fungi in the order Ostropales. [more]

Gymnoascaceae

The Gymnoascaceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota, class Eurotiomycetes. [more]

Haematommataceae

The Haematommataceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Lecanorales. This is a monotypic family, containing the single genus Haematomma, which has a widespread distribution in tropical and temperate areas. [more]

Halosphaeriaceae

The Halosphaeriaceae are a family of fungi in the Sordariomycetes class, subclass Hypocreomycetidae. [more]

Helminthosphaeriaceae

The Helminthosphaeriaceae are a family of fungi in the class Sordariomycetes. The family has not been assigned to any order (incertae sedis). Species in this family are saprobic, often growing on rotten wood or on the fruit bodies of old mushrooms. They are distributed in temperate areas. [more]

Helotiaceae

The Helotiaceae are a family of fungi in the Helotiales order. The distribution of species in the family are widespread, and typically found in tropical areas. There are 117 genera and 826 species in the family. [more]

Helvellaceae

The Helvellaceae are a family of ascomycete fungi, the best known members of which are the elfin saddles of the genus Helvella. Originally erected by Elias Magnus Fries in 1823 as Elvellacei, it contained many genera. Several of these, such as Gyromitra and Discina, have been found to be more distantly related in a molecular study of ribosomal DNA by mycologist Kerry O'Donnell in 1997, leaving a much smaller core clade now redefined as Helvellaceae. Instead, this narrowly defined group is most closely related to the true truffles of the Tuberaceae. According to the Dictionary of the Fungi (10th edition, 2008), the family contains six genera and 63 species. [more]

Hemiphacidiaceae

The Hemiphacidiaceae are a family of fungi in the order Helotiales. Although the type genus was originally Hemiphacidium, it has since been renamed to Sarcotrochila. The 26 species in this family are limited in distribution to northern temperate zones. [more]

Heppiaceae

The Heppiaceae are a family of ascomycete fungi. Most species are lichenized with cyanobacteria. [more]

Herpotrichiellaceae

The Herpotrichiellaceae are a family of ascomycetous fungi within the order Chaetothyriales and within the class Eurotiomycetes. [more]

Hyaloscyphaceae

The Hyaloscyphaceae are a family of fungi in the Helotiales order. Species in this family have a cosmopolitan distribution, and are saprobic, growing on dead wood and other plant matter. [more]

Hymeneliaceae

[more]

Hypocreaceae

The Hypocreaceae are a family within the class Sordariomycetes. Species of Hypocreaceae are usually recognized by their brightly colored, perithecial ascomata, typically yellow, orange or red. The family was proposed by in 1844. According to the Dictionary of the Fungi (10th edition, 2008), the family has 22 genera and 454 species. [more]

Hyponectriaceae

The Hyponectriaceae are a family of fungi in the order Xylariales. [more]

Hypsostromataceae

[more]

Hysteriaceae

The Hysteriaceae (also known as Dothideomycetes, Ascomycotina, Eumycota) is a family of fungi in the order Hysteriales. They are characterised by having sexual structures called hysterothecia, an elongated structure that opens by a longitudinal slit and releases the sexually produced spores. Species of the family have a widespread distribution, especially in temperate regions, and most are saprobic on wood and bark, although a few are parasitic on plants. [more]

Icmadophilaceae

The Icmadophilaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Pertusariales. The family was circumscribed in 1993, and contains 6 genera and 58 species. [more]

Incierta

[more]

Laboulbeniaceae

The Laboulbeniaceae are a family of fungi in the order Laboulbeniales. Taxa have a widespread distribution, and are parasitic to various orders of insects. [more]

Lasiosphaeriaceae

The Lasiosphaeriaceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota, class Sordariomycetes. [more]

Lecanoraceae

The Lecanoraceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Lecanorales. Species of this family have a widespread distribution. [more]

Lecideaceae

The Lecideaceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota, class Lecanoromycetes. Its relationship to other taxa in the Lecanoromycetes is not well understood, so it is considered to be incertae sedis with respect to ordinal placement. [more]

Leotiaceae

The Leotiaceae are a family of fungi in the order Leotiales. Species in this family are saprobic, and have a wide distribution, especially in temperate regions. The family contains 7 genera and 34 species. [more]

Leptopeltidaceae

[more]

Leptosphaeriaceae

The Leptosphaeriaceae are a family of fungi in the order Pleosporales. The family was circumscribed by mycologist in 1987. According to the Dictionary of the Fungi (10th edition, 2008), the family contains 8 genera and 302 species. The family has a widespread distribution, but is especially prevalent in temperate regions. Species are either saprobic or grow as nectrotrophs on the stems or leaves of plants. [more]

Letrouitiaceae

[more]

Lichenotheliaceae

[more]

Lichinaceae

The Lichinaceae are a family of ascomycete fungi. Most species are lichenized, and have a distribution largely in temperate regions. [more]

Lobariaceae

The Lobariaceae are a lichenized family of fungi in the order Peltigerales (suborder ). Species of this family have a widespread distribution, particularly in the tropics and southern temperate areas. [more]

Lopadiaceae

[more]

Lophiostomataceae

The Lophiostomataceae are a family of fungi in the order Pleosporales. Taxa have a widespread distribution, especially in temperate regions, and saprobic or necrotrophic on herbaceous and woody stems. [more]

Magnaporthaceae

Magnaporthaceae is a family of fungi in the order Magnaporthales. [more]

Massariaceae

The Massariaceae are a family of fungi in the order Pleosporales. Taxa have a cosmopolitan distribution, but are better known in more temperate zones. Although the family is poorly known, it have been suggested that they are saprobic in wood and bark, with a few species being weak pathogens. [more]

Megalariaceae

The Megalariaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Lecanorales. Species of this family have a widespread distribution. [more]

Megalosporaceae

The Megalosporaceae are a family of mostly lichen-forming fungi belonging to the class Lecanoromycetes in the division Ascomycota. Most species have a tropical distribution. [more]

Melanconidaceae

The Melanconidaceae are a family of fungi in the order Diaporthales, class Sordariomycetes. [more]

Melanommataceae

The Melanommataceae are a family of fungi in the order Pleosporales. Taxa are widespread in temperate and subtropical regions, and are saprobic on wood and bark. [more]

Melaspileaceae

The Melaspileaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Arthoniales. Containing a single genus, , they are poorly understood, and phylogenetic relationships to other taxa in the Ascomycota are not clearly defined. [more]

Meliolaceae

The Meliolaceae are a family of fungi in the order . Mostly tropical in distribution, species in this family are biotrophic on the leaves and stems of plants. Despite this, most species do not cause extensive damage to the host plant, and are not generally considered to be of economic significance. [more]

Metacapnodiaceae

The Metacapnodiaceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota, class Dothideomycetes. The family contains the single genus Metacapnodium. [more]

Metschnikowiaceae

[more]

Micareaceae

[more]

Microascaceae

The Microascaceae are a family of fungi in the Sordariomycetes class, subclass Hypocreomycetidae. [more]

Micropeltaceae

[more]

Micropeltidaceae

The Micropeltidaceae are a family of fungi with an uncertain taxonomic placement in the class Dothideomycetes. [more]

Microthyriaceae

The Microthyriaceae are a family of fungi with an uncertain taxonomic placement in the class Dothideomycetes. [more]

Monascaceae

[more]

Monoblastiaceae

The Monoblastiaceae are a lichenized family of fungi in the order Pyrenulales. The taxonomical placement of this poorly-understood family is still uncertain and awaits verification from molecular data. [more]

Montagnulaceae

The Montagnulaceae are a family of fungi in the order Pleosporales. [more]

Morchellaceae

The Morchellaceae are a family of ascomycete fungi. According to a standard reference work, the family contains 49 species distributed among 4 genera. The best-known members are the highly-regarded and commercially picked true morels of the genus Morchella, the thimble morels of the genus Verpa, and a genus of cup-shaped fungi Disciotis. [more]

Moriolaceae

[more]

Mycoblastaceae

The Mycoblastaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Lecanorales. Species from this family have a widespread distribution. [more]

Mycocaliciaceae

The Mycocaliciaceae are a family of fungi in the order Mycocaliciales. [more]

Mycosphaerellaceae

The Mycosphaerellaceae are a family of sac fungi. [more]

Myriangiaceae

[more]

Mytilinidiaceae

The Mytilinidiaceae are a family of fungi in the order Pleosporales. Taxa have a widespread distribution, especially in temperate zones, and are usually saprobic on woody tissue, especially gymnosperms. [more]

Myxotrichaceae

Myxotrichaceae is a family of fungi. Recent phylogenetic analysis suggests that the family's traditional classification in the order Onygenales is incorrect, and that it should be placed with the Leotiomycetes class. [more]

Naetrocymbaceae

The Naetrocymbaceae are a family of fungi with an uncertain taxonomic placement in the class Dothideomycetes. [more]

Nectriaceae

Nectriaceae is a family of fungi in the order Hypocreales. [more]

Nephromataceae

The Nephromataceae are a lichenized family of fungi in the order Peltigerales (suborder ). The family is monotypic, containing the single genus Nephroma. The Nephromataceae have a largely temperate distribution. [more]

Niessliaceae

The Niessliaceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota, class Sordariomycetes. [more]

Nitschkiaceae

[more]

Ochrolechiaceae

[more]

Odontotremataceae

The Odontotremataceae are a family of saprobic fungi in the order Ostropales. Species of this family have a widespread distribution, but are especially known from northern temperate areas. [more]

Onygenaceae

The Onygenaceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota, class Eurotiomycetes. [more]

Opegraphaceae

[more]

Ophiostomataceae

The Ophiostomataceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota, class Sordariomycetes. The family was named by J.A. Nannfeldt in 1932. Species in the family have a widespread distribution, and are typically found in temperate regions, as pathogens of both coniferous and deciduous trees. [more]

Orbiliaceae

The Orbiliaceae are a family of saprobic sac fungi in the order Orbiliales. The family, first described by in 1932, contains 288 species in 12 genera. Members of this family have a widespread distribution, but are more prevalent in temperate regions. Some species in the Orbiliaceae are carnivorous fungi, and have evolved a number of specialized mechanisms to trap nematodes. [more]

Otideaceae

[more]

Pannariaceae

The Pannariaceae are a lichenized family of fungi in the order Peltigerales (suborder ). Species from this family have a widespread distribution, but are especially prevalent in southern temperate regions. [more]

Parmeliaceae

The Parmeliaceae is a large and diverse family of Lecanoromycetes. With over 2000 species in roughly 87 genera, it is currently regarded as the largest family of lichen forming fungi. The most speciose genera in the family are the well known groups: Xanthoparmelia (800+ species), Usnea (500+ species), Parmotrema (350+ species), and Hypotrachyna (190+ species). [more]

Parmulariaceae

The Parmulariaceae are a family of fungi with an uncertain taxonomic placement in the class Dothideomycetes. [more]

Parodiellaceae

The Parodiellaceae are a family of fungi with an uncertain taxonomic placement in the class Dothideomycetes. [more]

Parodiopsidaceae

[more]

Patellariaceae

The Patellariaceae are a family of sac fungi. It is the only representative of the order Patellariales. According to a 2008 estimate, the family contains 15 genera and 38 species. [more]

Peltigeraceae

The Peltigeraceae are a lichenized family of fungi in the order Peltigerales. Species of this family have a widespread distribution but are especially prevalent in temperate regions. The family contains two genera and 101 species. [more]

Peltulaceae

The Peltulaceae are a family of ascomycete fungi. Most species are lichenized, and are widely distributed, found mostly in arid regions. [more]

Pertusariaceae

The Pertusariaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Pertusariales. [more]

Pezizaceae

The Pezizaceae (commonly referred to as cup fungi) are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota which produce mushrooms that tends to grow in the shape of a "cup". Spores are formed on the inner surface of the fruit body (mushroom). The cup shape typically serves to focus raindrops into splashing spores out of the cup. Additionally, the curvature enables wind currents to blow the spores out in a different manner than in most agarics and boletes. [more]

Phacidiaceae

The Phacidiaceae are a family of fungi in the order Helotiales. According to a 2008 estimate, the family contains seven genera and 148 species. [more]

Phaeochoraceae

Phaeochoraceae is a family of sac fungi in the order Phyllachorales. [more]

Phaeosphaeriaceae

The Phaeosphaeriaceae are a family of fungi in the order Pleosporales. Species in the family have a cosmopolitan distribution, and are generally or saprobic on a wide range of plants. [more]

Phaeotrichaceae

[more]

Phaffomycetaceae

[more]

Phlyctidaceae

The Phlyctidaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Ostropales. Species in this family have primarily a tropical distribution, and are usually found growing on bark. [more]

Phyllachoraceae

Phyllachoraceae is a family of sac fungi. [more]

Physciaceae

The Physciaceae are a family of mostly lichen-forming fungi belonging to the class Lecanoromycetes in the division Ascomycota. The family contains 17 genera and 512 species. [more]

Pilocarpaceae

The Parmeliaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Lecanorales. The species of this family have a cosmopolitan distribution and have been found in a variety of climatic regions. [more]

Placynthiaceae

The Placynthiaceae are a lichenized family of fungi in the order Peltigerales (suborder ). Species of this family are found largely in northern temperate regions. [more]

Pleomassariaceae

The Pleomassariaceae are a family of fungi in the order Pleosporales. Taxa have a widespread distribution in both temperate and tropical regions, and are saprobic or necrotrophic on wood, bark, and other herbaceous material. [more]

Pleosporaceae

Pleosporaceae is a family of sac fungi. The taxonomic relationship of this family to associated genera is still not determined. [more]

Polystomellaceae

The Polystomellaceae are a family of fungi with an uncertain taxonomic placement in the class Dothideomycetes. [more]

Porpidiaceae

[more]

Protomycetaceae

[more]

Pseudoperisporiaceae

The Pseudoperisporiaceae are a family of fungi with an uncertain taxonomic placement in the class Dothideomycetes. [more]

Psoraceae

The Psoraceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Lecanorales. Species of this family have a widespread distribution. [more]

Pyrenulaceae

The Pyrenulaceae are a family of fungi in the order Pyrenulales. The family was first named by German botanist Gottlob Ludwig Rabenhorst in 1870. Species in the family have a widespread distribution, but are especially prevalent in the tropics, where they grow lichenized with green algae on bark. [more]

Pyronemataceae

The Pyronemataceae are a family of fungi in the order Pezizales. It is the largest family of the Pezizales, encompassing 75 genera and approximately 500 species. Recent phylogenetic analyses does not support the prior classifications of this family, and suggest that the family is not monophyletic as it is currently circumscribed. [more]

Pyxidiophoraceae

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Ramalinaceae

The Ramalinaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Lecanorales. The family name is synonymous with the name Bacidiaceae. Species of this family have a widespread distribution. [more]

Requienellaceae

The Requienellaceae are a family of fungi in the order Pyrenulales. Species in this family have a widespread distribution, and grow on wood and bark. [more]

Rhizocarpaceae

The Rhizocarpaceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota, class Lecanoromycetes. Its relationship to other taxa in the Lecanoromycetes is not well understood, so it is considered to be incertae sedis with respect to ordinal placement. [more]

Rhytismataceae

The Rhytismataceae are a family of fungi in the Rhytismatales order. According to the Dictionary of the Fungi (10th edition, 2008), the family contains 55 genera and 728 species. [more]

Roccellaceae

The Roccellaceae are a family of fungi in the order Arthoniomycetes. Most taxa are lichenized with green algae, although some are lichenicolous, growing on other lichens. [more]

Rutstroemiaceae

Rutstroemiaceae is a family of fungi in the order Helotiales. Species in this family have a cosmopolitan distribution, especially in temperate areas. [more]

Saccardiaceae

The Saccardiaceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota phylum. This family can not yet be taxonomically classified in any of the ascomycetous classes and orders with any degree of certainty (incertae sedis). [more]

Saccharomycetaceae

The Saccharomycetaceae are a family of yeast in the order Saccharomycetales that reproduce by budding. Species in the family have a cosmopolitan distribution distribution, and are present in a wide variety of habitats, especially those with a plentiful supply of carbohydrate sources. The family contains the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, arguably the most economically important fungus. [more]

Saccharomycodaceae

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Saccharomycopsidaceae

The Saccharomycopsidaceae are a family of yeasts in the order Saccharomycetales. According to the 2007 Outline of Ascomycota, the family contains 3 genera, although the placement of the genus is uncertain. Species in this poorly-known family have a widespread distribution. [more]

Sarcoscyphaceae

The Sarcoscyphaceae are a family of cup fungi in the Pezizales order. There are 13 genera and 102 species in the family. Members of this family are cosmopolitan in distribution, being found in both tropical and temperate regions. [more]

Sarcosomataceae

The Sarcosomataceae are a family of fungi in the order Pezizales. According to a 2008 estimate, the family contains 10 genera and 57 species. Most species are found in temperate areas, and are typically saprobic on rotten or buried wood. [more]

Schizosaccharomycetaceae

Schizosaccharomycetaceae is a family of yeasts in the order Schizosaccharomycetales. [more]

Schizothyriaceae

The Schizothyriaceae are a family of fungi with an uncertain taxonomic placement in the class Dothideomycetes. [more]

Sclerotiniaceae

The Sclerotiniaceae are a family of fungi in the order Helotiales. Many species in this family are plant pathogens. [more]

Sordariaceae

The Sordariaceae are a family of perithecial fungi within the Sordariales order. [more]

Sphaerophoraceae

The Sphaerophoraceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Lecanorales. Species of this family have a widespread distribution, especially in southern temperate regions. The genus contains 5 genera and 32 species. [more]

Sphinctrinaceae

The Sphinctrinaceae are a family of fungi in the order Mycocaliciales. [more]

Sporormiaceae

The Sporormiaceae are a family of fungi in the order Pleosporales. Taxa have a cosmopolitan distribution and are saprobic on dung (coprophilous) and rotting vegetation. [more]

Stereocaulaceae

The Stereocaulaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Lecanorales. Species of this family are widely distributed in temperate boreal and austral regions. [more]

Stictidaceae

The Stictidaceae are a family of fungi in the order Ostropales. The family was first described by Swedish mycologist Elias Magnus Fries in 1849. [more]

Strigulaceae

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Taphrinaceae

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Teloschistaceae

The Teloschistaceae are a family of mostly lichen-forming fungi belonging to the class Lecanoromycetes in the phylum Ascomycota. [more]

Thelebolaceae

The Thelebolales are an order of the class Leotiomycetes within the phylum Ascomycota. It contains the single family Thelebolaceae. [more]

Thelenellaceae

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Thelotremataceae

The Thelotremataceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Ostropales. [more]

Thyridiaceae

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Trichocomaceae

Trichocomaceae is a family of the order Eurotiales. Taxa are saprobes with aggressive colonization strategies, adaptable to extreme environmental conditions. Family members are cosmopolitan in distribution, ubiquitous in soil and very common associates of decaying plant and food material. The family contains some of the most familiar fungi, such as Penicillium and Aspergillus. [more]

Trichosphaeriaceae

Trichosphaeriales is an order of sac fungi. It is monotypic, and consists of the single family, the Trichosphaeriaceae. [more]

Trypetheliaceae

The Trypetheliaceae are a family of mainly lichenised fungi with an uncertain taxonomic placement in the class Dothideomycetes, and the sole representative of the order Trypetheliales. According to a 2008 estimate, the family contains 13 genera and 192 species. [more]

Tuberaceae

The Tuberaceae are a family of mycorrhizal fungi. It includes the genus Tuber, which includes the so-called "true" truffles. It was characterized by the Belgian botanist Barth?lemy Charles Joseph du Mortier in 1822. A molecular study of ribosomal DNA by mycologist Kerry O'Donnell in 1997 found that a small clade now redefined as Helvellaceae is most closely related to the Tuberaceae. [more]

Tubeufiaceae

The Tubeufiaceae are a family of fungi in the class Dothideomycetes. [more]

Umbilicariaceae

The Umbilicariaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the Ascomycota. Species of this family are known from a variety of climates, including temperate, boreal, austral, and warmer montane regions. [more]

Usneaceae

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Valsaceae

The Valsaceae are a family of sac fungi in the Diaporthales order. [more]

Venturiaceae

The Venturiaceae are a family of fungi in the order Pleosporales. Several of the species in this family are plant pathogens. [more]

Verrucariaceae

The Verrucariaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Verrucariales. [more]

Vezdaeaceae

The Vezdaeaceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota, class Lecanoromycetes. Its relationship to other taxa in the Lecanoromycetes is not well understood, so it is considered to be incertae sedis with respect to ordinal placement. The family is monotypic, and contains the single genus Vezdaea. [more]

Vibrisseaceae

The Vibrisseaceae are a family of fungi in the order Helotiales. The family was circumscribed by mycologist in 1990 to include the genera Vibrissea, Chlorovibrissea, and Leucovibrissea. According to the Dictionary of the Fungi (10th edition, 2008), the family encompasses 5 genera and 59 species. [more]

Xanthopyreniaceae

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Xylariaceae

The Xylariaceae are a family of mostly small ascomycetous fungi. It is one of the most commonly encountered groups of ascomycetes and is found throughout the temperate and tropical regions of the world. They are typically found on wood, seeds, fruits, or plant leaves, some even associated with insect nests. Most decay wood and many are plant pathogens. [more]

Zopfiaceae

The Zopfiaceae are a family of fungi in the order Pleosporales. Taxa have a widespread distribution, and appear to be saprobic, found largely on rhizomes and roots. Some species are found in marine environments. [more]

At least 26 species and subspecies belong to the Family Zopfiaceae.

More info about the Family Zopfiaceae may be found here.

Sources

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Last Revised: August 25, 2014
2014/08/25 12:35:21