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Atelocerata

(Infraphylum)

Overview

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An Infraphylum in the Kingdom Animalia.

Photos

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Taxonomy

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The Infraphylum Atelocerata is a member of the Phylum Arthropoda. Here is the complete "parentage" of Atelocerata:

The Infraphylum Atelocerata is further organized into finer groupings including:

Families

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Abrocomophagidae

[more]

Acalyptratae

Acalyptratae is a subsection of Schizophora, commonly referred to as the acalyptrate muscoids (or simply acalyptrates). It is a very large assemblage, exhibiting very diverse habits, with one notable and perhaps surprising exception; there are no known acalyptrates that are obligate blood-feeders (hematophagous), though this is a life history that is common throughout the remaining Diptera. [more]

Acanaloniidae

[more]

Acanthametropodidae

[more]

Acanthocnemidae

Acanthocnemidae is a small family of beetles, in the suborder Polyphaga. The single species of Acanthocnemidae, Acanthocnemus nigricans, is native to Australia. [more]

Acanthopteroctetidae

Acanthoctesia or "archaic sun moths" is an infraorder of insects in the Lepidopteran order, containing a single superfamily Acanthopteroctetoidea and a single family Acanthopteroctetidae. They are currently considered the fifth group up on the comb of branching events in the extant lepidopteran phylogeny (Kristensen and Skalski, 1999: 10). They also represent the most basal lineage in the lepidopteran group Coelolepida (Wiegmann et al., 2002) (along with Lophocoronoidea and the massive group "Myoglossata") characterised in part by its scale morphology (Kristensen, 1999: 53-54). Moths in this superfamily are usually small (but one is 15 mm. in wingspan) and iridescent. Like other "homoneurous" Coelolepida and non-ditrysian Heteroneura, the ocelli are lost. There are variety of unique structural characteristics (see Kristensen, 1999: 53-54 for an overview). There are two described genera of these primitive moths. Catapterix was originally described within its own family (Sinev, 1988) but Acanthopteroctetes shares with it a number of specialised structural features including similar wing morphology (in A. unifascia) (Nielsen and Kristensen, 1996: 1255). [more]

Acanthosomatidae

Acanthosomatidae is a family of Hemiptera, commonly named ?shield bugs,? for which Kumar in his World revision recognizes 47 genera; now this number is 54 genera, with about 200 species, and is one of the least diversified families within Pentatomoidea. [more]

Acartophthalmidae

Acartophthalmus is a genus of flies, the only genus in the family Acartophthalmidae. They are 1.0?2.5 millimetres (0.04?0.10 in) long, and grey or black in color, with pubescent arista. Only four species are included, all of which are Holarctic; two of the species occur in the United Kingdom. There is also an uncertain fossil species. [more]

Acerentomidae

Acerentomidae is a family of hexapods in the order Protura. Acerentomids are not tracheated, and instead utilize cuticular gas exchange. [more]

Achilidae

[more]

Achilixiidae

[more]

Aclerdidae

Aclerdidae are a family of Coccoidea, the scale insects. They are usually found on grasses, sucking sap from the stem, inside the leaf sheaths. [more]

Aclopidae

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Acrididae

[more]

Acroceridae

Acroceridae is a small family of odd looking flies most closely related to Nemestrinidae. There are about 520 species in 50 genera. They are characterized by a humpbacked appearance and a small head, sometimes with a long proboscis for nectar. As such, acrocerids are commonly known as small-headed flies or hunchback-flies. Many are bee or wasp mimics. Their eyes are often holoptic; their heads seem to be composed primarily of ommatidia. They are cosmopolitan in distribution but rarely observed in most places; the majority of the over 500 species are known from fewer than 10 specimens. They are found most commonly in semi-arid tropical locations. [more]

Acrolepiidae

The Acrolepiidae family of moths are also known as False Diamondback moths. [more]

Acrolophidae

[more]

Acromantidae

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Aculagnathidae

[more]

Adelgidae

The Adelgidae is a small family of the Homoptera closely related to the aphids, and often traditionally included in the Aphidoidea with the Phylloxeridae. Adelgids are often known as "woolly conifer aphids". The family is composed of species associated with pine spruce or other conifers, known respectively as "pine aphids" or "spruce aphids". This family includes the former family Chermesidae, or "Chermidae", the name of which was declared invalid by the ICZN in 1955. There is still considerable debate as to the number of genera within the family, and the classification is still unstable and inconsistent among competing authors. [more]

Adelidae

The Adelidae or fairy longhorn moths are a family of monotrysian moths in the lepidopteran infraorder Heteroneura. Most species have at least partially metallic patterns coloration and are diurnal, sometimes swarming around the tips of branches with an undulating flight. Others are crepuscular and have a drab coloration. Fairy longhorn moths have a wingspan of 4-28 millimeters, and males often have especially long antennae, 1-3 times as long as the forewing. [more]

Ademosynidae

[more]

Aderidae

Aderidae, the ant-like leaf beetles, is a family of beetles that bear some resemblance to ants. The family consists of about 1,000 species in about 50 genera, of which most are tropical, although overall distribution is worldwide. [more]

Adiaphorostreptidae

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Adiheterothripidae

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Adritylidae

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Adumbratomorphidae

[more]

Aegialiidae

[more]

Aenigmephemeridae

[more]

Aeolothripidae

[more]

Aeshnidae

The hawkers (or darners in North America) (family Aeshnidae) include the largest dragonflies found in North America and Europe, and are among the largest of the dragonflies on the planet. This family represents also the fastest flying dragonflies of the order of the dragonflies and damselflies (Odonata). [more]

Aetalionidae

[more]

Afrauropodidae

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Agaonidae

Fig wasps are wasps of the family Agaonidae which pollinate figs or are otherwise associated with figs, a coevolutional relationship that has been developing for at least 80 million years. They have been seen to fly farther than any known pollen-bearing insect, and in some regions of the world where wind can gust at up to 30 kilometres per hour (19 mph), they can travel downwind approximately 100 miles in their 48-hour lifespan. [more]

Agathiphagidae

Agathiphaga is a genus of moths in the family Agathiphagidae, known as kauri moths. This caddis fly-like lineage of primitive moths was first reported by Lionel Jack Dumbleton in 1952, as a new genus of Micropterigidae. [more]

Aglycyderidae

Aglycyderini are a tribe of belids, primitive weevils of the family Belidae. Like in other belids, their antennae are straight, not elbowed as in the true weevils (Curculionidae). They occur only on the Pacific Islands and in the Macaronesian region.. [more]

Agonoxenidae

The Agonoxenidae are a family of moths only contains four named species in the whole world ? all in the type genus ? if (e.g. following Nielsen et al., 1996) the Blastodacnidae are considered to be a separate family. Such a monotypic arrangement is fairly unusual in modern taxonomy without explicit need due to phylogenetic constraints, and with little reliable data on the latter, the traditional approach is followed here pending new studies. [more]

Agromyzidae

The family Agromyzidae is commonly referred to as the leaf-miner flies, for the feeding habit of larvae, most of which are leaf miners on various plants. [more]

Agyrtidae

Agyrtidae or primitive carrion beetles are a small family of polyphagan beetles They are found in mostly temperate areas of the northern hemisphere and in New Zealand. They are feeding on decaying organic material. [more]

Aleyrodidae

The whiteflies, comprising only the family Aleyrodidae, are small hemipterans. More than 1550 species have been described. Whiteflies typically feed on the underside of plant leaves. [more]

Alinkidae

[more]

Alleculidae

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Allopocockiidae

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Alloraphidiidae

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Alucitidae

The Alucitidae or many-plumed moths are a family of moths with unusually modified wings. Both fore- and hind-wings consist of about six rigid spines, from which radiate flexible bristles creating a structure similar to a bird's feather. [more]

Alydidae

Alydidae, commonly known as broad-headed bugs, is a family of true bugs very similar to the closely related Coreidae (leaf-footed bugs and relatives). There are about 40 genera with 250 species altogether. Distributed in the temperate and warmer regions of the Earth, most are tropical and subtropical animals; for example Europe has a mere 10 species, and only 2 of these occur outside the Mediterranean region. [more]

Ameletidae

[more]

Ametropodidae

[more]

Ammodesmidae

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Amorphoscelididae

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Amphientomidae

Amphientomidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the suborder Troctomorpha. The presence of scales on their wings gives them a superficial resemblance to the unrelated family socoptera, Trogiomorpha) and both families can pass for microlepidoptera to the untrained eye. The family comprises 100 species arranged in twenty genera. [more]

Amphipsocidae

Amphipsocidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the suborder Psocomorpha. Like the other members of the infra-order Caeciliusetae, they have a broad, flat labrum, with well defined edges. The family is composed of 170 species arranged in 17 genera. [more]

Amphipterygidae

Amphipterygidae is a family of damselflies in the order Odonata. It is a small family of damselflies with around 12 species. [more]

Amphisbatidae

[more]

Amphitheridae

[more]

Amphizoidae

Amphizoa is a genus of beetles, placed in its own family, Amphizoidae. It comprises six species, three from western North America and three from China. The vernacular name "trout-stream beetle" comes from the original finding of A. insolens and A. lecontei in high mountain streams, although other species occur at lower elevation. They are notable as a possible intermediate stage between terrestrial and aquatic beetles; while living in the water, they are not good swimmers and physically resemble ground beetles more than other types of water beetle. [more]

Ampulicidae

The Ampulicidae, or Cockroach wasps, is a small (approx. 200 species), primarily tropical group of sphecoid wasps, all of which use various cockroaches as prey items for their larvae. They tend to have elongated jaws, a pronounced neck-like constriction behind the head, a strongly petiolate abdomen, and deep grooves on the thorax. Many are quite ant-like in appearance, though some are brilliant metallic blue or green. [more]

Anajapygidae

Anajapygidae is a small family of diplurans. They can be distinguished by their relatively short, stout cerci, which discharge abdominal secretions. Unlike most diplurans, which are largely predatory, these are scavengers. [more]

Anaxyelidae

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Anchineuridae

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Ancistropsyllidae

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Ancopteridae

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Andrenidae

The family Andrenidae is a large (nearly) cosmopolitan (absent in Australia) non-parasitic bee family, with most of the diversity in temperate and/or arid areas (warm temperate xeric), including some truly enormous genera (e.g., Andrena with over 1300 species, and Perdita with nearly 800). One of the subfamilies, Oxaeinae, are so different in appearance that they were typically accorded family status, but careful phylogenetic analysis reveals them to be an offshoot within the Andrenidae, very close to the Andreninae. [more]

Andrognathidae

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Anelcanidae

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Angarosphecidae

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Anisembiidae

Anisembiidae is a family of web-spinners in the order Embioptera. [more]

Anisolabididae

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Anisopodidae

Anisopodidae is a small cosmopolitan family of gnat-like flies known as wood gnats or window-gnats with 154 described extant species in 15 genera, and several described fossil taxa. Some species are saprophagous or fungivorous. They are mostly small to medium-sized flies, except the genera Olbiogaster and Lobogaster, which are large with bizarrely spatulate abdomens. Their phylogenetic placement is controversial. They have been proposed to be the sister group to the higher flies, the Brachycera. Some authors consider this group to be four distinct families ? Anisopodidae, , Olbiogastridae, and Valeseguyidae. [more]

Anobiidae

Anobiidae is a family of beetles. The larvae of a number of species tend to bore into wood, earning them the name "woodworm" or "wood borer". A few species are pests, causing damage to wooden furniture and house structures, notably the death watch beetle, Xestobium rufovillosum, and the common furniture beetle, Anobium punctatum. [more]

Anomalopsychidae

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Anomoeotidae

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Anomopterellidae

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Anomosetidae

Anomoses hylecoetes is a species of primitive hepialoid moth endemic to Queensland and New South Wales, Australia . It is the only species in the family Anomosetidae. [more]

Anopsobiidae

[more]

Anostostomatidae

Anostostomatidae is a family in the order Orthoptera. It is sometimes referred to as Mimnermidae or Henicidae in some taxonomies, and common names include King crickets in South Africa, and wetas in New Zealand. They are believed to be most closely related to the Jerusalem crickets of North America. Prominent members includes the Parktown prawn of South Africa, and the giant wetas of New Zealand. The cave wetas belong to another family, the Rhaphidophoridae. Their distribution reflects a common ancestry before the fragmenting of Gondwanaland. [more]

Ansorgiidae

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Antefungivoridae

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Anthelidae

Anthelidae is a family of Australian lappet moths in the Lepidoptera order. It was previously included in the Lasiocampoidea superfamily, but a recent study resulted in reincluding the family in the superfamily Bombycoidea. [more]

Anthicidae

Anthicidae is a family of beetles, sometimes called ant-like flower beetles or ant-like beetles that resemble ants. The family consists of over 3,000 species in about 100 genera. [more]

Anthocoridae

The Anthocoridae are a family of bugs, commonly called minute pirate bugs or flower bugs. [more]

Anthomyiidae

Anthomyiidae is a large and diverse family of Muscoidea flies. Most look rather like small houseflies, but are commonly drab grey. The genus Anthomyia, in contrast, are generally conspicuously-patterned in black-and-white or black-and-silvery-grey. Most are difficult to identify, apart from a few groups such as the kelp flies that are conspicuous on beaches. [more]

Anthomyzidae

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Anthophoridae

The Apidae are a large family of bees, comprising the common honey bees, stingless bees (which are also cultured for honey), carpenter bees, orchid bees, cuckoo bees, bumblebees, and various other less well-known groups. The family Apidae presently includes all the genera that were previously classified in the families Anthophoridae and Ctenoplectridae, and most of these are solitary species, though a few are also cleptoparasites. The four groups that were subfamilies in the old family Apidae are presently ranked as tribes within the subfamily Apinae. This trend has been taken to its extreme in a few recent classifications that place all the existing bee families together under the name "Apidae" (or, alternatively, the non-Linnaean clade "Anthophila"), but this is not a widely-accepted practice. [more]

Anthribidae

Anthribidae is a family of beetles also known as fungus weevils. The antennae are not elbowed, may occasionally be longer than the body and thread-like, and can be the longest of any members of Curculionoidea. As in the Nemonychidae, the labrum appears as a separate segment to the clypeus, and the maxillary palps are long and projecting. [more]

Anthroleucosomatidae

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Antipodoeciidae

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Apachyidae

Apachyidae is a small family of earwigs, in the suborder Forficulina and the order Dermaptera. It is one of nine families in the suborder Forficulina, and contains two genera (placed in one subfamily, Apachyinae). It has been cited by in his book, The Animal Kingdom, by Brindle in The Dermaptera of Africa, and by at least two others. [more]

Apataniidae

[more]

Apatelodidae

Apatelodidae is a somewhat disputed[] family of insects in the order Lepidoptera. They belong to the hawkoth, silkworm and relatives superfamily Bombycoidea. [more]

Aphalaridae

[more]

Aphelidesmidae

[more]

Aphelinidae

Aphelinidae is a moderate-sized family of tiny parasitic wasps, with some 1160 described species in some 35 genera. These minute insects are challenging to study as they deteriorate rapidly after death unless extreme care is taken (e.g., preservation in ethanol), making identification of most museum specimens difficult. The larvae of the majority are primary parasitoids on Hemiptera, though other hosts are attacked, and details of the life history can be variable (e.g., some attack eggs, some attack pupae, and others are hyperparasites). They are found throughout the world in virtually all habitats, and are extremely important as biological control agents. [more]

Aphelocheiridae

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Aphididae

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Aphidiidae

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Aphilodontidae

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Aphodiidae

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Aphrodidae

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Aphrophoridae

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Aphylidae

[more]

Apidae

The Apidae are a large family of bees, comprising the common honey bees, stingless bees (which are also cultured for honey), carpenter bees, orchid bees, cuckoo bees, bumblebees, and various other less well-known groups. The family Apidae presently includes all the genera that were previously classified in the families Anthophoridae and Ctenoplectridae, and most of these are solitary species, though a few are also cleptoparasites. The four groups that were subfamilies in the old family Apidae are presently ranked as tribes within the subfamily Apinae. This trend has been taken to its extreme in a few recent classifications that place all the existing bee families together under the name "Apidae" (or, alternatively, the non-Linnaean clade "Anthophila"), but this is not a widely-accepted practice. [more]

Apioceridae

The Apioceridae, or flower-loving flies, are a small (approximately 150 species) family of flies, all in the single genus Apiocera. They occur mostly in dry sandy habitats in the deserts of North America, South America, and Australia. Other genera formerly placed in Apioceridae are now in Mydidae. [more]

Apiomorphidae

[more]

Apionidae

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Apoprogonidae

Apoprogoninae is a subfamily of the moth family Sematuridae, represented by a single species from Swaziland, South Africa. [more]

Aprosphylosomatidae

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Apsilocephalidae

Apsilocephalidae is a family of flies in the superfamily Asiloidea. The family was proposed in 1991. [more]

Apteropanorpidae

Apteropanorpidae is a family of wingless scorpionflies containing a single genus Apteropanorpa with four named species. These species, also called Tasmanian snow scorpionflies are found in moss in Tasmania and southern Australia. The adults are generalised predators. The larvae live in moss and are locally common. [more]

Apterouridae

[more]

Apystomyiidae

Apystomyiidae are a family of flies. They are placed in the superfamily Asiloidea. There is only one genus which contains a single species. [more]

Aradidae

Aradidae bear the appropriate common name, flat bugs, in reference to their (usually) extremely flattened body. With few exceptions, the often cryptic insects are of no economic importance. Common temperate genera include Aradus, , Neuroctenus, and Aneurus. [more]

Araripelocustidae

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Archaemiopteridae

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Archaeocynipidae

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Archeocrypticidae

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Archescytinidae

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Archiconiopterygidae

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Archidesmidae

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Archipsocidae

Archipsocidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the suborder Psocomorpha. Members of the family are characterised by their reduced wing venation. Some species are viviparous. The family includes about 80 species in five genera. [more]

Archisargidae

[more]

Archithemistidae

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Archizelmiridae

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Archoglossopteridae

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Arctiidae

Arctiidae is a large and diverse family of moths with around 11,000 species found all over the world, including 6,000 neotropical species. This family includes the groups commonly known as tiger moths (or tigers), which usually have bright colors, footmen (which are usually much drabber), lichen moths and wasp moths. Many species have 'hairy' caterpillars which are popularly known as woolly bears or woolly worms. The scientific name refers to this (Gk. a??t?? = a bear). Caterpillars may also go by the name 'tussock moths' (more usually this refers to Lymantriidae, however). [more]

Argidae

Argidae is a large family of sawflies, containing some 800 species worldwide, primarily in tropical regions. The larvae are phytophagous, and commonly can be found feeding (and often pupating) in groups, though very few attain pest status. [more]

Argyresthiidae

Argyresthiinae is a subfamily of moths of the Yponomeutidae family, although it is treated as a valid family Argyresthiidae by some authors. [more]

Arixeniidae

[more]

Armaniidae

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Arrhenophanidae

Arrhenophanidae is a family of moths in the Lepidoptera order. [more]

Artematopidae

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Arthropleidae

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Ascalaphidae

Owlflies are dragonfly-like insects with large bulging eyes and long knobbed antennae. They are neuropterans in the family Ascalaphidae; they are only distantly related to the true flies, and even more distant from the dragonflies and damselflies. They are diurnal or crepuscular predators of other flying insects, and are typically 5 cm (2.0 in) long. [more]

Asilidae

Insects in the Diptera family Asilidae are commonly called robber flies. The family Asilidae contains about 7,100 described species worldwide. [more]

Asilomorpha

The Brachyceran infraorder Asilomorpha is a large and diverse group of flies, containing the bulk of the non-muscoid Brachycera. [more]

Asiochaoboridae

[more]

Asiocoleidae

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Asiopsocidae

Asiopsocidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the infraorder Caeciliusetae. The family is composed of 14 known species in three genera. [more]

Asiopteridae

[more]

Aspidohymenidae

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Aspidothoracidae

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Asteiidae

Asteiidae is a small but widespread family of acalyptrate flies or Diptera. About 130 species in 10 genera have been described worldwide.They are rarely collected. [more]

Asterolecaniidae

Asterolecaniidae is a family of scale insects commonly known as pit scales or asterolecaniids. They typically cause a depression in the host plant's tissues and often cause distortion of the shoots. They are found on a range of hosts but are especially common on oaks, bamboos and a number of ornamental plants. Members of this family occur in most regions of the world but are most abundant in the northern hemisphere. There are about 27 genera and 243 recorded species. [more]

Asthenohymenidae

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Atelestidae

Atelestidae is a family of true flies in the superfamily Empidoidea. These four genera were placed in a separate family in 1983. They were formerly either in Platypezidae (which are not even particularly closely related) or considered incertae cedis. But while they are doubtless the most basal of the living Empidoidea, the monophyly of the family is not fully proven. The genus seems to represent a most ancient lineage among the entire superfamily, while Meghyperus is probably not monophyletic in its present delimitation, and it is liable to be split up eventually, with some species being placed elsewhere. [more]

Ateluridae

Atelurinae is a subfamily of primitive insects belonging to the order Thysanura. They are sometimes treated as a family Ateluridae. These are tiny and usually found within the nests of termites and ants with which they associate. [more]

Athericidae

Athericidae is a small family of flies known as water snipe-flies; they used to be placed in the family Rhagionidae. The adults mostly feed on nectar but some species feed on mammal blood. [more]

Atopetholidae

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Atopogestidae

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Atriplectididae

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Attelabidae

The Attelabidae or leaf-rolling weevils are a widespread family of weevils. There are more than 2000 species. They are included within the primitive weevils, because of their straight antennae, which are inserted near the base of the rostrum. The prothorax is much narrower than the base of the elytra on the abdomen. [more]

Attemsiidae

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Attevidae

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Aulacidae

The family Aulacidae is a small cosmopolitan group, with 3 extant genera containing some 200 known species. They are primarily endoparasitoids of wood wasps (Xiphydriidae) and xylophagous beetles (Cerambycidae and Buprestidae). They are closely related to the family Gasteruptiidae, sharing the feature of having the first and second metasomal tergites fused, and having the head on a long pronotal "neck", though they are not nearly as slender and elongate as Gasteruptiids, nor are their hind legs club-like, and they have a more sculptured thorax. They share the evanioid trait of having the metasoma attached very high above the hind coxae on the propodeum. [more]

Aulacigastridae

Aulacigastridae is a very small family of flies known as sap flies. The family used to be included within this family, but was moved by Papp in 1984. [more]

Aulonocnemidae

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Australembiidae

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Australimyzidae

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Austrocorduliidae

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Austrocynipidae

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Austroleptidae

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Austroniidae

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Austroperlidae

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Austropetaliidae

Austropetaliidae is a small family of dragonflies occurring only in Chile and Australia. [more]

Austrophasmatidae

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Axymyiidae

The Nematoceran family Axymyiidae is the sole member of the infraorder Axymyiomorpha, though it is often included within the infraorder Bibionomorpha in older classifications. It is known from only 6 species in 3 genera, plus 3 fossil species. [more]

Babinskaiidae

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Bacillidae

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Bacteriidae

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Baetidae

Baetidae is a family of mayflies with about 900 described species distributed worldwide. These are among the smallest of mayflies, adults rarely exceeding 10 mm in length excluding the two long slender tails and sometimes much smaller, and members of the family are often referred to as small mayflies or small minnow mayflies. Most species have long oval forewings with very few cross veins (see Comstock-Needham system) but the hindwings are usually very small or even absent. The males often have very large eyes, shaped like turrets above the head (this is known as "turbinate condition"). [more]

Baetiscidae

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Baissodidae

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Baissogryllidae

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Baissopteridae

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Baleyopterygidae

[more]

Ballophidae

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Barbarochthonidae

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Bardohymenidae

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Batkeniidae

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Batrachedridae

Batrachedridae is a small family of moths. These are small, slender moths which rest with the wings wrapped tightly around the body. The taxonomy of this and related groups is often disputed. It was long thought to contain two genera, Batrachedra (many species) and Houdinia (a single species, Houdinia flexissima from New Zealand and surrounding islands). [more]

Batrachideidae

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Bedelliidae

Bedelliidae is a small family of small, narrow-winged moths; most authorities recognize just a single genus, Bedellia, previously included in the family Lyonetiidae. The family is still included in the Lyonetiidae as the subfamily Bedelliinae by some authors. [more]

Beesoniidae

Beesoniidae is a family of scale insects commonly known as Beesoniids. They typically cause galls on their plant hosts. Members of this family mostly come from southern Asia. [more]

Behningiidae

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Belidae

Belidae is a family of weevils, called belids or primitive weevils because they have straight antennae, unlike the "true weevils" or Curculionidae which have elbowed antennae. They are sometimes known as "cycad weevils", but this properly refers to a few species from the genera and Rhopalotria. [more]

Belohinidae

Belohina inexpectata is a polyphagan beetle and the sole member of family Belohinidae. It is endemic to southern Madagascar. Only a few specimens of this species are known. [more]

Belostomatidae

Belostomatidae is a family of insects in the order Hemiptera, known as giant water bugs or colloquially as toe-biters, electric-light bugs and Alligator Ticks (in Florida). They are the largest insects in the order Hemiptera, and occur worldwide, with most of the species in North America, South America, Northern Australia and East Asia. They are typically encountered in freshwater streams and ponds. Most species are relatively large (2 cm or more) with some of the largest, such as Lethocerus, exceeding 12 cm, and nearly reaching the dimensions (length and mass) of some of the larger beetles in the world. Giant water bugs are a popular food in Thailand. [more]

Beraeidae

[more]

Berothidae

The beaded lacewings, Berothidae, are a family of winged insects of the order Neuroptera. The family was first named by Anton Handlirsch in 1906. [more]

Berytidae

Berytidae is a family of bugs, commonly called stilt bugs. [more]

Bethylidae

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Bethylonymidae

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Bibionidae

Bibionidae (march flies and lovebugs) is a family of flies (Diptera). Approximately 650-700 species are known worldwide. [more]

Bintoniellidae

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Biphyllidae

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Biroellidae

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Bittacidae

Bittacidae is a family of scorpionflies commonly called Hangingflies or hanging scorpionflies. [more]

Biturritiidae

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Blaberidae

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Blaniulidae

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Blasticotomidae

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Blastobasidae

Blastobasidae is a family of moths in the superfamily Gelechioidea. Its species can be found almost anywhere in the world, though in some places they are not native but introduced by humans. In some arrangements, these moths are included in the case-bearer family (Coleophoridae) as subfamily Blastobasinae. The Symmocidae are sometimes included in the Blastobasidae (particularly if both are included in Coleophoridae) as subfamily or tribe. [more]

Blatellidae

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Blattellidae

The Blattellidae is a family of the order Blattaria (cockroaches). This family contains many of the smaller common household cockroaches, among others. They are sometimes called wood cockroaches. [more]

Blattidae

The Blattidae is a family of the order Blattaria (cockroaches). It contains several of the most common household cockroaches. [more]

Blattinopsidae

[more]

Blephariceridae

Blephariceridae, commonly known as Net-winged midges, are a nematoceran family in the order Diptera. The adults resemble crane flies except with a projecting anal angle in the wings, and different head shape, absence of the V on the mesonotum, and more laterally outstretched forward-facing legs. They are uncommon, but there are dozens of genera worldwide, and over 200 species. [more]

Blepharoceridae

Blephariceridae, commonly known as Net-winged midges, are a nematoceran family in the order Diptera. The adults resemble crane flies except with a projecting anal angle in the wings, and different head shape, absence of the V on the mesonotum, and more laterally outstretched forward-facing legs. They are uncommon, but there are dozens of genera worldwide, and over 200 species. [more]

Boganiidae

Boganiidae is a family of beetles, in the suborder Polyphaga. [more]

Bohartillidae

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Boholdoyidae

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Bojophlebiidae

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Bolboceratidae

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Bolithophilidae

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Bolitophilidae

Bolitophilidae is a family of Diptera comprising only one genus, >, with contains around 40 Palaearctic and about 20 Nearctic species, and 3 species from the Oriental region. [more]

Bombycidae

Bombycidae is a family of moths. The best-known species is Bombyx mori (Linnaeus) or silkworm, native to northern China and domesticated for millennia. Another well known species is Bombyx mandarina, also native to Asia. [more]

Bombylidae

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Bombyliidae

Bombyliidae is a large family of flies with hundreds of genera, although their life cycles are not well known. Adults generally feed on nectar and pollen, thus are pollinators of flowers. They superficially resemble bees, thus are commonly called bee flies, and this may offer the adults some protection from predators. In parts of East Anglia locals refer to them as 'beewhals', thanks to their tusk-like appendages. [more]

Boopidae

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Boreidae

Boreidae, commonly called Snow scorpionflies, are a very small family of Scorpionflies, containing only around 30 species, all of which are boreal or high-altitude species in the Northern Hemisphere. Recent research indicates that the boreids are more closely related to fleas than to other scorpionflies, which renders the order Mecoptera paraphyletic if the order Siphonaptera is excluded from it. [more]

Boridae

The family Boridae is a small group of beetles with no vernacular common name, though recent authors have coined the name conifer bark beetles. [more]

Borneacrididae

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Bostrichidae

The Bostrichidae are a family of beetles with more than 700 described species. They are commonly called auger beetles, false powderpost beetles or horned powderpost beetles. The head of most auger beetles cannot be seen from above, as it is downwardly directed and hidden by the thorax. An exception is the powderpost beetles from the subfamily Lyctinae. [more]

Bostrychidae

The Bostrichidae are a family of beetles with more than 700 described species. They are commonly called auger beetles, false powderpost beetles or horned powderpost beetles. The head of most auger beetles cannot be seen from above, as it is downwardly directed and hidden by the thorax. An exception is the powderpost beetles from the subfamily Lyctinae. [more]

Bothrideridae

Bothrideridae is a family of beetles, in the suborder Polyphaga. Larvae of some species are ectoparasites of the larvae and pupas of wood-boring beetles. [more]

Bouretidae

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Brachinidae

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Brachodidae

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Brachycentridae

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Brachycera

Brachycera is a suborder of Diptera. It is a major suborder consisting of around 120 families. The most distinguishing characteristic of the suborder is reduced antenna segmentation. A summary of main physiological characteristics follows: [more]

Brachyceridae

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Brachypauropodidae

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Brachypsectridae

Brachypsectridae is a family of beetles commonly known as the Texas beetles. There is only one genus, . The type species, Brachypsectra fulva (LeConte, 1874), occurs in North America. There are three other species which occur in southern India, Singapore and northwestern Australia. Two other extant and fossil species have been described from the Dominican Republic. [more]

Brachypteridae

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Brachystomellidae

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Braconidae

Braconidae is a family of parasitoid wasps and one of the richest families of insects. Between 50,000 and 150,000 species exist worldwide. The species are grouped into about 45 subfamilies and 1,000 genera, some important ones being: , Aphanta, Asobara, Bracon hebetor, Cenocoelius, Chaenusa, Chorebidea, Chorebidella, Chorebus, Cotesia, Dacnusa, Microgaster, Opius, Parapanteles, Phaenocarpa, Psenobolus. [more]

Bradynobaenidae

Bradynobaenidae is a family of wasps similar to the Mutillidae. These species are often found in arid regions. [more]

Brahmaeidae

Brahmaeidae is a family of insects in the Lepidoptera order, commonly known as brahmin moths. [more]

Branneriidae

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Brassolidae

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Braulidae

Braulidae, or bee lice, is a flies family (Diptera) that contains eight species in two genera, Braula and Megabraula. These are very unusual flies, wingless and flattened, and barely recognizable as Diptera. [more]

Brenthidae

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Brentidae

Brentidae is a cosmopolitan family of primarily xylophagous beetles also known as straight-snouted weevils. The concept of this family has been recently expanded with the inclusion of three groups formerly placed in the Curculionidae; the subfamilies , Cyladinae, and Nanophyinae, as well as the Ithycerinae, previously considered a separate family. They are most diverse in the tropics, but occur throughout the temperate regions of the world. They are among the families of weevils that have non-elbowed antennae, and tend to be elongate and flattened, though there are numerous exceptions. [more]

Brodiidae

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Brodiopteridae

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Brongniartiellidae

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Bruchidae

The bean weevils or seed beetles are a subfamily (Bruchinae) of beetles, now placed in the family Chrysomelidae, though they have historically been treated as a separate family. They are granivores, and typically infest various kinds of seeds or beans, living for most of their lives inside a single seed. The family includes about 1,350 species found worldwide. [more]

Bucculatricidae

Bucculatricidae or (Bucculatrigidae) is a family of moths. This small family has representatives in all parts of the world. Some authors place the group as a subfamily of the family Lyonetiidae. [more]

Bucculatrigidae

Bucculatricidae or (Bucculatrigidae) is a family of moths. This small family has representatives in all parts of the world. Some authors place the group as a subfamily of the family Lyonetiidae. [more]

Buprestidae

Buprestidae is a family of beetles, known as jewel beetles or metallic wood-boring beetles because of their glossy iridescent colors. The family is among the largest of the beetles, with some 15,000 species known in 450 genera. In addition, almost 100 fossil species have been described. [more]

Byrrhidae

Byrrhidae, the pill beetles, is a family of beetles in the superfamily Byrrhoidea. [more]

Byturidae

Byturidae, also known as Fruitworms is a family of beetles, in the suborder Polyphaga. The larvae develop in fruits. Byturus unicolor affects species of Rubus and Geum, the larvae of Raspberry beetle raspberry plants. [more]

Cachoplistidae

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Caeciliidae

Caeciliidae is the family of common caecilians. They are found in Central and South America, equatorial Africa and India. Like other caecilians, they superficially resemble worms or snakes. [more]

Caeciliusidae

Caeciliusidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the suborder Psocomorpha. The family was once named Caeciliidae, but the latter name was changed because of homonymy with a family of amphibians. [more]

Caenidae

Caenidae, or the Small Squaregill Mayflies, is a family of insects consisting of 4 genera comprising 26 individual species. They are found throughout North America in lotic, depostional environments, and they are sprawlers. Caenids occur in quiet and even stagnant water and are often overlooked because they are so small. They like to live in silty bottoms, and their gills are specially adapted for such environments. Adults usually emerge from May to September, but they emerge all year in Florida. Unlike other mayflies, squaregills can be found in degraded conditions and are not reliable markers for undisturbed conditions. [more]

Calamoceratidae

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Callidulidae

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Callipharixenidae

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Calliphoridae

Calliphoridae (commonly known as blow-flies, carrion flies, bluebottles, greenbottles, or cluster flies) are insects in the Order Diptera, family Calliphoridae. The family is known to be non-monophyletic, but much remains disputed regarding proper treatment of the constituent units, some of which are occasionally accorded family status (e.g., Bengaliidae, Helicoboscidae, Polleniidae, Rhiniidae). [more]

Callipodidae

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Callirhipidae

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Calocidae

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Calophyidae

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Calopsocidae

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Calopterygidae

Calopterygidae are a family of damselflies in the order Odonata and are commonly known as broad-winged damselflies or demoiselles. These rather large damselflies have wingspans of 5?8 cm and they're often metallic-colored. The family contains some 150 species. As the common name suggests they have broader wings than other damselflies and at rest hold their wings parallel to the body and slightly elevated. [more]

Calvertiellidae

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Cambalidae

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Cambalopsidae

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Camillidae

Camillidae is a family of flies, or Diptera. There are five genera (four living; one fossil). [more]

Campichoetidae

Campichoetidae is a small family of acalyptrate Diptera with only one genus Campichoeta Macquart, 1835.They are regarded by some authors as Diastatidae. [more]

Campodeidae

Campodeidae is a family of hexapods belonging to the order Diplura. These pale, eyeless hexapods, the largest of which grow to around 12 mm in length, can be recognised by the two long, many-segmented cerci at the end of the abdomen. There are around 200 known species. [more]

Campodesmidae

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Canaceidae

Canacidae, incorrectly Canaceidae, or beach flies, surf or surge flies, is a family of Diptera.There are 113 species in 12 genera. [more]

Canacidae

Canacidae, incorrectly Canaceidae, or beach flies, surf or surge flies, is a family of Diptera.There are 113 species in 12 genera. [more]

Canopidae

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Cantharidae

The soldier beetles, Cantharidae, are relatively soft-bodied, straight-sided beetles, related to the Lampyridae or firefly family, but being unable to produce light. They are cosmopolitan in distribution. One common British species is bright red, reminding people of the red coats of soldiers, hence the common name. A secondary common name is leatherwing, obtained from the texture of the wing covers. [more]

Canthyloscelidae

The Canthyloscelidae are a small family of midges closely related to the Scatopsidae. [more]

Canthyloscelididae

The Canthyloscelidae are a small family of midges closely related to the Scatopsidae. [more]

Capniidae

Capniidae, the small winter stoneflies, is a family of insects in the stonefly order (Plecoptera). It constitutes one of the largest stonefly families, containing some 300 species distributed throughout the Holarctic. Their closest relatives are the (Leuctridae). [more]

Carabidae

Ground beetles are a large, cosmopolitan family of beetles, Carabidae, with more than 40,000 species worldwide, approximately 2,000 of which are found in North America and 2,700 in Europe. [more]

Carayonemidae

Carayonemidae is a family of scale insects commonly known as carayonemids. They typically live among mosses and leaf litter which is unusual for scale insects. Members of this family come from Neotropical areas of South and Central America. [more]

Carbonopteridae

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Carcinophoridae

Anisolabididae is a family of earwigs, in the suborder Forficulina and the order Dermaptera. It is one of nine families in the suborder Forficulina, and contains thirty-eight genera spread across thirteen subfamilies. [more]

Carnidae

Carnidae is a family of flies (Diptera). There are 5 genera, containing about 88 species worldwide. [more]

Carposinidae

Carposinidae, the "fruitworm moths" is a family of insects in the lepidopteran order. These moths are narrower winged than Copromorphidae, with less rounded forewing tips. Males often have conspicuous patches of scales on either surface (Dugdale et al., 1999). The mouthparts are quite diagnostic, usually with prominent, upcurved "labial palps", the third segment long (especially in females), and the second segment covered in large scales. Unlike Copromorphidae, the "M2" and sometimes "M1" vein on the hindwings is absent. The relationship of Carposinidae relative to Copromorphidae needs further investigation. It is considered possible that the family is artificial, being nested within Copromorphidae (Dugdale et al., 1999). The Palearctic species have been revised by Diakonoff (1989). [more]

Carsidaridae

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Carthaeidae

The Dryandra Moth (Carthaea saturnioides) is a species of moth. It is considered the only species in the family Carthaeidae. Its closest relatives are the Saturniidae and it bears a resemblance to many species of that family, bearing prominent eye spots on all wings. The wingspan is up to 10 cm. It is restricted to the southern part of Western Australia. [more]

Caseyidae

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Caspiopetalidae

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Castniidae

Castniidae, or castniid moths, is a small family of moths with fewer than 200 species: The majority are Neotropical with some in Australia and a few in south-east Asia. These are medium-sized to very large moths, usually with drab, cryptically-marked forewings and brightly colored hindwings. They have clubbed antennae and are day-flying, and are often mistaken for butterflies. Indeed some previous classification systems placed this family within the butterflies or skippers. The Neotropical species are commonly known as giant butterfly-moths, the Australian and Asian species as sun moths. The larvae are internal feeders, often on roots of epiphytes or on monocotyledons (Edwards et al., 1999: 184-188). [more]

Catopidae

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Caulopteridae

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Cavognathidae

Cavognathidae is a family of beetles, in the suborder Polyphaga. [more]

Cebrionidae

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Cecidomyiidae

Cecidomyiidae (sometimes misspelled Cecidomyidae) is a family of flies (Order Diptera) known as gall midges or gall gnats. As the name implies, the larvae of most gall midges feed within plant tissue, creating abnormal plant growths called galls. [more]

Cecidosidae

Cecidosidae is a little known family of primitive monotrysian moths in the order Lepidoptera which have a piercing ovipositor used for laying eggs in plant tissue in which they induce galls, or they mine in bark (Davis, 1999; Hoare and Dugdale, 2003). Nine species occur in southern Africa, five species in South America (Parra, 1998) and Xanadoses nielseni was recently described from New Zealand (Hoare and Dugdale, 2003). Some minute parasitoid wasps are known (Burks et al., 2005). [more]

Celyphidae

Celyphidae, commonly known as beetle flies or beetle-backed flies, are a family of flies (Order Diptera). About 90 species are known from the Oriental and Afrotropic biogeographic regions. [more]

Cephaloidae

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Cephidae

The Cephoidea are a small superfamily within the Symphyta, containing some 100 species in a single family, Cephidae, commonly referred to as stem sawflies. Most species occur in the Northern Hemisphere, especially in Eurasia. The larvae are stem borers in various plants, especially grasses, but sometimes other herbaceous plants, shrubs, or trees. A few are pests of cereal grains (e.g. >, which attacks wheat). They are exceptionally slender for Symphytans, often resembling other types of wasps, and they are the only Symphyta which lack cenchri. They are sometimes postulated to be the sister taxon to the Apocrita, though the Orussidae are more commonly considered such. [more]

Cerambycidae

The longhorn beetles (Cerambycidae; also known as long-horned beetles or longicorns) are a cosmopolitan family of beetles, typically characterized by extremely long antennae, which are often as long as or longer than the beetle's body. In various members of the family, however, the antennae are quite short (e.g., Neandra brunnea, figured below) and such species can be difficult to distinguish from related beetle families such as Chrysomelidae. The family is large, with over 20,000 species described, slightly more than half from the Eastern Hemisphere. Several are serious pests, with the larvae boring into wood, where they can cause extensive damage to either living trees or untreated lumber (or, occasionally, to wood in buildings; the old-house borer, Hylotrupes bajulus, being a particular problem indoors). A number of species mimic ants, bees, and wasps, though a majority of species are cryptically colored. The rare titan beetle (Titanus giganteus) from nor theastern South America is often considered the largest (though not the heaviest, and not the longest including legs) insect, with a maximum known body length of just over 16.7 centimetres (6.6 in). [more]

Ceraphronidae

Ceraphronidae is a small Hymenopteran family with 14 genera and some 360 known species, though a great many species are still undescribed. It is a poorly known group as a whole, though most are believed to be parasitoids (esp. of flies), and a few hyperparasitoids. Many are found in the soil, and of these, a number are wingless. [more]

Ceratocanthidae

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Ceratocombidae

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Ceratophyllidae

Ceratophyllidae is a family of fleas. Its members parasitize mainly rodents and birds. It contains two subfamilies, one containing over 40 genera, and the other just three. [more]

Ceratopogonidae

Ceratopogonidae, or biting midges (including what are called, in the United States and Canada, no-see-ums, midgies, sand flies, punkies, and others), are a family of small flies (1?4 mm long) in the order Diptera. They are closely related to the Chironomidae, Simuliidae (or black flies), and Thaumaleidae. [more]

Cercophanidae

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Cercopidae

Cercopidae are the largest family of Cercopoidea, a xylem-feeding insect group, commonly called froghoppers . They belong to the hemipteran suborder Auchenorrhyncha. [more]

Cermatobiidae

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Cerococcidae

Cerococcidae is a family of scale insects commonly known as ornate pit scales or cerococcids. There are seventy two species in three genera. Members of this family occur in all regions of the world. [more]

Cerophytidae

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Cerylonidae

Cerylonidae is a family of beetles, in the suborder Polyphaga.The Cerylonidae are a family of small to minute beetles (usually 2 mm. 01- less) which occur most commonly in forest litter and under bark. At present, there are about 40 genera and over 300 described species known from all of the major zoogeographic regions. Crowson (1955) first recognized the Cerylonidae as an independent clavicorn family, including the cerylonines and murmidiines, as well as Euxes- tus and its allies; but these groups have been treated as tribes of the heteromerous family Colydiidae by both Hetschko (1930) and Ar- nett (1968). In their world generic revision of the family, Sen Gupta and 'Crowson (1973) added Anommatus Wesmael, Abromus Reitter, and Ostomopsis Scott, while transferring Eidoreus Sharp (== Eupsilob'ws Casey) to the Endomychidae. The present paper consists of a revision of the 10 genera and 18 species of Cerylonidae occurring in America north of Mexico. With respect to the compo- sition of the family and that of its major subordinate groups, we have followed the classification presented by Sen Gupta and Crowson; the interrelationships among the subgroups, however, are still obscure, so we have treated the Euxestinae, Anommatinae, Metaceqloninae (not North American), Murrnidiinae, Ostomopsinae, and Cerylon- inae as independent subfamilies. The following abbreviations have been used in keys and descrip- tions: PL - pronotal length, PW - pronotal width, EL - elytral length, EW - elytral width, and TL -sum of PL and EL. The word "length" refers to the total length, including the head, and is 'Published with the aid of a grant from the Museum of Comparative Zoology. Museum of comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass [more]

Cetoniidae

Flower chafers are a group of scarab beetles, comprising the subfamily Cetoniinae. Many species are diurnal and visit flowers for pollen and nectar, or to browse on the petals. Some species also feed on fruit. The group is also called fruit and flower chafers, flower beetles and flower scarabs. There are around 4,000 species, many of them still undescribed. [more]

Chaeteessidae

Chaeteessa is a genus of praying mantis in the monotypic family Chaeteessidae, containing four species: [more]

Chaetosomatidae

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Chalcididae

The Chalcididae are a moderate-sized family within the Chalcidoidea, composed mostly of parasitoids and a few hyperparasitoids. The family is apparently polyphyletic, though the different subfamilies may each be monophyletic, and some may be elevated to family status in the near future. As presently defined, there are over 85 genera and over 1455 species worldwide. They are often black with yellow, red, or white markings, rarely brilliantly metallic, with a robust mesosoma and very strong sculpturing. The hind femora are often greatly enlarged, with a row of teeth or serrations along the lower margin. [more]

Chalcodryidae

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Chamaemyiidae

Chamaemyiidae is a small family of acalyptrate flies with less than 200 species described worldwide. The larvae of these small flies are active and predatory and are often used for biological control of aphids, scale insects and similar pests. Chamaemyiid fossils are poorly represented in amber deposits but a few examples are known from the Eocene epoch onwards. [more]

Chaoboridae

Chaoboridae, commonly known as phantom midges, are a family of fairly common midges with a cosmopolitan distribution. They are closely related to Corethrellidae and Chironomidae; the adults are differentiated through peculiarities in wing venation. If they eat at all, the adults feed on nectar. The larvae are aquatic. They are unique due to their feeding method. The antennae of phantom midge larvae are modified into a grasping organ, which captures food, such as small insect larvae and crustaceans like Daphnia and mosquito larvae. The antennae impale or crush the prey and then bring it to the larval mouth, or stylet. The larvae sometimes move about their lacustrine habitats in large swarms. [more]

Charilaidae

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Chathamiidae

Chathamiidae is a family of case making caddisflies more commonly known as the marine caddisflies. Chathamiids are unique among insects in their invasion of the tide pool environment. Larvae construct their cases of coraline algae. The four described species are distributed along the coasts of New Zealand, New South Wales, and the Chatham Islands. [more]

Chelisochidae

Chelisochidae is a family of earwigs whose members are commonly known as black earwigs. The family contains a total of approximately 96 species, spread across sixteen genera in three subfamilies. They are primarily located in the more tropical Afrotropical, Australasian, and Oriental ecozones, even though some species, such as Chelisoches morio, are cosmopolitan. They are often dark in color, lending to their common name, and can vary in size. They can be easily identified due to a certain characteristic in their tarsals, that involves the abdominal projection located in the second tarsal segment. Like most earwigs, they are omnivores, and their diet consists of the larvae of leaf-mining insects, as well as certain types of vegetation. [more]

Chelodesmidae

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Chelojulidae

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Chelonariidae

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Chelopteridae

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Chilenophilidae

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Chimaeropsyllidae

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Chironomidae

Chironomidae (informally known as chironomids or non-biting midges) are a family of nematoceran flies with a global distribution. They are closely related to the Ceratopogonidae, Simuliidae, and Thaumaleidae. Many species superficially resemble mosquitoes but they lack the wing scales and elongate mouthparts of the Culicidae. [more]

Chlorocyphidae

Chlorocyphidae is a family of damselfies, commonly known as jewels. They are most commonly found in Africa and Asia. [more]

Chlorolestidae

[more]

Chloroperlidae

Chloroperlidae is a family of stoneflies commonly known as green stoneflies. There are more than 180 species in the family. They appear in colors of green and yellow. [more]

Chloropidae

Chloropidae is a family of flies commonly known as frit flies or grass flies. There are approximately 2000 described species in over 160 genera distributed worldwide. These are usually very small flies, yellow or black and appearing shiny due to the virtual absence of any hairs. The majority of the larvae are phytophagous, mainly on grasses, and can be major pests of cereals. However, parasitic and predatory species are known. A few species are kleptoparasites. Some species in the genus Hippelates and Siphunculina (S. funicola being quite well known in Asia) are called eye gnats or eye flies for their habit of being attracted to eyes. They feed on lachrymal secretions and other body fluids of various animals including humans. [more]

Choctellidae

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Cholevidae

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Chordeumatidae

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Choreutidae

Choreutidae, or "metalmark moths," are a family of insects in the lepidopteran order whose relationships have been long disputed. It was placed previously in the superfamily Yponomeutoidea in family Glyphipterigidae and in superfamily Sesioidea. It is now considered to represent its own superfamily (Minet, 1986). The relationship of the family to the other lineages in the group "Apoditrysia" [1] need a new assessment, especially with new molecular data. [more]

Choristidae

Choristidae is a small (only 8 species in three genera) family of scorpionflies known only from Australia. Their larvae are found in moss mats. [more]

Chorotypidae

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Chresmodidae

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Chrysididae

Commonly known as cuckoo wasps, the Hymenopteran family Chrysididae is a very large cosmopolitan group (over 3000 described species) of parasitoid or cleptoparasitic wasps, often highly sculptured, with brilliantly colored metallic-like bodies (thus the common names jewel wasp, gold wasp, or emerald wasp are sometimes used). They are most diverse in desert regions of the world, as they are typically associated with solitary bee and wasp species, which are also most diverse in such areas. [more]

Chrysomelidae

Beetles in the family Chrysomelidae are commonly known as leaf beetles. This is a family of over 35,000 species in more than 2,500 genera, one of the largest and most commonly encountered of all beetle families. [more]

Chrysopidae

Green lacewings are insects in the large family Chrysopidae of the order Neuroptera. There are about 85 genera and (differing between sources) 1,300?2,000 species in this widespread group. Members of the genera Chrysopa and Chrysoperla are very common in North America and Europe; they are very similar and many of their species have been moved from one genus to the other time and again, and in the non-scientific literature assignment to Chrysopa and Chrysoperla can rarely be relied upon. Since they are the most familiar neuropterids to many people, they are often simply called "lacewings". But actually most of the diversity of Neuroptera are properly referred to as some sort of "lacewing", so common lacewings is preferable. [more]

Chrysopolomidae

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Chyromyidae

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Cicadellidae

Leafhopper is a common name applied to any species from the family Cicadellidae. Leafhoppers, colloquially known as hoppers, are minute plant-feeding insects in the superfamily Membracoidea in the order Homoptera. They belong to a lineage traditionally treated as infraorder Cicadomorpha in the suborder Auchenorrhyncha, but as the latter taxon is probably not monophyletic, many modern authors prefer to abolish the Auchenorrhyncha and elevate the cicadomorphs to a suborder Clypeorrhyncha. [more]

Cicadidae

A cicada ( or /s?'k??d?/) is an insect of the order Hemiptera, suborder Auchenorrhyncha (which was formerly included in the now invalid order Homoptera), in the superfamily Cicadoidea, with large eyes wide apart on the head and usually transparent, well-veined wings. There are about 2,500 species of cicada around the world, and many of them remain unclassified. Cicadas live in temperate to tropical climates where they are among the most widely recognized of all insects, mainly due to their large size and unique sound. Cicadas are often colloquially called locusts, although they are unrelated to true locusts, which are a kind of grasshopper. Cicadas are related to leafhoppers and spittlebugs. [more]

Cicindelidae

The tiger beetles are a large group of beetles known for their aggressive predatory habits and running speed. The fastest species of tiger beetle can run at a speed of 9 km/h (5.6 mph), which, relative to its body length, is about 22 times the speed of former Olympic sprinter Michael Johnson, the equivalent of a human running at 480 miles per hour (770 km/h). As of 2005, about 2,600 species and subspecies were known, with the richest diversity in the Oriental (Indo-Malayan) region, followed by the Neotropics. [more]

Ciidae

The minute tree-fungus beetles, family Ciidae, are a sizeable group of beetles which inhabit Polyporales bracket fungi or coarse woody debris[]. Most numerous in warmer regions, they are nonetheless widespread and a considerable number of species occur as far polewards as Scandinavia for example. [more]

Cimbicidae

The Cimbicidae are a small family of large-bodied, often hairy sawflies, with only 130 species in 6 genera worldwide. Larvae are solitary herbivores. [more]

Cimicidae

Cimicidae is a family of small parasitic insects that feed exclusively on the blood of warm-blooded animals. They are called cimicids or, loosely, bedbugs (or bed bugs or bed-bugs), though the latter term properly refers to the most famous species of the family, Cimex lectularius, the common bedbug. [more]

Cixiidae

Cixiidae is a family of fulgoroid insects, one of many families commonly known as planthoppers, distributed worldwide and comprising more than 2,000 species from over 150 genera. The genera are placed into three subfamilies, , Bothriocerinae and Cixiinae with sixteen tribes currently accepted in Cixiinae. [more]

Clambidae

[more]

Clastopteridae

[more]

Cleidogonidae

[more]

Cleridae

Cleridae are a family of beetles of the superfamily Cleroidea. They are commonly known as checkered beetles. The Cleridae family has a worldwide distribution, and a variety of habitats and feeding preferences. [more]

Clothodidae

[more]

Clusiidae

[more]

Cneoglossidae

Cneoglossidae is a family of beetles, in the large suborder Polyphaga.
It contains nine species in a single genus: [more]

Coccidae

The Coccidae are a family of scale insects belonging to the superfamily Coccoidea. They are commonly known as soft scales, wax scales or tortoise scales. The females are flat with elongated oval bodies and a smooth integument which may be covered with wax. In some genera they possess legs but in others, they do not, and the antennae may be shortened or missing. The males may be alate or apterous. [more]

Coccinellidae

Coccinellidae is a family of beetles, known variously as ladybirds (UK, Ireland, Australia, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, South Africa, New Zealand, India, Malta, some parts of Canada and the US), or ladybugs (North America). Scientists increasingly prefer the names ladybird beetles or lady beetles as these insects are not true bugs. Lesser-used names include God's cow, ladycock, lady cow, and lady fly. [more]

Coelopidae

[more]

Coenagrionidae

The insect family Coenagrionidae is found in the order Odonata and the suborder Zygoptera. The Zygoptera are the damselflies, which although less known than the dragonflies, are no less common. There are more than 1100 species in this family, making it the largest damselfly family. Coenagrionidae has six subfamilies and they are Agriocnemidinae, Argiinae, , Ischnurinae, Leptobasinae, and Pseudagrioninae. [more]

Coenomyiidae

The Brachyceran infraorder Xylophagomorpha is a small group that consists solely of the family Xylophagidae, which presently contains subfamilies that were sometimes considered to be two small related families (Coenomyiidae and Rachiceridae). Other obsolete names for members of this family include Exeretonevridae and Heterostomidae. [more]

Coleophoridae

Coleophoridae is a family of small moths, belonging to the huge superfamily Gelechioidea. Collectively known as case-bearers, casebearing moths or case moths, this family is represented on all continents but the majority are found in temperate areas of the Northern Hemisphere. They are most common in the Palearctic, and rare in sub-Saharan Africa, South America and Australia; consequently, they probably originated (like most or all other Gelechioidea families) in northern Eurasia. [more]

Colletidae

Colletidae is a family of bees, and are often referred to collectively as plasterer bees or polyester bees, due to the method of smoothing the walls of their nest cells with secretions applied with their mouthparts; these secretions dry into a cellophane-like lining. There are 5 subfamilies, 54 genera, and over 2000 species, all of them evidently solitary, though many nest in aggregations. Two of the subfamilies, and Hylaeinae, lack the external pollen-carrying apparatus (the scopa) that otherwise characterizes most bees, and instead carry the pollen in their crop. These groups, and in fact most genera in this family, have liquid or semi-liquid pollen masses on which the larvae develop. [more]

Colobathristidae

[more]

Colydiidae

Colydiinae is a subfamily of beetles, commonly known as cylindrical bark beetles. They have been treated historically as a family, but have recently been moved into the Zopheridae , where they constitute the bulk of the diversity of the new composite family, with about 140 genera worldwide. There is not much known about the biology of these beetles. Most feed on fungi, others are carnivores and feed on arthropods. [more]

Compsocidae

Compsocidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the suborder Troctomorpha. The family comprises two extant species in two genera, found in Central America. [more]

Conchaspididae

Conchaspididae is a small and relatively unstudied family of scale insects. [more]

Coniopterygidae

The dustywings, Coniopterygidae, are a family of Pterygota (winged insects) of the net-winged insect order (Neuroptera). About 460 living species are known. These tiny insects can usually be determined to genus with a hand lens according to their wing venation, but to distinguish species, examination of the genitals by microscope is usually necessary. [more]

Conoesucidae

[more]

Conopidae

Conopidae, usually known as the thick-headed flies, is a family of flies within the Brachycera suborder of Diptera. Flies of the family Conopidae are distributed worldwide except for the poles and many of the Pacific islands. About 800 species in 47 genera are described worldwide, approximately 70 of which are found in North America. The majority of conopids are black and yellow, or black and white, and often strikingly resemble wasps, bees, or flies of the family Syrphidae, themselves notable bee mimics. Conopids are most frequently found at flowers, feeding on nectar with their proboscis, which is often long. [more]

Conotylidae

[more]

Cooloolidae

Cooloola is a genus of ensiferan orthopterans. It is the only genus in the family Cooloolidae of the superfamily . [more]

Copromorphidae

Copromorphidae, the "tropical fruitworm moths" is a family of insects in the lepidopteran order. These moths have broad, rounded forewings, and well-camouflaged scale patterns. Unlike Carposinidae the mouthparts include "labial palps" with the second rather than third segment the longest. The position of the enigmatic New Zealand genus Isonomeutis in this family in uncertain, as it lacks the flimsy cuticle of the pupa characteristic of other Copromorphoidea. With other unusual structural characteristics of the caterpillar and adult, it could represent the sister lineage of all other extant members of this superfamily (Dugdale et al., 1999). The genus Sisyroxena from Madagascar is also notable for its unusual venation and wing scale sockets (Dugdale et al., 1999). [more]

Coptopsyllidae

[more]

Cordulegastridae

The Cordulegastridae are a family of Odonata (dragonflies) from the suborder Anisoptera. They are commonly known as Spiketails. Some vernacular names for the species of this family are biddie and flying adder. They have a large brown or black body with yellow markings. They can be found along small, clear, woodland streams, flying slowly 30 to 70 cm above the water. When disturbed, however, they can fly very rapidly. [more]

Corduliidae

The insect family Corduliidae contains the emerald dragonflies or green-eyed skimmers. These dragonflies are usually black or dark brown with areas of metallic green or yellow, and most of them have large, emerald-green eyes. The larvae are black, hairy-looking, and usually semi-aquatic. [more]

Coreidae

Coreidae is a large family of predominantly herbivorous insects that belong in the hemipteran suborder Heteroptera. There are more than 1,800 species in over 250 genera. They vary in size from 7 to 45 mm, making the larger species some of the biggest heteropterans. The body shape of coreids is quite variable, with some species broadly oval while others are slender. Coreids are found throughout the world but most species are found in the tropics and subtropics. [more]

Corethrellidae

Corethrellidae is a family of parasitic midges, small flying insects belonging to the Order Diptera, that are commonly known to parasitize frogs. The members of the family are sometimes known as "frog-biting midges". The family currently consists of just two genera, totalling around ninety seven species worldwide. There are several fossil species known. Most extant species are found in the lower latitudes, usually associated around the tropics. [more]

Corioxenidae

Corioxenidae are an insect family of the order Strepsiptera. Species in this family are parasites of Heteropteran bugs including Pentatomidae, Scutelleridae, Cydnidae, Coreidae and Lygaeidae. The males lack mandibles. Three subfamilies within this family are recognized. The subfamilies are separated using morphology of the males, particularly on the basis of the number of tarsi and the presence of tarsal claws. [more]

Corixidae

Corixidae is a family of aquatic insects in the order Hemiptera that inhabit ponds and slow moving streams, where they swim near the bottom. There are about 500 known species worldwide, in 33 genera, including the genus Sigara. [more]

Corticariidae

[more]

Corydalidae

The family Corydalidae contains the megalopterous insects known as dobsonflies and fishflies. Making up about one dozen genera, they occur primarily throughout the Northern Hemisphere, both temperate and tropical, and South America. [more]

Corydaloididae

[more]

Corydasialidae

[more]

Corylophidae

Corylophidae is a family of beetles, sometimes known as the minute fungus beetles. [more]

Cosmopterigidae

Cosmopterigidae (cosmet moths) is a family of insects in the Lepidoptera order. These are small moths with narrow wings whose tiny larvae feed internally on the leaves, seeds, stems, etc of their host plants. There are about 1,500 described species. The family is most diverse in the Australian and Pacific region with about 780 species. [more]

Cosmopterygidae

Cosmopterigidae (cosmet moths) is a family of insects in the Lepidoptera order. These are small moths with narrow wings whose tiny larvae feed internally on the leaves, seeds, stems, etc of their host plants. There are about 1,500 described species. The family is most diverse in the Australian and Pacific region with about 780 species. [more]

Cossidae

Cossidae, the cossid millers or carpenter millers, make up a family of mostly large miller moths. Ths family contains over 110 genera with almost 700 known species, and many more species await description. Carpenter millers are nocturnal Lepidoptera found worldwide, except the Southeast Asian subfamily Ratardinae which is mostly active during the day. [more]

Cowiedesmidae

[more]

Crabronidae

Crabronidae is a large family of wasps, that includes nearly all of the species formerly comprising the now-defunct superfamily Sphecoidea. It collectively includes well over 200 genera, containing well over 9000 species. Crabronids were originally a part of Sphecidae, but the latter name is now restricted to a separate family based on what was once the subfamily Sphecinae. As this change is very recent, it seems likely that the subfamilies of Crabronidae will each eventually be treated as families in their own right, as they have been treated as such by many authorities in the past (as in the catalog linked below). [more]

Crambidae

The Crambidae are the grass moth family of Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths). They are quite variable in appearance, the nominal subfamily Crambinae (grass moths) taking up closely folded postures on grass-stems where they are inconspicuous, while other subfamilies include brightly colored and patterned insects which rest in wing-spread attitudes. [more]

Craspedosomatidae

[more]

Craterostigmidae

[more]

Cratomyiidae

[more]

Cretevaniidae

Evaniidae, also known as the ensign wasps or hatchet wasps, is a family of parasitic wasps. It numbers around 20 extant genera containing over 400 described species, and is found all over the world except in the polar regions. The larvae of these solitary wasps feed on cockroaches and develop inside the egg-cases (oothecae) of their hosts. [more]

Crowsoniellidae

Crowsoniellidae is a small family of beetles, in the suborder Archostemata. [more]

Cryptocercidae

Cryptocercus is a genus of Dictyoptera (cockroaches and allies) in the family Polyphagidae, of which this genus is the only member. Species are known as wood roaches or brown-hooded cockroaches. They are subsocial xylophagous insects, found in North America and Asia. [more]

Cryptochaetidae

[more]

Cryptochetidae

[more]

Cryptococcidae

[more]

Cryptodesmidae

[more]

Cryptolaryngidae

[more]

Cryptophagidae

Cryptophagidae is a family of beetles with representatives found in all ecozones. Only around 800 species have been described but it seems certain that many others await discovery. Members of this family are commonly called silken fungus beetles and both adults and larvae appear to feed exclusively on fungi although in a wide variety of habitats and situations (e.g. rotting wood, shed animal fur/feathers). These beetles are generally small to very small, usually with a basically oval body shape with a slight "waist". [more]

Cryptopidae

[more]

Ctenophthalmidae

[more]

Ctenostylidae

The enigmatic fly family Ctenostylidae is a small group of very rare flies formerly included in the family Pyrgotidae (as the subfamily "Lochmostyliinae"); the principal reason for their inclusion in the Pyrgotidae was the absence of ocelli, a feature originally thought to be a unique defining feature ("autapomorphy") of the Pyrgotidae. Subsequent careful analysis has revealed that this anatomical feature shared with Pyrgotidae may not be indicative of a close relationship, and even the inclusion of Ctenostylidae within the superfamily Tephritoidea was cast into doubt, leaving this as the only family of Acalyptratae presently unassignable to superfamily. [more]

Ctenuchidae

Noctuoidea is the superfamily of noctuid (Latin "night owl") or "owlet" moths, and has the largest number of species described for any Lepidopteran superfamily. Its classification has not yet reached a satisfactory or stable state. The most recent classifications include only four families in the superfamily; Noctuidae, Oenosandridae, Doidae, and Notodontidae. The remaining four families listed here are presently all considered subfamilies within Noctuidae. [more]

Cucujidae

The Cucujidae, sometimes called flat bark beetles are a family of distinctively flat beetles found worldwide under the bark of dead and live trees. The family consists of about 40 species in four genera. [more]

Culicidae

Mosquitoes are a family of small, midge-like flies, the Culicidae. Although a few species are harmless or even useful, most cause a nuisance by sucking blood from vertebrates, including humans. Several of the most harmful human and livestock diseases are transmitted by mosquitoes during feeding. Accordingly, some authorities argue that mosquitoes are the most dangerous animals on earth. [more]

Cupedidae

Cupedidae is a small family of beetles, notable for the square pattern of "windows" on their elytra (hard forewings), which gives the family their common name of reticulated beetles. [more]

Curculionidae

Curculionidae is the family of the "true" weevils (or "snout beetles"). It was formerly recognized in 1998 as the largest of any animal family, with over 40,000 species described worldwide at that time. Today, it is still one of the largest known. [more]

Curtonotidae

[more]

Cybocephalidae

[more]

Cyclidiidae

Cyclidiinae is a small subfamily of the Drepanidae moths. They occur in Southeast Asia. Their caterpillars feed on Alangium (Alangiaceae). In some treatments, they are raised to full family status[]. [more]

Cyclorrhapha

Cyclorrhapha is an unranked taxon within the infraorder Muscomorpha. They are called "Cyclorrhapha" ('circular-seamed flies') with reference to the circular aperture through which the adult escapes the puparium. This is a circumscriptional name that has significant historical familiarity, but in the present classification, this name is synonymous with the more recent "Muscomorpha"; details and reasoning are presented here.
[more]

Cyclotornidae

Cyclotorna is a genus of moths, the sole one of family Cyclotornidae, with five recognized species. The family is endemic to Australia. This family and the closely related Epipyropidae are unique among the Lepidoptera in that the larvae are ectoparasites, the hosts in this case typically being leafhoppers, sometimes scale insects. The larvae of cyclotornids, however, leave the hemipteran host and become predatory on the brood in ant nests, apparently using chemical cues to induce the ants to carry the larvae into the ant nest. [more]

Cydnidae

Cydnidae are a family of shield bugs, known by common names including burrowing bugs or burrower bugs. In some classifications, Cydnidae includes the family Thyreocoridae (sometimes referred to as "Corimelaenidae"), which are known commonly as negro bugs or ebony bugs, and/or the family . Though similar in appearance to a beetle at casual glance, they can be distinguished by both their piercing/sucking mouthparts, and wing configuration (beetle elytra are split directly down the back of the insect). Of some 750 species of burrower bugs, 27 are reported as crop pests, and six species are thought to feed on peanut. [more]

Cylindrachetidae

Sandgropers are wholly larviform insects of the family Cylindrachetidae that may grow up to 7 cm (3 in) long. Three genera are currently recognised: Cylindracheta, Cylindraustralia and Cylindrodes. Like many subterranean animals, little is known about their habits and diet, but Western Australian farmers have blamed them for substantial crop losses. [more]

Cylindrotomidae

The Cylindrotomidae or Long-bodied Craneflies, are a family of flies closely related to true crane flies. There are about 115 species worldwide. [more]

Cynipidae

Gall wasps (Cynipidae), also called Gallflies, are a family of the order Hymenoptera and are classified with the Apocrita suborder of wasps in the superfamily Cynipoidea. About 1300 species of this generally very small creature (1-8 millimeters) are known worldwide, with about 360 species of 36 different genera in Europe and some 800 species in North America. [more]

Cyphoderidae

[more]

Cypselosomatidae

Cypselosomatidae is a family of true flies (Diptera) closely related to the Micropezidae . There are 3 living genera and one fossil. The living species are believed to be associated with bat guano. [more]

Cyrtodesmidae

[more]

Dactylopiidae

[more]

Dalceridae

Dalceridae is a small family of moths with 84 known species. They are mostly found in the Neotropical region with a few reaching the far south of the Nearctic region. [more]

Dalodesmidae

[more]

Danaidae

Milkweed butterflies are a subfamily, Danainae, in the family Nymphalidae, or brush-footed butterflies. They lay their eggs on various milkweeds on which their larvae (caterpillars) feed. Historically, this group had been considered a separate family, Danaidae, and the tribes placed herein were sometimes considered distinct subfamilies in the Nymphalidae. [more]

Dascillidae

[more]

Dasyceridae

[more]

Dasydemellidae

In the insect world, Dasydemellidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the suborder Psocomorpha, in the infraorder Caeciliusetae. The family is composed of about 30 species. [more]

Dasyleptidae

[more]

Delphacidae

Delphacidae is a family of planthoppers containing about 2000 species, distributed worldwide. Delphacids are separated from other "hoppers" by the prominent spur on the tibia of the hindleg. All species are phytophagous, many occurring on various grasses, and some are important vectors for cereal pathogens. The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens St?l, is an example. [more]

Deltocephalidae

[more]

Depressariidae

The Depressariinae ? sometimes spelled "Depressiinae" in error ? are a subfamily of moths in the superfamily Gelechioidea. Like their relatives therein, their exact relationships are not yet very well resolved. It has been considered part of family Elachistidae sensu lato or treated as distinct gelechioid family Depressariidae, but more recently they are assumed to be closer to the Oecophorinae and included in an expanded Oecophoridae. [more]

Derbidae

Derbidae is a family of bugs in the suborder Auchenorrhyncha. The nymphs of some species nymph feed on fungi while adults live by sucking sap. Many adults are recognizable by their habit of holding up their wings. The short apical segment of the rostrum identifies the family. [more]

Dericorythidae

[more]

Dermestidae

Dermestidae are a family of Coleoptera that are commonly referred to as skin beetles. Other common names include larder beetle, hide or leather beetles, carpet beetles, and khapra beetles. There are approximately 500 to 700 species worldwide. They can range in size from 1?12 mm. Key characteristics for adults are round oval shaped bodies covered in scales or setae. The (usually) clubbed antennae fit into deep grooves. The hind femora also fit into recesses of the coxa. Larvae are scarabaeiform and also have setae. [more]

Derodontidae

Derodontidae is a family of beetles, in its own superfamily, Derodontoidea, sometimes known as tooth-necked fungus beetles. There are 38 species in 4 genera and 3 subfamilies. Beetles of this family are small, between 2 and 6 mm in length, with spiny margins on their pronotum (part of the thorax) that give them their name. The genus, Laricobius, lacks these spines. They have two ocelli on the top of their heads. [more]

Deuterophlebiidae

The fly genus Deuterophlebia is the sole member of the small monotypic family Deuterophlebiidae or mountain midges. Adults have broad, fan-shaped wings, and males have extremely long antennae which they employ when contesting territories over running water, waiting for females to hatch. Larvae occur in swiftly flowing streams and are easily recognized by their forked antennae and the prolegs on the abdomen. [more]

Diadocidiidae

Diadocidiidae is a family of Diptera. There are two described genera with over twenty species. Diadocidiidae are found worldwide, except in Africa and Antarctica. It is usually considered close to Keroplatidae, Bolitophilidae and Ditomyiidae, and was previously included in Mycetophilidae. They are woodland flies. The larvae spin silken tubes under bark or in dead logs. [more]

Diamphipnoidae

[more]

Diapheromeridae

Diapheromeridae is a family of stick insects (order Phasmatodea). They belong to the superfamily of suborder Verophasmatodea. [more]

Diapriidae

Diapriidae is a family of insects belonging to the order Hymenoptera. These tiny wasps (with an average length of 2-4 mm and never exceeding 8 mm) are typically parasitoids on the larvae and pupae of a wide range of insects, especially flies; a few are hyperparasitoids (e.g., Ismarus, which parasitize Dryinidae who are themselves parasites of leafhoppers). There are about 2300 described species in 150 genera, divided into four subfamilies, and the group has a global distribution. [more]

Diaspididae

Diaspididae is the largest family of scale insects with over 2650 described species in around 400 genera. As with all scale insects, the female produces a waxy protective scale beneath which it feeds on its host plant. Diaspidid scales are far more substantial than those of most other families: Incorporating the exuviae from the first two nymphal instars and sometimes faecal matter and fragments of the host plant, these can be complex and extremely waterproof structures rather resembling a suit of armour. For this reason these insects are commonly referred to as armoured scale insects. As it is so robust and firmly attached to the host plant, the scale often persists long after the insect has died. [more]

Diastatidae

Diastatidae are a type of flies, and are in the family Diptera. They occur primarily in the Holarctic Region, but several species are known from the Oriental, Neotropical, and Australasian regions. Members of the family number over 20 described species in three genera. There is an additional fossil genus. [more]

Diathemidae

[more]

Dicteriadidae

Dicteriadidae is a small family of damselflies with only two species in two genera. The family is only found in neotropical areas. [more]

Dictyopharidae

Dictyopharidae is a family of bugs in the suborder Auchenorrhyncha belonging to the infraorder Fulgoromorpha. The family comprises nearly 760 species in more than 150 genera. [more]

Dicyrtomidae

[more]

Dignathodontidae

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Dilaridae

The pleasing lacewings, Dilaridae, are a family of winged insects of the order Neuroptera. [more]

Dinidoridae

[more]

Dinjapygidae

Dinjapygidae is a family of diplurans. It contains one genus, with six recognized species: [more]

Diopsidae

Stalk-eyed flies are insects of the fly family Diopsidae. The family is distinguished by the possession of eyestalks: projections from the sides of the head with the eyes at the end. Some fly species from other dipteran families such as the Drosophilidae and Tephritidae carry similar structures but the unique character of the Diopsidae is that the antennae are carried next to the eye at the end of the stalk. A rather remarkable feature of stalk-eyed flies shortly after emerging from their pupae, is the ability of the males to ingest air through their oral cavity, and pump it through ducts in the head and through to the tips of the stalks, thereby elongating them while they are still soft and transparent. There are several hundred species in the family, with the greatest diversity found in the Old World tropics They are distributed throughout the region, with the best known species being from South-East Asia and Southern Africa. There are also two species in North America and a European species has recently been found in Hungary. Adult diopsids are typically found on low-lying vegetation in humid areas, often near streams and rivers, where they feed on fungi and bacteria on decaying vegetation. The larvae develop in rotting vegetation. Due to their peculiar morphology, stalk-eyed flies are readily identifiable as fossils (e.g. in amber); one such prehistoric genus is . An African genus Centrioncus once placed in the Sepsidae and then moved to the Diopsidae had been suggested as belonging to a proposed new family Centrioncidae as a sister group of the Diopsids but this is usually treated as a subfamily. [more]

Dioptidae

Dioptinae is a subfamily of the moth family Notodontidae. [more]

Diphyllostomatidae

The false stag beetles (Diphyllostoma) are a group of three species of rare beetles known only from California. Almost nothing is known of their life history beyond that the adults are diurnal and females are flightless; larvae have not been observed. [more]

Diplatyidae

Diplatyidae is a family of earwigs in the suborder Forficulina. It contains only one subfamily, Diplatyinae, which contains at least two genera: and Haplodiplatys. It is a relatively small family, comprising few species when compared to other families in Forficulina, such as Anisolabididae, Chelisochidae, and Forficulidae. [more]

Diplomaragnidae

[more]

Diplopolyneuridae

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Diprionidae

The Diprionidae are a small family of conifer-feeding sawflies (thus the common name conifer sawflies, though other Symphyta feed on conifers) restricted to the Northern Hemisphere, with some 90 species in 11 genera worldwide. Larvae are often gregarious, and sometimes there can be major outbreaks, thus these wasps can be major forest pests at times. [more]

Dipseudopsidae

Hydropsychidae is a family level taxon consisting of certain caddisflies. [more]

Dipsocoridae

[more]

Diptera

True flies are insects of the order Diptera (from the Greek di = two, and ptera = wings). They possess a pair of wings on the mesothorax and a pair of halteres, derived from the hind wings, on the metathorax. Apart from secondarily flightless insects (including some flies), the only other order of insects with any form of halteres are the Strepsiptera, and theirs are on the mesothorax, with the flight wings on the metathorax. [more]

Discocephalidae

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Discolomatidae

Discolomatidae is a family of beetles, in the suborder Polyphaga. [more]

Discolomidae

[more]

Ditaxineuridae

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Ditomyiidae

Ditomyiidae is a family of Diptera comprising only two genera: and Symmerus. [more]

Dixidae

The Dixidae (meniscus midges) are a family of aquatic nematoceran Diptera. The larvae live in unpolluted, standing fresh waters, just beneath the surface film, usually amongst marginal aquatic vegetation . [more]

Dolabellapsocidae

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Dolichopodidae

Dolichopodidae, the long-legged flies, make up a large family of true flies with more than 7,000 described species in about 230 genera distributed worldwide. The genus Dolichopus is the most speciose, with some 600 species. They are generally small flies with large, prominent eyes and a metallic cast to their appearance, though considerable variation is observed. Most have long legs, though some do not. The males often have enlarged genitalia which can be useful for species recognition. The adults are predatory on other small animals. [more]

Doratodesmidae

[more]

Dorsoporidae

[more]

Dorypetalidae

[more]

Doteridae

[more]

Douglasiidae

The small Lepidopteran family Douglasiidae includes several species of moths whose adults are collectively called Douglas moths and whose larvae are leaf miners. The largest genus in the family is . [more]

Drabescidae

[more]

Drepanidae

The Drepanidae is a family of moths with about 660 species described worldwide. They are generally divided in three subfamilies (Minet and Scoble, 1999) which share the same type of hearing organ. Thyatirinae, previously often placed in their own family, bear a superficial resemblance to Noctuidae. Many species in the Drepanid family have a distinctively hook-shaped apex to the forewing, leading to their common name of hook-tips. [more]

Drilidae

[more]

Drosophilidae

Drosophilidae is a diverse, cosmopolitan family of flies, which includes fruit flies. Another family of flies called Tephritidae also includes fruit flies. The best known species of Drosophilidae is Drosophila melanogaster, within the genus Drosophila, and this species is used extensively for studies concerning genetics, development, physiology, ecology and behaviour. This fruit fly is mostly composed of post-mitotic cells, has a very short lifespan, and shows gradual aging. As in other species, temperature influences the life history of the animal. Several genes have been identified that can be manipulated to extend the lifespan of these animals. [more]

Dryinidae

Dryinidae is a family of hymenopteran insects with about 1,400 described species found worldwide. These are solitary wasps whose larvae are parasitoids on other insects. The only known hosts are Hemiptera, especially leafhoppers. [more]

Dryomyzidae

Dryomyzidae is a small family of flies. [more]

Dryophthoridae

Dryophthorinae is a weevil subfamily within the family Curculionidae. [more]

Dryopidae

[more]

Dudgeoneidae

Dudgeonea is a small genus of moths and the only genus of its family, the Dudgeoneidae. It includes six species distributed sparsely across the Old World from Africa and Madagascar to Australia and New Guinea. [more]

Dynastidae

The Rhinoceros Beetles or Rhino Beetles are a subfamily (Dynastinae) of the scarab beetle family (Scarabaeidae). Other common names ? some for particular groups of rhino beetles ? are for example Hercules beetles, unicorn beetles or horn beetles. There are over 300 known species of rhino beetles. [more]

Dytiscidae

Dytiscidae ? based on the Greek dytikos (d?t????), "able to dive" ? are the predaceous diving beetles, a family of water beetles. They are about 25 mm (one inch) long on average, though there is much variation between species. Dytiscus latissimus, the largest[], can grow up to 45 mm long. Most are dark brown, blackish or dark olive in color with golden highlights in some subfamilies. They have short, but sharp mandibles. Immediately upon biting they deliver digestive enzymes. The larvae are commonly known as water tigers. The family has not been comprehensively cataloged since 1920, but is estimated to include about 4,000 species in over 160 genera. [more]

Dzhajloutshellidae

[more]

Echinophthiriidae

[more]

Ecnomidae

Ecnomidae is a family of caddisflies comprising 9 genera with a total of 375 species. [more]

Ectobiidae

[more]

Ectopsocidae

Ectopsocidae is a family of Psocoptera (book lice or bark lice) belonging to the suborder Psocomorpha. Members of the family are characterised by their absence of an areola postica in their wings, like in the family Peripsocidae. The family includes fewer than 200 species, most of them in the genus Ectopsocus. [more]

Elachistidae

The Elachistidae (grass-miner moths) are a family of small moths in the superfamily Gelechioidea. Some authors lump about 3,300 species in eight subfamilies here, but this arrangement almost certainly results in a massively paraphyletic and completely unnatural assemblage, united merely by symplesiomorphies retained from the first gelechioid moths. [more]

Elasmidae

The genus Elasmus is the only member of the subfamily Elasminae (formerly classified as a separate family, Elasmidae), and contains over 200 species worldwide. They are mostly parasitoids or hyperparasitoids of lepidopteran larvae, though several species are parasitoids of Polistes paper wasp larvae. [more]

Elateridae

The family Elateridae is commonly called click beetles (or "typical click beetles" to distinguish them from the related Cerophytidae and ), elaters, snapping beetles, spring beetles or "skipjacks". They are a cosmopolitan beetle family characterized by the unusual click mechanism they possess. There are a few closely related families in which a few members have the same mechanism, but all elaterids can click. A spine on the prosternum can be snapped into a corresponding notch on the mesosternum, producing a violent "click" which can bounce the beetle into the air. Clicking is mainly used to avoid predation, although it is also useful when the beetle is on its back and needs to right itself. There are about 9300 known species worldwide, and 965 valid species in North America. [more]

Elcanidae

[more]

Electralbertidae

[more]

Electrotomidae

[more]

Elenchidae

Elenchidae is an insect family in the order Strepsiptera. [more]

Elipsocidae

Elipsocidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the suborder Homilopsocidea. Member of the family have a free areola postica. Many species are apterous. The family includes about 130 species in 26 genera. [more]

Elliidae

[more]

Elmidae

[more]

Elminthidae

[more]

Embiidae

[more]

Embolemidae

[more]

Embonychidae

[more]

Empididae

Empididae is a family of flies with over 3,000 described species occurring worldwide, but the majority are found in the Holarctic. They are mainly predatory flies like most of their relatives in the Empidoidea, and exhibit a wide range of forms but are generally small to medium sized, non-metallic and rather bristly. [more]

Empusidae

[more]

Encyrtidae

Encyrtidae is a large family of parasitic wasps, with some 3710 described species in some 455 genera (see List of encyrtid genera). The larvae of the majority are primary parasitoids on Hemiptera, though other hosts are attacked, and details of the life history can be variable (e.g., some attack eggs, some attack larvae, others are hyperparasites and there are even Encyrtidae that develops as parasitoids of ticks). They are found throughout the world in virtually all habitats, and are extremely important as biological control agents. [more]

Enderleinellidae

[more]

Endomychidae

Endomychidae, or handsome fungus beetles is a family of beetles with representatives found in all ecozones.There are around 120 genera and 1300 species. As the name suggests Endomychidae feed on fungi. [more]

Endromidae

[more]

Eneopteridae

[more]

Engisopteridae

[more]

Enicocephalidae

Enicocephalidae, also called unique-headed bug and gnat bug, are a family of 130 species of the suborder heteroptera. They are typically 4 mm long, and found throughout the world. They have an elongated head, constricted in places, hence its head is 'unique'. [more]

Entedoninae

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Entomobielziidae

[more]

Entomobryidae

The family Entomobryidae contains the so-called "slender springtails", a group of springtails characterised as having an enlarged fourth abdominal segment and a well-developed furcula. Species in this family may be heavily scaled and can be very colorful. The scale-less Entomobryas are commonly caught in pitfall traps around the planet, and also occur in canopy faunas high up in trees (notably , very common throughout Europe if not the northern hemisphere). [more]

Eoditomyiidae

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Eoichneumonidae

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Eolocustopsidae

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Eomeropidae

[more]

Eopleciidae

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Eopolyneuridae

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Eoptychopteridae

[more]

Eosentomidae

Eosentomidae is a family of hexapods in the order Protura. Eosentomids are tracheated, unlike the Acerentomidae. [more]

Epallagidae

[more]

Epeoromimidae

[more]

Epermeniidae

[more]

Ephemerellidae

Ephemerellidae are known as the Spiny Crawler Mayflies. They are a family of the order Ephemeroptera. There are 8 genera consisting of a total 90 species (Merritt & Cummins). They are distributed throughout North America as well as the UK. Their habitat is lotic-erosional, they are found in all sizes of flowing streams on different types of substrates where there is reduced flow. They are even found on the shores of lakes and beaches where there wave action present. They move by swimming and clinging, they are very well camouflaged. Most species have one generation per year. They are mostly collector-gatherers. [more]

Ephemeridae

Ephemeridae is a family of mayflies with about 150 described species found throughout the world except Australia and Oceania. These are generally quite large mayflies (up to 35 mm) with either two or three very long tails. Many species have distinctively patterned wings. [more]

Ephialtitidae

[more]

Ephydridae

Ephydridae (shore fly, sometimes brine fly) is a family of insects in the order Diptera. [more]

Epicopeiidae

Epicopeiidae is a family of insects in the Lepidoptera order. They are known as Oriental Swallowtail Moths as they resemble Oriental Swallowtail butterflies so well. [more]

Epilampridae

[more]

Epinannolenidae

[more]

Epiophlebiidae

The genus Epiophlebia is the sole member of the family Epiophlebiidae, which is itself the sole living representative of the Epiproctan infraorder Epiophlebioptera, and it contains only two species. These two species were historically placed in their own suborder Anisozygoptera, considered intermediate between dragonflies and damselflies, mainly because the hind wings are very similar in size and shape to the forewings and held back over the body at rest, as in damselflies. It has more recently been recognized that the genus Epiophlebia shares a more recent ancestor with dragonflies (having become separated from these in and around of the uplifting Himalayas), and the group has accordingly been reclassified as an infraorder within the dragonflies. [more]

Epiplemidae

[more]

Epipsocidae

Epipsocidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the suborder Psocomorpha, that includes, among others, the genera Epipsocus, Epipsocopsis, and the New Guinean endemic Dicropsocus. The only European species in the family is the (almost always) apterous Bertkauia lucifuga. Like the other members of the infra-order Epipsocetae, Epipsocidae have a labrum with two sclerotized ridges. [more]

Epipyropidae

Epipyropidae is a small family of moths. This family and the closely related Cyclotornidae are unique among the Lepidoptera in that the larvae are ectoparasites, the hosts typically being fulgoroid planthoppers, thus the common name Planthopper Parasite Moths. [more]

Episactidae

[more]

Eremiaphilidae

Eremiaphilidae is a small family of the order Mantodea (mantises). They are frequently wingless or brachypterous, and commonly encountered in desert environments. Their coloration often matches that of the sand or rocks in the habitat. [more]

Eremochaetidae

[more]

Eremoneura

[more]

Eriococcidae

Eriococcidae is a family of scale insects in the order Hemiptera. They are commonly known as felt scales or eriococcids. Each species is usually specific to a different plant host. [more]

Eriocottidae

[more]

Eriocraniidae

[more]

Eriphantidae

[more]

Erirhinidae

[more]

Erotylidae

Erotylidae is the pleasing fungus beetles, is a family of beetles containing over 100 genera. In the present circumscription, it includes the subfamilies , Encaustinae, Erotylinae, Megalodacninae, and Tritominae. In other words, the narrowly-circumscribed Erotylidae correspond to the subfamily Erotylinae in the definition sensu lato. They feed on plant and fungal matter; some are important pollinators (e.g. of the ancient cycads), while a few have gained notoriety as pests of some significance. Sometimes, useful and harmful species are found in one genus, e.g. Pharaxonotha. Most pleasing fungus beetles are inoffensive animals of little significance to humans however. [more]

Eruciidae

[more]

Ethmiidae

Ethmiidae is a family of small moths in the superfamily Gelechioidea. It is sometimes included in the Elachistidae or the Oecophoridae as a subfamily Ethmiinae. [more]

Eubleptidae

[more]

Eucharitidae

[more]

Euchauliodidae

[more]

Euchiridae

[more]

Eucinetidae

Eucinetidae is a family of beetles, notable for their large that cover much of the first ventrite of the abdomen, sometimes called plate-thigh beetles. The family is small for beetles, with about 37 species in nine genera, but are found worldwide. [more]

Eucnemidae

[more]

Eucoilidae

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Eucratonychidae

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Eudigonidae

[more]

Eugeronidae

[more]

Eugeropteridae

[more]

Euglenidae

[more]

Eulichadidae

[more]

Eulophidae

Eulophidae is a large family of hymenopteran insects, with over 4,300 described species in some 300 genera (see list of eulophid genera). The family as presently defined also includes the genus Elasmus, which was previously treated as a separate family, "Elasmidae", and is now treated as a subfamily of Eulophidae. These minute insects are challenging to study as they deteriorate rapidly after death unless extreme care is taken (e.g., preservation in ethanol), making identification of most museum specimens difficult. The larvae of a very few species feed on plants but the majority are primary parasitoids on a huge range of arthropods at all stages of development. They are exceptional in that they are one of two hymenopteran families with some species that are known to parasitize Thysanoptera. Eulophids are found throughout the world in virtually all habitats (one is even aquatic, parasitising psephenid beetles). [more]

Eumastacidae

[more]

Eumenidae

Potter wasps (or mason wasps) are a cosmopolitan wasp group presently treated as a subfamily of Vespidae, but sometimes recognized in the past as a separate family, Eumenidae. [more]

Eumenotidae

[more]

Eupelmidae

Eupelmidae is a family of parasitic wasps in the superfamily Chalcidoidea. The group is apparently polyphyletic, though the different subfamilies may each be monophyletic, and may be elevated to family status in the near future. As presently defined, there are over 905 described species in 45 genera. The larvae of the majority are primary parasitoids, commonly on beetle larvae, though many other hosts are attacked, including spiders, and details of the life history can be variable (e.g., some attack eggs and others are hyperparasites). They are found throughout the world in virtually all habitats. [more]

Euphaeidae

Euphaeidae is a family of damselflies in the order Odonata. It is sometimes called Epallaginidae They are commonly known as Gossamerwings. It is a small family of damselflies with around 70 species. They commonly occur in Old World tropics. They are large and mostly metallic-colored. They look similar to species of damselflies in the family Calopterygidae. [more]

Euphoberiidae

[more]

Eupterotidae

Eupterotidae is a family of insects in the Lepidoptera order with more than 300 described species. [more]

Eurhynchidae

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Eurybrachidae

The Eurybrachyidae (sometimes misspelled "Eurybrachidae" or "Eurybrachiidae") is a small family of planthoppers found in Asia, Australia and Africa; there are over 50 species described in some 20 genera. The frons of the head is characteristic in being broader than it is long. Their large forewings are often colorfully mottled as a means of camouflage, hiding the broad and sometimes colorful abdomen. [more]

Eurybrachyidae

[more]

Eurychoromyiidae

Eurychoromyia mallea, the broad-headed fly, is a species of fly, the only species in the family Eurychoromyiidae. [more]

Eurymelidae

[more]

Eurymerodesmidae

[more]

Eurypauropodidae

[more]

Eurytomidae

Eurytomidae is a family within the superfamily Chalcidoidea. The group is apparently polyphyletic, though the different subfamilies may each be monophyletic, and may be elevated to family status in the near future. As presently defined, there are some 1420 described species in 87 genera. [more]

Euryuridae

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Euschmidtiidae

[more]

Eustheniidae

[more]

Euthemistidae

[more]

Euthyplociidae

[more]

Euxenoperlidae

[more]

Evacanthidae

[more]

Evaniidae

Evaniidae, also known as the ensign wasps or hatchet wasps, is a family of parasitic wasps. It numbers around 20 extant genera containing over 400 described species, and is found all over the world except in the polar regions. The larvae of these solitary wasps feed on cockroaches and develop inside the egg-cases (oothecae) of their hosts. [more]

Faginidae

[more]

Falsiformicidae

[more]

Family Unassigned

Fanniidae

The Fanniidae are a small (285 species in 4 genera) group of true flies largely confined to the Holarctic and temperate Neotropical regions. [more]

Fauriellidae

[more]

Fergusoninidae

[more]

Figitidae

Figitidae is a family of tiny wasps with a worldwide distribution. There are currently about 1400 described species in 126 genera although many taxa undoubtedly await discovery. In contrast to most cynipoids, which are gall-inducing phytophages, these insects are parasitoids, the larvae feeding internally on the larvae of other insects. Flies are the commonest hosts but Neuroptera and other Hymenoptera are also targeted by various species. [more]

Flatidae

Flatidae are a family of Fulgoroid plant-hoppers. They are cosmopolitan in distribution and are distinguished from others in the superfamily by a combination of characters. Adults of some species have brightly colored wings and are easily identified but the identification of species often requires dissection and comparison with identification keys. [more]

Floridobolidae

[more]

Forficulidae

Forficulidae is a family of earwigs, in the suborder Forficulina in the order Dermaptera. [more]

Formicidae

Ants are social insects of the family Formicidae () and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera. Ants evolved from wasp-like ancestors in the mid-Cretaceous period between 110 and 130 million years ago and diversified after the rise of flowering plants. More than 12,500 out of an estimated total of 22,000 species have been classified. They are easily identified by their elbowed antennae and a distinctive node-like structure that forms a slender waist. [more]

Fuhrmannodesmidae

[more]

Fulgoridae

The family Fulgoridae is a large group of hemipteran insects, especially abundant and diverse in the tropics, containing over 125 genera worldwide. They are mostly of moderate to large size, many with a superficial resemblance to Lepidoptera due to their brilliant and varied coloration. Various genera and species (especially the genera Fulgora and Laternaria) are sometimes referred to as lantern flies, though they do not emit light. [more]

Galliobatidae

[more]

Gasterophilidae

[more]

Gasteruptidae

[more]

Gasteruptiidae

[more]

Gelastocoridae

The Gelastocoridae (toad bugs) is a family of about 100 species of insects in the suborder Heteroptera. They are reminiscent of toads both in the warty appearance and hopping movements of some species. [more]

Gelechiidae

Gelechiidae is a family of moths commonly referred to as twirler moths or gelechiid moths. They are the namesake family of the huge and little-studied superfamily Gelechioidea, and the Gelechiidae's relationships with and delimitation against their relatives have been subject to considerable dispute. These are generally very small moths with narrow, fringed wings. The larvae of most species feed internally on various parts of their host plants, sometimes causing galls. Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga) is a host plant common to many species of the family, particularly of the genus Chionodes which is consequently more diverse in North America than usual for Gelechioidea. [more]

Gengidae

[more]

Geometridae

The geometer moths or Geometridae (from Greek geo ?? or ?a?a 'the earth' and metron ??t??? 'measure' ? refers to the larvae, which appear to "measure the earth" as they move in a looping fashion) are a family of the order Lepidoptera. A very large family, it has around 35,000 species of moths described, and over 1,400 species from 6 subclasses indigenous to North America. A well-known member is the Peppered Moth, Biston betularia, which has been subject of numerous studies in population genetics. Several other geometer moths are notorious pests. [more]

Geophilidae

[more]

Georyssidae

Georissus, also called minute mud-loving beetles, is the only genus in the beetle family Georissidae (or Georyssidae). They are tiny insects living in wet soil, often near water. Found on every continent except Antarctica. [more]

Geotrupidae

Geotrupidae (from Greek geos[], earth, and trypetes, borer) is a family of beetles in the order Coleoptera. They are commonly called dor beetles or earth-boring dung beetles. Most excavate burrows in which to lay their eggs. They are typically detrivores, provisioning their nests with leaf litter (often moldy), but are occasionally coprophagous, similar to dung beetles. The eggs are laid in or upon the provision mass and buried, and the developing larvae feed upon the provisions. The burrows of some species can exceed 2 metres in depth. [more]

Gerocynipidae

[more]

Gerridae

Gerridae is a family of true bugs in the order Hemiptera, commonly known as water striders, water bugs, magic bugs, pond skaters, skaters, skimmers, water scooters, water skaters, water skeeters, water skimmers, water skippers, water spiders, or Jesus bugs. One main characteristic that sets gerrids and other true bugs apart from other insects is that the front wing is only half functional. Rather than using it for flight, it acts as a membranous covering and the thickened part is by where claws develop. Consistent with the classification of Gerridae as true bugs, gerrids have a mouthpart evolved for piercing and sucking, Gerrids distinguish themselves by having the unique ability to walk on water. Gerridae, or water striders, are anatomically built to transfer their weight to be able to run on top of the water's surface. As a result, one could likely find water striders present in any pond, river, or lake. Sci entists have identified over 1,700 species of Gerrids, 10% of them being marine. [more]

Gigasiricidae

[more]

Glaphyridae

Glaphyridae is a family of beetles, commonly known as The bumble bee scarab beetles. There are eight genera with about 80 species distributed worldwide. [more]

Glaresidae

Glaresis is a genus of beetles, sometimes called "enigmatic scarab beetles", in its own family, the Glaresidae. It is closely related to scarab beetles. Although its members occur in arid and sandy areas worldwide (except Australia), only the nocturnal adults have ever been collected (typically at lights), and both the larvae and biology of Glaresis are as yet unknown. Due to their narrow habitat associations, a great number of these species occur in extremely limited geographic areas, and are accordingly imperiled by habitat destruction. [more]

Glomeridae

Glomeridae is a family of pill millipedes. It includes dozens of genera, including many which are yet to be described ; the family includes at least the following genera: [more]

Glomeridellidae

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Glomeridesmidae

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Glosselytridae

[more]

Glossinidae

Tsetse (, US /'tsi?tsi/, or UK /'ts?tsi/), sometimes spelled tzetze and also known as tik-tik flies, are large biting flies that inhabit much of mid-continental Africa between the Sahara and the Kalahari deserts. They live by feeding on the blood of vertebrate animals and are the primary biological vectors of trypanosomes, which cause human sleeping sickness and animal trypanosomiasis, also known as nagana. Tsetse include all the species in the genus Glossina, which are generally placed in their own family, Glossinidae. [more]

Glossopteridae

[more]

Glossosomatidae

Glossosomatidae is a family of the class Insecta and order Trichoptera. [more]

Glyphipterigidae

Glyphipterigidae is a family of small moths commonly known as sedge moths as the larvae of many species feed on sedges and rushes. More than 500 species have been described in the family. [more]

Gobryidae

Gobryidae is a family of five species in the genus Gobrya. Walker described the genus in 1860. They are relatively rare and found only in Taiwan, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Gobryids are brilliantly metallic blue in coloration and their heads are wider than the rest of their body. Very little is known about the larval habits of these flies. McAlpine (1997) elevated the genus to family level. More research is needed to determine the best phylogenetic placement for Gobrya. [more]

Goeridae

[more]

Gomphidae

Gomphidae is an Odonata family that contains about 90 genera and 900 species. They are commonly referred to as clubtail dragonflies. The name refers to the clublike widening of the end of the abdomen (abdominal segments 7 through 9). However, this club is usually less pronounced in females and is entirely absent in some species. [more]

Gomphodesmidae

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Gomphomastacidae

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Gonibregmatidae

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Goniodidae

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Gracilitipulidae

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Gracillariidae

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Grammosmylidae

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Gripopterygidae

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Gryllacrididae

Gryllacrididae are a family of non-jumping cricket-like insects occurring worldwide, known commonly as "leaf-rolling crickets" or "raspy crickets". The family historically has been broadly defined to include what are presently several other families, such as Stenopelmatidae ("Jerusalem crickets") and Rhaphidophoridae ("camel crickets"), now considered separate. As presently defined, the family contains two subfamilies, with the vast majority (over 90 genera containing over 600 species) in the subfamily .[verification needed] The remaining subfamily, Lezininae, contains only a single genus with 12 described species.[verification needed] They are commonly wingless and nocturnal, resting during the day in shelters made from leaves which have been folded over and partially sealed with silk. [more]

Gryllavidae

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Gryllidae

Crickets, family Gryllidae (also known as "true crickets"), are insects somewhat related to grasshoppers, and more closely related to katydids or bush crickets (family Tettigoniidae). They have somewhat flattened bodies and long antennae. There are about 900 species of crickets. They tend to be nocturnal and are often confused with grasshoppers because they have a similar body structure including jumping hind legs. Crickets are harmless to humans. [more]

Grylloblattidae

Grylloblattidae is a family of extremophile and wingless insects that live in the cold on top of mountains. It belongs, as Mantophasmatidae, to the order of Notoptera. [more]

Gryllotalpidae

The mole crickets compose family Gryllotalpidae, of thick-bodied insects about 3?5 centimetres (1.2?2.0 in) long, with large beady eyes and shovel-like forelimbs highly developed for burrowing and swimming. They can also fly: the adult mole cricket may fly as far as 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) during mating season, is active most of the year, and spends the winter in hibernation. Younger insects can have shorter wings, and their appearance varies by species, with some resembling grasshoppers or very large ants or dark-colored "termites" when wings are short. [more]

Gyrinidae

The whirligig beetles are a family (Gyrinidae) of water beetles that usually swim on the surface of the water if undisturbed, though they swim actively underwater when threatened. They get their common name from their habit of swimming rapidly in circles when alarmed, and are also notable for their divided eyes which are believed to enable them to see both above and below water. [more]

Gyropidae

[more]

Haaseidae

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Haematomyzidae

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Haematopinidae

These sucking lice are members of a larger Suborder Anoplura which also includes the species of lice most commonly infesting humans. The Haematopinidae are identified by the presence of ocular points (although the eyes themselves are usually absent), and the tarsi being 1-clawed. [more]

Haglidae

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Hagloedischiidae

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Haglotettigoniidae

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Halictidae

Halictidae is a cosmopolitan family of the order Hymenoptera consisting of small (> 4 mm) to midsize (> 8 mm) bees which are usually dark-colored and often metallic in appearance. Several species are all or partly green and a few are red; a number of them have yellow markings, especially the males, which commonly possess yellow faces, a pattern widespread among the various families of bees. They are commonly referred to as sweat bees (especially the smaller species), as they are often attracted to perspiration; when pinched, females can give a minor sting. [more]

Halictophagidae

Halictophagidae are an insect family of the order Strepsiptera. [more]

Halimococcidae

Halimococcidae is a family of scale insects in the order Hemiptera. Members of the family are commonly known as pupillarial palm scales or halimococcids. Most species are found on the leaves of palm trees where they suck sap, but some species occur on Pandanus. The family was named by Brown and McKenzie in 1962 and includes five known genera and twenty one species. [more]

Haliplidae

The Haliplidae are a family of water beetles who swim using an alternating motion of the legs. They are therefore clumsy in water (compared e.g. with the Dytiscidae or Hydrophilidae), and prefer to get around by crawling. The family consists of about 200 species in 5 genera, distributed wherever there is freshwater habitat; it is the only extant member of superfamily Haliploidea. They are also known as crawling water beetles or haliplids. [more]

Hamophthiriidae

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Hanidae

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Haplobainosomatidae

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Haplodesmidae

[more]

Harpagophoridae

[more]

Harpalidae

[more]

Hebridae

Velvet water bugs are members of the family Hebridae. They are semiaquatic insects that live among moss or ponds with an abundance of vegetation, in which they prey on small arthropods. Velvet water bugs are the smallest of the Gerromorpha, and have an appearance of tiny veliids. Hebrids sometimes move across water surfaces, but walk or run rather than skate or scull on the surface. [more]

Hedylidae

[more]

Helcomyzidae

Helcomyzinae is a small subfamily of Acalyptratae flies. Most authors consider they are now placed in the family Dryomyzidae. They are sometimes placed in the family Coelopidae, or elevated to family rank as Helcomyzidae. [more]

Heleomyzidae

Heleomyzidae is a small family of true flies in the insect order Diptera. There are over 650 described species of Heleomyzidae in about 80 genera and 22 tribes distributed throughout the world; the greatest number occur in the Holarctic Region. Approximately 100 species of Heleomyzidae are found in North America. Larvae feed on decaying plant and animal matter, mushrooms and various fungi. All of the subfamilies have been commonly recognized as families in the past, but are now included within the Heleomyzidae (McAlpine,D.K.,1985). [more]

Helicophidae

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Helicopsychidae

Helicopsychidae (snail-case caddisfly) are a family of Trichoptera. The name refers to the helix shaped larval cases. Helicopsychidae is divided into two genera, the monphyletic Rakiura and Helicopsyche. The family contains more than 230 species and are present on all major faunal regions. [more]

Heliocharitidae

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Heliodinidae

Heliodinidae is a family of small moths with slender bodies and narrow wings. Members of this family are found in all parts of the world. [more]

Heliozelidae

A family of primitive monotrysian moths in the order Lepidoptera, Heliozelidae are small, metallic day-flying moths with shiny smooth heads, In Europe the small adult moths (genera Antispila and Heliozela) are seldom noticed as they fly quite early in the Spring. The larvae are leaf miners[1] and the vacated leaf mines are distinctive because the larva leaves a large hole at the end. [more]

Helodidae

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Heloridae

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Helosciomyzidae

Helosciomyzidae is a very small family of flies. They comprise nine genera and 22 species. [more]

Helotidae

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Helotrephidae

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Hemerobiidae

Hemerobiidae is a family of Neuropteran insects commonly known as brown lacewings. These insects differ from the somewhat similar Chrysopidae (green lacewings) not only by the usual coloring but by the wing venation: hemerobiids having numerous long veins lacking in chrysopids. Some of the costal cross veins are forked, unlike in green lacewings. Imagines of subfamily mimic dead leaves. Hemerobiid larvae are usually less hairy than chrysopid larvae. [more]

Hemimeridae

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Hemiphlebiidae

Hemiphlebia mirabilis, the Ancient Greenling, is a species of damselfly in family Hemiphlebiidae. It is very small with a long, metallic green body and clear wings. It is the only member of its genus and family. It is endemic to south-eastern Australia. Its natural swamp habitat is threatened by habitat loss. [more]

Hemipsocidae

Hemipsocidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the infraorder Psocetae. Member of the family have the areola postica joined to the M vein by a crossvein, and their M vein is 2-branched. This family comprises twenty-four species in three genera. [more]

Hemithripidae

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Henicopidae

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Hennigmatidae

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Hepialidae

The Hepialidae is a family of insects in the lepidopteran order. Moths of this family are often referred to as swift moths or ghost moths. [more]

Heptageniidae

Heptageniidae (Synonym: Ecdyonuridae) is a family of mayflies with over 500 described species mainly distributed in the Holarctic, Oriental, and Afrotropical regions, and also present in the Central American Tropics and extreme northern South America. These are generally rather small mayflies with two long tails. The wings are usually clear with prominent venation although species with variegated wings are known. As in most mayflies, the males have large compound eyes but not divided into upper and lower parts (the group is sometimes referred to as flat-headed mayflies). [more]

Hermatobatidae

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Hesperiidae

A skipper or skipper butterfly is a butterfly of the family Hesperiidae. They are named after their quick, darting flight habits. There are more than 3500 recognized species of skippers and they occur worldwide, but with the greatest diversity in the Neotropical regions of Central and South America. [more]

Hesperinidae

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Heterobathmiidae

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Heteroceridae

The Heteroceridae, or variegated mud-loving beetles, are a widespread and relatively common family of beetles. They occur on every continent except for Antarctica. [more]

Heterocheilidae

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Heterochordeumatidae

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Heterogynaidae

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Heterogynidae

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Heterojapygidae

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Heterolatzeliidae

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Heteronemiidae

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Heterophlebiidae

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Heteropterygidae

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Heterothripidae

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Hexgenitidae

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Hilarimorphidae

Hilarimorphidae or Hilarimorphid flies are a Family of Diptera. They are placed in the Super family Asiloidea, though there is some considerable doubt, but the consensus is that they are most closely related to the Bombyliidae. Most species are nearctic. [more]

Himantariidae

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Himantopteridae

Himantopteridae is a family of insects in the Lepidoptera order. [more]

Hippoboscidae

Hippoboscidae, the louse flies or keds are obligate parasites of mammals and birds. In this family there are winged species which can fly at least reasonably well, as well as others with vestigial or no wings which are flightless and highly apomorphic. As usual in their superfamily Hippoboscoidea, most of the larval development takes place within the mother's body, and pupation occurs almost immediately. [more]

Hirudisomatidae

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Histeridae

Histeridae is a family of beetles commonly known as Clown beetles or Hister beetles. This very diverse group of beetles contains 3,900 species found worldwide. They can be easily identified by their shortened elytra that leaves two of the seven tergites exposed, and their elbowed antennae with clubbed ends. These predatory feeders are most active at night and will fake death if they feel threatened. This family of beetles will occupy almost any kind of niche throughout the world. Hister beetles have proved useful during forensic investigations to help in time of death estimation. Also, certain species are used in the control of livestock pests that infest dung and to control houseflies. Because they are predacious and will even eat other Hister beetles, they must be isolated when collected. [more]

Hodotermitidae

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Hoffmaneumatidae

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Holistophallidae

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Homalisidae

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Homiopteridae

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Homoptera

Homoptera: Coccoidea

Homotomidae

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Hoplopleuridae

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Huttoninidae

The family Sciomyzidae belongs to the typical flies (Brachycera) of the order Diptera. They are commonly called marsh flies, and in some cases snail-killing flies due to the food of their larvae. [more]

Hyblaeidae

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Hybophthiridae

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Hybosoridae

Hybosoridae, sometimes known as the scavenger scarab beetles, is a family of scarabaeiform beetles. The 210 species in 33 genera occur widely in the tropics, but little is known of their biology. [more]

Hybotidae

Hybotidae, the typical dance flies are a family of true flies. They belong to the superfamily Empidoidea and were formerly included in the Empididae as a subfamily. [more]

Hydraenidae

Hydraenidae is a family of very small aquatic beetles with a worldwide distribution. These beetles are generally 1-3 mm in length (although some species reach 7 mm) with clubbed antennae. They do not swim well and are generally found crawling in marginal vegetation. Most are phytophagous but a few saprophagous and predatory species are known. [more]

Hydrobiosidae

Hydrobiosidae is a family in the insect order of Trichoptera. [more]

Hydrometridae

Hydrometridae is a family of semi-aquatic insects, known as marsh treaders or water measurers. They have a characteristic elongated head and body which makes them resemble a yardstick for measuring the water surface. [more]

Hydrophilidae

Hydrophilidae , also called water scavenger beetles, is a family of chiefly aquatic beetles. Aquatic hydrophilids are notable for their long , which are longer than their antennae. Several of the former subfamilies of Hydrophilidae have recently been removed and elevated to family rank; Epimetopidae, Georissidae (= Georyssinae), Helophoridae, Hydrochidae, and Spercheidae (= Sphaeridiinae). Some of these formerly-included groups are primarily terrestrial or semi-aquatic. [more]

Hydropsychidae

Hydropsychidae are a family-level taxon consisting of net-spinning caddisflies. Hydropsychids are common among much of the world's streams and a few species occupy the shorelines of freshwater lakes. Larvae of the hyrdopsychids construct nets at the open end of their dwellings which is responsible for their "net-spinning caddisfly" common name. [more]

Hydroptilidae

Hydroptilidae is a large family of caddisflies (Trichoptera) with a worldwide distribution. They are commonly known as microcaddisflies or purse-case caddisflies, in reference to two characteristic traits of this family: Hydroptilidae are much smaller than other caddisflies, rarely exceeding 5 millimetres (0.20 in) in length. Their larvae do not build a protective case until the final instar of their growth. At that time however, they build a typically purse-shaped case, either portable or stuck to the substrate, in which the larva finishes growth and pupates. [more]

Hydrosalpingidae

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Hydroscaphidae

Hydroscaphidae is a small family of water beetles, consisting of 13 species in three genera, which are sometimes called skiff beetles. [more]

Hygrobiidae

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Hylaeidae

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Hymenopodidae

Hymenopodidae is a family of the order Mantodea (mantises), with three subfamilies. [more]

Hymenoptera

Hyocephalidae

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Hypochthonellidae

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Hypodermatidae

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Hypogastruridae

Hypogastruridae is a family of springtails. Members of the family are common and widespread with a cosmopolitan distribution of about 660 species in about 40 genera. [more]

Hypogexenidae

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Hypolestidae

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Hypsipterygidae

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Hystrichopsyllidae

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Ibaliidae

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Ichneumonidae

Ichneumonidae is a family within the insect order Hymenoptera. Insects in this family are commonly called ichneumon wasps. Less exact terms are ichneumon flies (they are not closely related to true flies), or scorpion wasps due to the extreme lengthening and curving of the abdomen (scorpions are not insects). Simply but ambiguously these insects are commonly called "ichneumons", which is also a term for the Egyptian Mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon); ichneumonids is often encountered as a less ambiguous alternative. Ichneumon wasps are important parasitoids of other insects. Common hosts are larvae and pupae of Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, and Lepidoptera. [more]

Idioceridae

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Idiostolidae

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Immidae

Immoidea is a superfamily of pantropical moths containing only the family Immidae comprising ten genera with around 250 species, over half of them in the genus Imma. Many are brightly colored and diurnal. The position of this group is currently uncertain within the group Obtectomera[1]. The larvae feed on the leaves of dicotyledons and conifers including Podocarpus (Dugdale et al. 1999). [more]

Incurvariidae

Incurvariidae is a family of small primitive monotrysian moths in the order Lepidoptera. There are twelve genera recognised (Davis, 1999). Many species are leaf miners and much is known of their hostplants, excluding Paraclemensia acerifoliella (Fitch). The most familiar species in Europe are perhaps Incurvaria masculella and Phylloporia bistrigella. The narrow wings are held tightly along the body at rest and some species have very long antennae. [more]

Inocelliidae

Inocelliidae is a small family of snakeflies containing 8 genera of which one is known only from fossils. They are commonly known as inocelliid snakeflies. The largest known species is Fibla carpenteri known from fossils found in baltic amber. [more]

Ironomyiidae

Ironomyiidae or ironic flies , are a small family of insects of the order Diptera. Historically they have been included in the family Platypezidae. It includes only 3 living species, and a number extinct fossil species. [more]

Ischnopsyllidae

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Isometopidae

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Isonychiidae

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Isophlebiidae

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Isostictidae

Isostictidae is a small family of medium sized to large damselflies. They're restricted to Australia, New Caledonia and New Guinea. It contains 12 genera and more than 40 species. They resemble species in the threadtail family (Protoneuridae). [more]

Isotomidae

Isotomidae is a family of springtails, comprising the following genera: [more]

Issidae

Issidae is a family of 'planthoppers' described by Spinola in 1839, belonging to the ordo Hemiptera, subordo Auchenorrhyncha infraordo Fulgoromorpha. [more]

Ithonidae

The Ithonidae or moth lacewings are a small family of winged insects of the insect order Neuroptera. This family contains a total of nine genera, seven living and two extinct. The modern moth lacewings have a notably disjunct distribution while the extinct genera had a more global range. The family is considered one of the most primitive living neuropteran families. Along with the giant lacewings, moth lacewings may be phytophagous. [more]

Ithyceridae

The New York weevil (Ithycerus noveboracensis) is a species of primitive weevil; large for weevils (12-18 mm), it is covered with fine bristles and has a regular pattern of light and dark spots. It occurs in the eastern United States and southern Canada. [more]

Iulomorphidae

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Jacobsoniidae

Jacobsoniidae is a family of beetles. The larvae and adults live under bark, in plant litter, fungi, bat guano and rotten wood. [more]

Japygidae

The japygids (family Japygidae) are a taxon of hexapods, of the order Diplura. In this family the paired cerci at the end of the abdomen are pincer-like (superficially similar to the unrelated earwigs) and are used to catch their tiny prey. Seventy genera are recognised, divided among seven subfamilies. [more]

Jarmilidae

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Jassidae

Leafhopper is a common name applied to any species from the family Cicadellidae. Leafhoppers, colloquially known as hoppers, are minute plant-feeding insects in the superfamily Membracoidea in the order Hemiptera. They belong to a lineage traditionally treated as infraorder Cicadomorpha in the suborder Auchenorrhyncha, but as the latter taxon is probably not monophyletic, many modern authors prefer to abolish the Auchenorrhyncha and elevate the cicadomorphs to a suborder Clypeorrhyncha. [more]

Joppeicidae

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Julidae

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Jurapriidae

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Jurinidae

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Kalligrammatidae

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Kalotermitidae

Kalotermitidae is a family of termites. Kalotermitidae include 22 genera and 419 species. [more]

Kansasiidae

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Karataothripidae

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Karatavitidae

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Karatawiidae

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Karschiellidae

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Kennedyidae

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Kermesidae

The Kermesidae are a family of scale insects belonging to the superfamily Coccoidea. The typical genus, Kermes, includes the kermes scale insects, from which a red dye, also called kermes (a.k.a. crimson), is obtained. [more]

Keroplatidae

Mycetophilidae is a family of small flies, forming the bulk of those species known as fungus gnats. There are approximately 3000 described species in 150 genera but the true number of species is undoubtedly much higher. They are generally found in the damp habitats favoured by their host fungi and sometimes form dense swarms. [more]

Kerridae

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Kerriidae

Kerriidae is a family of scale insects known as lac scales. [more]

Kinnaridae

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Kokiriidae

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Kovalevisargidae

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Labiduridae

Labiduridae, whose members are known commonly as striped earwigs, is a relatively large family of earwigs in the suborder Forficulina. It contains a total of approximately 71 species, spread across seven genera in three subfamilies. Some well-known members of the family include Labidura riparia, commonly known as the tawny earwig, and . The family is mostly cosmopolitan, so it can be found around the world. The family's members are moderate to large earwigs, and are cylindrically shaped with well-developed wings. They have especially long antennae, while some segments can be shorter, and large cerci. [more]

Labiidae

Labiidae, whose members are commonly known as little earwigs, is a moderately-sized family of earwigs in the suborder Forficulina. It is a cosmopolitan family, whose members are small, winged earwigs, generally less than 1.5 centimetres (1.0 in) in length. [more]

Lachesillidae

Lachesillidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the suborder Psocomorpha. Members of the family are characterised by a rounded, free areola postica in their wings. Males have diverse sclerotized genitalic structures. The family includes close to 300 species, most of them in the genus Lachesilla. [more]

Lacturidae

Lacturidae is a family of insects in the Lepidoptera order. Brighly colored tropical moths Lacturidae have been previously placed in Plutellidae, Yponomeutidae and Hyponomeutidae. [more]

Laemophloeidae

Laemophloeidae is a family of beetles, in the suborder Polyphaga. [more]

Lagriidae

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Lalacidae

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Lamingtoniidae

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Lampyridae

Lampyridae is a family of insects in the beetle order Coleoptera. They are winged beetles, and commonly called fireflies or lightning bugs for their conspicuous crepuscular use of bioluminescence to attract mates or prey. Fireflies produce a "cold light", with no infrared or ultraviolet frequencies. This chemically-produced light from the lower abdomen may be yellow, green, or pale-red, with wavelengths from 510 to 670 nanometers. [more]

Languriidae

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Largidae

Largidae is a family of insects within the order Hemiptera. They are commonly known as bordered plant bugs because many have contrasting colored edges to their elytra. There are fifteen genera and about one hundred species. They are mostly wide-bodied, have no ocelli and have a four-segmented rostrum. The bugs in this family are generally ground-dwelling or they scramble around in plants, bushes and trees. They are phytophagous, feeding on plant juices and seeds. [more]

Largriidae

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Lasiocampidae

The Lasiocampidae family of moths are also known as eggars, snout moths or lappet moths. There are over 2000 species worldwide, and probably not all have been named or studied. [more]

Lathiceridae

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Lathridiidae

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Latridiidae

Latridiidae is a family of tiny, little-known beetles commonly called minute brown scavenger beetles. The number of described species currently stands at around 1050 in 29 genera but the number of species is undoubtedly much higher. [more]

Lauxaniidae

Lauxaniidae is a family of acalyptrate flies. It contains around 1800 described species in 126 genera distributed worldwide. These are generally small flies (length 5 mm or less) with large compound eyes, often brightly colored in life. Many species have different patterned wings. Contrary to popular belief they do not have different patterned bodies [more]

Lecanodiaspididae

Lecanodiaspididae is a family of scale insects commonly known as false pit scales or lecanodiaspidids. Members of this family come from all parts of the world but are most numerous in the Far East. [more]

Lecithoceridae

Lecithoceridae (long-horned moths) is a family of small moths. Although lecithocerids are found throughout the world, the great majority are found in the Indomalaya ecozone and the southern part of the Palaearctic ecozone. [more]

Ledridae

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Leiodidae

Leiodidae is a family of beetles with around 3800 described species found worldwide. Members of this family are commonly called round fungus beetles due to the globular shape of many species, although some are more elongated in shape. They are generally small or very small beetles (less than 10 mm in length) and many (but not all) species have clubbed antennae. [more]

Lemmatophoridae

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Lemoniidae

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Lentulidae

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Leotichiidae

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Lepiceridae

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Lepidopsocidae

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Lepidostomatidae

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Lepidotrichidae

Lepidotrichidae is a family of basal insects belonging to the order Thysanura. The family is considered to contain two genera: the extinct , known from specimens preserved in Baltic amber, and the extant Tricholepidion, which contains a single species, Tricholepidion gertschi (commonly called the forest silverfish). Recent research has suggested the extant species should be assigned to its own family, Tricholepidiidae. [more]

Lepismatidae

Lepismatidae is a family of primitive wingless insects belonging to the order Thysanura with about 190 described species. This family contains the two most familiar apterygotes, the silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) and the firebrat (Thermobia domestica). [more]

Leptinidae

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Leptoceridae

The family Leptoceridae are a family of caddisflies often called "long-horned caddisflies". Leptoceridae is the second largest family of caddisflies with more than 1500 species in around 45 genera. The main identifying feature of most Leptoceridae is that their antennae are longer than those of other caddisflies. There is one genus with short antennae (Ceraclea), but it is easily identified by the pair of dark curved lines on the mesonotum. [more]

Leptohyphidae

Leptohyphidae is a family of mayflies with some 140 described species in 12 genera. [more]

Leptophlebiidae

Leptophlebiidae is a family belonging to the Ephemeropterans that are commonly known as the prong-gilled mayflies or leptophlebiids. In North America they occur with about 70 species from 9 genera in freshwater streams and lakes; in Europe they are somewhat less diverse. Globally, this family is much more prevalent and diverse, with about 2000 different species. Leptophlebiids are easily recognized by the forked gills present on the larvae's abdomen, thus their common name. [more]

Leptopodidae

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Leptopsyllidae

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Lestidae

Lestidae is a rather small family of cosmopolitan, large-sized, slender damselflies. They are of the order of the dragonflies (Odonata) and are commonly known as "Spreadwings." There are two subfamilies in Lestdae. The first subfamily is . Damselflies in Lestinae rest with their wings partly open and the second subfamily is Sympecmatinae. The damselflies in Sympecmatinae rest with their wings folded. These damselflies in this subfamily are reedlings, ringtails, and winter damselflies. [more]

Lestoideidae

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Lestoniidae

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Leucospidae

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Leucospididae

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Leuctridae

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Lezinidae

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Liassogomphidae

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Liassophlebiidae

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Libellulidae

The skimmers or perchers and their relatives form the Libellulidae, the largest dragonfly family in the world. It is sometimes considered to contain the Corduliidae as the subfamily Corduliinae and the Macromiidae as the subfamily Macromiinae. Even if these are excluded (as Silsby does), there still remains a family of over 1000 species. With nearly worldwide distribution, these are almost certainly the most often seen of all dragonflies. [more]

Libytheidae

Libytheinae is the nymphalid subfamily of the snout butterflies, containing two valid genera and about 10 species, 6 in Libythea and 4 in Libytheana. The common name refers to the thick labial palps (pedipalps) that look like a "snout" in this subfamily. In older literature, this group was recognized as the family Libytheidae. They are medium-sized and typically a drab brown. The front legs are reduced in length and the ventral hindwings are cryptically colored in order to help in blend in with its surroundings. While at rest, the members of this subfamily keep their wings tightly closed in order to resemble dead leaves. [more]

Limacodidae

Limacodidae or Euclidae is a family of moths in the superfamily Zygaenoidea or the Cossoidea; the placement is in dispute. They are often called slug moths because their caterpillars bear a distinct resemblance to slugs. They are also called cup moths because of the shape of their cocoons. [more]

Limnephilidae

Limnephilidae is a family of caddisflies with about 100 genera. They belong to the main lineage of case-constructing caddisflies, the Integripalpia or tube-case caddisflies. The Limnephilidae is one of the most species-rich Trichoptera families of northern temperate regions, but only a few are known from tropical areas and the Southern Hemisphere. For this reason they are often known as northern caddisflies. [more]

Limnetidae

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Limnichidae

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Limnocentropodidae

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Limnorhyphidae

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Limoniidae

Limoniidae is a family of flies closely related to the crane flies Tipulidae although they can usually be distinguished by the way the wings are held at rest. Limoniids usually hold/fold the wings along the back of the body whereas tipulids usually hold them out at right angles. Members of the genus Chionea (snow flies) have no wings at all. Limoniids are also usually smaller than tipulids, although there are exceptions. Limoniidae is a very large family with nearly 10500 described species in 133 genera. These flies are found in damp places throughout the world and many species form dense swarms in suitable habitats. [more]

Limulodidae

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Linognathidae

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Liomopteridae

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Liopteridae

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Liposcelidae

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Liposcelididae

Liposcelididae is a family of barklice (Psocoptera) belonging to the suborder Troctomorpha. Members of this family are small and flattened, and often wingless. [more]

Lithidiidae

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Lithobiidae

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Litophlebiidae

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Locustavidae

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Locustidae

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Locustopseidae

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Locustopsidae

[more]

Lonchaeidae

Lonchaeidae is a family of acalyptrate flies commonly known as lance flies. There are about 500 described species in 9 genera. These are generally small but robustly built flies with blue-black or metallic bodies. They are found, mainly in wooded areas, throughout the world with the exception of polar regions and New Zealand. [more]

Lonchodidae

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Lonchopteridae

Lonchopteridae (spear-winged flies or pointed-wing flies) are a family of small (2?5 mm), slender, yellow to brownish-black Diptera, occurring all over the world. Their common name refers to their pointed wings, which have a distinct venation. Most are bisexual; males are very rare however at least in North American species, and have a somewhat different venation than do the females. [more]

Lophocoronidae

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Lophopidae

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Lophoproctidae

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Luanpingitidae

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Lucanidae

Stag beetles are a group of about 1,200 species of beetle in the family Lucanidae, presently classified in four subfamilies Some species grow up to over 12 cm (4.8 in), but most are about 5 cm (2 in). [more]

Lusitaniosomatidae

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Lutrochidae

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Lycaenidae

The Lycaenidae are the second-largest family of butterflies, with about 6000 species worldwide, whose members are also called gossamer-winged butterflies. They constitute about 40% of the known butterfly species. [more]

Lycidae

Lycidae is a family in the beetle order Coleoptera, members of which are commonly called net-winged beetles. [more]

Lycopsyllidae

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Lyctidae

Powderpost beetles are a group of seventy species of woodboring beetles classified in the insect subfamily Lyctinae. These beetles, along with spider beetles, death watch beetles, common furniture beetles, skin beetles, and others, make up the superfamily Bostrichoidea. While most woodborers have a large prothorax, powderpost beetles do not, making their heads more visible. In addition to this, their antennae have two-jointed clubs. They are considered pests and attack deciduous trees, over time reducing the wood to a powdery dust. The damage caused by longhorn beetles (family Cerambycidae) is often confused with that of powderpost beetles, but the two groups are unrelated. Their larvae are white and C-shaped. [more]

Lygaeidae

The Lygaeidae are a family in the Hemiptera (true bugs), with some 60 genera in six subfamilies. The family includes the insects commonly known as milkweed bugs, and also some of those known as seed bugs. The family used to be vastly larger, as numerous former subfamilies have been removed and given independent family status, including , Blissidae, Cryptorhamphidae, Cymidae, Geocoridae, Heterogastridae, Ninidae, Oxycarenidae, Pachygronthidae, and Rhyparochromidae, which together constituted well over half of the former family. Many of the species feed on seeds, although some feed on sap (mucivory), and a few, such as the wekiu bug, feed on insects. [more]

Lygaiedae

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Lygistorrhinidae

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Lymantriidae

Lymantriidae is a family of moths. Many of its component species are referred to as "Tussock moths" of one sort or another. The caterpillar, or larval, stage of these species often has a distinctive appearance of alternating bristles and haired projections. Like other families of moths, many Tussock Moth caterpillars have urticating hairs (often hidden among longer, softer hairs) which can cause painful reactions if they come into contact with skin. [more]

Lymexylidae

The Lymexylidae, or ship-timber beetles, are a family of wood-boring beetles, and the sole member of the superfamily Lymexyloidea. [more]

Lymexylonidae

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Lyonetiidae

Lyonetiidae is a family of moths with some 200 described species. These are small, slender moths, the wingspan rarely exceeding 1 cm. The very narrow forewings, held folded backwards covering the hindwings and abdomen, often have pointed apices noticeably up- or down-turned. The larvae are leaf miners. [more]

Machaeroidae

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Machaerotidae

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Machilidae

Machilidae is a family of primitive insects belonging to the order Archaeognatha (the bristletails). There are around 250 described species worldwide. These insects are wingless, elongated and more or less cylindrical with a distinctive humped thorax and covered with tiny, close-fitting scales. The color is usually grey or brown, sometimes intricately patterned. There are three "tails" at the rear of the abdomen: two cerci and a long central . They have large compound eyes, often meeting at a central point. They resemble the silverfish and the firebrat. [more]

Mackenziellidae

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Macropathidae

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Macropsyllidae

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Macrosternodesmidae

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Macroveliidae

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Madeoveliidae

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Maimetshidae

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Maindroniidae

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Malachiidae

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Malacopsyllidae

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Malcidae

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Malgasiidae

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Manicapsocidae

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Manotidae

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Mantidae

Mantidae is the largest family of the order Mantodea, commonly known as praying mantises; most are tropical or subtropical. Historically, this was the only family in the order, and many references still use the term "mantid" to refer to any mantis. Technically, however, "mantid" refers only to members of the Mantidae family, and not the 14 remaining families of mantises. Some of the most recent classifications have promoted a number of the mantid subfamilies to the rank of family, e.g. Iridopterygidae, Sibyllidae, Tarachodidae, Thespidae, and Toxoderidae, while other classifications have reduced the number of subfamilies without elevating to higher rank. [more]

Mantispidae

Mantispidae is a family of small to moderate-sized net-winged insects, known as mantidflies, mantispids, mantid lacewings or mantis-flies. There are many genera with around 400 species worldwide, especially in the tropics and subtropics. Only 5 species of occur in Europe. [more]

Mantoididae

Mantoida is a genus containing seven species of praying mantis. It is placed in its own family, Mantoididae. [more]

Mantophasmatidae

Mantophasmatodea is a suborder of carnivorous African insects discovered in 2002, originally considered to be a new order, but since relegated to subordinal status, and comprising the single family Mantophasmatidae. It belongs, as Grylloblattidae, to the order of Notoptera. [more]

Margarodidae

Margarodidae is a family of scale insects within superfamily Coccoidea. Members of the family include giant coccids (various genera), Polish cochineal (genus Porphyrophora) and ground pearls (genus Margarodes). [more]

Marginidae

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Martynoviidae

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Masaridae

Pollen wasps are unusual wasps that are typically treated as a subfamily of Vespidae, but have in the past sometimes been recognized as a separate family, "Masaridae", which also included the subfamily Euparagiinae. It is a small subfamily, unique among wasps in feeding their larvae exclusively with pollen and nectar, in a fashion quite similar to many solitary bees. Most species are black or brown, marked with strikingly contrasting patterns of yellow, white, or red (or combinations thereof). They are most diverse and abundant in the desert regions of southern Africa, but also occur in the deserts of North and South America. Some species of Pseudomasaris in California, such as , bear a remarkable resemblance to yellowjackets, but can be recognized by their strongly clubbed antennae, a characteristic feature of the subfamily. Males have the antennae greatly elongated, but still ending in a strong club. [more]

Mastacideidae

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Mastigophorophyllidae

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Mastotermitidae

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Mecistocephalidae

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Medocostidae

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Meenoplidae

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Megachilidae

The Megachilidae are a cosmopolitan family of (mostly) solitary bees whose pollen-carrying structure (called a scopa) is restricted to the ventral surface of the abdomen (rather than mostly or exclusively on the hind legs as in other bee families). Megachilid genera are most commonly known as mason bees and leafcutter bees, reflecting the materials they build their nest cells from (soil or leaves, respectively); a few collect plant or animal hairs and fibers, and are called carder bees. All species feed on nectar and pollen, but a few are cleptoparasites (informally called "cuckoo bees"), feeding on pollen collected by other megachilid bees. Parasitic species do not possess a scopa. The brightly colored scopa leads to a colloquial name used occasionally in North America - "Jelly-belly bees." Megachilid bees are among the world's most efficient pollinators because of their energetic swimming-like motion in the reproductive structures of flowers, which moves pollen, as need ed for pollination. One of the reasons they are efficient pollinators is their frequency of visits to plants, but this is because they are extremely inefficient at gathering pollen; compared to all other bee families, megachilids require on average nearly ten times as many trips to flowers to gather sufficient resources to provision a single brood cell. [more]

Megalodontesidae

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Megalodontidae

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Megalopygidae

Megalopygidae is the technical name of a group of insect species known generally as crinkled flannel moths, or simply Flannel Moths. They occur in North America (11 species) and the New World tropics. The larvae are called Puss Caterpillars, and with their long hairs, resemble cotton balls. They have venomous spines that can cause a painful sting and inflammation lasting for several days. In some cases, the sting may cause headache, nausea, and shock-like symptoms. Perhaps the most notorious for stinging is the caterpillar of Megalopyge opercularis. [more]

Megalyridae

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Megamerinidae

Megamerinidae is a family of flies (Diptera) with about 11 species in the genera Protexara Yang Megamerina Rondani, and Texara Walker. They are marked by an elongate, basally constricted abdomen. The family is typically placed in the superfamily Diopsoidea (but may be placed in Nerioidea by some authors). [more]

Meganeuridae

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Megapodagrionidae

Megapodagrionidae is a family of damselflies, commonly called flatwings for their habit of spreading out the hindwings horizontally when at rest. They belong to the superfamily . [more]

Megarididae

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Megaspilidae

Megaspilidae is a small Hymenopteran family with 12 genera in two subfamilies, and some 450 known species, with a great many species still undescribed. It is a poorly known group as a whole, though most are believed to be parasitoids (esp. of Sternorrhynchan Hemiptera), and a few hyperparasitoids. Many are found in the soil, and of these, a number are wingless. [more]

Megelytridae

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Meinertellidae

Meinertellidae is a small family of basal insects belonging to the order Archaeognatha. They are sometimes known as rock bristletails. These insects can be distinguished from members of the other Archaeognatha family, Machilidae, by the lack of scales at the base of the legs and antennae. [more]

Melandryidae

Melandryidae or The false darkling beetles is a family of beetles in the large suborder Polyphaga. [more]

Melanthripidae

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Melittidae

The family Melittidae is a small bee family, with some 60 species in 4 genera, restricted to Africa and the northern temperate zone. Historically, the family has included the Dasypodaidae and Meganomiidae as subfamilies, but recent molecular studies indicate that Melittidae (sensu lato) was paraphyletic, so each of the three historical subfamilies is now accorded family status, with Dasypodaidae as the basal group of bees, followed by Meganomiids and Melittids, which are sister taxa.. [more]

Meloidae

Blister beetles are beetles (Coleoptera) of the family Meloidae, so called for their defensive secretion of a blistering agent, cantharidin. There are approximately 7,500 known species worldwide. Many are conspicuous and some aposematically colored, announcing their toxicity to would-be predators. [more]

Melolonthidae

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Melyridae

Melyridae (common name: soft-wing flower beetles) are a family of beetles of the superfamily Cleroidea. The family Melyridae contains 520 species in 58 genera in North America. Most are elongate-oval, soft-bodied beetles 10 mm long or less. Many are brightly colored with brown or red and black. Some melyrids () have peculiar orange structures along the sides of the abdomen, which may be everted and saclike or withdrawn into the body and inconspicuous. Some melyrids have the two basal antennomeres greatly enlarged. Most adults and larvae are predaceous, but many are common on flowers. The most common North American species belong to the genus Collops (Malachiinae); C. quadrimaculatus is reddish, with two bluish black spots on each elytron. Batrachotoxins are found in them. [more]

Membracidae

Treehoppers (more precisely typical treehoppers to distinguish them from the ) and thorn bugs are members of the family Membracidae, a group of insects related to the cicadas and the leafhoppers. There are about 3,200 known species of treehoppers in over 600 genera. They are found on all continents except Antarctica, although there are only three species in Europe. [more]

Mengeidae

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Mengenillidae

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Menoponidae

Sometimes referred to as the chicken body louse family, the Menoponidae are a family of a larger group Amblycera of the chewing lice. Most commonly they are ectoparasites of a wide range of birds. [more]

Meropeidae

The Meropeidae are a tiny family of the order Mecoptera with only two living species, both of which are commonly referred to as "earwigflies" (or sometimes "forcepflies"); the North American Merope tuber, and the Western Australian Austromerope poultoni. The biology of both of these species is essentially unknown, and their larvae have never been seen. The disjunct distribution, only North America and Western Australia, is reminiscent of that of the marsupial possum. There are two extinct genera, Novokschonov from the Middle Jurassic of Siberia and Thaumatomerope with three described species all from the Madygen Formation in Kyrgyzstan. These insects are also of interest due to their presumed basal position in the order Mecoptera. [more]

Merothripidae

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Mesephemeridae

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Mesithonidae

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Mesoedischiidae

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Mesonetidae

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Mesoplectopteridae

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Mesopsocidae

Mesopsocidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the suborder Psocomorpha. Members of the family are characterised by their free he family includes more than 70 species. [more]

Mesoraphidiidae

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Mesosciophilidae

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Mesoserphidae

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Mesothaumaleidae

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Mesoveliidae

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Messicobolidae

The family Messicobolidae is one of the smaller families of millipedes in the Order Spirobolida (fewer than 30 described species). In general appearance, messicobolids are medium to large size spirobolids and are often brightly colored. Messicobolids occur in mountainous regions of Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador. Oak/pine forest and montane rain forest are the typical habitats in these environments and messicobolids are generally associated with decomposing logs and leaf litter of broad-leaved trees. [more]

Metachandidae

Metachandidae is a small family of moths containing a single genus, Metachanda. [more]

Metallyticidae

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Metarbelidae

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Methocidae

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Metopidiothricidae

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Metretopodidae

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Metropatoridae

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Micrococcidae

Micrococcidae is a family of scale insects commonly known as the Mediterranean scales. There are two genera and eight species. Members of this family are found in Cyprus, Italy and other Mediterranean countries including Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Lebanon, Libya, Syria and Turkey. [more]

Micromalthidae

The telephone-pole beetle, Micromalthus debilis, is a beetle native to the eastern United States, and the only species in the family Micromalthidae. [more]

Micropeplidae

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Micropezidae

The Micropezidae are a moderate-sized family of acalyptrate muscoid flies in the insect order Diptera, comprising about 500 species in about 50 genera and 5 subfamilies worldwide, (except New Zealand and Macquarie Island). They are most diverse in tropical and subtropical habitats, especially in the Neotropical Region. [more]

Microphoridae

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Microphysidae

The Microphysidae are a very small family of bugs, comprising only 5 genera. [more]

Micropterigidae

Micropterigoidea is the superfamily of "mandibulate archaic moths", all placed in the single family Micropterigidae, containing currently about 20 living genera. They are considered the most primitive extant lineage of Lepidoptera (Kristensen, 1999). [more]

Microsporidae

Sphaerius is a genus of beetle, comprising 23 species, which are the only members of the family Sphaeriusidae. They are typically found along the edges of streams and rivers, where they feed on algae, occurring on all continents except Antarctica. Only 3 species occur in the United States. [more]

Microthoraciidae

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Milichiidae

Milichiidae are a family of flies. Most species are very small and dark in color. Details of their biology have not yet been properly studied, but they are best known as kleptoparasites of predatory invertebrates, and accordingly are commonly known as freeloader flies or jackal flies. However, because of the conditions under which many species breed out, they also are known as filth flies [more]

Millotauropodidae

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Mimallonidae

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Mimnermidae

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Miraculidae

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Miridae

The large and diverse insect family Miridae contains the plant bugs, leaf bugs, and grass bugs, and may also be known as capsid bugs. It is the largest family of true bugs belonging to the suborder Heteroptera, with over 10,000 known species and new ones constantly being described. They are small, terrestrial insects, usually oval-shaped or elongate and measuring less than 12 millimetres (0.5 in) in length. Some are brightly colored, others drab or dark. Some genera are ant mimics at certain stages of life. Most of the more well-known mirids have received attention because they are agricultural pests. They pierce plant tissues and feed on the juices. [more]

Mischopteridae

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Misthodotidae

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Mitophlebiidae

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Mnesarchaeidae

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Mogoplistidae

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Molannidae

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Momphidae

Momphidae (mompha moths) is a family of moths with some 115 described species. These tend to be rather small moths with a wingspan of up to 21 mm. The wings are held folded over the body at rest. The larvae are concealed feeders, either as leaf miners or within seeds or stems. [more]

Mongoliulidae

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Monomachidae

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Monommidae

Monommatinae is a subfamily (or sometimes only considered a tribe) of beetles with no vernacular common name, though recent authors have coined the name opossum beetles. They have been treated historically as a family (sometimes spelled Monommidae), but have recently been placed into the Zopheridae. There are some 15 genera in this group, commonly found in association with plants in the family Agavaceae. [more]

Monotomidae

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Morabidae

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Moravohymenidae

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Mordellidae

Mordellidae is a family of beetles commonly known as tumbling flower beetles for the typical irregular movements they make when escaping predators, or as pintail beetles due to their abdominal tip which aids them in performing these tumbling movements. Worldwide, there are about 1500 species. [more]

Mormotomyiidae

The family Mormotomyiidae (Diptera: Ephydroidea) contains only one known species, Mormotomyia hirsuta, commonly known as the Frightful Hairy Fly, which is found in Kenya. The fly was first described by English entomologist Ernest Edward Austen, and specimens have been collected from one location on a mountain in the (Okazzi Hills), in a cleft where a bat roost is located; this may possibly be the most restricted geographic distribution for any fly family. The larvae have been collected from bat guano. Adult flies are believed to feed on bodily secretions of bats. The fly measures about 1 cm long, with hairy legs, and, due to its non-functional wings and tiny eyes, looks more like a spider than a fly. Specimens have been collected only three times, in 1933, 1948, and 2010. [more]

Musapsocidae

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Muscidae

Muscidae are a family of flies found in the superfamily Muscoidea. The apical segment of the antennae of Muscidae are plumose, and the basal portion is smooth. [more]

Musidoromimidae

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Mutillidae

Mutillidae are a family of more than 3,000 species of wasp whose wingless females resemble ants. Their common name velvet ant refers to their dense pile of hair which most often is bright scarlet or orange but may also be black, white, silver, or gold. Their bright colors serve as aposematic signals. They are known for their extremely painful sting, facetiously said to be strong enough to kill a cow, hence the common name cow killer or cow ant is applied to some species. Unlike a real ant, they do not have drones, workers, and queens. However, velvet ants do exhibit haplodiploid sex determination similar to other members of Vespoidea (JH Hunt 1999). [more]

Mycetobiidae

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Mycetophagidae

Mycetophagidae or The hairy fungus beetles is a family of beetles, in the large suborder Polyphaga. The different species are between 1.0 - 6.5 mm in length. The larvae and adults live in decaying leaf litter, fungi and under bark. Most species feed on fungi (hence the name). Worldwide, there are about 18 genera which 200 species. [more]

Mycetophilidae

Mycetophilidae is a family of small flies, forming the bulk of those species known as fungus gnats. There are approximately 3000 described species in 150 genera but the true number of species is undoubtedly much higher. They are generally found in the damp habitats favoured by their host fungi and sometimes form dense swarms. [more]

Mycteridae

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Mydidae

The Mydidae (alternative spelling Mydaidae), or Mydas flies, are a small (fewer than 400 species), cosmopolitan family of rather large flies - including, in fact, the largest known fly, Gauromydas heros (a.k.a. Mydas heros). Many of the species, in addition to their large size, are mimics of stinging Hymenopterans, especially wasps. They are most diverse and abundant in arid regions of the world, but can be found in other habitats. They are infrequently encountered as the adult life span appears quite short, and little is known about their biology, though larvae of some species appear to be subterranean predators of ants. [more]

Mymaridae

Mymaridae, commonly known as fairyflies or fairy wasps, is a family of chalcid wasps found in temperate and tropical regions throughout the world. It contains around 100 genera and 1424 species. All of them are parasitoids of the eggs of other insects. Several species have been successfully used as biological pest control agents. [more]

Mymarommatidae

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Myopsocidae

Myopsocidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the suborder Psocetae. This family is closely related to Psocidae, with which it share similar wing-venation, but from which it is distinguished by three-segmented tarsi. [more]

Myrmecolacidae

Myrmecolacidae are an insect family of the order Strepsiptera. There are four genera and about 98 species in this family. Like all strepsipterans, they have a parasitic mode of development with males parasitizing ants while the females develop inside Orthoptera. The sexes differ greatly in morphology making it very difficult to match females to the better catalogued museum specimens of males. [more]

Myrmecophilidae

The ant-loving crickets are rarely encountered relatives of crickets, and are obligate inquilines within ant nests. They are very small, wingless, and flattened, therefore resembling small cockroach nymphs. There are a few genera, containing fewer than 100 species. Ant Crickets are yellow in color and can be heard by listing to the quiet "tweeting" of the ant piles. [more]

Myrmeleonidae

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Myrmeleontidae

Antlions are a group of insects in the family Myrmeleontidae (sometimes misspelled as "Myrmeleonidae"). The most well-known genus is . There are about 2,000 species. Strictly speaking, the term "antlion" applies to the larval form of the members of this family, but while several languages have their own terms for the adult, there is no widely used word for them in English. Very rarely, the adults are called "antlion lacewings". [more]

Mystacinobiidae

The New Zealand batfly, Mystacinobia zelandica, is a small, wingless insect which lives in a symbiotic relationship with the New Zealand Lesser Short-tailed Bat. It is a member of the true flies that belong to the order Diptera but is so unusual that it is placed in its own genus, Mystacinobia, and family, Mystacinobiidae - this monotypic family is endemic to New Zealand. [more]

Mythicomyiidae

Mythicomyiids are very tiny flies (0.5?5.0 mm) found throughout most parts of the world, especially desert and semi-desert regions, except the highest altitudes and latitudes. They are not as common in the tropics, but genera such as and Platypygus are known from these regions. Many of these "microbombyliids" have humpbacked thoraces and lack the dense vestiture common in Bombyliidae. Mythicomyiids have until recently not had much attention in the literature. Their small size has caused them to be missed when collecting. Yellow pan trapping and fine-mesh netting in Malaise and aerial sweep nets has resulted in a tremendous amount of undescribed material from many parts of the world. A high amount of diversity of both genera and species exists for this family in Africa, especially northern and southern portions. Approximately 350 species are known (most in the genus Mythicomyia Coquillett). Hundreds more await description. [more]

Nabidae

The insect family Nabidae contains the damsel bugs. The term damsel bug is the common name used for the Nabids. There are over 400 species. They are soft-bodied, elongate, winged terrestrial predators. Many damsel bugs catch and hold prey with their forelegs, similar to mantids. They are considered helpful species in agriculture because of their predation on many types of crop pests, such as cabbage worms, aphids, and lygus bugs. [more]

Nadipteridae

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Namurodiaphidae

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Nannochoristidae

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Nannodastiidae

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Nanophyidae

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Naucoridae

Naucoridae is a small family of insects commonly known as the creeping water bugs. They are very similar in appearance and behavior to the giant water bugs (Belostomatidae), and also occur in ponds and other still waters. Occasionally, these insects can be found in damp places in a person's home, and are often mistaken for cockroaches. There are approximately 20 genera in 5 subfamilies, distributed worldwide. [more]

Neanuridae

The family Neanuridae contains pudgy short-legged springtails of the order Poduromorpha. It was established by Carl B?rner in 1901. [more]

Necrosciidae

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Neelidae

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Nemasomatidae

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Nematocera

Nematocera ("thread-horns"), is a suborder of elongated flies with thin, segmented antennae and mostly aquatic larvae, consisting of the mosquitoes, crane flies, gnats, and midges. [more]

Nematozoniidae

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Nemestrinidae

Nemestrinidae, or tangle-veined flies is a family of flies in the superfamily Nemestrinoidea, closely related to Acroceridae. The family is small but distributed worldwide, with about 300 species in 34 genera. Larvae are endoparasitoids of either grasshoppers (Trichopsideinae) or scarab beetles (Hirmoneurinae). Some are considered important in the control of grasshopper populations. Adults are often observed on flowers. [more]

Neminidae

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Nemonychidae

Nemonychidae is a small family of weevils, placed within the primitive weevil group because they have straight rather than elbowed antennae. They are often called pine flower weevils. As in the Anthribidae, the labrum appears as a separate segment to the clypeus, and the maxillary palps are long and projecting. Nemonychidae have all ventrites free, while Anthribidae have ventrites 1-4 connate or partially fused. Nemonychidae lack lateral carinae on the pronotum, while these are usually present, though may be short, in Anthribidae. [more]

Nemopteridae

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Nemouridae

Nemouridae is a family of stoneflies. This is one of the largest stonefly families with more than 600 described species with a mainly Holarctic distribution. Members of this family are commonly known as spring stoneflies or brown stoneflies. Fly fishermen often refer to these insects as tiny winter blacks. [more]

Neoatractosomatidae

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Neoephemeridae

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Neogeophilidae

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Neolinognathidae

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Neopetaliidae

Neopetalia punctata is a dragonfly, the only member of the family Neopetaliidae. [more]

Neopseustidae

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Neotheoridae

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Nepidae

Nepidae is a family of exclusively aquatic Heteropteran insects in the order Hemiptera.[1] They are commonly called waterscorpions for their superficial resemblance to scorpions, which is due to their raptorial forelegs and the presence of a long slender process at the posterior end of the abdomen, resembling a tail. There are 14 genera in the family, in two subfamilies, and Ranatrinae, and they can be found on all continents except Antarctica. Members of the genus Ranatra, the most widespread and speciose genus, are sometimes called needle bugs or water stick insects as they are more slender than Nepa and feed primarily on invertebrates, but occasionally take small fish or tadpoles. Respiration in the adult is effected by means of the caudal process, which consists of a pair of half-tubes capable of being locked together to form a siphon by which air is conducted to the tracheae at the apex of the abdomen when the tip of the tube is thrust above the surface of the water. In immature forms the siphon is often underdeveloped and respiration takes place through six pairs of abdominal spiracles. The eggs, which are laid above the waterline in mud, decomposing vegetation, the stems of plants or rotting wood, are supplied with air by filamentous processes which vary in number among the genera. [more]

Nepticulidae

Nepticulidae is a family of very small moths with a worldwide distribution. They are characterised by eyecaps over the eyes (see also Opostegidae, Bucculatricidae, Lyonetiidae). These pigmy moths or midget moths, as they are commonly known, include the smallest of all living moths, with a wingspan that can be as little as 3 mm. in the case of the European Pigmy Sorrel Moth, but more usually 3.5?10 mm. The wings of adult moths are narrow and lanceolate, sometimes with metallic markings, and with the venation very simplified compared to most other moths. [more]

Neriidae

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Neurochaetidae

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Nevrorthidae

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Nicoletiidae

Nicoletiidae is a family of primitive insects belonging to the order Thysanura. These insects live primarily underground. [more]

Nicomiidae

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Niponiosomatidae

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Nirvanidae

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Nitidulidae

The sap beetles are a family (Nitidulidae) of beetles. [more]

Noctuidae

The Noctuidae or owlet moths are a family of robustly-built moths that includes more than 35,000 known species out of possibly 100,000 total, in more than 4,200 genera. They constitute the largest family in the Lepidoptera. [more]

Nogodinidae

Nogodinidae is a family of planthoppers. They have membranous wings with delicate venation and can be confused with members of other Fulgoroid families such as the Issidae and . Some authors treat it as a subfamily of the Issidae. Some of their key features are a frons ("face") that is longer than wide and a reticulate wing venation. They are less than 2 cm long. The antenna arises well below the eye, has the base clubbed and flagellum unsegmented. The lateral ocelli (simple eyes) are outside the margins of the face. The face has carinae (or keels) on the edge. On the hind leg, the second tarsal segment has an apical spine arising from it. The tibia of the hind leg also has spines towards the tip. An important family character is found in the shape of the male genital structure, a style that is longer than broad. Most members of this family are forest species. [more]

Nolidae

Nolidae is a family of moths with about 1,400 described species worldwide. They are mostly small with dull coloration, the main distinguishing feature being tufts of raised scales on the forewings (the group is sometimes known as tuft moths). The larvae also tend to have muted colors and tufts of short hairs. [more]

Nosodendridae

Nosodendridae is a family of beetles. [more]

Noteridae

Noteridae is a family of water beetles closely related to the Dytiscidae, and formerly classified with them. They are mainly distinguished by the presence of a distinctive "noterid platform" underneath, in the form of a plate between the second and third pair of legs. The family consists of about 230 species in 12 genera, and is found worldwide, more commonly in the tropics. They are sometimes referred to as burrowing water beetles. [more]

Nothybidae

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Notiothaumidae

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Notodontidae

Notodontidae is a family of moths with approximately 3,800 known species. Moths of this family are found in all parts of the world, but they are most concentrated in tropical areas, especially in the New World (Miller, 1992). The Thaumetopoeidae (processionary moths) are sometimes included here as a subfamily. [more]

Notoligotomidae

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Notonectidae

Notonectidae is a cosmopolitan family of aquatic insects in the order Hemiptera, commonly called backswimmers because they swim upside down. They are all predators, up to nearly 2 cm in size. They are similar in appearance to Corixidae (Water boatmen), but can be separated by differences in their dorsal-ventral coloration, front legs, and predatory behavior. Their dorsum is convex, lightly colored without cross striations. Their front tarsi are not scoop-shaped and their hind legs are fringed for swimming. There are two subfamilies, and Anisopinae, each containing four genera. [more]

Notonemouridae

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Nycteribiidae

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Nymphalidae

The Nymphalidae is a family of about 5,000 species of butterflies which are distributed throughout most of the world. These are usually medium sized to large butterflies. Most species have a reduced pair of forelegs and many hold their colorful wings flat when resting. They are also called brush-footed butterflies or four-footed butterflies. Many species are brightly colored and include popular species such as the emperor, admirals, tortoiseshells and fritillaries. However, the underwings are in contrast often dull and in some species look remarkably like dead leaves, or are much paler, producing a cryptic effect that helps the butterfly disappear into its surroundings. [more]

Nymphidae

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Nymphitidae

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Nymphomyiidae

The Nymphomyiidae are a family of tiny (2 mm.)slender, delicate flies (Diptera). Larvae are found among aquatic mosses in small, rapid streams in northern regions of the world. Many fossil species and a few extant species are known. Under an alternative classification, they are considered the only living representatives of a separate, archaic suborder called "Archidiptera". [more]

Nyssonidae

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Oborophlebiidae

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Ochodaeidae

Ochodaeidae, sometimes known as the sand-loving scarab beetles, is a small but widely-distributed family of scarabaeiform beetles. [more]

Ochsenheimeriidae

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Ochteridae

The Ochteridae comprise a small family of insects. About 25 species have been described. They are "true bugs", being members of the Order Hemiptera, and are in the suborder Heteroptera. Ochteridae commonly are known as the velvety shore bugs, although not all occur near the sea. [more]

Ocoidae

Evocoidae is a Family of Diptera. They are placed in the Super family Asiloidea. [more]

Odiniidae

Odiniidae is a small family of flies. There are only 58 described species but there are representatives in all the major biogeographic realms. [more]

Odontellidae

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Odontoceridae

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Odontopygidae

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Oecanthidae

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Oeconesidae

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Oecophoridae

Oecophoridae (concealer moths) is a family of small moths in the superfamily Gelechioidea. The phylogeny and systematics of gelechoid moths are still not fully resolved, and the circumscription of the Oecophoridae is strongly affected by this. [more]

Oedemeridae

The family Oedemeridae is a cosmopolitan group of beetles commonly known as false blister beetles, though some recent authors have coined the name pollen-feeding beetles. There are some 100 genera and 1,500 species in the family, mostly associated with rotting wood as larvae, though adults are quite common on flowers. [more]

Oedischiidae

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Oestridae

A botfly, also written bot fly, bott fly or bot-fly in various combinations, is any fly in the family Oestridae. The life cycles vary greatly according to species, but the larvae of all species are internal parasites of mammals. They are variously known by common names such as warble flies, heel flies, and gadflies. The larvae of some species grow in the flesh of their hosts, while others grow within the hosts' alimentary tracts. The human botfly, Dermatobia hominis, is the only species of bot fly known to use humans routinely as its larval host, though it is neither the only nor the most harmful fly to cause myiasis in humans. [more]

Okeanobatidae

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Oligoneuriidae

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Oligotomidae

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Omaniidae

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Omethidae

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Ommatidae

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Ommexechidae

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Oniscodesmidae

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Onychiuridae

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Opetiidae

Opetiidae or flat-footed flies are members of a family of flies of the Order Diptera. [more]

Opisotretidae

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Opisthocheiridae

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Opomyzidae

Opomyzidae is a family of acalyptrate Diptera. They are generally small, slender, yellow, brown or black colored flies. The larval food plants are grasses, including cereal crops, the adults are mainly found in open habitats. Some species being agricultural pests. [more]

Opostegidae

Opostegidae or "white eyecap moths" is a family of insects in the Lepidoptera order that is characterised by particularly large eyecaps over the compound eyes (see also Nepticulidae, Bucculatricidae, Lyonetiidae). Opostegidae are most diverse in the New World tropics (83 described species, representing 42% of the world total). [more]

Oreopteridae

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Ormyridae

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Orphnidae

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Ortheziidae

Ortheziidae is a family of scale insects commonly known as the ensign scales or ortheziids. They occur in most parts of the world but the majority of the species are found in the Neotropics and Nearctic regions while there are not many species in Australasia and the Far East. There are twenty valid genera and 198 species. [more]

Orussidae

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Oryidae

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Osmylidae

Osmylidae are a small family of winged insects of the net-winged insect order Neuroptera. The osmylids are found all over the world except in North America. A common species through most of Europe is . [more]

Osmylitidae

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Osmylopsychopidae

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Otitidae

Ulidiidae (formerly Otitidae) is a large and diverse cosmopolitan family of flies, and, as in related families, most species are herbivorous or saprophagous. They are often known as picture-winged flies, along with members of other families in the superfamily Tephritoidea that have patterns of bands or spots on the wings. Most species share with the Tephritidae an unusual elongated projection of the anal cell in the wing, but can be differentiated by the smoothly-curving subcostal vein. [more]

Oxychirotidae

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Oxycorynidae

Oxycoryninae are subfamily of primitive weevils of the family Belidae, but sometimes treated as a distinct family Oxycorynidae. Like in other belids, their antennae are straight, not elbowed as in the true weevils (Curculionidae), and their larvae feed on the wood of diseased or dying plants or on deadwood or fruits; they tend to avoid healthy plants. [more]

Oxydesmidae

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Oxynotidae

Oxynotus is a genus of sharks in the order Squaliformes, commonly known as the rough sharks. It is the only extant genus in the family Oxynotidae. They live in deep waters in the Atlantic and western Pacific oceans. [more]

Oxytenidae

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Pachybolidae

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Pachymorphidae

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Pachyneuridae

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Pachynomidae

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Pachypodidae

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Pachytroctidae

Pachytroctidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the suborder Troctomorpha. Members of this family are small, often macropterous, with a distinct wing-venation. The family comprises less than 100 species arranged in ten genera. [more]

Paeromopodidae

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Palaeonemouridae

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Palaeoperlidae

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Palaeosetidae

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Palaephatidae

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Paleomelittidae

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Paleuthygrammatidae

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Palingeniidae

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Palingeniopsidae

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Pallopteridae

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Palophidae

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Pamphagidae

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Pamphiliidae

The Pamphiliidae (sometimes incorrectly spelled Pamphilidae) are a small family within the Symphyta, containing some 200 species from the temperate regions of North America and Eurasia. The larvae feed on plants (often conifers), using silk to either build webs or tents, or to roll leaves into tubes, in which they feed, thus earning them the common names leaf-rolling sawflies or web-spinning sawflies. They are distinguished from the closely related Megalodontesidae by their simple, filiform antennae. [more]

Panesthiidae

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Panorpidae

Panorpidae are a family of scorpionflies. This family contains more than 350 species. They are 9?25 mm long. [more]

Panorpodidae

Panorpodidae is a small family of scorpionflies. There are two genera, , which occurs only in the United States, and Panorpodes, which occurs in Japan, Korea and with a species described in 2004 from California. [more]

Pantheidae

Pantheidae is a family of Lepidoptera. Mostly, it is classified as a subfamily of Noctuidae, under the name Pantheinae. [more]

Panthophthalmidae

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Pantophthalmidae

Pantophthalmidae is a small family of very large, robust flies, sometimes referred to as timber flies. There are about 22 known species in two genera in the family, all of Neotropical distribution. Superficially they resemble horse flies, but are only distantly related; they are most closely related to the soldier flies (Stratiomyidae). The larvae feed by boring into living wood, an unusual habit for Diptera, and can sometimes be pests. The adult stage is brief and does not feed at all, and most active at dusk. [more]

Paoliidae

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Papilionidae

Swallowtail butterflies are large, colorful butterflies that form the family Papilionidae. There are over 550 species, and though the majority are tropical, members of the family are found on all continents except Antarctica. The family includes the largest butterflies in the world, the birdwing butterflies of Australia (genus Ornithoptera). [more]

Paradoxosomatidae

Paradoxosomatidae, the only family in the suborder Paradoxosomatidea, is a "hugely speciose" family of flat-backed millipedes under the order Polydesmida, containing 178 genera and 878 species as of 2010. It is "probably the most homogeneous and well-worked group within the Polydesmida", and is characterised by a gonopod aperture in the shape of a dumb-bell. [more]

Paragryllidae

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Parajapygidae

Parajapygidae is a family of hexapods in the order Diplura. [more]

Parajulidae

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Paralogidae

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Parapamphiliidae

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Paraphrynoveliidae

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Parapleciidae

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Pararchexyelidae

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Parasialidae

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Paraxymyiidae

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Paronellidae

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Paroryssidae

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Passalidae

Passalidae is a family of beetles known variously as "bessbugs", "bess beetles", "betsy beetles" or "horned passalus beetles". Nearly all of the 500-odd species are tropical; species found in North America are notable for their size, ranging from 20?43 mm, for having a single "horn" on the head, and for a form of social behavior unusual among beetles. [more]

Passandridae

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Pauropodidae

Pauropodidae is a family of pauropods. [more]

Paussidae

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Pecaroecidae

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Pediciidae

The Pediciidae or Hairy-eyed Craneflies, are a family of flies closely related to true crane flies. There are about 500 species worldwide. [more]

Pedicinidae

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Pediculidae

The body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus, sometimes called Pediculus humanus corporis) is a louse which infests humans. The condition of being infested with head lice, body lice, or pubic lice is known as pediculosis. [more]

Pedilidae

Fire-colored beetles are the beetles of the Pyrochroidae family, which includes the red Cardinal beetles. This family contains some 150 species. Many species in the subfamily ve comb- or antler-like antennae. This family also now includes most former members of the defunct family Pedilidae. [more]

Pelecinidae

The genus Pelecinus is the only living member of the family Pelecinidae (there are also two fossil genera), and contains only three species restricted to the New World. One species, Pelecinus polyturator, occurs from North through South America, and the others occur in Mexico () and South America (Pelecinus dichrous). The females are glossy wasps, very long (up to 7 cm) and the abdomen is extremely attenuated, used to lay eggs directly on scarab larvae buried in the soil. [more]

Pelecorhynchidae

Pelecorhynchidae is a small family of flies. All of the genera were originally placed in the family Rhagionidae, and their elevation to family rank has been controversial. Other phylogenetic analyses have supported Pelecorhynchidae as a distinct clade from Rhagionidae. The adults of Pelecorrhynchus mostly feed on nectar of Leptospermum flowers. Larvae have been collected in the damp margins of swamp areas, where they feed on earthworms. [more]

Peloridiidae

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Peltoperlidae

Peltoperlidae Claassen 1931, also known as roachlike stoneflies or roachflies, are a family of stoneflies. [more]

Pemphredonidae

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Pentacentridae

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Pentatomidae

Pentatomidae, Greek pente meaning five and tomos meaning section, is a family of insects belonging to order Hemiptera including some of the stink bugs and shield bugs. The scutellum body is usually trapezoidal in shape, giving this family the name 'shield bug'. The tarsi are 3-segmented. The forewings of stink bugs are called hemelytra, with the basal half thickened while the apex is membranous (as are the hindwings). The name stink bug derives from their tendency to eject a foul smelling glandular substance secreted from pores in the thorax when disturbed; in some species the liquid contains cyanide compounds with a rancid almond scent. This is a form of antipredator adaptation. [more]

Penthimiidae

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Peradeniidae

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Pergidae

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Pericambalidae

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Perilampidae

The Perilampidae are a small family within the Chalcidoidea, composed mostly of hyperparasitoids. The family is closely related to the Eucharitidae, and the eucharitids appear to have evolved from within the Perilampidae, thus rendering the family paraphyletic (if the two families are joined in the future, the name that has precedence is Eucharitidae). As presently defined, there are 15 genera and >270 species worldwide. They are often brilliantly metallic (especially blue or green), with a robust mesosoma and a small, triangular metasoma (swollen and bulbous in ). They are generally very strongly sculptured. The prothorax is typically very broad and disclike, and the labrum is multidigitate, a feature shared with the Eucharitidae. [more]

Perilestidae

Perilestidae is a family of damselflies in the order Odonata. They are commonly known as Shortwings.[] It is a small family of damselflies with around 20 species. They occur only in Latin America. [more]

Perimylopidae

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Peripsocidae

Peripsocidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the suborder Psocomorpha. Members of the family are characterised by their absence of an areola postica in their wings. Many of the recently described genera are closely allied to Peripsocus, and only two genera are presented here. The family includes more than 200 species. [more]

Periscelididae

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Perissommatidae

Perissommatidae is a family of Diptera that was newly proposed in 1962. The family contains five species, four from Australia and one from Chile. Perissommatidae are unusual as they have four eyes. They have a small slender body that's less than 2mm in length. Their wings are large in comparison to their body and subsequently their flight is weak. Preferring high altitude forest environments, adults only fly in the winter. In the case of Perissomma macalpinei numbers of adults have been observed congregate in clumps of foliage, rising in short zigzag flights in the sunlight above the foliage for short periods before descending back. [more]

Perlariopseidae

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Perlidae

Perlidae is a family of stoneflies. [more]

Perlodidae

Perlodidae, also known as the Perlodid stoneflies, stripetails, or springflies, are a family of stoneflies. [more]

Perlopseidae

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Permaeschnidae

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Permagrionidae

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Permelcanidae

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Permelytridae

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Permepallagidae

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Permithonidae

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Permoberothidae

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Permobiellidae

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Permochoristidae

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Permocupedidae

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Permolestidae

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Permopanorpidae

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Permopsocidae

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Permoraphidiidae

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Permothemistidae

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Perothopidae

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Petaluridae

The Petaltails of the family Petaluridae are apparently the most ancient of the extant true dragonflies (infraorder Anisoptera), having fossil members from as early as the Jurassic (over 150 million years ago). [more]

Petrothrincidae

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Phaeomyiidae

The family Sciomyzidae belongs to the typical flies (Brachycera) of the order Diptera. They are commonly called marsh flies, and in some cases snail-killing flies due to the food of their larvae. [more]

Phalacridae

The Phalacridae are a family of beetles commonly called the shining flower beetles. They are often found in composite flowers. They are oval-shaped, usually tan, and about 2 mm in length. [more]

Phalangopsidae

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Phaloniidae

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Phaneropteridae

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Phasmatidae

Phasmatidae is a family of the stick insects (order Phasmatodea). They belong to the superfamily of suborder Verophasmatodea. [more]

Phasmomimidae

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Phenacoleachiidae

Phenacoleachiidae is a family of scale insects commonly known as the phenacoleachiids. They are found only on the south island of New Zealand and certain offshore islands. There are two species in a single genus. [more]

Phengodidae

The beetle family Phengodidae is known also as glowworm beetles, whose larvae are known as glowworms. The females and larvae have bioluminescent organs. They occur throughout the New World from extreme southern Canada to Chile. The family Rhagophthalmidae, an Old World group, used to be included in the Phengodidae. [more]

Phenopteridae

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Philopotamidae

Philopotamidae is a family level taxon containing certain finger-net and silken-tube spinner caddisflies. [more]

Philopteridae

The Philopteridae are a family of Ischnocera, chewing lice mostly parasitic on birds. [more]

Philorheithridae

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Philotarsidae

Philotarsidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the suborder Psocomorpha. The family is closely related to the families Pseudocaeciliidae and Calopsocidae. [more]

Phlaeothripidae

Phlaeothripidae is a family of thrips with hundreds of genera. They are the only family of the suborder Tubulifera, and are themselves ordered into two subfamilies, the Idolothripinae with 80 genera, and the Phlaeothripinae with almost 400. Some 3,400 species are recognised in this family, and many are fungivores living in the tropics. [more]

Phloeidae

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Phloeostichidae

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Phloiophilidae

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Phoenicococcidae

Phoenicococcidae is a family of scale insects commonly known as palm scales or phoenicococcids. There is a single genus containing one species, Phoenicococcus marlatti. [more]

Phoridae

Phoridae is a family of small, hump-backed flies resembling fruit flies. Phorid flies can often be identified by their escape habit of running rapidly across a surface rather than taking to the wing. This behaviour is a source of one of their alternate names: scuttle fly. They are a diverse and successful group of insects. Approximately 4,000 species are known in 230 genera. The most well-known species is Megaselia scalaris, commonly called a "coffin fly". [more]

Phryganeidae

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Phryganopsychidae

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Phycosecidae

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Phylliidae

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Phyllocephalidae

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Phyllodromiidae

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Phylloxeridae

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Phymatidae

Insects in the subfamily Phymatinae are commonly called ambush bugs after their habit of lying in wait for prey relying on their superb camouflage. Armed with raptorial forelegs, ambush bugs routinely capture prey ten or more times their own size. They form a subgroup within the assassin bugs. [more]

Physiostreptidae

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Pieridae

The Pieridae are a large family of butterflies with about 76 genera containing approximately 1,100 species, mostly from tropical Africa and Asia. Most pierid butterflies are white, yellow or orange in coloration, often with black spots. The pigments that give the distinct coloring to these butterflies are derived from waste products in the body and are a characteristic of this family. [more]

Piesmatidae

Piesmatidae is a small family of true bugs, commonly called ash-grey leaf bugs. It contains a mere three living genera with over 40 described species altogether. The Piesmatidae are distributed mostly in the temperate Northern Hemisphere, with some occurring in Africa, Australia and South America. A common species found throughout the Americas is . [more]

Piophilidae

Cheese flies are members of the family Piophilidae of flies. Most are scavengers in animal products and fungi. The best-known member of the family is . It is a small fly, about four mm (1/6 inch) long, found worldwide. The fly's larva infests cured meats, smoked fish, cheeses, and decaying animals. The larva is about 8 mm (? inch) long and is sometimes called the cheese skipper for its leaping ability - when disturbed, this tiny maggot can hop up to 15 cm (six inches) into the air. Adults are also known as "bacon flies" and their larvae as "bacon skippers", "ham skippers", "cheese maggots", and "cheese hoppers". In Sardinia, Italy the larvae are intentionally introduced into pecorino cheese to produce casu marzu. [more]

Pipunculidae

Pipunculidae are a family of flies (Diptera), commonly termed Big-Headed Flies a reference to the large (Holoptic) eyes , which cover nearly the entire head. The Family is worldwide and more than 1300 species have been described. [more]

Pisuliidae

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Plataspidae

Plataspididae (often misspelled Plataspidae) are a family of shield bugs native to the Eastern Hemisphere. One species, Megacopta cribraria, has recently become introduced and established in the southeastern United States, where it is a pest of soybeans. [more]

Platycnemididae

Platycnemididae are a family of damselfly called white-legged damselflies. It is sometimes known as Platycnemidae. [more]

Platydesmidae

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Platygasteridae

The Hymenopteran family Platygastridae (sometimes incorrectly spelled Platygasteridae) is a large group (over 1100 species) of exclusively parasitoid wasps, mostly very small (1-2 mm), black, and shining, with elbowed antennae that have an 8-segmented flagellum. The wings most often lack venation, though they may have slight fringes of setae. [more]

Platygastridae

The Hymenopteran family Platygastridae (sometimes incorrectly spelled Platygasteridae) is a large group (over 1100 species) of exclusively parasitoid wasps, mostly very small (1-2 mm), black, and shining, with elbowed antennae that have an 8-segmented flagellum. The wings most often lack venation, though they may have slight fringes of setae. [more]

Platyperlidae

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Platypezidae

Platypezidae is a family of true flies of the superfamily Platypezoidea. The more than 250 species are found worldwide primarily in woodland habitats. A common name is flat-footed flies, but this is also used for the closely related Opetiidae which were included in the Platypezidae in former times. [more]

Platypodidae

Ambrosia beetles are beetles of the weevil subfamilies Scolytinae and Platypodinae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), which live in nutritional symbiosis with ambrosia fungi and probably with bacteria. The beetles excavate tunnels in dead trees in which they cultivate fungal gardens, their sole source of nutrition. After landing on a suitable tree, an ambrosia beetle excavates a tunnel in which it releases spores of its fungal symbiont. The fungus penetrates the plant's xylem tissue, digests it, and concentrates the nutrients on and near the surface of the beetle gallery. The majority of ambrosia beetles colonize xylem (sapwood and/or heartwood) of dying or recently dead trees. Species differ in their preference for different parts of trees, different stages of deterioration, in the shape of their tunnels (?galleries?). However, the majority of ambrosia beetles are not specialized to any taxonomic group of hosts, unlike most phytophagous organisms including the closely related bark beetles. [more]

Platyrhacidae

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Platystictidae

Platystictidae is a family of damselflies, commonly known as shadowdamsels. They look very similar to the threadtail damselfly family (Protoneuridae). They can mostly be found throughout Asia, Central America, and South America. [more]

Platystomatidae

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Pleciidae

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Pleciofungivoridae

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Plectrotarsidae

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Pleidae

Pleidae, the pygmy backswimmers, is a family of aquatic insects in the order Hemiptera (infraorder Nepomorpha, or "true water bugs"). There are 37 species in three genera, distributed across most of the world, except the polar regions and remote oceanic islands. [more]

Pleocomidae

The rain beetles are a group of beetles found in the far west of North America. They spend most of their lives underground, emerging in response to rain or snow, thus the common name. Formerly classified in the Geotrupidae, they are currently assigned to their own family Pleocomidae, considered the sister group to all the remaining families of Scarabaeoidea. The family contains a single extant genus, Pleocoma, and one extinct genus, Cretocoma, described in 2002 from Late Cretaceous deposits in Mongolia. [more]

Plokiophilidae

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Plumariidae

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Plutellidae

Plutellidae is a family of moths. Some authors consider this family to be a subfamily of Yponomeutidae. [more]

Pneumoridae

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Podoscirtidae

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Poduridae

Poduridae is a small family of stout-bodied springtails containing only the single genus Podura, and making up the monotypic superfamily Poduroidea. The genus contains four species: [more]

Polycentropodidae

Polycentropodidae is a family level taxon consisting of trumpet-net and tube-making caddisflies. [more]

Polyctenidae

Polyctenidae is a family of parasitic insects of the superfamily Cimicoidea that prefer bats as their host. These insects are not to be confused with bat bugs which are members of the family Cimicidae. There appears to be a significant relationship between the family groups and the specific species of hosts that indicates co-evolution and specialization. [more]

Polycytellidae

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Polydesmidae

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Polymitarcyidae

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Polyphagidae

The Polyphagidae is a family of the order Blattaria (cockroaches). Many are known as sand cockroaches. The family is divided into five subfamilies, comprising some 40 genera.[1] One prominent species is the desert cockroach, Arenivaga investigata. [more]

Polyplacidae

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Polypsocidae

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Polystoechotidae

The Polystoechotidae or giant lacewings are a small family of winged insects of the insect order Neuroptera. This family contains three living and seven extinct genera. The modern giant lacewings have a notably disjunct distribution while the extinct genera had a more global range. The family is considered one of the most primitive living neuropteran families. Along with the moth lacewings, giant lacewings may be phytophagous. [more]

Polythoridae

Polythoridae is a family of damselflies. No species in this family has a common name. They're found in New World tropics. The family contains 58 species. It's a rather small family damselflies and isn't one of the most recognized of families. [more]

Polyxenidae

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Polyzoniidae

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Pompilidae

Wasps in the family Pompilidae are commonly called spider wasps (in South America, species may be referred to colloquially as marabunta or marimbondo, though these names can be generally applied to any very large stinging wasps). The family is cosmopolitan, with some 5,000 species in 6 subfamilies. All species are solitary, and most capture and paralyze prey, though members of the subfamily Ceropalinae are cleptoparasites of other pompilids, or ectoparasitoids of living spiders. [more]

Potamanthidae

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Praeaulacidae

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Praeichneumonidae

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Prionoglaridae

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Prionoglarididae

Prionoglarididae is a family of Psocoptera that are characterised by the reduction or simplification of the in adults and the specialised form of the male genitalia. [more]

Priscaenigmatidae

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Probnidae

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Procampodeidae

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Procramptonomyiidae

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Proctotrupidae

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Prodoxidae

Prodoxidae is a family of primitive monotrysian Lepidoptera. Some of these small-to-medium sized moths are day flying, like Lampronia capitella, known to European gardeners as the "Currant Shoot Borer"[1]. Others occur in Africa and Asia.Tetragma gei feeds on Mountain Avens Geum triflorum in USA. Greya politella lay eggs in the flowers of Saxifragaceae there. The last five genera listed here are confined to dry areas of the United States. occurs in Chile and Argentina (Nielsen and Davis, 1985), but all other prodoxid moth genera have a northern distribution. The enigmatic genus Tridentaforma is sometimes placed here and assumed to be close to Lampronia, while other authors consider it incertae sedis among the closely related family Adelidae. [more]

Progonophlebiidae

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Projapygidae

Projapygidae is a family of hexapods in the order Diplura. [more]

Promastacidae

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Propalticidae

Propalticidae is a family of beetles, in the suborder Polyphaga. It contains two genera (Propalticus and Slipinskogenia) with the following species: [more]

Proparagryllacrididae

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Prophalangopsidae

"Grig" redirects here. For the fictional Dungeons and Dragons creature, see Fey (Dungeons & Dragons). [more]

Proscopiidae

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Prosopistomatidae

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Prostomidae

[more]

Protapioceridae

[more]

Protelytridae

[more]

Protembiidae

[more]

Protempididae

[more]

Protentomidae

Protentomidae is a family of hexapods in the order Protura. [more]

Protereismatidae

[more]

Proterhinidae

Aglycyderini are a tribe of belids, primitive weevils of the family Belidae. Like in other belids, their antennae are straight, not elbowed as in the true weevils (Curculionidae). They occur only on the Pacific Islands and in the Macaronesian region.. [more]

Protimaspidae

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Protobrachycerontidae

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Protocucujidae

[more]

Protodiptera: Permotanyderidae

Protogryllidae

[more]

Protohymenidae

[more]

Protomphralidae

[more]

Protomyrmeleontidae

[more]

Protoneuridae

Protoneuridae is a family of damselflies. Most species are commonly known as threadtails, while others are commonly known as bambootails. They are called threadtails because their abdomen are pin-thin. Threadtails are usually small size damselflies and their wings are usually transparent. It contains the following genera : [more]

Protopleciidae

[more]

Protopsyllidiidae

[more]

Protorhyphidae

[more]

Protoscatopsidae

[more]

Prototheoridae

[more]

Protoxenidae

[more]

Protroctopsocidae

[more]

Pruvostitidae

[more]

Pselaphidae

Pselaphinae is a subfamily of small (usually less than 2.5 mm long) beetles. The group was originally regarded as a separate family, named Pselaphidae. Newton and Thayer (1995) placed them in the Omaliine group of the family Staphylinidae, based on shared morphological characters. [more]

Psephenidae

Water-penny beetles are a family (Psephenidae) of aquatic beetles. The young, which live in water, resemble pennies. The larvae feed off of algae, larvae, and feces. The presence of water penny larvae in a stream can be used as a test for the quality of the water. Among the pollution sensitivity categories sensitive, somewhat-sensitive, and tolerant; water pennies belong to the sensitive category. They cannot live in habitats where rocks acquire a thick layer of algae, fungi, or inorganic sediment. Therefore, their presence along with other diverse phyla signifies good quality water. They are around 6 to 10 millimeters in length. [more]

Pseudelcanidae

[more]

Pseudironidae

[more]

Pseudocaeciliidae

Pseudocaeciliidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the suborder Psocomorpha. The name stems from a superficial resemblance to the distantly related family Caeciliusidae (formerly Caeciliidae). The family is closely related to the families Philotarsidae and Calopsocidae. [more]

Pseudococcidae

Mealybugs are insects in the family Pseudococcidae, unarmored scale insects found in moist, warm climates. They are considered pests as they feed on plant juices of greenhouse plants, house plants and subtropical trees and also acts as a vector for several plant diseases. [more]

Pseudolestidae

[more]

Pseudonannolenidae

[more]

Pseudonemasomatidae

[more]

Pseudophasmatidae

Pseudophasmatidae is a family of stick insect, commonly called the "striped walkingsticks". An important identifying characteristic is its mesothorax, which is never more than three times as long as the prothorax. [more]

Pseudophyllidae

[more]

Pseudopomyzidae

The Pseudopomyzidae are minute to small (1.7-5.5 mm), dark colored acalyptrate flies. [more]

Pseudosiricidae

[more]

Pseudospirobolellidae

[more]

Pseudostigmatidae

Pseudostigmatidae is a family of tropical damselflies, known as helicopter damselflies, giant damselflies or Forest Giants. The family includes the largest of all damselfly species. They specialize in preying on web-building spiders, and breed in phytotelmata, the small bodies of water held by plants such as bromeliads. [more]

Psilidae

Psilidae is family of two-winged flies. Commonly called the rust flies, there are at least 38 species in 4 genera. The Carrot fly (Chamaepsila rosae) is a member of this group. [more]

Psilopsocidae

[more]

Psocidae

Psocidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the suborder Psocetae. Member of the family are easily recognised by their wing-venation, where the areola postica is fused to the M-vein, giving rise to the so-called discoidal cell. This family is closely related to Myopsocidae. [more]

Psocidiidae

[more]

Psoquillidae

[more]

Psychidae

The Psychidae (bagworm moths, also simply bagworms or bagmoths) are a family of the Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths). The bagworm family is fairly small, with about 600 species described. Bagworm species are found globally, with some, such as the Snailcase Bagworm (Apterona helicoidella), settling continents where they are not native in modern times. [more]

Psychodidae

The nematoceran family Psychodidae (moth flies or drain flies) are small true flies (Diptera) with short, hairy bodies and wings giving them a "furry" moth-like appearance. The adults have long antennae and the wings are leaf-shaped, either slender or broad, with the most elementary wing venation of any Diptera, having little more than a series of parallel veins without crossveins. Adult Psychodidae are typically nocturnal and associated with damp habitats. The larvae of the subfamilies Psychodinae, and Horaiellinae live in aquatic to semi-terrestrial habitats, including bathroom sinks; some species are commonly nuisance pests in bathrooms. These pests are commonly removed through use of boiling water, bleach, or drain cleaner. [more]

Psychomyiidae

Psychomyiidae is a family level taxon consisting of trumpet-net and tube-making caddisflies. Members of this family are typically very similar to polycentropodids, but usually differ in leg characters. Larvae also tend to construct silken tubes. [more]

Psychopsidae

[more]

Psyllidae

Psyllids or jumping plant lice are small plant-feeding insects that tend to be very host specific, i.e. they only feed on one plant species (monophagous) or feed on a few related plants (oligophagous). Together with aphids, phylloxerans, scale insects and whiteflies they form the group called Sternorrhyncha, which is considered to be the most "primitive" group within the true bugs (Hemiptera). They have traditionally been considered a single family, Psyllidae, but recent classifications divide the group into a total of seven families; the present restricted definition still includes more than 70 genera in the Psyllidae. [more]

Psyllipsocidae

[more]

Pterogeniidae

[more]

Pterolonchidae

[more]

Pteromalidae

Pteromalidae is a very large family of parasitic wasps, with some 3,450 described species in some 640 genera (the number used to be greater, but many species and genera have been reduced to synonymy in recent years). The subfamily-level divisions of the family are highly contentious and unstable, and there is no question that the family is completely artificial, composed of numerous distantly-related groups (polyphyletic). Accordingly, details of the life history range over nearly the entire range possible within the Chalcidoidea, though the majority are (as with most Chalcidoids) parasitoids of other insects. They are found throughout the world in virtually all habitats, and many are important as biological control agents. [more]

Pteronarcyidae

Pteronarcyidae, also known as giant stoneflies or salmonflies, is a family of the order Plecoptera. [more]

Pterophoridae

The Pterophoridae or plume moths are a family of Lepidoptera with unusually modified wings. Though they belong to the Apoditrysia like the larger moths and the butterflies, unlike these they are tiny and were formerly included among the assemblage called "Microlepidoptera". [more]

Pteroplistidae

[more]

Pterothysanidae

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Pthiridae

[more]

Ptiliidae

Ptiliidae is a family of very tiny beetles with a worldwide distribution. This family contains the smallest of all beetles, with a length of 0.5 mm, and even the largest members of the family do not exceed 2 mm. The weight is approximately 0.4 milligrams. [more]

Ptilodactylidae

[more]

Ptiloneuridae

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Ptinidae

Spider beetles are the approximately 500 species of beetles in the subfamily Ptininae of the family Anobiidae. They are sometimes considered a family in their own right, which is then called Ptinidae. Spider beetles have round bodies with long, slender legs, and lack wings. They are generally 1?5 mm long. Both the larvae and the adults are scavengers. They reproduce at the rate of two to three generations per year. [more]

Ptychopteridae

Ptychopteridae, the phantom crane flies, is a small family (three extant genera) of nematocerous Diptera. Superficially similar in appearance to other "tipuloid" families, they lack the ocelli of Trichoceridae, the 5-branched radial vein of Tanyderidae, and the two anal veins that reach the wing margin of Tipulidae. They are usually allied with the Tanyderidae based on similarities of the mesonotal suture, this group being called the Ptychopteromorpha. [more]

Pulicidae

Pulicidae is a flea family in the order Siphonaptera. [more]

Pygidicranidae

[more]

Pygiopsyllidae

[more]

Pygmaeosomatidae

[more]

Pyralidae

The Pyralidae or snout moths are a family of Lepidoptera in the ditrysian superfamily Pyraloidea. In many (particularly older) classifications, the grass moths (Crambidae) are included in the Pyralidae as a subfamily, making the combined group one of the largest families in the Lepidoptera. The latest review by Munroe & Solis, in Kristensen (1999)[] retains the Crambidae as a full family of pyraloidea. [more]

Pyrgacrididae

[more]

Pyrgodesmidae

[more]

Pyrgomorphidae

Pyrgomorphidae is a family of grasshoppers in the order Orthoptera commonly known as the gaudy grasshoppers. It is the only family in the superfamily Pyrgomorphoidea, and contains 29 genera and at least 70 species and subspecies. [more]

Pyrgotidae

Pyrgotidae is an unusual family of flies (Diptera), one of only two families of Diptera that lack ocelli. Most species are "picture-winged", as is typical among Tephritoidea, but, unlike other tephritoids they are endoparasitoids; the females pursue scarab beetles in flight, laying an egg on the beetle's back under the elytra where the beetle cannot reach it. The egg hatches and the fly larva enters the body cavity of the beetle, feeding and eventually killing the host before pupating. In the United States, some species of and Sphecomyiella can be quite common in areas where their host beetles (typically the genus Phyllophaga, or "June beetles") are abundant. Like their host beetles, these flies are primarily nocturnal, and are often attracted to artificial lights. [more]

Pyrochroidae

Fire-colored beetles are the beetles of the Pyrochroidae family, which includes the red Cardinal beetles. This family contains some 150 species. Many species in the subfamily ve comb- or antler-like antennae. This family also now includes most former members of the defunct family Pedilidae. [more]

Pyrrhocoridae

Pyrrhocoridae is a family of insects with more than 300 species world-wide. A common species in parts of Europe is the firebug. They are part of the order Hemiptera which are also known as the 'true bugs'. A few are important crop pests. They are called cotton stainers because their red bodies get crushed along with the cotton they eat when it is harvested, and these stains are difficult to remove. Their feeding mechanism also cuts the fibres and hence affects the growth of the cotton ball. They caused massive problems in the United States during the industrial revolution. [more]

Pythidae

[more]

Rangomaramidae

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Raphidiidae

[more]

Raphoglidae

[more]

Rasnitsyniidae

[more]

Ratardidae

[more]

Ratemiidae

[more]

Raymondionymidae

[more]

Reduviidae

Reduviidae (from the contained genus, Reduvius which comes from the Latin meaning hangnail or remnant) is a large, cosmopolitan family of predatory insects in the suborder Heteroptera. It includes assassin bugs (genera include Melanolestes, Platymeris, Pselliopus, Rasahus, Reduvius, Rhiginia, Sinea, Triatoma, and Zelus), wheel bugs (Arilus cristatus), and thread-legged bugs (the subfamily Emesinae, including the genus Emesaya). There are about 7000 species altogether, making it one of the largest families in the Hemiptera. [more]

Regiatidae

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Renyxidae

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Rhachiberothidae

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Rhachodesmidae

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Rhaetomyiidae

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Rhagionemestriidae

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Rhagionempididae

[more]

Rhagionidae

Rhagionidae or snipe flies are a small family of flies containing 21 genera. [more]

Rhaphidophoridae

The orthopteran family Rhaphidophoridae includes the cave wetas, cave crickets, camelback crickets, camel crickets, spider crickets (sometimes shortened to "criders, or sprickets"[]) and sand treaders, of the suborder Ensifera; in some regions, such as Missouri and Virginia, these crickets are referred to as "Cricket Spiders"[citation needed]. Those occurring in New Zealand, Australia, and Tasmania are typically referred to as wetas. Most are found in association with caves, animal burrows, cellars, under stones, in wood or in similar environments. They are characterized in part by their long antennae and legs. They may be found on all continents and many continental islands, though Africa has but one species and that is confined to the southern Cape region. The well-known field crickets are from a different superfamily (Grylloidea) and only look vaguely similar, while members of the family Tettigoniidae may look superficially similar in body form. [more]

Rhiniidae

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Rhinocricidae

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Rhinophoridae

Rhinophoridae are a small family of flies (Diptera) with around 500 species. Rhinophoridae are found in all zoogeographic regions except Australasia and Oceania but mainly in the Palaearctic and Afrotropical regions. [more]

Rhinorhipidae

[more]

Rhinotermitidae

Rhinotermitidae is a family of termites (Isoptera). They feed on wood and can cause extensive damage to buildings or other wooden structures. About 345 species are recognized, among these are severe pests like Coptotermes formosanus, Coptotermes gestroi and Reticulitermes flavipes. [more]

Rhipiceridae

[more]

Rhipiphoridae

The family Ripiphoridae (formerly spelled Rhipiphoridae) is a cosmopolitan group of beetles commonly known as wedge-shaped beetles containing some 450 species. They are one of the most unusual beetle families, in that they are parasitoids?different groups within the family attack different hosts, but most are associated with bees or vespid wasps, while some others are associated with roaches. They often have abbreviated elytra, and branched antennae. [more]

Rhiscosomididae

[more]

Rhizophagidae

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Rhombocoleidae

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Rhopalidae

Rhopalidae, or scentless plant bugs are a family of true bugs. In older literature, the family is sometimes called "Corizidae". They differ from the related coreids in lacking well-developed scent glands. They are usually light-colored and smaller than the coreids. Some are very similar to the lygaeids, but can be distinguished by the numerous veins in the membrane of the hemelytra. They live principally on weeds, but a few (including the box elder bug) are arboreal. All are plant feeders. Currently 18 genera and over 200 species of rhopalids are known. [more]

Rhopalopsyllidae

[more]

Rhopalosomatidae

Rhopalosomatidae is a family of Hymenoptera. It contains about 68 extant species in four genera that are found worldwide. Three fossil genera are known. [more]

Rhyacophilidae

Rhyacophilidae is a family in the insect order of Trichoptera. Larvae of this family are free living and most species are predacious. The largest genus is Rhyacophila, with near 500 species distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere. [more]

Rhynchitidae

The tooth-nosed snout weevils receive this name due to the teeth on the edges of their mandibles. They are small beetles (1.5 to 6.5 mm) that are usually found on low vegetation. [more]

Rhynchophoridae

[more]

Rhysodidae

Rhysodidae (sometimes called wrinkled bark beetles) is a family of beetles, consisting of several hundred species in about 20 genera. [more]

Ricaniidae

The family Ricaniidae is a group of hemipteran insects, containing over 40 genera and 400 species world-wide. Thus, they are one of the smaller families in the planthopper superfamily (Fulgoroidea). The highest diversity is in tropical Africa and Asia and in Australia, with a few species occurring in the Palearctic. [more]

Richardidae

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Richardiidae

Richardiidae is a family of Diptera in the superfamily Tephritoidea. [more]

Riodinidae

The Riodinidae (or metalmarks) are a family of butterflies. The common name "metalmarks" refers to the small metallic-looking spots commonly found on their wings. There are approximately 1,000 species of metalmark butterflies in the world. Although mostly neotropical in distribution, the family is represented both in the Nearctic and the Old World. [more]

Ripiphoridae

[more]

Ripipterygidae

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Romaleidae

The Romaleidae or lubber grasshoppers are a family of grasshoppers. [more]

Ropalomeridae

Ropalomeridae is a family of acalyptrate flies. [more]

Roproniidae

[more]

Rossianidae

[more]

Rotoitidae

[more]

Rutelidae

[more]

Saldidae

Saldidae, also known as shore bugs, are a family of insects in the order Hemiptera (true bugs). They are oval-shaped and measure 2?8 mm when mature. Typically they are found near shorelines or the marginal growths near water. They can flee by leaping or taking flight. [more]

Salpingidae

Salpingidae or  narrow-waisted bark beetles is a family of beetles, in the large suborder Polyphaga. The species are small, about 1.5 - 7 mm in length. This family is worldwide distributed and consists of about 45 genera and 300 species. [more]

Sapygidae

[more]

Sarcophagidae

Flies of the Diptera family Sarcophagidae (from the Greek s???? sarco- = flesh, f??e phage = eating; the same roots as the word "sarcophagus") are commonly known as flesh flies. Most flesh flies breed in carrion, dung, or decaying material, but a few species lay their eggs in the open wounds of mammals; hence their common name. Some flesh fly larvae are internal parasites of other insects. These larvae, commonly known as maggots, live for about 5?10 days, before descending into the soil and maturing into adulthood. At that stage, they live for 5?7 days. [more]

Saturniidae

The Saturniidae, commonly known as saturniids, are among the largest and most spectacular of the moths. They form a family of Lepidoptera, with an estimated 2,300 described species worldwide. The Saturniidae include such Lepidoptera as the giant silkmoths, royal moths and emperor moths. [more]

Satyridae

Satyrinae, the satyrines or satyrids, commonly known as the Browns, is a subfamily of the Nymphalidae (brush-footed butterflies). They were formerly considered a distinct family, Satyridae. This group contains nearly half of the known diversity of brush-footed butterflies. It is estimated that the true number of the Satyrinae species may exceed 2,400. [more]

Saxonagrionidae

[more]

Scaphidiidae

[more]

Scarabaeidae

The family Scarabaeidae as currently defined consists of over 30,000 species of beetles worldwide. The species in this large family are often called scarabs or scarab beetles. The classification of this family is fairly unstable, with numerous competing theories, and new proposals appearing quite often. It is probable that many of the subfamilies listed here will no longer be recognized very much longer, as they will likely be reduced in status below subfamily rank, or elevated to family status (the latter is most likely, e.g., with the family "Melolonthidae" already appearing in some recent classifications). Other families have been removed recently, and are nearly universally accepted (e.g., Pleocomidae, Glaresidae, Glaphyridae, Ochodaeidae, Geotrupidae, ) [more]

Scathophagidae

The Scathophagidae is a small family of Muscoidea which are often known as "Dung-flies" although this name is not appropriate except for a few species of the genus Scathophaga which do indeed pass their larval stages in animal dung. The name probably derives from the "Common Yellow Dung-fly", S. stercoraria, which is one of the most abundant and ubiquitous flies in many parts of the northern hemisphere. [more]

Scatopsidae

The minute black scavenger flies or "dung midges", Scatopsidae, is a family of Nematoceran flies. Despite being distributed throughout the world, it is quite a small family with only around 250 described species in 27 genera although many await description and doubtless even more await discovery. These are generally small, sometimes minute, dark flies (from 0.6 to 5mm), generally similar to black flies (Simuliidae) but usually lacking the humped thorax characteristic of that family. [more]

Scelionidae

The Hymenopteran family Scelionidae is a very large cosmopolitan group (over 3000 described species in some 160 genera) of exclusively parasitoid wasps, mostly small (0.5-10 mm), often black, often highly sculptured, with (typically) elbowed antennae that have an 9- or 10-segmented flagellum. Nowadays it is considered to be a subfamily of Platygastridae. [more]

Scenopinidae

Scenopinidae or window flies are a small (~400 described species) family of flies (Diptera), distributed worldwide. In buildings they are often taken at windows, hence the common name window flies. [more]

Schedotrigonidae

[more]

Schendylidae

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Schizocoleidae

[more]

Schizodactylidae

Schizodactylidae is a family of orthopteran insects found in Asia and Africa, known as dune crickets or splay-footed crickets. They are usually found in desert and sandy areas. Some species are believed to be predatory. Detailed study has been investigated for one of the member of Schizodactylidae, S. inexpectatus, by G.Aydin. T. B. Fletcher notes that one individual did not feed on any vegetable matter. [more]

Schizopetalidae

[more]

Schizophoridae

[more]

Schizopodidae

[more]

Schizopteridae

[more]

Schreckensteiniidae

Schreckensteinioidea is a superfamily in the insect order Lepidoptera containing a single family, Schreckensteiniidae, or "bristle-legged moths", because of the stout spines on the hindlegs. The relationships of this family within the group Apoditrysia[1] are currently uncertain. One of the species, the Blackberry Skeletoniser Schreckensteinia festaliella, is widespread and common across Europe and has been introduced as a biological control to Hawaii, whilst three species of Corsocasis occur in South East Asia (Dugdale et al., 1999). [more]

Sciadoceridae

[more]

Sciaridae

Sciaridae is a family of flies, commonly known as dark-winged fungus gnats. Commonly found in moist environments, they are known to be a pest of mushroom farms and are commonly found in household plant pots. This is one of the least studied of the large Diptera families, probably due to the small size of these insects and the difficulty in specific identification. There are currently around 1700 described species but there are estimated to be up to 20,000 species awaiting discovery, mainly in the tropics. More than 600 species are known from Europe. [more]

Sciomyzidae

The family Sciomyzidae belongs to the typical flies (Brachycera) of the order Diptera. They are commonly called marsh flies, and in some cases snail-killing flies due to the food of their larvae. [more]

Scirtidae

Scirtidae is a family of beetles (Coleoptera). [more]

Sclerogibbidae

[more]

Scleropteridae

[more]

Scolebythidae

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Scoliidae

Scoliidae, the scoliid wasps, is a small family represented by 6 genera and about 20 species in North America, but they occur worldwide, with a total of around 300 species. They tend to be black, often marked with yellow or orange, and their wing tips are distinctively corrugated. Males are more slender and elongate than females, with longer antennae, but the sexual dimorphism is not as extreme as is common in the Tiphiidae, a closely related family. [more]

Scolopendrellidae

[more]

Scolopendridae

Scolopendridae is a family of large centipedes (class Chilopoda). [more]

Scolytidae

A bark beetle is one of approximately 220 genera with 6,000 species of beetles in the subfamily Scolytinae. Traditionally, this was considered a distinct family Scolytidae, but now it is understood that bark beetles are in fact very specialized members of the "true weevil" family (Curculionidae). Well-known species are members of the type genus Scolytus - namely the European elm bark beetle S. multistriatus and the large elm bark beetle S. scolytus, which like the Hylurgopinus rufipes, transmit Dutch elm disease fungi (Ophiostoma). The mountain pine beetle Dendroctonus ponderosae, southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis and their near relatives are major pests of conifer forests in North America. A similarly aggressive species in Europe is the spruce Ips Ips typographus. A tiny bark beetle?the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei is a major pest of coffee around the world. [more]

Scopuridae

[more]

Scraptidae

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Scraptiidae

[more]

Scutelleridae

Scutelleridae is a family of true bugs. They are commonly known as jewel bugs or metallic shield bugs due to their often brilliant coloration. They are also known as shield-backed bugs due to the enlargement of the last section of their thorax into a continuous shield over the abdomen and wings. This latter characteristic distinguishes them from most other families within Heteroptera, and may lead to misidentification as a beetle rather than a bug. These insects feed on plant juices from a variety of different species, including some commercial crops. Closely related to stink bugs, they may also produce an offensive odour when disturbed. There are around 450 species worldwide. [more]

Scutigerellidae

[more]

Scutigeridae

Scutigeridae is a family of centipedes. It includes most of the species known as house centipedes, including Scutigera coleoptrata and Allothereua maculata. It includes the following genera: [more]

Scydmaenidae

Scydmaenidae is a family of small beetles, commonly called ant-like stone beetles or scydmaenids. These beetles occur worldwide, and the family includes some 4,500 species in about 80 genera. [more]

Scythrididae

Scythrididae (flower moths) is a family of small moths in the superfamily Gelechioidea. The family is sometimes included in the as a subfamily Scythridinae, but the Xyloryctidae themselves have sometimes been included in the Oecophoridae as subfamily. Scythrididae adults are smallish to mid-sized moths, which when at rest appear teardrop-shaped. [more]

Scytohymenidae

[more]

Sematuridae

[more]

Sepsidae

Sepsidae are a family of flies, commonly called the black scavenger flies or ensign flies. There are approximately 250 species worldwide. They are usually found around dung or decaying plant and animal material. Many species resemble ants having a "waist" and glossy black body. Many Sepsidae have a curious wing-waving habit made more apparent by dark patches at the wing end. [more]

Sepulcidae

[more]

Serendipidae

[more]

Sericostomatidae

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Serritermitidae

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Serropalpidae

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Sesiidae

The Sesiidae or clearwing moths are family of the Lepidoptera in which the wings partially have hardly any of the normal lepidopteran scales, leaving them transparent. The bodies are generally striped with yellow, red or white, sometimes very brightly, and they have simple antennae. The general appearance is sufficiently similar to a wasp or hornet to make it likely that the moths gain a reduction in predation by Batesian mimicry. This enables them to be active in daylight. They are commonly collected using pheromone lures. Worldwide there are 151 genera, 1370 species , and 50 subspecies. Most of these occur in the tropics, but there are many species in the Holarctic region. [more]

Sialidae

Alderflies are megalopteran insects of the family Sialidae. They are closely related to the dobsonflies and fishflies as well as to the prehistoric . All living alderflies - about 66 species altogether - are part of the subfamily Sialinae, which contains between one and seven extant genera according to different scientists' views. But in most classifications, all or almost all of these are treated as subgenera of Sialis.[citation needed] [more]

Siberhyphidae

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Siberioperlidae

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Sierolomorphidae

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Signiphoridae

Signiphoridae (historically also known as Thysanidae) is a small family of parasitic wasps in the superfamily Chalcidoidea. There are approximately 80 species in 4 genera. [more]

Silphidae

[more]

Silvanidae

[more]

Simuliidae

A black fly (sometimes called a buffalo gnat, turkey gnat, or white socks) is any member of the family Simuliidae of the Culicomorpha infraorder. They are related to the Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae, and Thaumaleidae. There are over 1,800 known species of black flies (of which 11 are extinct). Most species belong to the immense genus Simulium. Most black flies gain nourishment by feeding on the blood of mammals, including humans, although the males feed mainly on nectar. They are usually small, black or gray, with short legs, and antennae. They are a common nuisance for humans, and many U.S. states have programs to suppress the black fly population. They spread several diseases, including river blindness in Africa (Simulium damnosum and S. neavei) and the Americas (Simulium callidum and S. metallicum in Central America, S. ochraceum in Central and South America). [more]

Sinentomidae

[more]

Sinoryssidae

[more]

Sinotendipedidae

[more]

Siphlonuridae

[more]

Siphoniulidae

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Siphonocryptidae

[more]

Siphonophoridae

[more]

Siphonorhinidae

[more]

Siphonotidae

[more]

Siricidae

Horntail or wood wasp is the common name for any of the 100 non-social species of the family Siricidae, of the order Hymenoptera, a type of xylophagous sawfly. This family was until recently believed to be the sole living representative of the superfamily Siricoidea, a group well-represented in early Tertiary and Mesozoic times, but the family Anaxyelidae has recently been linked to this group. The last tergite of the abdomen has a strong, projecting spike, thus giving the group its common name (the ovipositor is typically longer and also projects posteriorly, but it is not the source of the name). A typical adult horntail is brown, blue or black with yellow parts in color, and may often reach up to 4 cm long. The pigeon horntail (Tremex columba) can grow up to 5 cm long (not counting the ovipositor), among the longest of all Hymenoptera. [more]

Sisyridae

The Sisyridae, commonly known as spongeflies or spongillaflies, is a family of winged insects of the order Neuroptera. Approximately 60 living species are known. [more]

Sminthuridae

Sminthuridae is a family of springtails of the order Symphypleona. Sminthurids are commonly referred to as globular springtails. [more]

Solenoptilidae

[more]

Somabrachyidae

Somabrachyidae is a family of moth in the order Lepidoptera. [more]

Somatiidae

[more]

Spaniidae

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Speophilosomatidae

[more]

Sphaeriodesmidae

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Sphaeritidae

Sphaerites is a genus of beetles, the only genus in the family Sphaeritidae, sometimes called the false clown beetles. It is closely related to the clown beetles but with distinct characteristics. There are four known species, widespread in temperate area but not commonly seen. [more]

Sphaeroceridae

Sphaeroceridae are a family of true flies in the order Diptera, often called small dung flies, lesser dung flies or lesser corpse flies due to their saprophagous habits. They belong to the typical fly suborder Brachycera as can be seen by their short antennae, and more precisely they are members of the section Schizophora. There are over 1,300 species and about 125 genera accepted as valid today, but new taxa are still being described. [more]

Sphaeropoeidae

[more]

Sphaeropsocidae

In the insect world, Sphaeropsocidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the suborder Troctomorpha. Members of this family have reduced, coriaceous wings. The family comprises 22 known species (four of them fossils) in eight genera. [more]

Sphaerosomatidae

[more]

Sphaerotheriidae

Sphaerotheriidae is a family of giant pill millipedes of the class Diplopoda. Millipedes of this family are distributed in South Africa. [more]

Sphecidae

Sphecidae (Latreille, 1802) is a cosmopolitan family of wasps that include digger wasps, mud daubers and other familiar types that all fall under the category of thread-waisted wasps. Both of the traditional definitions of the Sphecidae (the conservative one, where all the sphecoid wasps other than ampulicids and heterogynaids were in a single large family, and the more refined one, where the 7 large sphecid subfamilies were each elevated to family rank) have recently been shown to be paraphyletic, and the most recent classification is closer to the conservative scheme; the families Heterogynaidae and Ampulicidae are the sister taxa to what are now two families (instead of one), the Sphecidae and Crabronidae. Thus, the bulk of the sphecoid wasps are now placed in Crabronidae, and Sphecidae per se is a much more restricted concept, equivalent to what used to be the subfamily Sphecinae. [more]

Sphecocorydaloididae

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Sphecomyrmidae

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Sphecopteridae

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Sphindidae

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Sphingidae

Sphingidae is a family of moths (Lepidoptera), commonly known as hawk moths, sphinx moths and hornworms, that includes about 1,450 species. It is best represented in the tropics but there are species in every region. They are moderate to large in size and are distinguished among moths for their rapid, sustained flying ability. The narrow wings and streamlined abdomen are adaptations for rapid flight. [more]

Spirobolellidae

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Spirobolidae

Spirobolidae is a family of millipedes, a class of many-legged invertebrate. The family consists of several genera with numerous species, and is communly divided into subfamilies and Tylobolinae. [more]

Spirostreptidae

Spirostreptidae is a family of millipedes. It contains the following genera: [more]

Spurostigmatidae

[more]

Staphylinidae

The rove beetles are a large family (Staphylinidae) of beetles, primarily distinguished by their short elytra that leave more than half of their abdomens exposed. With over 46,000 species in thousands of genera, the group is the second largest family of beetles after the Curculionidae (the true weevils). It is an ancient group, with fossil rove beetles known from the Triassic, 200 million years ago. [more]

Stemmiulidae

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Stemmocryptidae

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Stenocephalidae

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Stenopelmatidae

Jerusalem crickets are a group of large, flightless insects of the genus Stenopelmatus. They are native to the western United States and parts of Mexico. In California, the Jerusalem cricket is often referred to as a ?potato bug?. Its large, human-like head has inspired both Native American and Spanish names; several Navajo names refer to the insect's head: [more]

Stenopsocidae

Stenopsocidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the suborder Psocomorpha, in the infraorder Caeciliusetae. Member of this family have an areola postica connected to the M vein by a crossvein. The family is composed of about 100 species. [more]

Stenopsychidae

Stenopsychidae is a family level taxon containing medium to large caddisflies, some of which are noted for their black and gold wing pattern. It contains three genera and some seventy species, which can be found in the Ethiopian, Palaearctic, Oriental, and Australian regions. [more]

Stenotrachelidae

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Stephanidae

[more]

Stephanocircidae

Stephanocircidae is a family of fleas native to South America, where they are found on rodents. [more]

Stereopteridae

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Stictococcidae

Stictococcidae is a family of scale insects commonly known as stictococcids. There are three genera containing about seventeen species and members of this family are found only in Afro-tropical regions. [more]

Stigmaphronidae

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Stilbopterygidae

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Stivaliidae

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Stolamissidae

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Stratiomyidae

The soldier flies (Stratiomyidae, sometimes misspelled as Stratiomyiidae. From Greek - soldier; ???a - fly), are a family of flies (historically placed in the now-obsolete group Orthorrhapha). The family contains about 1,500 species in about 400 genera worldwide. Adults are found near larval habitats. Larvae can be found in a diverse array of situations mostly in wetlands and damp places in soil, sod, under bark, and in animal excrement and decaying organic matter. They are diverse in size and shape, though they commonly are partly or wholly metallic green, or somewhat wasplike mimics, marked with black and yellow or green and sometimes metallic. They are often rather inactive flies which typically rest with their wings placed one above the other over the abdomen. [more]

Streblidae

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Strephocladidae

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Striariidae

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Stronglyophthalmyiidae

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Strongylophthalmyiidae

Strongylophthalmyiidae is a small family of about 45 species of slender, long-legged flies. The majority of these occurring the Oriental and Australasian Regions. They are divided into two genera, the monotypic Southeast Asian genus Shatalkin, 1993 and Strongylophthalmyia Heller, 1902. The relationships of the group are obscure; formerly the genus Strongylophthalmyia was classified with the Psilidae, and some recent classifications place it within the Tanypezidae. Little is known of their biology, but many species seem to be associated with rotting bark. [more]

Styloperlidae

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Stylopidae

Stylopidae are an insect family of the order Strepsiptera. This family contains more than 250 species. [more]

Symmocidae

The Symmocidae are a family of moths in the superfamily Gelechioidea. These small moths are found mainly in the Palearctic and Africa. [more]

Synchroidae

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Synlestidae

Synlestidae is a family of damselflies. They're commonly known as sylphs or malachites. They rest the same way as spreadwing damselflies(Lestidae) do. Species in Synlestidae look similar to species in Lestidae. [more]

Synneuridae

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Synteliidae

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Syntexidae

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Synthemidae

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Synthemistidae

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Syntonopteridae

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Synxenidae

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Syringogastridae

Syringogaster is a genus of small (4 to 6mm) ant-like flies with a petiolate abdomen, a long prothorax, a swollen and spiny hind femur, and reduced head size and large eyes. There are 20 living species in a single genus Syringogaster, There are 2 species know from Miocene amber from the Dominican Republic. It is the only genus in the family Syringogastridae. [more]

Syrphidae

Hoverflies, sometimes called flower flies or syrphid flies, make up the insect family Syrphidae. As their common name suggests, they are often seen hovering or nectaring at flowers; the adults of many species feed mainly on nectar and pollen, while the larvae (maggots) eat a wide range of foods. In some species, the larvae are saprotrophs, eating decaying plant and animal matter in the soil or in ponds and streams. In other species, the larvae are insectivores and prey on aphids, thrips, and other plant-sucking insects. [more]

Tabanidae

Insects in the order Diptera, family Tabanidae, are commonly called horse flies. Often considered pests for the bites that many inflict, they are among the world's largest true flies. They are known to be extremely noisy during flight. They are also important pollinators of flowers, especially in South Africa. Tabanids occur worldwide, being absent only at extreme northern and southern latitudes. Flies of this type are among those known sometimes as gadflies, breeze flies, zimbs or clegs. In Australia, they are known as "March Flies". In some areas of Canada, they are also known as Bull Dog Flies. Elsewhere the term "horse fly" refers to the unrelated dipteran family Bibionidae.[] [more]

Tachardiidae

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Tachinidae

Tachinidae is a large and rather variable family of true flies within the insect order Diptera, with more than 8,200 known species and many more to be discovered. There are over 1300 species in North America. Insects in this family are commonly called tachina flies or simply tachinids. As far as is known, they all are Protelean parasitoids, or occasionally parasites, of Arthropoda. [more]

Tachiniscidae

The Tachiniscinae are a subfamily of the fruit fly family Tephritidae. They are treated by some authorities as a separate family, Tachiniscidae. An undetermined species of the genus Tachiniscidia has been reared from Saturniidae caterpillars in Nigeria. [more]

Taeniopterygidae

Taeniopterygidae are a family of stone flies with about 80 described extant species. They are commonly called willowflies or winter stoneflies and have a holarctic distribution. [more]

Taldycupedidae

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Tanaoceridae

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Tanaostigmatidae

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Tanyderidae

Tanyderidae, or primitive crane flies, of the order Diptera are long, thin, delicate insects with spotted wings, superficially similar in appearance to some Tipulidae, Trichoceridae, and Ptychopteridae. Most species are restricted in distribution. They are found in many parts of the world, including North America, South America, Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and various islands in the Pacific Ocean. Adults are usually found hanging from vegetation near streams. Larvae are found either in sandy stream margins or in wet, rotten wood. Fossil species are known. [more]

Tanypezidae

Tanypezidae is a small family of medium-sized true flies (Diptera) found in the Nearctic Palaearctic and Neotropic zoogeographic regions. Some species have luminous silver or gold coloration. [more]

Tanzaniophasmatidae

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Tarsophlebiidae

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Tasimiidae

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Tcholmanvissiidae

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Telegeusidae

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Telephlebiidae

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Telsonemasomatidae

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Tenebrionidae

Darkling beetles (also known as darkening beetles) are a family of beetles found worldwide, estimated at more than 20,000 species. Many of the beetles have black elytra, leading to their common name. Apart from the 9 subfamilies listed here, the tribe Opatrini of the Tenebrioninae is sometimes considered a distinct family, and/or the are included in the Tenebrioninae as a tribe Pimeliini. [more]

Tenthredinidae

The Tenthredinidae is the largest family of sawflies, with well over 6000 species worldwide. Larvae are typically herbivores and feed on the foliage of trees and shrubs, with occasional exceptions that are leaf miners, stem borers, or gall makers. The larvae of externally feeding species resemble small caterpillars. They go through complete metamorphosis. [more]

Tephritidae

Tephritidae is one of two fly families referred to as "fruit flies", the other family being Drosophilidae. Tephritidae does not include the biological model organisms of the genus Drosophila (in the family Drosophilidae), which is often called the "common fruit fly". There are nearly 5,000 described species of tephritid fruit fly, categorized in almost 500 genera. Description, recategorization, and genetic analysis are constantly changing the taxonomy of this family. To distinguish them from the Drosophilidae, the Tephritidae are sometimes called peacock flies, in reference to their elaborate and colorful markings. [more]

Teratembiidae

Teratembiidae is a family of web-spinners in the order Embioptera. [more]

Teratomyzidae

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Termitaphididae

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Termitidae

Termitidae is a family of termite, containing the following subfamilies: [more]

Termitotrogidae

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Termopsidae

Dampwood termites (Termopsidae) constitute a small and rather primitive family of termites (Isoptera). They contain a mere 4?5 extant genera with 13?20 living species, but can be divided into several subfamilies. They may be a nuisance but compared to e.g. the drywood termites (Kalotermitidae) usually do not cause extensive damage to buildings or other man-made structures. As their name implies, they like to eat wood that is not dried out, perhaps even rotting, and consequently of little use to humans. [more]

Tessaratomidae

Tessaratomidae is a family of true bugs. It contains about 240 species of large bugs divided into 3 subfamilies and 56 genera. [more]

Tethinidae

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Tetracampidae

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Tetracneminae

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Tetratomidae

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Tetrigidae

Tetrigidae is a family in the order Orthoptera, that also includes similar families such as crickets, grasshoppers, and katydids. Species within the Tetrigidae are variously called grouse locusts, pygmy locusts, groundhoppers or pygmy grasshoppers. [more]

Tettigometridae

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Tettigoniidae

The family Tettigoniidae, known in American English as katydids and in British English as bush-crickets, contains more than 6,400 species. It is part of the suborder Ensifera and the only family in the superfamily Tettigonioidea. They are also known as long-horned grasshoppers, although they are more closely related to crickets than to grasshoppers. [more]

Thaumaleidae

Thaumaleidae, the solitary midges or trickle midges, are a group of nematoceran flies related to the Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae, and the Simuliidae. They are small, stocky, yellow to brown flies (3-4 mm). There are very few species known for this family (about 120 species in five genera). Larvae are found in films on rocks and the non- feeding adults are usually found on foliage along the same streams in which the larvae are found. A few solitary midges are found in the southern hemisphere, but Thaumaleidae are generally an Holarctic family. [more]

Thaumastellidae

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Thaumastocoridae

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Therevidae

Therevidae are a family of Diptera Asiloidea commonly known as stiletto flies. The family contains about 1,600 described species worldwide, most diverse in arid and semi-arid regions with sandy soils. The larvae are predators of insect larvae in soil. [more]

Thericleidae

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Thremmatidae

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Thripidae

The Thripidae are the most speciose family of thrips, with over 290 genera representing just over two thousand species. They can be distinguished from other thrips by a saw-like ovipositor curving downwards, narrow wings with two veins, and antennae of six to ten antennomeres with stiletto-like forked sense cones on antennal segments III and IV. [more]

Throscidae

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Thueringoedischiidae

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Thyatiridae

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Thyreocoridae

Thyreocoridae are a family of shield bugs, known by common names including negro bugs or ebony bugs. In some classifications, they are included as a subfamily within the family Cydnidae; some authors also refer to this family under the name Corimelaenidae, a junior synonym. [more]

Thyretidae

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Thyrididae

Thyrididae is the picture-winged leaf moths family of moths in the Lepidoptera order. They alone make up the Thyridoidea superfamily, which is sometimes included in the Pyraloidea (though this is not supported by cladistic analysis. [more]

Thyrsophoridae

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Tibicinidae

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Tillyardipteridae

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Timematidae

Timema is a genus of relatively short-bodied, stout stick insects native to the far western United States. The genus was first described in 1895 by Samuel Hubbard Scudder, based on observations of the species Timema californicum. [more]

Tineidae

Tineidae is a family of moths in the order Lepidoptera. Collectively, they are known as fungus moths or tineid moths. The family contains considerably more than 3,000 species in over 300 genera. Most of the tineid moths are small or medium-sized, with wings held roofwise over the body at rest. They are particularly common in the Palaearctic, but many occur elsewhere, and some are found very widely as introduced species. [more]

Tineodidae

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Tingidae

Hemiptera Heteroptera Tingidae Adult specimen of a small (ca. 2 mm) species of Lace bug on Lavandula near Cape Town in South Africa.
Lateral view of Lace bug, showing proboscis and dorsal protuberances.
Lateral view of feeding Lace bug

Tingidae is a family of very small [2-10 mm] insects in the order Hemiptera that are commonly referred to as lace bugs. This group is distributed worldwide with about 2,000 described species. [more]

Tingupidae

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Tintoriniidae

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Tiphiidae

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Tipulidae

A crane fly is an insect in the family Tipulidae. Adults are very slender, long-legged flies that may vary in length from 2?60 millimetres (0.079?2.4 in) though tropical species may exceed to 100 millimetres or 3.9 inches. [more]

Tipulodictyidae

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Tischeriidae

Tischerioidea is the superfamily of "trumpet" leaf miner moths. This is one candidate as the sister group (see also Palaephatoidea) of the bulk of Lepidoptera, the Ditrysia (Davis, 1999; Wiegmann et al., 2002), and they have a monotrysian type of female reproductive system. The superfamily contains just one family and traditionally one genus, Tischeria, but currently three genera are recognised, widespread across the World including South America (Davis, 1986), except for Australasia (Puplesis and Diskus, 2003). These small moths are leaf-miners[1] in the caterpillar stage, feeding mainly on Fagaceae (Tischeria and Coptotriche), Asteraceae and Malvaceae (Astrotischeria), and some also on Rhamnaceae, Tiliaceae and Rosaceae[2][3]. [more]

Tomoceridae

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Torephemeridae

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Torridincolidae

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Tortricidae

Tortricidae is a family of moths, commonly known as tortrix moths, in the order Lepidoptera. Tortricidae is a large family with over 10,350 species described, and is the sole member of the superfamily Tortricoidea. Many of these are economically important pests. Olethreutidae is a junior synonym. The typical resting posture is with the wings folded back producing a rather rounded profile. [more]

Torymidae

Torymidae is a family of wasps that consists of attractive metallic species with enlarged hind legs, and generally with a long ovipositor. Many are parasitoids on gall-forming insects, and some are phytophagous (plant-eating) species, sometimes usurping the galls formed by other insects. There are over 960 species in ca. 70 genera worldwide. They are best recognized in that they are one of the few groups of Chalcidoidea in which the cerci are visible. [more]

Trachygonidae

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Trachysphaeridae

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Triadophlebiidae

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Triadotypidae

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Triassolestidae

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Triassomachilidae

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Triassomanteidae

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Triassothripidae

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Trichoblaniulidae

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Trichoceridae

Trichoceridae, or winter crane flies, of the order Diptera are long, thin, delicate insects superficially similar in appearance to the Tipulidae, Tanyderidae, and Ptychopteridae. The presence of ocelli distinguishes the Trichoceridae from these other families. The adults can be found flying in the fall and the spring and some are active even in the winter, hence their common name. Adults can also be found resting inside caves and hollow logs. Larvae occur in moist habitats where they feed on decaying vegetable matter. [more]

Trichodectidae

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Trichogrammatidae

The family Trichogrammatidae are tiny wasps in the Chalcidoidea that include some of the smallest of all insects, with most species having adults less than 1 mm in length. There are over 840 species in ca. 80 genera worldwide. Trichogrammatids parasitize the eggs of many different orders of insects. As such, they are among the more important biological control agents known, attacking many pest insects (esp. Lepidopterans). [more]

Trichonemasomatidae

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Trichopetalidae

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Trichopolydesmidae

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Trichopsocidae

Trichopsocidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the suborder Psocomorpha. The family includes 11 species in two genera. [more]

Tricoleidae

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Tricorythidae

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Trictenotomidae

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Tridactylidae

The Tridactylidae are a family in the order Orthoptera. They are small, mole-cricket-like insects, almost always less than 20 mm long when mature. Generally they are shiny, dark or black, sometimes variegated or sandy-colored. They commonly live in short tunnels and accordingly are known by common names such as Pygmy mole crickets, though they are not particularly closely related to the true "mole crickets", the (Gryllotalpidae). [more]

Tridontomidae

Tridontomidae is a small family of millipedes. Its members are endemic to Guatemala. [more]

Trigonalidae

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Trigonalyidae

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Trigonidiidae

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Trigonopterygidae

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Triozidae

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Tristiridae

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Troctopsocidae

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Trogidae

The (Trogidae) or hide beetles are a family of beetles with a distinctive warty or bumpy appearance. Found worldwide, the family includes about 300 species contained in three genera. [more]

Trogiidae

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Trogositidae

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Trogossitidae

Trogossitidae is a small family of beetles, in the suborder Polyphaga. Trogossitidae consists of about 600 species. 59 species are found in America about 36 in Australia. [more]

Tropiduchidae

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Trypoxylidae

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Tshekardocoleidae

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Tungidae

Hectopsyllidae is a small family of fleas, containing only the chigoe fleas and the sticktight fleas. They were formerly known as Tungidae, and by authorities that demote the to family rank they are treated as subfamily Hectopsyllinae (formerly Tunginae). Only 2 genera with some handfuls of species are placed here nowadays, making further subdivision of the family unnecessary. [more]

Tuphellidae

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Turanothemistidae

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Typhlobolellidae

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Typhlocybidae

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Uenoidae

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Ulidiidae

Ulidiidae (formerly Otitidae) is a large and diverse cosmopolitan family of flies, and, as in related families, most species are herbivorous or saprophagous. They are often known as picture-winged flies, along with members of other families in the superfamily Tephritoidea that have patterns of bands or spots on the wings. Most species share with the Tephritidae an unusual elongated projection of the anal cell in the wing, but can be differentiated by the smoothly-curving subcostal vein. [more]

Ulophidae

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Umenocoleidae

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Uraniidae

The Uraniidae are a family of moths containing four subfamilies, ninety genera, and roughly seven-hundred species. The family is distributed throughout the tropics of Americas, Africa and Indo-Australia. Some of the tropical species are known for their bright, butterfly-like colors and are called sunset moths (for example Chrysiridia rhipheus). Such moths are apparently toxic and the bright colors are a warning to predators. [more]

Urochordeumatidae

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Urodidae

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Urostylidae

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Uskatelytridae

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Uzelothripidae

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Vaalogonopodidae

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Vanhorniidae

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Veliidae

Veliidae is a family of predatory insects in the suborder Heteroptera. They are commonly known as riffle bugs, smaller water striders or broad-shouldered water striders because the segment immediately behind the head is wider than the rest of the abdomen, unlike in the typical water striders (Gerridae), close relatives which are also in superfamily . Unlike some Gerridae, riffle bugs are small, typically about 4.5 mm. [more]

Velocipedidae

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Verhoeffiidae

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Vermileonidae

The Brachyceran family Vermileonidae (the sole member of the infraorder Vermileonomorpha) is a small family of uncertain affinities and unusual biology, containing fewer than 80 rare species in 10 genera. Historically the Vermileonids had been regarded as belonging to the family Rhagionidae, possibly in a subfamily Vermileoninae. Their biology and morphology is so markedly distinct from the main Rhagionidae sensu stricto, that the placement as a separate family has been widely accepted. [more]

Vermipsyllidae

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Vespidae

The Vespidae are a large (nearly 5,000 species), diverse, cosmopolitan family of wasps, including nearly all the known eusocial wasps and many wasps. Each social wasp colony includes a queen and a number of female workers with varying degrees of sterility relative to the queen. In temperate social species, colonies usually only last one year, dying at the onset of winter. New queens and males (drones) are produced towards the end of the summer, and after mating, the queens hibernate over winter in cracks or other sheltered locations. The nests of most species are constructed out of mud, but polistines and vespines use plant fibers, chewed to form a sort of paper (also true of some stenogastrines). Many species are pollen vectors contributing to the pollination of several plants, being potential or even effective pollinators. [more]

Vianaididae

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Vitimiidae

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Vladipteridae

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Vorkutiidae

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Xamenophlebiidae

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Xenasteiidae

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Xenopteridae

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Xiphiopsyllidae

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Xiphocentronidae

Xiphocentronidae is a family of caddisflies. It has previously been treated as a subfamily of Psychomyiidae, and has a broad distribution, including parts of Asia, Central Africa and the Americas. It contains seven genera, in two subfamilies: [more]

Xiphydriidae

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Xyelidae

The Xyelidae is a small family of sawflies known from fewer than 50 extant species in 5 genera, but with an extensive fossil record; they are the oldest fossil Hymenoptera, dating back to the Triassic, some 200 million years ago. Most species occur in the Northern Hemisphere, especially in boreal regions, though there are a few neotropical species. Most are associated with conifers (esp. Pinus and Abies), where the larvae feed on pollen or within buds, though larvae of a few species feed on the leaves of deciduous trees. [more]

Xyelotomidae

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Xyelydidae

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Xylomyidae

Xylomyidae or wood soldier flies is a family of Diptera associated with dead or dying wood (xylophagous). [more]

Xylophagidae

The Brachyceran infraorder Xylophagomorpha is a small group that consists solely of the family Xylophagidae, which presently contains subfamilies that were sometimes considered to be two small related families (Coenomyiidae and Rachiceridae). Other obsolete names for members of this family include Exeretonevridae and Heterostomidae. [more]

Xyloryctidae

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Xyronotidae

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Xystodesmidae

Xystodesmidae is a family of millipedes. Its members often have very small distributional areas, with many species only known from a single locality. They are found across the northern hemisphere, with peak diversity in the Appalachian Mountains, where one-third of the 300 or so species occur. They are particularly abundant in deciduous broadleaf forests in the Mediterranean Basin, Africa, Asia, Central and North America, and Russia. Information on basic taxonomy is scant for this family; for example, it is estimated that the genus contains over 200 species, but only 25 have so far been described. [more]

Yponomeutidae

The family Yponomeutidae are known as the ermine moths, with several hundred species, most of them in the tropics. The larvae tend to form communal webs, and some are minor pests in agriculture, forestry, and horticulture. Some of the adults are very attractive. Adult moths are minor pollinators. [more]

Zopheridae

Zopheridae is a family of beetles that has grown considerably in recent years as the members of two other families have been included within its circumscription; these former families are the Monommatidae and the Colydiidae, which are now both considered subfamilies within the Zopheridae. There are over 100 genera in the redefined family, and hundreds of species worldwide. There is no vernacular common name for the new family, though some of the constituent subfamilies have their own, including the ironclad beetles, and the cylindrical bark beetles. [more]

Zorotypidae

[more]

Zosteractinidae

[more]

Zygaenidae

The Zygaenidae moths are a family of Lepidoptera. The majority of zygaenids are tropical, but they are nevertheless quite well represented in temperate regions. There are about 1000 species. Various species are commonly known as Burnet or Forester moths, often qualified by the number of spots, although other families also have 'foresters'. They are also sometimes called Smoky moths. [more]

Zygophlebiidae

[more]

More info about the Family Zygophlebiidae may be found here.

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Last Revised: August 25, 2014
2014/08/25 12:51:49