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Vertebrata

(Subphylum)

Overview

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A subphylum of the Chordata, characterised by the possession of a brain enclosed in a skull, ears, kidneys and other organs, and in most vertebrates, a well-formed bony or cartilaginous vertebral column or backbone enclosing the spinal cord. The Vertebrata includes the classes Agnatha (lampreys and hagfish), Holocephali (rabbit fish), Chondrichythes (sharks, dogfishes and rays), Osteichthyes (bony fish), Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves (birds) and Mammalia.

Photos

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Taxonomy

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The Subphylum Vertebrata is a member of the Phylum Chordata. Here is the complete "parentage" of Vertebrata:

The Subphylum Vertebrata is further organized into finer groupings including:

Families

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Abderitidae

[more]

Abelisauridae

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Abrocomidae

Chinchilla rats or chinchillones are members of the family Abrocomidae. This family has few members compared to most rodent families with only 9 known living species. They resemble Chinchillas in appearance, with a similar soft fur and silvery-grey color, but have a body-structure more like a short-tailed rat. They are social, tunnel-dwelling animals, and live in the Andes Mountains of South America. They are probably herbivorous, although this is not clear. [more]

Abyssocottidae

The deep-water sculpins are a small family, Abyssocottidae, of sculpins that are almost entirely restricted to Lake Baikal in Siberia, most of them living at depths below 170 m. [more]

Acanthisittidae

The New Zealand wrens, Acanthisittidae, are a family of tiny passerines endemic to New Zealand. They were represented by six known species in four or five genera, although only two species survive in two genera today. They are understood to form a distinct lineage within the passerines, but authorities differ on their assignment to the oscines or suboscines (the two suborders that between them make up the Passeriformes). More recent studies suggest that they form a third, most ancient, suborder Acanthisitti and have no living close relatives at all. They are called "wrens" due to similarities in appearance and behaviour to the true wrens (Troglodytidae), but are not members of that family. [more]

Acanthizidae

The Acanthizidae, also known as the Australasian warblers, are a family of passerine birds which include gerygones, thornbills, and scrubwrens. The Acanthizidae consists of small to medium passerine birds, with a total length varying between 8 and 19 cm. They have short rounded wings, slender bills, long legs, and a short tail. Most species have olive, grey, or brown plumage, although some have patches of a brighter yellow. The smallest species of acanthizid, and indeed the smallest Australian passerine, is the Weebill, the largest is the Pilotbird [more]

Acanthoclinidae

[more]

Acanthostegidae

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Acanthuridae

Acanthuridae ("thorn tails") is the family of surgeonfishes, tangs, and unicornfishes. The family includes about 80 species in six genera, all of which are marine fish living in tropical seas, usually around coral reefs. Many of the species are brightly colored and popular for aquaria. [more]

Acaremyidae

[more]

Accipitridae

The Accipitridae, one of the two major families within the order Accipitriformes (the diurnal birds of prey), are a family of small to large birds with strongly hooked bills and variable morphology based on diet. They feed on a range of prey items from insects to medium-sized mammals, with a number feeding on carrion and a few feeding on fruit. The Accipitridae have a cosmopolitan distribution, being found on all the world's continents (except Antarctica) and a number of oceanic island groups. Some species are migratory. [more]

Acestrorhynchidae

Acestrorhynchus ("needle jaw" ) is a genus of 14 species of characiform fish found only in freshwater in South America, the sole genus in the family Acestrorhynchidae. Their greatest diversity is in the Orinoco and Amazon basins. [more]

Achiridae

The American soles are a family (Achiridae) of flatfish occurring in both freshwater and marine environments of the Americas. The family includes about 28 species in nine genera. These are closely related to the soles (Soleidae), and have been classified as a subfamily of it, but achirids have a number of distinct characteristics. [more]

Achiropsettidae

The southern (or armless) flounders are a small family of flounders found in Antarctic and sub-Antarctic waters. There are six species of southern flounders in four genera. [more]

Acipenseridae

Sturgeon is the common name used for some 26 species of fish in the family Acipenseridae, including the genera Acipenser, Huso, Scaphirhynchus and Pseudoscaphirhynchus. The term includes over 20 species commonly referred to as sturgeon and several closely related species that have distinct common names, notably sterlet, kaluga and beluga. Collectively, the family is also known as the true sturgeons. Sturgeon is sometimes used more exclusively to refer to the species in the two best-known genera, Acipenser and Huso. [more]

Acleistorhinidae

[more]

Acrobatidae

Acrobatidae is a small family of gliding marsupials containing two genera, each with a single species, the Feathertail Glider (Acrobates pygmaeus) from Australia and Feather-tailed Possum (Distoechurus pennatus) from New Guinea. [more]

Acrochordidae

The Acrochordidae are a monotypic family created for the genus Acrochordus. This is a group of primitive aquatic snakes found in Australia and Indonesia. Currently, 3 species are recognized. [more]

Acrodelphinidae

[more]

Acrolepidae

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Acropomatidae

Acropomatidae, also known as the lanternbellies or the temperate ocean-basses, is a family of perciform fish consisting of 33 marine species. Members of Acropoma are notable for having light-emitting organs alongside their undersides. They are found in all temperate and tropical oceans, usually at depths of several hundred meters. [more]

Actinolepidae

[more]

Adapidae

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Adapisoricidae

Adapisoriculidae is an extinct family of placental mammals present during the Paleocene and possibly Cretaceous. They were once thought to be members of the order Erinaceomorpha, closely related to the Hedgehog family (Erinaceidae), because of their similar dentition, but they are now thought to be basal Euarchontans. They were also thought to be Marsupials at one point. They were small placentals of about 15 cm long, with a tail of equal length. They were probably nocturnal, eating insects and fruits. [more]

Adapisoriculidae

[more]

Adianthidae

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Adocidae

[more]

Adrianichthyidae

The ricefishes are a family (Adrianichthyidae) of small ray-finned fish that are found in fresh and brackish waters from India to Japan and out into the Indo-Australian Archipelago, most notably Sulawesi. The common name of the group derives from the fact that many species are found in Japanese rice paddies. About 27 species, some extremely rare and endangered, and some 2-4 may already be extinct. [more]

Aegialodontidae

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Aegialornithidae

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Aegithalidae

The long-tailed tits or bushtits, Aegithalidae, are a family of small passerine birds. The family contains 13 species in four genera. [more]

Aegithinidae

The ioras are a family, Aegithinidae, of small passerine bird species found in India and southeast Asia. The family has only four species in a single genus, Aegithina. They are one of only three bird families that are entirely endemic to the Indomalayan ecozone. They were formerly grouped with the other two of those families, the leafbirds and fairy-bluebirds, in the family Irenidae. [more]

Aegothelidae

Owlet-nightjars are small nocturnal birds related to the nightjars and frogmouths. Most are native to New Guinea, but some species extend to Australia, the Moluccas, and New Caledonia. A New Zealand species is extinct. There is a single monotypic family Aegothelidae with the genus Aegotheles. [more]

Aepyornithidae

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Aetiocetidae

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Aetosauridae

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Afrotarsiidae

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Agamidae

Agamids, lizards of the family Agamidae, include more than 300 species in Africa, Asia, Australia, and a few in Southern Europe. Many species are commonly called dragons or dragon lizards. [more]

Ageneiosidae

[more]

Agnopteridae

[more]

Agonidae

The poachers are a family (Agonidae) of small bottom-dwelling cold-water marine fish. They are also known as alligatorfishes, starsnouts, hooknoses, and rockheads. Poachers are notable for having elongated bodies covered by scales modified into bony plates, and for using their large pectoral fins to move in short bursts. The family includes about 47 species in some 20 genera, some of which are quite widespread. [more]

Agorophiidae

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Agoutidae

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Agriochoeridae

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Aigialosauridae

Aigialosauridae (Greek, aigialos = "seashore" + sauros= lizard) is family of Late Cretaceous semi-aquatic varanoid lizards, regarded by some paleontologists to form distinct monophyletic group and by others as an adaptive grade within the basal mosasauroids. [more]

Ailuridae

Ailuridae is a family in the mammal order Carnivora. The family includes the Red Panda (the sole living representative) and its extinct relatives. [more]

Aipichthyidae

[more]

Akysidae

The stream catfishes are family Akysidae of catfishes. [more]

Alagomyidae

[more]

Alaudidae

Larks are passerine birds of the family Alaudidae. All species occur in the Old World, and in northern and eastern Australia; only one, the Shore Lark, has spread to North America, where it is called the Horned Lark. Habitats vary widely, but many species live in dry regions. [more]

Albanerpetontidae

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Albionbaataridae

Albionbaataridae is a family of small, extinct mammals within the order Multituberculata. Fossil remains are known from the Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous of Europe and Asia. These herbivores lived their obscure lives during the Mesozoic, also known as the "age of the dinosaurs." They were among the more derived representatives of the informal suborder "Plagiaulacida". The taxon Albionbaataridae was named by Kielan-Jaworowska Z. and Ensom P.C. in 1994. [more]

Albireonidae

[more]

Albulidae

The bonefishes are a family (Albulidae) of ray-finned fish that are popular as game fish in Florida, select locations in the South Pacific, and the Bahamas (where two bonefish are featured on the 10 cent coin) and elsewhere. The family is small, with twelve species in two genera. [more]

Alcedinidae

The river kingfishers or Alcedinidae, are one of the three families of bird in the kingfisher group. The Alcedinidae once included all kingfishers, before the widespread recognition of Halcyonidae (tree-kingfishers) and Cerylidae (water-kingfishers). The family is widespread through Africa, through east and south Asia as far as Australia, with one species, the Common Kingfisher (Alcedo atthis) also appearing in Europe and northern Asia. The origin of the family is thought to have been in Asia. [more]

Alcidae

An auk is a bird of the family Alcidae in the order Charadriiformes. Auks are superficially similar to penguins due to their black-and-white colors, their upright posture and some of their habits. Nevertheless they are not closely related to penguins, but rather are believed to be an example of moderate convergent evolution. [more]

Alepisauridae

Lancetfishes are large oceanic predatory fishes in the genus Alepisaurus ("Scaleless lizard"), the only living genus in the family Alepisauridae. [more]

Alepocephalidae

Slickheads or nakedheads are a family, Alepocephalidae, of marine smelts. They are deep-water fishes most common below 1,000 metres (3,300 ft). They get their name from the lack of scales on the head. Some authors include Bathylaconidae in this family. [more]

Alestiidae

African tetras (family Alestidae, formerly spelled Alestiidae) are a group of Characiformes fish exclusively found in Africa. This family contains about 18 genera and 110 species. Among the best known members are the Congo tetra, and African Tigerfish. [more]

Alexornithidae

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Alligatoridae

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Allomyidae

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Allophrynidae

The Tukeit Hill Frog (Allophryne ruthveni) is one of the two described species in the genus Allophryne (the other one being ), which in turn is the only member of the subfamily Allophryninae, a clade recently placed under the family Centrolenidae (elevated by some authors to the rank of a separate family Allophrynidae). These frogs live in Guyana, Venezuela, Surinam, Brazil and Bolivia. The holotype was discovered at Tukeit Hill, below Kaieteur Falls, Guyana, hence the common English name. [more]

Allosauridae

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Allothrissopidae

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Alopiidae

Thresher sharks are large lamniform sharks of the family Alopiidae. Found in all temperate and tropical oceans of the world, the family contains three species all within the genus Alopias. [more]

Alvarezsauridae

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Alytidae

Discoglossidae is a family of primitive frogs, with the common name Disc-Tongued Frogs. Most are endemic to Europe, but there are also three species in North-West Africa, and an extinct species formerly occurred in Israel. [more]

Amarsipidae

Amarsipus carlsbergi is a small and slender type of fish that lives in equatorial parts of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the only species in the family Amarsipidae. [more]

Ambassidae

The Asiatic glassfishes are a family, Ambassidae, of freshwater and marine fishes in the order Perciformes. The species in the family are native to the waters of Asia and Oceania and the Indian and western Pacific Oceans. The family includes eight genera and about fifty species. [more]

Amblycipitidae

Amblycipitidae is a family of catfishes, commonly known as torrent catfishes. It includes three genera, Amblyceps, Liobagrus, and Xiurenbagrus. [more]

Amblyopsidae

The fish family Amblyopsidae are commonly referred to as cavefish, blindfish, or swampfish. They are small freshwater fish found in the dark environments of swamps, caves and deep lakes. Family members exhibit adaptations to these dark environments, including the lack of functional eyes and, in some species, the absence of pigmentation. There are more than 80 known varieties of cavefish. [more]

Amblypteridae

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Ambulocetidae

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Ambystomatidae

The mole salamanders (genus Ambystoma) are a group of salamanders endemic to North America, the only genus in the family Ambystomatidae. The group has become famous due to the presence of the Axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), widely used in research, and the Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum, Ambystoma mavortium) which is the official amphibian of many states, and often sold as a pet. [more]

Amiidae

Amiidae is a family of primitive ray-finned fish. Only one species, Amia calva, the bowfin, survives today, although additional species in all four subfamilies are known from Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Eocene fossils. [more]

Amilnedwardsiidae

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Ammodytidae

A sand lance or sandlance is a fish belonging to the family Ammodytidae. Several species of sand lance are commonly known as "sand eels" or "sandeels", though they are not related to true eels. Another variant name is launce, and all names of the fish are references to its slender body and pointed snout. The family name (and genus name, ) means "sand burrower", which describes the sand lance's habit of burrowing into sand to avoid tidal currents. [more]

Amphibamidae

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Amphicentridae

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Amphicyonidae

Amphicyonidae is an extinct family of large terrestrial carnivores belonging to the suborder Caniformia (meaning "dog-like") and which inhabited North America, Europe, Asia, and Africa from the Middle Eocene subepoch to the Pleistocene epoch 46.2?1.8 Mya, existing for approximately 44.4 million years. [more]

Amphidontidae

The Amphidontidae are a family of extinct mammals from the Early Creataceous, belonging to the triconodonts. It contains most of the species previously belonged to Amphilestidae. [more]

Amphignathodontidae

The marsupial frogs are a disputed family (Amphignathodontidae) in the order Anura. Where it is treated as a separate family, it consists of two genera, Gastrotheca, and Flectonotus. These frogs are native to Neotropical America (Central America & South America). Under other classifications, these are treated as part of family Hemiphractidae. There is still an active question as to which classification is correct. [more]

Amphilemuridae

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Amphilestidae

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Amphiliidae

Loach catfishes, Amphiliidae, are a family of catfishes (order Siluriformes). They are widespread in tropical Africa but are most common in streams at high elevations; most species are able to cling to rocks in fast-flowing streams. There are 13 genera and 68 species. [more]

Amphimerycidae

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Amphisbaenia

The Amphisbaenia (or worm lizards) are a usually legless suborder of squamates closely related to lizards and snakes, comprising over 130 extant species. As many species possess a pink body coloration and scales arranged in rings, they have a superficial resemblance to earthworms. They are very poorly understood, due to their burrowing lifestyle and general rarity. Most species are found in Africa and South America, with a few in other parts of the world. Little is known of them outside of their anatomy, and even that is difficult to study due to the mechanics of dissecting something so small. Most species are less than 6 inches (150 mm) long. [more]

Amphisbaenidae

The Amphisbaenidae are a family of amphisbaenians, commonly known as worm lizards. They are found in North and South America, some Caribbean islands, and in sub-Saharan Africa. One deep branching and somewhat aberrant genus, Blanus, is native to Europe, and may represent a distinct family. [more]

Amphistiidae

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Amphitheriidae

Amphitheriida is an order of mesozoic mammals restricted to the Middle Jurassic of Britain. They were closely related to the Dryolestids but possessed five molars instead of the usual four in Dryolestida, (with the exception of the family Dryolestidae whose members possessed between 8 and 9 molars). The Amphitheriida contains one family, the Amphitheriidae. [more]

Amphiumidae

A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[1] [more]

Amynodontidae

[more]

Anabantidae

The Anabantidae are a family of perciform fish commonly called the climbing gouramies or climbing perches. As labyrinth fishes, they possess a labyrinth organ, a structure in the fish's head which allows them to breathe atmospheric oxygen. Fish of this family are commonly seen gulping at air at the surface of the water; which then passes out of their gills or mouth when they dive beneath the surface. [more]

Anablepidae

Anablepidae is a family of freshwater and brackish water fishes living on river estuaries from southern Mexico to southern South America. There are three genera with sixteen species: the four-eyed fishes (genus Anableps), the onesided livebearers (genus Jenynsia) and the white-eye, Oxyzygonectes dovii. Fish of this family eat mostly insects and other invertebrates. [more]

Anacanthobatidae

The smooth skates or leg skates are the sole genus, Anacanthobatis, of the skate, family Anacanthobatidae. It has ten described species. [more]

Anagalidae

[more]

Anarhichadidae

The wolffish are a family, Anarhichadidae, of perciform fish. They are native to cold waters of the northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, where they live on the continental shelf and slope, to depths of about 600 metres (2,000 ft). They are bottom-feeders, eating hard-shelled invertebrates such as clams, echinoderms and crustaceans, which they crush with strong canine and molar teeth. The longest species, Anarrhichthys ocellatus, grows to more than 2 metres (6.6 ft) in length. [more]

Anatidae

Anatidae is the biological family of birds that includes ducks, geese and swans. The family has a cosmopolitan distribution, occurring on all the world's continents except Antarctica and on most of the world's islands and island groups. These are birds that can swim, float on the water surface, and in some cases dive in at least shallow water. (The Magpie Goose is no longer[] considered to be part of the Anatidae, but is placed in its own family Anseranatidae.) The family contains around 146 species in 40 genera. They are generally herbivorous, and are monogamous breeders. A number of species undertake annual migrations. A few species have been domesticated for agriculture, and many others are hunted for food and recreation. Five species have become extinct since 1600, and many more are threatened with extinction. [more]

Anchariidae

[more]

Anchilophidae

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Anchisauridae

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Anchisauripodidae

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Andinichthyidae

Andinichthyidae is an extinct family of catfish. [more]

Angelinornithidae

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Anguidae

Anguidae is a large and diverse family of lizards native to the northern hemisphere. The group includes the slowworms, glass lizards, and alligator lizards, among others. Anguidae is divided into three subfamilies and contains 94 species in eight genera. Their closest living relatives are the helodermatid lizards. They have hard osteoderms beneath their scales, and many of the species have reduced or absent limbs, giving them a snake-like appearance, although others are fully limbed. [more]

Anguillavidae

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Anguillidae

Anguillidae is a family of fishes that contains the freshwater eels. There are 19 species and 6 subspecies in this family, all in genus Anguilla. They are catadromous, meaning they spend their lives in freshwater rivers, lakes, or estuaries and return to the ocean to spawn. The young eel larvae, called leptocephali, live only in the ocean and consume small particles called marine snow. They grow larger in size, and in their next growth stage they are called glass eels. At this stage they enter estuaries and when they become pigmented they are known as elvers. Elvers travel upstream in freshwater rivers where they grow to adulthood. Some details of eel reproduction are as yet unknown, and the discovery of the spawning area of the American and European eels in the Sargasso Sea is one of the more famous anecdotes in the history of Ichthyology (see Eel life history). The spawning areas of some other anguillid eels, such as the Japanese eel, and the giant mottled eel were also discovered recently in the western North Pacific Ocean. [more]

Anguilloididae

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Anhangueridae

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Anhimidae

The screamers are a small family of birds, the Anhimidae. For a long time they were thought to be related to the Galliformes because of similar bills, but they are truly related to ducks (family Anatidae), most closely to the Magpie Goose (which some DNA evidence suggests[] are closer to screamers than to ducks). The family is exceptional within the living birds in lacking uncinate processes of ribs. [more]

Anhingidae

The darters or snakebirds are mainly tropical waterbirds in the family Anhingidae. There are four living species, three of which are very common and widespread while the fourth is rarer and classified as near-threatened by the IUCN. The term "snakebird" is usually used without any additions to signify whichever of the completely allopatric species occurs in any one region. It refers to their long thin neck, which has a snake-like appearance when they swim with their bodies submerged, or when mated pairs twist it during their bonding displays. "Darter" is used with a geographical term when referring to particular species. It alludes to their manner of procuring food, as they impale fishes with their thin, pointed beak. The American Darter (A. anhinga) is more commonly known as the Anhinga. It is sometimes called "water turkey" in the southern United States for little clearly apparent reason; though the Anhinga is quite unrelated to the wild turkey, they are both large, blackish birds with long tails that are sometimes hunted for food. [more]

Aniliidae

The Aniliidae are a monotypic family created for the monotypic genus Anilius that contains the species A. scytale, found in South America. This snake possesses a vestigial pelvic girdle that is visible as a pair of cloacal spurs. It is ovoviviparous. The diet consists mainly of amphibians and other reptiles. Currently, two subspecies are recognized, including the typical form described here. [more]

Ankylosauridae

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Anniellidae

The family Anniellidae, known as American legless lizards contains two species in a single genus Anniella: A. pulchra, the California Legless Lizard, and the rare, A. geronimensis, Baja California Legless Lizard. [more]

Anomalepidae

[more]

Anomalepididae

The Anomalepididae are a family of nonvenomous snakes found in Central and South America. They are similar to Typhlopidae, except that some species possess a single tooth in the lower jaw. Currently, 4 genera and 15 species are recognized. [more]

Anomalomyidae

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Anomalopheidae

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Anomalophiidae

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Anomalopidae

The flashlight fish are a family, the Anomalopidae, of beryciform fish. There are some unrelated fish with similar features, some of which are also called flashlight fish. Notable among these are the deep sea lanternfish, of the family Myctophidae, of which there are over 200 species. [more]

Anomaluridae

Anomaluridae is a family of rodents found in central Africa. They are known as anomalures or scaly-tailed squirrels. There are seven extant species, classified into three genera. Most are brightly colored. [more]

Anomochilidae

The Anomochilidae, or anomochilids, are a monotypic family created for the genus Anomochilus, which currently contains 3 monotypic species. [more]

Anomoepodidae

[more]

Anoplogasteridae

Fangtooths are beryciform fish of the family Anoplogastridae (sometimes spelled "Anoplogasteridae") that live in the deep sea. The name is from Greek anoplo meaning "unarmed" and gaster meaning "stomach". With a circumglobal distribution in tropical and cold-temperate waters, the family contains only two very similar species, in one genus, with no known close relatives: the common fangtooth, Anoplogaster cornuta, found worldwide; and the shorthorned fangtooth, Anoplogaster brachycera, found in the tropical waters of the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean. [more]

Anoplogastridae

Fangtooths are beryciform fish of the family Anoplogastridae (sometimes spelled "Anoplogasteridae") that live in the deep sea. The name is from Greek anoplo meaning "unarmed" and gaster meaning "stomach". With a circumglobal distribution in tropical and cold-temperate waters, the family contains only two very similar species, in one genus, with no known close relatives: the common fangtooth, Anoplogaster cornuta, found worldwide; and the shorthorned fangtooth, Anoplogaster brachycera, found in the tropical waters of the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean. [more]

Anoplopomatidae

The sablefishes are a family, Anoplopomatidae, of scorpaeniform fishes. They are found in coastal waters of the north Pacific from Japan to California, where they live near the sea floor in deep water: the sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria, has been found down to 1,830 metres (6,000 ft). They are large fish, with the skilfish being up to 180 centimetres (5.9 ft) in length. They are commercially important fishes, and are often given the market name blackcod. [more]

Anoplotheriidae

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Anostomidae

The Anostomidae are a family of ray-finned fishes that belong to the order Characiformes. Closely related to the Chilodontidae and formerly included with them, the Anostomidae contain over 140 described species. Commonly known as anostomids, they are found in freshwater habitats from the R?o Atrato in northernmost South America to warm-temperate central Argentina; they are of Amazonian origin, with few found west of the Andes (mainly in Colombia and Venezuela). Their scientific name approximately means "mouth on top", from Ancient Greek ?no- (???) "up" (as an adverb) + st?ma (st???) "mouth", in reference to the arrangement of these fishes' mouth opening. [more]

Anotopteridae

The daggertooths (genus Anotopterus) are a genus of aulopiform fish, the sole genus of the family Anotopteridae. They are found in oceans worldwide, but prefer cooler waters. [more]

Anseranatidae

Anseranatidae, the magpie-geese, is a biological family of waterbirds. It is a unique member of the order Anseriformes. The only living species, the Magpie Goose, is a resident breeder in northern Australia and in southern New Guinea. [more]

Antennariidae

Frogfishes, family Antennariidae, are a type of anglerfish in the order Lophiiformes. They are known as anglerfishes in Australia, where 'frogfish' refers to a different type of fish. Frogfishes are found in almost all tropical and subtropical oceans and seas around the world, the primary exception being the Mediterranean Sea. [more]

Anteosauridae

The Anteosauridae or Anteosaurinae are a family (e.g. Boonstra 1963, 1969, Carroll 1988) or subfamily (e.g. Hopson & Barghusen 1986, King 1988) of very large carnivorous Dinocephalia (Anteosaurs) that are known from the Middle Permian of Russia (Doliosauriscus, Titanophoneus) and South Africa (Anteosaurus). The Russian genera were previously included by Efremov in the Brithopodidae. [more]

Anthracobunidae

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Anthracotheriidae

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Antilocapridae

Antilocapridae is a family of artiodactyls endemic to North America. Their closest extant relatives are the giraffids. Only one species, the pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), is living today; all other members of the family are extinct. The living pronghorn is a small ruminant mammal resembling an antelope. It bears small, forked horns. [more]

Anurognathidae

The Anurognathidae were a group of small pterosaurs, with short tails or tailless, that lived in Europe and Asia during the Jurassic and early Cretaceous periods. Four genera are known: Anurognathus, from the Late Jurassic of Germany, Jeholopterus, from the Middle or Late Jurassic of China, Dendrorhynchoides, from the Early Cretaceous of China, and Batrachognathus, from the Late Jurassic of Kazakhstan. Bennett (2007) claimed that the holotype of Mesadactylus, BYU 2024, a synsacrum, belonged to an Anurognathid. Mesadactylus is from the Late Jurassic Morrison Formation of the USA. Indeterminate Anurognathid remains have also been reported from the Middle Jurassic Bakhar Svita of Mongolia. [more]

Aotidae

The night monkeys, also known as the owl monkeys or douroucoulis, are the members of the genus Aotus of New World monkeys (monotypic in family Aotidae). They are widely distributed in the forests of Central and South America, from Panama south to Paraguay and northern Argentina. The species that live at higher elevations tend to have thicker fur than the monkeys at sea level. The genus name means "earless"; they have ears, of course, but the external ears are tiny and hard to see. Night monkeys have big brown eyes and therefore have increased ability to be active at night. They are called night monkeys because all species are active at night and are in fact the only truly nocturnal monkeys (an exception is the subspecies , which is cathemeral). Both male and female night monkeys weigh almost the same amount. For example, in one of these Night Monkeys, A. azarae, the male weighs 2.76 pounds while the female weighs 2.75 pounds. [more]

Apatemyidae

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Aphredoderidae

The pirate perch, Aphredoderus sayanus, is a freshwater fish of the Percopsiformes order. This small fish is native to the eastern half of North America. It is dark brown, sometimes with a darker band near the base tail. A unique feature of this fish is the forward placement of its cloaca, under the head, anterior to the pelvic fins. This placement allows the females to place their eggs more precisely into root masses. [more]

Aphyonidae

Aphyonidae is a family of eel-like fishes in the order Ophidiiformes. They are found in tropical and subtropical waters throughout the world. They are deep-sea fishes, living between 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) and 6,000 metres (20,000 ft) depth. [more]

Apistidae

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Aploactinidae

Little velvetfishes or simply velvetfishes are a family, the Aploactinidae, of scorpaeniform fishes. [more]

Aplocheilidae

Aplocheilidae are a family of bony fishes containing about 15 species. Formerly, the name "Aplocheilidae" was used for the as a whole, i.e. including the Nothobranchiidae of Africa and the mainly South American Rivulidae as subfamilies. This obsolete system is sometimes still seen, e.g. in ITIS. [more]

Aplodactylidae

Marblefishes are a family, Aplodactylidae, of perciform fishes. They are native to southern Australia, New Zealand, Peru and Chile. [more]

Aplodontidae

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Aplodontiidae

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Apodidae

The swifts are a family, Apodidae, of highly aerial birds. They are superficially similar to swallows, but are actually not closely related to passerine species at all; swifts are in the separate order Apodiformes, which they share with hummingbirds. The treeswifts are closely related to the true swifts, but form a separate family, the Hemiprocnidae. [more]

Apogonidae

Cardinalfishes are a family, Apogonidae, of ray-finned fishes. They are found in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans, they are chiefly marine, but some species are found in brackish water. A handful of species are kept in the aquarium and are popular as small, peaceful, and colorful fish. [more]

Apternodontidae

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Apteronotidae

The ghost knifefishes are a family, Apteronotidae, of ray-finned fishes in the order Gymnotiformes. These fish can be found in the freshwater of Panama and South America. [more]

Apterygidae

Kiwi are flightless birds endemic to New Zealand, in the genus Apteryx and family Apterygidae. [more]

Aptornithidae

The adzebills, genus Aptornis, were two closely related bird species, the North Island Adzebill, Aptornis otidiformis, and the South Island Adzebill, Aptornis defossor, of the extinct family Aptornithidae. The family was endemic to New Zealand. [more]

Aracanidae

The Aracanidae are a family of bony fishes related to the boxfishes. They are somewhat more primitive than the true boxfishes, but have a similar protective covering of thickened scale plates. They are found in the Indian Ocean and the west Pacific. Unlike the true boxfishes, they inhabit deep waters, of over 200 metres (660 ft) in depth. [more]

Araeoscelididae

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Arambourgellidae

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Aramidae

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Arapaimidae

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Araripichthyidae

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Archaeohyracidae

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Archaeolemuridae

The Monkey lemurs or Baboon lemurs are an extinct type of lemurs that includes one family, Archaeolemuridae, two genera (Hadropithecus and Archaeolemur) and three species. Despite their common names, members of Archaeolemuridae were not as closely related to monkeys as they were to other lemurs. [more]

Archaeonycteridae

Archaeonycteridae (formerly spelled Archaeonycterididae) is a family of extinct bats. It was originally erected by the Swiss naturalist Pierre Revilliod as Archaeonycterididae to hold the genus Archaeonycteris. It was formerly classified under the superfamily Icaronycteroidea (disused) by Kurten and Anderson in 1980. In 2007, the spelling was corrected to Archaeonycteridae and it was reclassified to the unranked clade by Smith et al.. The family Palaeochiropterygidae was also merged into Archaeonycteridae by Kurten and Anderson, but modern authorities specializing in bat fossils maintain the distinction between the two. [more]

Archaeonycterididae

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Archaeophiidae

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Archaeopithecidae

Archaeopithecidae is an extinct family comprising two genera of notoungulate mammals, and Archaeopithecus, both known from the early Eocene of South America (McKenna and Bell, 1997). [more]

Archaeopterygidae

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Archaeotrogonidae

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Archegosauridae

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Archeriidae

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Arctocyonidae

Arctocyonidae (from Greek arktos ky?n, "bear/dog-like") is an extinct family of unspecialized, primitive mammals with more than 20 genera most abundant during the Paleocene, but extant from the late Cretaceous to the early Eocene (65.5 to 50 million years ago). These animals are thought to be the ancestors of the orders Mesonychia and Cetartiodactyla. [more]

Arctostylopidae

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Ardeidae

The herons are long-legged freshwater and coastal birds in the family Ardeidae. There are 64 recognised species in this family. Some are called "egrets" or "bitterns" instead of "heron". [more]

Ardeosauridae

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Areoscelidae

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Argentinidae

The herring smelts or argentines are a family, Argentinidae, of marine smelts. They are similar in appearance to smelts (family Osmeridae) but have much smaller mouths. [more]

Arginbaataridae

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Arguimuridae

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Arguitheriidae

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Argyrolagidae

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Arhynchobatidae

Skates are cartilaginous fish belonging to the family Rajidae in the superorder Batoidea of rays. There are more than 200 described species in 27 genera. There are two subfamilies, Rajinae (hardnose skates) and Arhynchobatinae (softnose skates). [more]

Ariidae

The Ariidae or ariid catfish are a family of catfish that mainly live in marine waters with many freshwater and brackish water species. They are found worldwide in tropical to warm temperate zones. [more]

Ariommatidae

Ariommatidae is a family of perciform fishes. The family contains a single genus Ariomma. [more]

Ariommidae

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Armintomyidae

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Aromobatidae

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Arriidae

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Arripidae

Australian Salmon, (known as 'Kahawai' in New Zealand), are medium-sized perciform marine fish of the small family Arripidae (sometimes incorrectly spelled Arripididae). Four species are recognized, all within the genus Arripis. Despite the common name, Australian Salmon are not related to the salmon (Salmonidae) of the Northern Hemisphere; the former were named so by early European settlers after their superficial resemblance to the salmoniform fishes. [more]

Arsinoitheriidae

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Artedidraconidae

Artedidraconidae is a family of marine perciform fishes comprising four genera. Artedidraconidae are endemic to deep waters off Antarctica. The operculum carries a hook-shaped spine and there are four or five . Artedidraconidae have 33 to 41 vertebrae. The name "Artedidraconidae" is derived from a combination of Artedi (from Peter Artedi, the "father of ichthyology") and the Greek drakon (d?????, dragon). A mental barbel is a characteristic of this family; the morphology of this barbel is variable with the species. Species of Artedidraconidae are said to have speciated sympatrically. [more]

Arthroleptidae

Arthroleptidae () is a family of frogs found in Sub-Saharan Africa. They are also known as squeakers because of their high-pitched call. They are small, less than 4 centimetres (1.6 in) in length, terrestrial frogs found mostly in leaf litter on the forest floor. They completely bypass any aquatic stage, and therefore do not have tadpoles. They lay their eggs on the ground, in crevices or in leaf litter, and the offspring undergo direct development. Some species hatch already completely metamorphosed into the adult form, while others still have tails when they hatch. [more]

Artzosuchidae

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Ascaphidae

The tailed frogs are two species of frogs. The species are part of the genus, Ascaphus is the only taxon in the family Ascaphidae (). The "tail" in the name is actually an extension of the male cloaca. The tail is one of two distinctive anatomical features adapting the species to life in fast-flowing streams. It is the only North American frog that reproduces by internal fertilization. [more]

Asiatheriidae

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Aspidorhynchidae

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Aspredinidae

The Aspredinidae are a small South American family of catfishes (order Siluriformes) also known as the banjo catfishes. [more]

Asterosteidae

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Astrapotheriidae

Astrapotheria is an extinct order of South American hoofed animals. The history of this order is enigmatic, but it may taxonomically belong to Meridiungulata (along with Notoungulata, Litopterna and Pyrotheria). In turn, Meridungulata is believed to belong to the extant superorder Laurasiatheria. However, some scientists regard the astrapotheres (and sometimes the Meridiungulata all together) to be members of the clade Atlantogenata. An example of this order is Astrapotherium magnum. When alive, Astrapotherium might have resembled a mastodon, but was only three meters (ten feet) long. [more]

Astraspidae

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Astroblepidae

Astroblepus is a genus of catfish (order Siluriformes) which contains 55 species. It is the sole genus in the family Astroblepidae, the most species-rich family in which there is a single genus. These fish are known as the naked sucker-mouth catfishes or the climbing catfishes. [more]

Astronesthidae

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Astylosternidae

Arthroleptidae () is a family of frogs found in Sub-Saharan Africa. They are also known as squeakers because of their high-pitched call. They are small, less than 4 centimetres (1.6 in) in length, terrestrial frogs found mostly in leaf litter on the forest floor. They completely bypass any aquatic stage, and therefore do not have tadpoles. They lay their eggs on the ground, in crevices or in leaf litter, and the offspring undergo direct development. Some species hatch already completely metamorphosed into the adult form, while others still have tails when they hatch. [more]

Ateleaspidae

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Ateleopodidae

The jellynose fishes or tadpole fishes are the small order Ateleopodiformes. This group of ray-finned fish is monotypic, containing a single family Ateleopodidae. It has about one dozen species in four genera, but these enigmatic fishes are in need of taxonomic revision.  [more]

Atelidae

Atelidae is one of the five families of New World monkeys now recognised. It was formerly included in the family Cebidae. Atelids are generally larger monkeys; the family includes the howler, spider, woolly and woolly spider monkeys (the latter being the largest of the New World monkeys). They are found throughout the forested regions of Central and South America, from Mexico to northern Argentina. [more]

Atherinidae

The Old World silversides are a family, Atherinidae, of fish in the order Atheriniformes. They occur worldwide in tropical and temperate waters. About two thirds of the species are marine, and the remainder live in fresh water. [more]

Atherinopsidae

The neotropical silversides are a family Atherinopsidae of fish in the order Atheriniformes. The approximately 104 species in 13 genera are distributed throughout the tropical and temperate waters of the New World, including both marine and freshwater habitats. The familiar grunions and Atlantic silverside belong to this family. [more]

Atherionidae

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Atoposauridae

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Atractaspididae

The Atractaspididae are a family of snakes found in Africa and the Middle East. Currently, 12 genera are recognized. [more]

Atrichornithidae

Scrub-birds are shy, secretive, ground-dwelling birds of the family Atrichornithidae. There are just two species. The Rufous scrub-bird is rare and very restricted in its range, and the Noisy scrub-bird is so rare that until 1961 it was thought to be extinct. Both are native to Australia. [more]

Auchenipteridae

The driftwood catfishes are catfishes of the family Auchenipteridae. [more]

Aulopidae

The Aulopidae are a small family of aulopiform fish, containing the single genus Aulopus. They are found in most tropical and subtropical oceans, being absent only in the eastern Pacific and commonly known as flagfins. [more]

Aulopodidae

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Aulorhynchidae

The tube-snouts are a family, the Aulorhynchidae, of fish related to the sticklebacks. There are only two species in the family, each placed in its own genus. Both are found in shallow marine waters, with one living off the west coast of North America, and the other off the coast of Japan. [more]

Aulostomidae

The family Aulostomidae is a monogeneric family of highly specialized, tubularly-elongated marine fishes commonly known as trumpetfishes. Aulostomids belong to the order Syngnathiformes, along with the seahorses and the similarly built cornetfishes. There are three distinct species for the family's sole genus, Aulostomus. [more]

Australochelidae

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Austrotriconodontidae

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Avimimidae

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Avisauridae

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Azhdarchidae

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Bachitheriidae

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Badidae

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Baenidae

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Bagridae

Bagridae are a family of catfish that originate from Africa and Asia from Japan to Borneo. These fish are commonly known as naked catfishes or bagrid catfishes. [more]

Balaenicipitidae

The Shoebill (Balaeniceps rex) also known as Whalehead or Shoe-billed Stork, is a very large stork-like bird. It derives its name from its massive shoe-shaped bill. The adult bird is 115 to 150 centimeters (45 to 59 in) tall, 100 to 140 centimeters (39 to 55 in) long, 230 to 260 centimeters (91 to 100 in) across the wingspan and weighs 4 to 7 kilograms (8.8 to 15 lb). Their beaks have an average length of 30 centimeters (12 in). The adult is mainly grey while the juveniles are browner. It lives in tropical east Africa in large swamps from Sudan to Zambia. [more]

Balaenidae

Balaenidae () is a family of mysticete whales that contains two living genera. Commonly called the right whales as it contains mainly right whale species. This name can be confusing, however, since one of the species is the Bowhead Whale, which is different from the right whales. [more]

Balaenopteridae

Rorquals () (family Balaenopteridae) are the largest group of baleen whales, with nine species in two genera. They include the largest animal that has ever lived, the blue whale, which can reach 150 tonnes (170 short tons), and another that reaches 70 tonnes (77 short tons); even the smallest of the group, the northern minke whale, reaches 9 tonnes (9.9 short tons). [more]

Balistidae

Triggerfishes are about 40 species of often brightly colored fishes of the family Balistidae. Often marked by lines and spots, they inhabit tropical and subtropical oceans throughout the world, with the greatest species richness in the Indo-Pacific. Most are found in relatively shallow, coastal habitats, especially at coral reefs, but a few, such as the aptly named oceanic triggerfish (Canthidermis maculata), are pelagic. While several species from this family are popular in the marine aquarium trade, they are often notoriously ill-tempered. [more]

Balitoridae

The hillstream loaches or river loaches are a family, the Balitoridae, of small Eurasian fish (a single species, Afronemacheilus abyssinicus is from Africa). Many of the species are popular for aquaria. They have a number of similarities with the Cobitidae, their sibling family of "loaches", such as multiple barbels around the mouth. They should not be confused with the loricariids, which look similar but are a family of catfish. [more]

Banjosidae

The Banjofish (Banjos banjos) is a perciform fish, the only species in the genus Banjos and in the family Banjosidae. [more]

Baphetidae

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Baptanodontidae

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Baptornithidae

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Barbereniidae

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Barbourisiidae

The velvet whalefish, Barbourisia rufa, is a deep-sea whalefish, the sole known member of its family Barbourisiidae. It is found throughout the tropical and temperate parts of the world's oceans, mainly in the Pacific near Japan and New Zealand, at depths of 300 to 2,000 m. This species seems very closely related to some flabby whalefishes and it was initially believed to belong into that family by some. They have been found from 65?N to 40?S in the Atlantic, 50?N to 50?S in the Pacific, and 5?20?S in the Indian Ocean. [more]

Barylambdidae

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Baryonychidae

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Barytheriidae

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Basilosauridae

Basilosauridae is family of extinct cetaceans that lived in tropical seas during the late Eocene. [more]

Bataguridae

Geoemydidae (formerly known as Bataguridae) is the largest and most diverse family[] in the order Testudines (turtles) with about 70 species. It includes the Eurasian pond and river turtles and Neotropical wood turtles. [more]

Bathornithidae

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Bathyclupeidae

The deepsea herrings are perciform fishes belonging to a small family (Bathyclupeidae) with a single genus (Bathyclupea) containing seven species of deep water fishes. [more]

Bathydraconidae

The Antarctic dragonfishes are a family, Bathydraconidae, of deep-sea perciform fishes. [more]

Bathyergidae

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Bathyergoididae

Bathyergoides is an extinct genus of rodent from Africa thought to be related to the modern blesmols. It is the only member of the family Bathyergoididae. [more]

Bathylaconidae

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Bathylagidae

The deep-sea smelts are a family, Bathylagidae, of marine smelts. [more]

Bathylutichthyidae

Bathylutichthys taranetzi is the only species of the fish family Bathylutichthyidae (the Atlantic sculpins). It is a deep sea fish with a length of about 10 cm, and has been found exclusively in the vicinity of the South Georgia Island in the Southern Ocean at depths of 1650 metres. [more]

Bathymasteridae

Ronquils (sometimes spelt ronchils) are perciform marine fish of the small family Bathymasteridae. Found only in Arctic and North Pacific waters, the ronquil family contains just seven species in three genera. The larger species are important to commercial fisheries as food fish. Ronquils are most closely related to the eelpouts and prowfish. [more]

Bathysauridae

The Bathysauridae are a small family of deep water aulopiform fish, related to the telescopefishes. There are just two species in the family, both belonging to the genus Bathysaurus. Commonly called deepwater lizardfishes or "deepsea lizardfishes", the latter name usually refers to the species B. ferox specifically. [more]

Bathysauroididae

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Batrachiderpetontidae

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Batrachoididae

Batrachoididae is the only family in the ray-finned fish order Batrachoidiformes. Fish in this family are usually called toadfish: both the English common name and scientific name refer to their toad-like appearance (batrakhos is Greek for frog). [more]

Batrachopodidae

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Batrachosauroididae

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Batrachostomidae

The frogmouths are a group of nocturnal birds related to the nightjars. They are found from the Indian Subcontinent across Southeast Asia to Australia. [more]

Bauriidae

Bauriidae is a family of therocephalian therapsids. Bauriids are among the most advanced eutherocephalians and possess several mammal-like features such as a secondary palate. Unlike other therocephalians, bauriids were herbivorous. Two subfamilies are classified within Bauriidae: Nothogomphodontinae and Bauriinae. [more]

Baurusuchidae

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Bavarisauridae

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Bedotiidae

Bedotiidae is a family of fish known as the Madagascar rainbowfish, Madagascan rainbowfish, or Malagasy rainbowfish due to their endemism to Madagascar. It includes two genera, Bedotia and Rheocles. [more]

Belonidae

Needlefish (family Belonidae) are piscivorous fishes primarily associated with very shallow marine habitats or the surface of the open sea. Some genera include species found in marine, brackish, and freshwater environments (e.g., Strongylura) while a few genera are confined to freshwater rivers and streams, including Belonion, Potamorrhaphis, and Xenentodon. Needlefish closely resemble North American freshwater gars (family Lepisosteidae) in being elongated and having long, narrow jaws filled with sharp teeth, and some species of needlefish are referred to as gars or garfish despite being only distantly related to the true gars. In fact the name "garfish" was originally used for the needlefish Belone belone in Europe and only later applied to the North American fishes by European settlers during the 18th century. [more]

Belontiidae

Gouramis are a family, Osphronemidae, of freshwater perciform fishes. The fish are native to Asia, from Pakistan and India to the Malay Archipelago and north-easterly towards Korea. The name "gourami" is also used for fish of the families Helostomatidae and Anabantidae. "Gouramis" is an example of a redundant plural. Gourami is already plural, in its original language. [more]

Bemalambdidae

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Bembridae

The Deep-water flatheads are a family, the Bembridae, of bottom-dwelling fish. They are thought to be more primitive than their close relatives, the true flatheads. Despite the common name, their heads are only slightly flattened and have spiny ridges. [more]

Benthosuchidae

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Bernardichthyidae

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Bernissartiidae

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Berycidae

The Berycidae is a small family of deep sea fishes, related to the squirrelfishes. The family includes the alfonsinos and the nannygais. [more]

Bipedidae

Bipedidae, are a family of amphisbaenians. They are found only in Mexico. Ajolotes are carnivorous, burrowing reptiles, but unlike other species of amphisbaenian, they possess two stubby forelimbs placed far forward on the body. The shovel-like limbs are used to scrape away soil while burrowing through the soil, in a similar manner to a mole. [more]

Birgeriidae

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Birkeniidae

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Blenniidae

Combtooth blennies are blennioids; perciform marine fish of the family Blenniidae. They are the largest family of blennies, with approximately 371 species in 53 genera represented. Combtooth blennies are found in tropical and subtropical waters in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans; some species are also found in brackish and even freshwater environments. [more]

Blikanasauridae

The Blikanasauridae were a group of early sauropodomorph dinosaurs. The clade was first proposed by Galton and van Heerden in 1985. The family consists of Blikanasaurus and its nearest relatives. However, it is not clear which other genera are included in the family. The family is not used in many current taxonomies; Benton (2004) does not list the clade. The Blikanasaurids were once considered Prosauropods, but new research indicates they may in fact have been basal Sauropods. [more]

Boidae

The Boidae are a family of nonvenomous snakes found in America, Africa, Europe, Asia and some Pacific Islands. Relatively primitive snakes, adults are medium to large in size, with females usually larger than the males. Two subfamilies comprising eight genera and 43 species are currently recognized. [more]

Bolodontidae

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Bolosauridae

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Bolyeridae

The Bolyeriidae are a family of snakes native to Mauritius and a few islands around it, especially Round Island. In the past they also occurred on the island of Mauritius, but were extirpated there due to human influence and foraging pigs in particular. These snakes were formerly placed in the Boidae, but are now classed as a separate family. Currently, two monotypic genera are recognized, but only a single species is extant. [more]

Bolyeriidae

The Bolyeriidae are a family of snakes native to Mauritius and a few islands around it, especially Round Island. In the past they also occurred on the island of Mauritius, but were extirpated there due to human influence and foraging pigs in particular. These snakes were formerly placed in the Boidae, but are now classed as a separate family. Currently, two monotypic genera are recognized, but only a single species is extant. [more]

Bombinatoridae

Bombinatoridae are often referred to as Fire-bellied toads because of their brightly colored ventral sides, which show that they are highly toxic to humans. This family includes two genera, Barbourula and Bombina, both of which have flattened bodies. [more]

Bombycillidae

The waxwings form the genus Bombycilla of passerine birds. According to most authorities, this is the only genus placed in the family Bombycillidae. [more]

Bonapartheriidae

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Borhyaenidae

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Bothidae

Lefteye flounders are a family, Bothidae, of flounders. They are called "lefteye flounders" because most species lie on the on their right side, with both eyes on the left side. A helpful reminder when trying to recall the family name for this fish is that "Bothidae eyes are on the same side o' dey head." The family is also distinguished by the presence of spines on the snout and near the eyes. [more]

Botiidae

Botiinae is the mainly Southeast Asian subfamily of cypriniform ray-finned fishes that contains the genus Botia. Placed in the true loach family Cobitidae in our time, they were formerly often treated as a distinct family Botiidae. [more]

Bovichthyidae

The thornfishes are a family, Bovichtidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. The family is spelled Bovichthyidae in J. S. Nelson's Fishes of the World. They are native to coastal waters off Australia, New Zealand, and South America, and to rivers and lakes of southeast Australia and Tasmania. [more]

Bovichtidae

The thornfishes are a family, Bovichtidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. The family is spelled Bovichthyidae in J. S. Nelson's Fishes of the World. They are native to coastal waters off Australia, New Zealand, and South America, and to rivers and lakes of southeast Australia and Tasmania. [more]

Bovidae

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Brachaeluridae

The Brachaeluridae, or blind sharks, are a small family of sharks in the order Orectolobiformes. There are only two species of blind shark, both of which are native to shallow coastal waters up to 110 metres (360 ft) depth, off the eastern coast of Australia. [more]

Brachionichthyidae

Handfish is an anglerfish of the family Brachionichthyidae, a group which comprises five genera and fourteen extant species. These benthic marine fish are unusual in the way they propel themselves by walking on the sea floor rather than swimming. [more]

Brachiosauridae

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Brachycephalidae

The saddleback toads are the family Brachycephalidae () in the order Anura. The family consist of just one genus, Brachycephalus, with 11 species. These tiny, often yellow frogs are native to Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil. [more]

Brachyopidae

Brachyopidae is an extinct family of Temnospondyl labyrintodonts. They evolved in the early Mesozoic and were mostly aquatic. A fragmentary find from Lesotho, Africa is estimated to have been 7 meter long, the largest amphibian ever known to have lived besides Prionosuchus. [more]

Brachypteraciidae

The ground rollers are a small family of non-migratory near-passerine birds restricted to Madagascar. They are related to the kingfishers, bee-eaters and rollers. They most resemble the latter group, and are sometimes considered a sub-family of the true rollers. [more]

Brachystelechidae

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Bradycnemidae

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Bradypodidae

The three-toed sloths are tree-living mammals from South and Central America. They are the only members of the genus Bradypus and the family Bradypodidae. There are four living species of three-toed sloths. These are the Brown-throated Sloth, the Maned Sloth, the Pale-throated Sloth, and the Pygmy Three-toed Sloth. [more]

Bramidae

Pomfret are perciform fishes belonging to the family Bramidae. [more]

Branchiosauridae

[more]

Brandoniidae

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Bregmacerotidae

Codlets are a family, Bregmacerotidae, of cod-like fishes, containing the single genus Bregmaceros. [more]

Brembodontidae

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Brevicipitidae

Brevicipitinae is a family of Neobatrachia subordio. [more]

Brithopididae

[more]

Brithopodidae

Brithopus is an extinct genus of dinocephalian therapsid. It was first named in 1838 and was traditionally classified in the Anteosauria, a group of carnivorous dinocephalians. In fact, Brithopus served as the basis for the family Brithopodidae, which once included many anteosaurian species. Because it is based on fragmentary, non-diagnostic material, Brithopus is now regarded as a nomen dubium, and the sole member of Brithopodidae. Brithopus may even be more closely related to herbivorous tapinocephalids than to anteosaurians. [more]

Brontornithidae

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Brontotheriidae

Brontotheriidae, also called Titanotheriidae, is a family of extinct mammals belonging to the order Perissodactyla, the order that includes horses, rhinoceroses, and tapirs. Superficially they looked rather like rhinos, although they were not true rhinos and are probably most closely related to horses. They lived around 56?34 million years ago, until the very close of the Eocene. [more]

Brotulidae

[more]

Bucconidae

The puffbirds and their relatives in the near passerine family Bucconidae are tropical birds breeding from South America up to Mexico. [more]

Bucerotidae

Hornbills (Bucerotidae) are a family of bird found in tropical and subtropical Africa, Asia and Melanesia. They are characterized by a long, down-curved bill which is frequently brightly-colored and sometimes has a casque on the upper mandible. Both the common English and the scientific name of the family refer to the shape of the bill, "buceros" being "cow horn" in Greek. In addition, they possess a two-lobed kidney. Hornbills are the only birds in which the first two neck vertebrae (the axis and atlas) are fused together; this probably provides a more stable platform for carrying the bill. The family is omnivorous, feeding on fruit and small animals. They are monogamous breeders nesting in natural cavities in trees and sometimes cliffs. A number of species of hornbill are threatened with extinction, mostly insular species with small ranges. [more]

Bucorvidae

The ground hornbills (Bucorvinae) are a subfamily of the hornbill family Bucerotidae, with a single genus Bucorvus and two extant species. [more]

Bufonidae

Bufonidae is the family of the true toads, members of the order Anura (frogs and toads). They are the only family of anurans all members of which are known as "toads." The bufonids now comprise more than 35 genera, Bufo being the most widespread and well known. [more]

Burhinidae

The Stone-curlews, also known as Dikkops or Thick-knees are a group of largely tropical birds in the family Burhinidae. Despite the group being classified as waders, most species have a preference for arid or semi-arid habitats. They are found worldwide within the tropical zone, with some species also breeding in temperate Europe and Australia. [more]

Burnetidae

[more]

Burramyidae

The pygmy possums are a family of small possums that together form the marsupial family Burramyidae. There are five extant species of pygmy possum, grouped into two genera. Four of the species are endemic to Australia, with one species also co-occurring in Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. [more]

Bythitidae

Brotulas are a family, Bythitidae, of ophidiiform fishes, also known as viviparous brotulas as they bear live young. They are found in tropical and subtropical waters throughout the world. They are small fishes, around 5 centimetres (2.0 in) to 10 centimetres (3.9 in) in length, and live in surface waters or around reefs. [more]

Cacatuidae

A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[2] [more]

Caeciliaidae

[more]

Caenagnathidae

[more]

Caenolestidae

The order Paucituberculata () contains the six surviving species of shrew opossum: small, shrew-like marsupials which are confined to the Andes mountains of South America. It is thought that the order diverged from the ancestral marsupial line very early. As recently as 20 million years ago, there were at least seven genera in South America. Today, just three genera remain. They live in inaccessible forest and grassland regions of the High Andes. Insectivores were entirely absent from South America until the Great American Interchange three million years ago, and are currently present only in the northwestern part of the continent. Shrew opossums have lost ground to the these and other placental invaders that fill the same ecological niches. Nevertheless, the ranges of shrew opossums and insectivores overlap broadly. [more]

Caesionidae

The fusilier fishes are a family, Caesionidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. They are related to the snappers, but adapted for feeding on plankton, rather than on larger prey. [more]

Cainotheriidae

[more]

Callaeatidae

The small bird family Callaeidae (also named in some sources as Callaeatidae) is endemic to New Zealand. It contains three monotypic genera; of the three species in the family, only two survive and both of them, the Kokako and the Saddleback, are endangered species, threatened primarily by the predations of introduced mammalian species such as rats, mustelids and possums. A third, the Huia became extinct early in the 20th century. [more]

Callaeidae

A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[3] [more]

Callanthiidae

The splendid perches are a small family, Callanthiidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. [more]

Callichthyidae

Callichthyidae is a family of catfishes (order Siluriformes), called armored catfishes due to the two rows of bony plates (or scutes) running down the length of the body. This family contains some of the most popular freshwater aquarium fish, such as the Corydoras. [more]

Callionymidae

Dragonets are small, perciform, marine fish of the diverse family Callionymidae (from the Greek kallis, "beautiful" and onyma, "name"). Found mainly in the tropical waters of the western Indo-Pacific, the family contains approximately 186 species in 18 genera. The Draconettidae may be considered a sister family, whose members are very much alike, though rarely seen. Due to similarities in morphology and behaviour, dragonets are sometimes confused with members of the goby family. [more]

Callitrichidae

The Callitrichidae (synonym Hapalidae) is one of five families of New World monkeys. The family includes several genera, including the marmosets, tamarins, and lion tamarins. For a few years, this group of animals was regarded as a subfamily, called the Callitrichinae, of the family Cebidae. [more]

Callorhinchidae

The family Callorhincidae (sometimes spelled "Callorhynchidae"), or plough-nose chimaeras, are a family of marine fish. They are similar in form and habits to other chimaeras, but are distinguished by the presence of an elongated and flexible fleshy snout, with a vague resemblance to a ploughshare. The snout is used to probe the sea bottom in search of the invertebrates and small fishes on which it preys. [more]

Calomyscidae

Mouse-like hamsters are a group of small rodents found in Syria, Azerbaijan, Iran, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. They are found in rocky outcrops and semi-mountainous area in desert regions. [more]

Calyptocephalellidae

[more]

Camarasauridae

[more]

Cambaytheriidae

[more]

Camelidae

Camelids are members of the biological family Camelidae, the only living family in the suborder Tylopoda. dromedaries, Bactrian camels, llamas, alpacas, vicu?as, and guanacos are in this group. [more]

Campanorcidae

Campanorco is an extinct genus of notoungulate mammal from the early Eocene of South America and the only member of the family Campanorcidae (McKenna and Bell, 1997). [more]

Campephagidae

The cuckooshrikes and allies in the Campephagidae family are small to medium-sized passerine bird species found in the subtropical and tropical Africa, Asia and Australasia. The roughly 85 species are found in eight (or nine) genera which comprise five distinct groups, the 'true' cuckooshrikes (Campephaga, Coracina, , Pteropodocys and Campochaera) the trillers (Lalage), the minivets (Pericrocotus), the flycatcher-shrikes (Hemipus). The wood-shrikes (Tephrodornis) were often considered to be in this family but are probably closer to the helmetshrikes or bushshrikes. Another genus, Chlamydochaera, which has one species, the Black-breasted Fruithunter was often placed in this family but has now been shown to be a thrush (Turdidae). [more]

Camptosauridae

[more]

Campylognathoididae

[more]

Canidae

Canidae () is the biological family of carnivorous and omnivorous mammals that includes domestic dogs, wolves, foxes, jackals, coyotes, and many other lesser known extant and extinct dog-like mammals. A member of this family is called a canid (/'ke?n?d/). The Canidae family is divided into two tribes: Canini (related to wolves) and Vulpini (related to foxes). The two species of the basal Caninae are more primitive and do not fit into either tribe. [more]

Capitonidae

American barbets, family Capitonidae, are near passerine birds of the order Piciformes which inhabit humid forests in Central and South America. They are closely related to the toucans. [more]

Capitosauridae

Mastodonsauridae is a family of capitosauroid temnospondyls. Fossils belonging to this family have been found in North America, Greenland, Europe, Asia, and Australia. The family Capitosauridae (also known as Cyclotosauridae and Stenotosauridae) is synonymous with Mastodonsauridae. [more]

Caprimulgidae

Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal or crepuscular birds with long wings, short legs and very short bills. They are sometimes referred to as goatsuckers from the mistaken belief that they suck milk from goats (the Latin for goatsucker is Caprimulgus). Some New World species are named as nighthawks. Nightjars usually nest on the ground. [more]

Caproidae

Boarfishes are a small family, Caproidae, of marine fishes comprising two genera and twelve species. They are usually placed in the order Zeiformes with the dories, but this placement is uncertain, since boarfishes have many perciform characters, for instance in the caudal skeleton. Boarfishes are native to the Indian, Atlantic, and Pacific Oceans, where mainly found at depths below 50 metres (160 ft). [more]

Capromyidae

[more]

Captorhinidae

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Caracanthidae

The coral crouchers, or orbicular velvetfishes, are a family, the Caracanthidae, of Scorpaeniform fishes. They live in coral reefs of the tropical Indo-Pacific. Only four species are known. [more]

Carangidae

Carangidae is a family of fish which includes the jacks, pompanos, jack mackerels, and scads. [more]

Carapidae

Pearlfish is a general name for a variety of marine fish species in the Carapidae family. Pearlfish have been found in tropical waters of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans at depths up to 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) along oceanic shelves and slopes. [more]

Carcharhinidae

Requiem sharks are a family, Carcharhinidae, of sharks in the order Carcharhiniformes, containing migratory, live-bearing sharks of warm seas (sometimes of brackish or fresh water) such as the tiger shark, the blue shark, the bull shark, and the milk shark. [more]

Carcharodontosauridae

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Cardinalidae

The Cardinals or Cardinalidae are a family of passerine birds found in North and South America. The South American cardinals in the genus Paroaria are placed in another family, the Thraupidae (previously placed in Emberizidae). [more]

Cardipeltidae

[more]

Carettochelyidae

The pig-nosed turtle (Carettochelys insculpta), also known as the pitted-shelled turtle or fly river turtle, is a species of turtle native to freshwater streams, lagoons and rivers of Australia and New Guinea. This species is the only living member of the genus Carettochelys, the subfamily Carettochelyinae and the family Carettochelyidae; however, numerous extinct carettochelyid species have been described from all over the world. [more]

Cariamidae

The seriemas are the sole extant members of the small and ancient family Cariamidae, which is also the sole surviving family of the Cariamae. Once believed to be related to cranes, they have been placed by one recent study near the falcons, parrots and passerines, as well as the extinct terror birds. There are two species: [more]

Caristiidae

Manefishes are perciform fishes in the family Caristiidae. They are deep-sea marine fishes that eat siphonophores. [more]

Carodniidae

[more]

Caroloameghiniidae

[more]

Carpolestidae

Carpolestidae is a family of primate-like Plesiadapiformes that were prevalent in North America and Asia from the mid Paleocene through the early Eocene. Typically, they are characterized by two large upper posterior premolars and one large lower posterior premolar. They weighed about 20-150g, and were about the size of a mouse. Though they come from the order, Plesiadapiformes, that may have given rise to the primate order, carpolestids are too specialized and derived to be ancestors of primates. [more]

Caseidae

[more]

Castoridae

The family Castoridae contains the two living species of beaver and their fossil relatives. This was once a highly diverse group of rodents, but is now restricted to a single genus, Castor. [more]

Casuariidae

The bird family Casuariidae has four surviving members: the three species of cassowary, and the only remaining species of Emu. The emus were formerly classified in their own family, Dromaiidae, but are regarded as sufficiently closely related to the cassowaries to be part of the same family. [more]

Cathartidae

The New World Vulture or Condor family Cathartidae contains seven species in five genera, all but one of which are monotypic. It includes five vultures and two condors found in warm and temperate areas of the Americas. [more]

Catostomidae

Catostomidae is the sucker family of the order Cypriniformes. There are 80 species in this family of freshwater fishes. Catostomidae are found in North America, east central China, and eastern Siberia. They are not usually fished recreationally; they are not highly prized in North America for their flesh although they are a fairly popular target with spear fisherman. [more]

Caturidae

[more]

Caudipterygidae

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Caulophrynidae

Fanfins are a family, Caulophrynidae, of anglerfishes. They are found in deep, lightless waters of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans. [more]

Caviidae

[more]

Cearadactylidae

[more]

Cebidae

The Cebidae is one of the five families of New World monkeys now recognised. It includes the capuchin monkeys and squirrel monkeys. These species are found throughout tropical and subtropical South and Central America. [more]

Cebochoeridae

[more]

Centracanthidae

Centracanthidae is a small family of fishes in the order Perciformes, known as picarels. They are found in the eastern Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean. The anal fin has three sharp spines, hence the name, from Greek kentron meaning "sharp point" and akantha meaning "thorn". Despite the similarity of the English or common name, it is unrelated to the pickerel or northern pike. [more]

Centrarchidae

The sunfishes are a family (Centrarchidae) of freshwater ray-finned fish belonging to the order Perciformes. The type genus is Centrarchus (consisting solely of the flier, C. macropterus). The family's 27 species includes many fishes familiar to North Americans, including the rock bass, largemouth bass, bluegill, pumpkinseed, and crappies. All are native only to North America. [more]

Centriscidae

Centriscidae is the family of snipefishes, shrimpfishes, and bellowfishes. A small family, consisting of only about a dozen marine species, they are of an unusual appearance, as reflected by the common names. The members of the genera Aeoliscus and Centriscus are restricted to relatively shallow, tropical parts of the Indo-Pacific, while the remaining species mainly are found in deeper parts of tropical, subtropical or southern oceans. [more]

Centrogeniidae

False scorpionfish (Centrogenys vaigiensis) are perciform fish, the only species in genus Centrogenys as well as family Centrogenyidae. They are pale grey or brown and usually grow no longer than 25 centimetres (9.8 in). False scorpionfish are distributed throughout the Indo-West Pacific, bounded by the Ryukyu Islands of Japan to the north and Australia to the south, the Nicobar Islands to the west and New Guinea to the east. [more]

Centrolenidae

Glass frog (or Glassfrogs) is the common name for the frogs of the amphibian family Centrolenidae (order Anura). While the general background coloration of most glass frogs is primarily lime green, the abdominal skin of some members of this family is transparent. The internal viscera, including the heart, liver, and gastrointestinal tract are visible through this translucent skin, hence the common name. [more]

Centrolophidae

Medusafishes are a family, Centrolophidae, of perciform fishes. They are found in temperate and tropical waters throughout the world. [more]

Centrophoridae

Centrophoridae are a family of squaliform sharks. The family contains just two genera and approximately 15 species. They are sometimes called gulper sharks but this is also the name of a specific species in the family, Centrophorus granulosus. [more]

Centrophrynidae

The horned lantern fish or prickly seadevil, Centrophryne spinulosa, is a found worldwide. It is the sole species in the family Centrophrynidae, distinguished from other deep-sea anglerfishes by various characters including four pectoral radials, an anterior spine on the subopercular bone, and a short hyoid (chin) barbel in both sexes. [more]

Centropodidae

A coucal "????????" is one of about 30 species of birds in the cuckoo family. All of them belong in the subfamily Centropodinae and the genus Centropus. Unlike many Old World cuckoos, coucals are not brood parasites. On the other hand they do have their own reproductive peculiarity: all members of the genus are to varying degrees sex-role reversed so that the smaller male provides most of the parental care. At least one coucal species, the Black Coucal, is polyandrous. Some species (Centropus phasianinus) have the male investing more in incubation and parental care. Recent DNA evidence[] suggests that they should be raised to family status, as Centropodidae. [more]

Centropomidae

The Centropomidae are a single genus family of freshwater and marine fishes in Order Perciformes, including the common snook or r?balo, Centropomus undecimalis. Prior to 2004, three other genera were placed in Centropomidae in subfamily Latinae, which has since been raised to the family level and renamed Latidae because a cladistic analysis showed the old Centropomidae to be paraphyletic. Each of the four species (fat, swordspine, common, and tarpon) can be easily identified by their black lateral line. They are good tablefare, and are a sought after gamefish but tricky to catch. [more]

Cephalaspidae

[more]

Cepolidae

Bandfishes are a family, Cepolidae, of perciform fishes. They are native to the Atlantic seaboard of Europe and the West Pacific, including New Zealand. They dig burrows in sandy or muddy seabed and eat zooplankton. [more]

Ceratiidae

Sea devils are a family of deep-sea anglerfish otherwise known as Ceratiidae from the Greek keras, "horn", referring to the bioluminescent lure that projects from the fishes' forehead. [more]

Ceratobatrachidae

The true frogs, family Ranidae, have the widest distribution of any frog family. They are abundant throughout most of the world, occurring on most continents except Antarctica. The true frogs are present in North America, northern South America, Europe, Asia, Madagascar, Africa, and from the East Indies to New Guinea; the species native to Australia?the Australian Wood Frog (Hylarana daemelii)?is restricted to the far north. [more]

Ceratodontidae

The Queensland lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (also known as the Australian lungfish, Burnett salmon, and barramunda) is the sole surviving member of the family Ceratodontidae and order Ceratodontiformes. It is one of only six extant lungfish species in the world. Endemic to Australia, the Ceratodontidae is an ancient family belonging to the subclass Sarcopterygii, or fleshy-finned fishes. [more]

Ceratophryidae

The Ceratophryinae, known as common horned frogs, are a subfamily of the leptodactylid frogs. All species in this subfamily live in South America. Fossils of the giant Beelzebufo from Cretaceous Madagascar suggest that the subfamily may have once ranged throughout the prehistoric supercontinent of Gondwana. Despite the common name, not all species in the subfamily have the horn-like projections at the eyes. All are carnivorous, terrestrial or semi-aquatic and notably thickset with proportionally large heads and mouths. Some species (especially from the genera Ceratophrys and Lepidobatrachus) are popular in herpetoculture. [more]

Ceratopsidae

[more]

Ceratosauridae

[more]

Cercopithecidae

The Old World monkeys or Cercopithecidae are a group of primates, falling in the superfamily Cercopithecoidea in the clade (or parvorder) of Catarrhini. The Old World monkeys are native to Africa and Asia today, inhabiting a range of environments from tropical rain forest to savanna, shrubland and mountainous terrain, and are also known from Europe in the fossil record. However, a (possibly introduced) free-roaming group of monkeys still survives in Gibraltar (Europe) to this day. Old World monkeys include many of the most familiar species of nonhuman primates, such as baboons and macaques. [more]

Certhiidae

The treecreepers are a family, Certhiidae, of small passerine birds, widespread in wooded regions of the Northern Hemisphere and sub-Saharan Africa. The family contains ten species in two genera, Certhia and Salpornis. Their plumage is dull-colored, and as their name implies, they climb over the surface of trees in search of food. [more]

Cervidae

Deer (singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae. Species in the Cervidae family include white-tailed deer, mule deer such as black-tailed deer, elk, moose, red deer, reindeer (caribou), fallow deer, roe deer and chital. Male deer of all species (except the Chinese water deer) and also female reindeer grow and shed new antlers each year. In this they differ from permanently horned animals such as antelope; these are in the same order as deer and may bear a superficial resemblance. The musk deer of Asia and water chevrotain (or mouse deer) of tropical African and Asian forests are not usually regarded as true deer and form their own families, Moschidae and Tragulidae, respectively. [more]

Cerylidae

The water kingfishers or Cerylidae are one of the three families of kingfishers, and are also known as the cerylid kingfishers. All six American species are in this family. [more]

Cetiosauridae

Cetiosaurus (SEET-ee-oh-sawr-us) meaning 'whale lizard', from the Greek cetus/??t?? meaning 'sea monster' (later, 'whale') and saurus/sa???? meaning 'lizard', was a sauropod dinosaur from the Mid to Late Jurassic Period (181-169 million years ago) in what are now Europe and Africa. It is estimated to have been about 53 feet (16 m) long and to have weighed roughly 24.8 tonnes (27.3 short tons). It was so named because its discoverer, Sir Richard Owen supposed it was a marine creature, initially an extremely large crocodile. [more]

Cetomimidae

Flabby whalefishes are small, deep-sea cetomimiform fish of the family Cetomimidae. They are among the most deep-living fish known, with some species recorded at depths in excess of 3.5 kilometres. Within the family are nine genera and 20 species. Juveniles are known as tapetails and were formerly thought to be in a separate family, dubbed Mirapinnidae. Adults exhibit extreme sexual dimorphism, and the adult males were once thought to be exemplars of still another family, Megalomycteridae. [more]

Cetopsidae

Cetopsidae is a small family of catfishes (order Siluriformes), commonly called the whale catfishes. [more]

Cetorhinidae

The basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) is the second largest living fish, after the whale shark. It is a cosmopolitan migratory species, found in all the world's temperate oceans. It is a slow moving and generally harmless filter feeder and has anatomical adaptations to filter feeding, such as a greatly enlarged mouth and highly developed gill rakers. The shape of its snout is conical and the gill slits extend around the top and bottom of its head. The gill rakers are dark and bristle-like and are used to catch plankton as water filters through the mouth and over the gills. The basking shark is usually grayish-brown in color and often seems to have a mottled appearance. The caudal (tail) fin has a strong lateral keel and a crescent shape. The teeth of the basking shark are very small and numerous and often number one hundred per row. The teeth themselves have a single conical cusp, are curved backwards and are the same on both the upper and lower jaws. [more]

Cetotheriidae

Cetotheriidae is an extinct family of baleen whales in the suborder Mysticeti. The family existed from the Late Oligocene to the Late Pliocene before going extinct. [more]

Cetotheriopsidae

[more]

Chacidae

Chaca is the only genus in the catfish family Chacidae. These fish are commonly known as squarehead catfishes, frogmouth catfishes, or angler catfishes. These unusual fish have a sedentary lifestyle and spend much of their time immobile. [more]

Chaenopsidae

The blennioid family Chaenopsidae includes the pike-blennies, tube-blennies and flagblennies: all perciform marine fish. The family is strictly tropical, ranging from North to South America. There are 14 genera and 90 species represented, the largest being the sarcastic fringehead, Neoclinus blanchardi, at 30 centimetres (12 in) in length; most are much smaller, and the group includes perhaps the smallest of all vertebrates, Acanthemblemaria paula, measuring just 1.3 centimetres (0.51 in) long as an adult. [more]

Chaeropodidae

The Pig-footed Bandicoot, Chaeropus ecaudatus, was a small marsupial of the arid and semi-arid plains of Australia. The distribution range of the species was later reduced to an inland desert region, where it was last recorded in the 1950s, and is now presumed to be extinct. [more]

Chaetodontidae

The butterflyfish are a group of conspicuous tropical marine fish of the family Chaetodontidae; the bannerfish and coralfish are also included in this group. Found mostly on the reefs of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans, there are approximately 120 species in 10 genera. A number of species pairs occur in the Indian and Pacific oceans, members of the huge genus Chaetodon. [more]

Chalicotheriidae

[more]

Chamaeleonidae

Chameleons (family Chamaeleonidae) are a distinctive and highly specialized clade of lizards. They are distinguished by their parrot-like zygodactylous feet, their separately mobile and stereoscopic eyes, their very long, highly modified, and rapidly extrudable tongues, their swaying gait, the possession by many of a prehensile tail, crests or horns on their distinctively shaped heads, and the ability of some to change color. Uniquely adapted for climbing and visual hunting, the approximately 160 species of chameleon range from Africa, Madagascar, Spain and Portugal, across south Asia, to Sri Lanka, have been introduced to Hawaii, California and Florida, and are found in warm habitats that vary from rain forest to desert conditions. Chameleons are often kept as household pets. [more]

Champsodontidae

Champsodon is the sole genus in the family Champsodontidae, the crocodile toothfishes. [more]

Champsosauridae

[more]

Chandidae

The Asiatic glassfishes are a family, Ambassidae, of freshwater and marine fishes in the order Perciformes. The species in the family are native to the waters of Asia and Oceania and the Indian and western Pacific Oceans. The family includes eight genera and about fifty species. [more]

Chanidae

The milkfish (Chanos chanos) is the sole living species in the family Chanidae. (About seven extinct species in five additional genera have been reported.) The Hawaiian name is awa, without initial glottal stop, not to be confused with ?awa, with initial glottal stop, the name for Kava (Piper methysticum). [more]

Channichthyidae

The crocodile icefish or white-blooded fish (Channichthyidae) are a family of perciform fish found in the cold waters around Antarctica and southern South America. Water temperature can drop below 0 ?C (the freezing point of freshwater) in the Antarctic sea but stays rather constant. There are sixteen known species of crocodile icefish. They feed on krill, copepods, and other fish. [more]

Channidae

The snakeheads are members of the freshwater perciform fish family Channidae, native to Africa and Asia. These elongated, predatory fish are distinguished by a long dorsal fin, large mouth and shiny teeth. They breathe air with a , a primitive form of a labyrinth organ. The two extant genera are Channa in Asia and Parachanna in Africa, consisting of 30-35 species. [more]

Chaoyoungosauridae

[more]

Chapattimyidae

[more]

Characidae

The Characidae, characids or characins are a family of freshwater subtropical and tropical fish, belonging to the order Characiformes. The name "characins" is the historical one, but scientists today tend to prefer "characids" to reflect their status as a by and large monophyletic group at family rank. To arrive there, this family has undergone much systematic and taxonomic change. Among those fishes that remain in the Characidae for the time being are the tetras, comprising the very similar genera Hemigrammus and Hyphessobrycon, as well as a few related forms such as the cave and neon tetras. Fish of this family are important as food and also include popular aquarium fish species. [more]

Charadriidae

The bird family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings, about 64 to 66 species in all. [more]

Charitosomidae

[more]

Chatterjeeidae

[more]

Chaudhuriidae

The earthworm eels are a family (Chaudhuriidae) of small freshwater eel-like fish related to the swamp eels and spiny eels. The ten known species (as of 2011) are literally the size and shape of earthworms, thus the family name. While one species, the (Chaudhuria caudata) was reported from the Inle Lake by Nelson Annandale in 1918, the others have been only recently reported (since the 1970s), all in the eastern Asia area, from India to Korea. [more]

Chauliodontidae

[more]

Chaunacidae

Coffinfish are a family, Chaunacidae, of deep-sea anglerfishes. [more]

Cheilodactylidae

Morwongs are perciform fishes comprising the family Cheilodactylidae. Most of the almost 30 species are found in temperate and subtropical oceans in the Southern Hemisphere, but three (Cheilodactylus quadricornis, C. zebra and C. zonatus) are restricted to northwest Pacific off Japan and China, and C. vittatus is restricted to Hawaii. The largest species grow up to 1.2 metres (3.9 ft), but most species only reach around half that length. They feed on small invertebrates on the ocean floor. Several species of morwong are commercially harvested as food fish, particularly in Australia. [more]

Cheimarrhichthyidae

The torrentfish, Cheimarrichthys fosteri, is the only member of the genus Cheimarrichthys which in turn is the only member of the family Cheimarrichthyidae. It is found only in New Zealand. It grows to a maximum length of 18 cm, and commonly found upto 15 cm. [more]

Cheirogaleidae

Cheirogaleidae is the family of strepsirrhine primates that contains the various dwarf and mouse lemurs. Like all other lemurs, cheirogaleids live exclusively on the island of Madagascar. [more]

Cheirolepididae

[more]

Cheirothricidae

[more]

Chelidae

The Chelidae are one of three living families of the turtle suborder Pleurodira and are commonly called the Austro-South American side neck turtles. The family is distributed in Australia, New Guinea, parts of Indonesia and throughout most of South America. It is a large family of turtles with a significant fossil history going back to the Cretaceous. The family is entirely Gondwanan in origin, with no members found outside of Gondwana, either in the present day or as a fossil. [more]

Cheloniidae

Cheloniidae is a family of turtles belonging to the sea turtle superfamily Chelonioidea. [more]

Chelydridae

Chelydridae is a family of turtles which has seven extinct and two extant genera. The extant genera are Chelydra the snapping turtles, and its larger relative Macrochelys, of which the Alligator Snapping Turtle (Macrochelys temminckii) is the only species. Both are endemic to the Western Hemisphere. The extinct genera are Acherontemys, Chelydrops, Chelydropsis, Emarginachelys, Macrocephalochelys, Planiplastron, and Protochelydra. [more]

Chiasmodontidae

Chiasmodontidae, the snaketooth fishes, is a family of deep-sea fishes in the order Perciformes. [more]

Chigutisauridae

Chigutisauridae is an extinct family of large temnospondyl amphibians. The only genera recognized as belonging to Chigutisauridae at the current time are all from Gondwana (Australia, Argentina, India and South Africa) and include Koolasuchus and Siderops. [more]

Chilodontidae

Chilodontidae is the taxonomic name given to two families : [more]

Chimaeridae

The Chimaeridae, or shortnose chimaeras are a family of cartilaginous fish. [more]

Chinchillidae

The family Chinchillidae contains the chinchillas, viscachas, and their fossil relatives. They are restricted to southern and western South America, often in association with the Andes. They are large rodents, weighing from 800 g (28 oz) to 8 kg (18 lb), with strong hind legs and large ears. All species have thick, soft fur, which is considered valuable in some species. [more]

Chiniquodontidae

[more]

Chionidae

The sheathbills are a family of birds, Chionidae. Classified in the wader order Charadriiformes, the family contains one genus, Chionis, with only two species. They breed on subantarctic islands and the Antarctic Peninsula, and the Snowy Sheathbill migrates to the Falkland Islands and coastal southern South America in the southern winter; they are the only bird family endemic as breeders to the Antarctic region. They are also the only Antarctic birds without webbed feet. [more]

Chionididae

The sheathbills are a family of birds, Chionidae. Classified in the wader order Charadriiformes, the family contains one genus, Chionis, with only two species. They breed on subantarctic islands and the Antarctic Peninsula, and the Snowy Sheathbill migrates to the Falkland Islands and coastal southern South America in the southern winter; they are the only bird family endemic as breeders to the Antarctic region. They are also the only Antarctic birds without webbed feet. [more]

Chirocentridae

The wolf herrings are a family (Chirocentridae) of two marine species of ray-finned fish related to the herrings. [more]

Chirodontidae

[more]

Chironemidae

The kelpfishes are a family of perciform fishes, native to coastal Australia and New Zealand. [more]

Chlamydoselachidae

Chlamydoselachus is a genus of sharks and the sole extant member of the family Chlamydoselachidae, in the order Hexanchiformes. It contains two extant and several extinct species. [more]

Chlopsidae

The Chlopsidae, or false morays, are a family of eels found in coral reefs worldwide. As their name suggests, they somewhat resemble moray eels in appearance. However, they are smaller than true morays, ranging from 11 centimetres (4.3 in) to 42 centimetres (17 in) in length. [more]

Chlorophthalmidae

Greeneyes are deep-sea aulopiform marine fishes in the small family Chlorophthalmidae. Thought to have a circumglobal distribution in tropical and temperate waters, the family contains just 18 species in two genera. The family name Chlorophthalmidae derives from the Greek words chloros meaning "green" and ophthalmos meaning "eye". [more]

Chloropseidae

The leafbirds (Chloropseidae) are a family of small passerine bird species found in India, Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. They are one of only three bird families that are entirely endemic to the Indomalayan ecozone. They were formerly grouped with the ioras and fairy-bluebirds in the family Irenidae. As presently defined, the leafbird family is monotypic, with all species placed in the genus Chloropsis. [more]

Choeropotamidae

[more]

Chondrosteidae

Chondrosteidae (pronounced ) is a family of extinct actinopterygian fishes in the order Acipenseriformes. [more]

Chronoperatidae

Chronoperates paradoxus is a possible therapsid whose remains have been found in Alberta, Canada. It has also been suggested that it may be a symmetrodont. [more]

Chrysochloridae

Golden moles are small, insectivorous burrowing mammals native to southern Africa. They form the family Chrysochloridae, and are taxonomically distinct from the true moles which they resemble due to convergence. The golden moles bear a remarkable resemblance to the marsupial moles of Australia, so much so that, the marsupial/placental divide notwithstanding, arguments were once made that they were related, possibly because they are very primitive placentals and because of the many mole-like specializations. [more]

Chulsanbaataridae

[more]

Cichlidae

Cichlids () are fishes from the family Cichlidae in the order Perciformes. Cichlids are members of a group known as the Labroidei along with the wrasses (Labridae), damselfish (Pomacentridae), and surfperches (Embiotocidae). This family is both large and diverse. At least 1,650 species have been scientifically described, making it one of the largest vertebrate families. New species are discovered annually, and many species remain undescribed. The actual number of species is therefore unknown, with estimates varying between 1,300 and 3,000. [more]

Ciconiidae

Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked wading birds with long, stout bills. They belong to the family Ciconiidae. They are the only family in the biological order Ciconiiformes, which was once much larger and held a number of families. [more]

Cimolestidae

[more]

Cimoliasauridae

Elasmosauridae was a family of plesiosaurs. They had the longest necks of the plesiosaurs and survived from the Late Triassic to the end of the Cretaceous. They had a diet of fish and shelless cephalopods. [more]

Cimolichthyidae

[more]

Cimolodontidae

[more]

Cimolomyidae

[more]

Cimolopterygidae

[more]

Cinclidae

Dippers are members of the genus Cinclus in the bird family Cinclidae, named for their bobbing or dipping movements. They are unique among passerines for their ability to dive and swim underwater. [more]

Cirrhitidae

Hawkfish are strictly tropical, perciform marine fish of the family Cirrhitidae. Associated with the coral reefs of the western and eastern Atlantic and Indo-Pacific, the hawkfish family contains 12 genera and 32 species. They share many morphological features with the scorpionfish of the family Scorpaenidae. [more]

Cistecephalidae

Cistecephalidae is an extinct family of dicynodont therapsids from the Late Permian of South Africa. It includes the genera Cistecephalus, Cistecephaloides, and Kawingasaurus. Cistecephalids are thought to have had a fossorial or burrowing lifestyle, with adaptations such as broad skulls, strong forelimbs, and squat bodies. A similar group of dicynodonts called the were also fossorial, although to a lesser extent than cistecephalids. [more]

Cisticolidae

The Cisticolidae family of small passerine birds is a group of about 110 warblers found mainly in warmer southern regions of the Old World. They are often included within the Old World warbler family Sylviidae. [more]

Citharidae

The Citharidae are a small family of flounders. They are found in the Mediterranean Sea, the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific from Japan to Australia. [more]

Citharinidae

Citharinidae, the lutefishes, is a small family of characiform fish. They are fresh-water fish native to Africa, and are sufficiently abundant to be a significant food fish. [more]

Cladocyclidae

The family Ichthyodectidae (literally "fish-biters") was a family of marine actinopterygian fish. Sometimes classified in the primitive bony fish order Pachycormiformes, they are today generally regarded as members of the "" order Ichthyodectiformes in the far more advanced Osteoglossomorpha. The type genus is Ichthyodectes, established by Edward Drinker Cope in 1870. [more]

Cladoselachidae

Cladoselachidae is an extinct family of cartilaginous fishes and among the earliest predecessors of modern sharks. They are the only members of the order Cladoselachiformes and were characterized by having an elongated body with a spine in each of the two dorsal fins. [more]

Clariidae

Airbreathing catfishes are fishes comprising the family Clariidae of order Siluriformes. There are about 14 genera and 100 species of clariids. All the clariids are freshwater species. [more]

Claroteidae

The Claroteidae are a family of catfish (Order Siluriformes) found in Africa. This family was separated from Bagridae. However, the monophyly of the family is sometimes contested. [more]

Climacoceratidae

[more]

Climacteridae

There are 7 species of Australasian treecreeper in the passerine bird family Climacteridae. They are medium-small, mostly brown birds with patterning on their underparts, and all are endemic to Australia-New Guinea. They resemble, but are not closely related to, the Holarctic treecreepers. The family is one of several families identified by DNA-DNA hybridisation studies to be part of the Australo-Papuan songbird radiation. There is some molecular support for suggesting that their closest relatives are the large lyrebirds. [more]

Clinidae

Clinids are blennioids; perciform marine fish of the family Clinidae. Temperate blennies, the family ranges from the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans, in both the Southern and Northern Hemisphere. The family contains approximately 86 species in 20 genera, the 60 centimetre long giant kelpfish (Heterostichus rostratus) being the largest; most are far smaller. [more]

Clupeidae

Clupeidae is the family of the herrings, shads, sardines, hilsa and menhadens. It includes many of the most important food fishes in the world. [more]

Cnemophilidae

The Satinbirds or Cnemophilines, Cnemophilidae are a group of passerine birds which consists of three species found in the mountain forests of New Guinea. They were originally thought to be part of the birds of paradise family Paradisaeidae until genetic research suggested that the birds are not closely related to Birds of Paradise at all and are perhaps closer to Melanocharitidae. [more]

Cobitidae

Cobitidae is the family of the true loaches, which are Old World freshwater fish. They occur throughout Eurasia and in Morocco, and inhabit riverine ecosystems. Today, most "loaches" are placed in other families (see below). But more than 100 species remain in the Cobitidae, while the number of genera has almost doubled to nearly 30 in the past few years[] due to new discoveries and divisions of older genera. New species are being described regularly. [more]

Cobitididae

[more]

Coccodontidae

Coccodontidae is an extinct family of extinct pycnodontid fish that lived during the lower Cenomanian. The various genera had massive, curved spines. [more]

Coccyzidae

Coccyzidae is a family of birds comprising 18 new world cuckoos, ranging from Canada to Argentina. The family consists of the genera Coccyzus, Hyetornis, Piaya and Saurothera. [more]

Cochliodontidae

[more]

Coelacanthidae

Coelacanthidae is an extinct family of coelacanths found throughout the world, originating during the Permian, and finally dying out during the Jurassic. [more]

Coelophysidae

[more]

Coeluridae

[more]

Coelurosauridae

[more]

Coerebidae

The Bananaquit (Coereba flaveola) is a species of passerine bird of uncertain relation. It is tentatively placed in the tanager family, but classified as incertae sedis by other authorities such as the American Ornithologists' Union. Its classification is debated, and it is often placed in its own family: Coerebidae. It has recently been suggested the Bananaquit should be split into three species, but this has yet to receive widespread recognition. This small, active nectarivore is found in warmer parts of the Americas, and is generally common. [more]

Coiidae

Coiidae is a family of fish. Their taxonomic position is disputed: they are related to the Lobotidae and the Datnioides (such as Datnioides microlepis) and were once considered synonymous with the latter, and may be the same as the Anabas. [more]

Coliidae

The mousebirds are a small group of (possibly near passerine) birds which have no known close affinities to other groups, though they and the parrots and cockatoos (Psittaciformes) may be closer to each other than to other birds. The mousebirds are therefore given order status as Coliiformes. This group is confined to sub-Saharan Africa, and is the only bird order confined entirely to that continent. They had a wider range in prehistoric times and apparently evolved in Europe. [more]

Colluricinclidae

[more]

Colocongridae

The Colocongridae, the Worm eels or Short-tail eels are a family of eels, containing a single genus, Coloconger. [more]

Colosteidae

[more]

Colubridae

[more]

Columbidae

Pigeons and doves constitute the bird family Columbidae within the order Columbiformes, which include some 300 species of near passerines. In general the terms "dove" and "pigeon" are used somewhat interchangeably. In ornithological practice, there is a tendency for "dove" to be used for smaller species and "pigeon" for larger ones, but this is in no way consistently applied, and historically the common names for these birds involve a great deal of variation between the terms "dove" and "pigeon." This family occurs worldwide, but the greatest variety is in the Indomalaya and Australasia ecozones. Young doves and pigeons are called "squabs." [more]

Comahuesuchidae

[more]

Comephoridae

The golomyankas (lit. "naked") or Baikal oilfish are two species of peculiar, sculpin-like fishes endemic to Lake Baikal in Russia. [more]

Compsognathidae

[more]

Conchopomidae

[more]

Confuciusornithidae

[more]

Congiopodidae

Congiopodidae is a family of scorpaeniform fishes native to the southern hemisphere, commonly known as pigfishes, horsefishes and racehorses. [more]

Congridae

Congridae is the family of conger and garden eels. Congers are valuable and often large food fishes, while garden eels live in colonies, all protruding from the sea floor after the manner of plants in a garden (thus the name). The family includes over 180 species in 32 genera. [more]

Conopophagidae

The gnateaters are a bird family, Conopophagidae, consisting of ten small passerine species in two genera, which occur in South and Central America. The family was formerly restricted to the gnateater genus Conopophaga; analysis of mtDNA cytochrome b and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 sequences (Rice 2005a,b) indicates that the "antpittas" of the genus Pittasoma also belong in this family. The association between this genus and Conopophaga is also supported by traits in their natural history, morphology, and vocalizations (Rice, 2005a). The members of this family are very closely related to the antbirds and less closely to the antpittas and tapaculos. Due to their remote and dim habitat, gnateaters are a little-studied and poorly known family of birds, though they are often sought after by birdwatchers. [more]

Coraciidae

The rollers are an Old World family, Coraciidae, of near passerine birds. The group gets its name from the aerial acrobatics some of these birds perform during courtship or territorial flights. Rollers resemble crows in size and build, and share the colorful appearance of kingfishers and bee-eaters, blues and pinkish or cinnamon browns predominating. The two inner front toes are connected, but not the outer one. [more]

Cordylidae

Cordylidae is a family of small to medium sized lizards that occur in southern and eastern Africa. They are commonly known as "Girdled", Spinytail lizards or Girdle-tail lizards. [more]

Corvidae

Corvidae is a cosmopolitan family of oscine passerine birds that contains the crows, ravens, rooks, jackdaws, jays, magpies, treepies, choughs and nutcrackers. The common English names used are corvids (more technically) or the crow family (more informally), and there are over 120 species. The genus Corvus, including the jackdaws, crows and ravens, makes up over a third of the entire family. [more]

Coryphaenidae

The Coryphaenidae are a family of marine ray-finned fish belonging to the Order Perciformes. The family contains only one genus, Coryphaena, which contains two species, both of which have compressed heads and single dorsal fins that run the entire length of the fish's bodies. Dolphinfishes are unrelated to dolphins (which are mammals) and their meat is often labeled mahi-mahi commercially to reduce possible public confusion. [more]

Coryphodontidae

[more]

Corytophanidae

Corytophanidae is a family of lizards also called casque head lizards or helmeted lizards. They typically have well-developed head crests in the shape of a casque. This crest is a sexually dimorphic characteristic in males of Basiliscus, but is present in both sexes of Corytophanes and Laemanctus (Pough et al. 2003). In Corytophanes, these crests are used in defensive displays where the lateral aspect of the body is brought about to face a potential predator in an effort to look bigger (Pough et al. 2003). There are 9 known species of casque heads from 3 genera. [more]

Cotingidae

The cotingas are a large family of passerine bird species found in Central America and tropical South America. Cotingas are birds of forests or forest edges, which mostly eat fruit or insects and fruit. Comparatively little is known about this diverse group, although all have broad bills with hooked tips, rounded wings, and strong legs. They may be the most diverse passerine family in body size, ranging from the 8-cm Kinglet Calyptura to the 50-cm male Amazonian Umbrellabird, although the smaller bird may not be a true cotinga. [more]

Cottidae

The Cottidae is a family of demersal fish in the order Scorpaeniformes, suborder (or sculpins). There are about 300 species in 70 genera of Cottidae (cottids) that are mostly marine and found in shallow coastal waters in the northern and arctic regions. The highest diversity is in the North Pacific. [more]

Cottocomephoridae

Baikal sculpins, (family Cottocomephoridae), are a family of scorpaeniform fishes. [more]

Cracidae

The chachalacas, guans and curassows are birds in the family Cracidae. [more]

Cracticidae

The family Cracticidae, Bellmagpies and allies, gathers together 12 species of mostly crow-like birds native to Australasia and nearby areas. [more]

Cranoglanididae

Cranoglanis is the only genus of armorhead catfishes. [more]

Crapartinellidae

[more]

Craseonycteridae

Kitti's hog-nosed bat (Craseonycteris thonglongyai), also known as the bumblebee bat, is a vulnerable species of bat and the only extant member of the family Craseonycteridae. It occurs in western Thailand and southeast Burma, where it occupies limestone caves along rivers. [more]

Crassigyrinidae

[more]

Creediidae

The sandburrowers or simply burrowers are a family, Creediidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. [more]

Crenuchidae

Crenuchidae, the South American darters, is a family of fresh water fish of the order Characiformes. There are twelve genera including about 74 species, though there are several undescribed species. These fish are relatively small (usually under 10 centimetres or 4 in SL) and originate from eastern Panama and South America Both subfamilies were previously included in the family Characidae, and were placed in a separate family by Buckup, 1998 . Buckup, 1993, revised all genera, except Characidium. [more]

Creotarsidae

[more]

Cretatriacanthidae

[more]

Cricetidae

The Cricetidae are a family of rodents in the large and complex superfamily Muroidea. It includes true hamsters, voles, lemmings, and New World rats and mice. At almost 600 species, it is the second largest family of mammals, and has members throughout the New World, Asia, and Europe. [more]

Criorhynchidae

[more]

Crocodylidae

[more]

Crotaphytidae

[more]

Crotophagidae

The anis (Crotophagidae) are a small family of gregarious birds occurring in the Americas. They are part of the cuckoo order Cuculiformes and are sometimes placed as a subfamily Crotophaginae within the cuckoo family Cuculidae. [more]

Cryptacanthodidae

Cryptacanthodidae is a family of fish containing a single genus, Cryptacanthodes. There are four species in the genus Cryptacanthodes. This family is also known by the common names risue?os, terrassiers and wrymouths. [more]

Cryptobatrachidae

[more]

Cryptobranchidae

The hellbender and Asian giant salamanders (family Cryptobranchidae) are aquatic amphibians found in brooks and ponds in the United States, China, and Japan. They are the largest living amphibians known today. The Japanese giant salamander (Andrias japonicus), for example, reaches up to 1.44 metres (4.7 ft), feeds on fish and crustaceans, and has been known to live for more than 50 years in captivity. The Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus) can reach a length of 1.8 metres (5.9 ft). [more]

Cryptoclididae

Cryptoclididae is a family of medium-sized plesiosaurs that lived from the Middle Jurassic to the Late Cretaceous. In 2010, Kaiwhekea was transferred to Leptocleididae and Aristonectes was transferred to Elasmosauridae. [more]

Ctenacanthidae

[more]

Cteniogenidae

[more]

Ctenochasmatidae

[more]

Ctenodactylidae

Gundis or comb rats (family Ctenodactylidae) are a group of small, stocky rodents found in Africa. They live in rocky deserts across the northern parts of the continent. The family comprises 4 living genera and 5 species (Speke's Gundi, Felou Gundi, Desert Gundi, North African Gundi and Mzab Gundi), as well as numerous extinct genera and species (McKenna and Bell, 1997). They are in the superfamily . They first came to the notice of western naturalists in Tripoli in 1774 and were given the name 'gundi mice'. [more]

Ctenodontidae

[more]

Ctenoluciidae

Ctenoluciidae (meaning "comb light family"), also known as pike-characins, is a small family of freshwater fishes from Panama and South America. [more]

Ctenomyidae

The tuco-tucos are members of a group of rodents that belong to the family Ctenomyidae. The tuco-tucos belong to a single genus: Ctenomys, but they include some 60 different species. The relationships among the species are debated by taxonomists. Their closest relatives are degus and other octodontids (Woods and Kilpatrick, 2005). All species of tuco-tuco are found in South America from Peru and central Brazil southward. The tuco-tucos of South America have an ecological role equivalent to that of the pocket gophers of North America. [more]

Cuculidae

The cuckoos are a family, Cuculidae, of near passerine birds. The order Cuculiformes, in addition to the cuckoos, also includes the turacos (family Musophagidae, sometimes treated as a separate order, Musophagiformes). Some zoologists and taxonomists have also included the unique Hoatzin in the Cuculiformes, but its taxonomy remains in dispute. The cuckoo family, in addition to those species named as such, also includes the roadrunners, koels, malkohas, couas, coucals and anis. The coucals and anis are sometimes separated as distinct families, the Centropodidae and Crotophagidae respectively. [more]

Curimatidae

Curimatidae is a family of freshwater fishes, known as the toothless characins of the order Characiformes. They originate from southern Costa Rica to northern Argentina. The family has around 95 species, many of them frequently exploited for human consumption. They are closely related to the Prochilodontidae. [more]

Cursornithidae

[more]

Cyamodontidae

[more]

Cyathaspidae

[more]

Cyathaspididae

[more]

Cyclopedidae

Cyclopedidae is a family of anteaters that includes the silky anteater and its extinct relatives. [more]

Cyclopteridae

[more]

Cycloramphidae

Cycloramphinae is a subfamily of leptodactylid frogs found in South America. [more]

Cyematidae

The bobtail snipe eels are two species of deep-sea fishes in the family Cyematidae, one only in each of two genera. They are small elongate fishes, growing up to 16 centimeters (6 inches) long. [more]

Cylindrodontidae

[more]

Cylindrophiidae

The Cylindrophiidae are a monotypic family containing the genus Cylindrophis found in Asia. These are burrowing snakes and all have checkered black-and-white bellies. Currently, 8 species are recognized and no subspecies. [more]

Cynocephalidae

Colugos () are arboreal gliding mammals found in South-east Asia. There are just two extant species, which make up the entire family Cynocephalidae (play /?sa?n?s?'f??l?di?/) and order Dermoptera. They are the most capable of all gliding mammals, using flaps of extra skin between their legs to glide from higher to lower locations. They are also known as cobegos or flying lemurs, though they are not true lemurs. [more]

Cynodontidae

Cynodontidae fishes (order Characiformes), or dogteeth tetras, are a family of freshwater fishes found in the Neotropics. This group is not very diverse, and includes only five genera and 14 species. Most of what is known about this family is from the members of the subfamily Cynodontinae, which includes the largest species of this family, up to 65 centimetres (26 in). Understanding of the members of subfamily are less known, though they only reach up to 20 cm. [more]

Cynoglossidae

Tonguefishes are a family, Cynoglossidae, of flatfishes. They are distinguished by the presence of a long hook on the snout overhanging the mouth, and the absence of pectoral fins. Their eyes are both on the left side of their body, which also lacks a pelvic fin. [more]

Cynognathidae

Cynognathus crateronotus was a meter-long predator of the Early to Middle Triassic. It was among the more mammal-like of the Synapsids, a member of a grouping called Eucynodontia. The genus Cynognathus had an almost worldwide distribution. Fossils have so far been recovered from South Africa, South America, China and Antarctica. [more]

Cyprinidae

The family Cyprinidae, from the Ancient Greek kypr?nos (??p?????, "carp"), consists of the carps, the true minnows, and their relatives (for example, the barbs and barbels). Commonly called the carp family or the minnow family, its members are also known as cyprinids. It is the largest family of fresh-water fish, with over 2,400 species in about 220 genera. The family belongs to the order Cypriniformes, of whose genera and species the cyprinids make up two-thirds. [more]

Cyprinodontidae

Pupfish are a group of small killifish belonging to ten genera of the family Cyprinodontidae of ray-finned fish. All pupfish are especially noted for being found in extreme and isolated situations, in various parts of North America, South America, and the Caribbean region. As of August 2006 there were 120 known nominal species, and 9 subspecies. [more]

Cyriacotheriidae

[more]

Cyttidae

Cyttidae is a family of large, showy, deep-bodied zeiform marine fish. Found in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Ocean, the family contains just three species in the single genus Cyttus. [more]

Dacelonidae

A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[4] [more]

Dacrytheriidae

[more]

Dactylopteridae

The flying gurnards are a family, Dactylopteridae, of marine fish notable for their greatly enlarged pectoral fins. As they cannot literally fly, an alternative name preferred by some authors is helmet gurnards. They are the only family in the suborder Dactylopteroidei. [more]

Dactyloscopidae

Sand stargazers are blennioids; perciform marine fish of the odd family Dactyloscopidae. Found in temperate to tropical waters of North and South America; some may also inhabit brackish environments.. There are 44 species in nine genera represented, the giant sand stargazer (Dactylagnus mundus) being the largest at 15 centimetres in length; all other species are under 10 centimetres. [more]

Dakotornithidae

[more]

Dalatiidae

Dalatiidae is a family of sharks in the order Squaliformes, commonly known as kitefin sharks (which also refers specifically to the species Dalatias licha). Members of this family are small, under 2 m (6.6 ft) long, and are found worldwide. They have cigar-shaped bodies with narrow heads and rounded snouts. Several species have specialized bioluminescent organs. [more]

Dalpiazinidae

[more]

Dapediidae

[more]

Dartmuthiidae

[more]

Dasyatidae

The whiptail stingrays are a family, Dasyatidae, of rays in the order Myliobatiformes. They are found worldwide in tropical to temperate marine waters, and a number of species have also penetrated into fresh water in North America, Africa, Asia, and Australia. Members of this family have flattened pectoral fin discs that range from oval to diamond-like in shape. Their common name comes from their whip-like tails, which are much longer than the disc and lack dorsal and caudal fins. All whiptail stingrays, except the porcupine ray (Urogymnus asperrimus), have one or more venomous stings near the base of the tail, which is used in defense. They range in size from 18 cm (7.1 in) to almost 2 m (6.6 ft) across. [more]

Dasyornithidae

The bristlebirds are a family, Dasyornithidae, of passerine bird. There are three species in one genus, Dasyornis. The family is endemic to Australia. The genus Dasyornis was sometimes placed in the Acanthizidae or, as a subfamily, Dasyornithinae, along with the Acanthizinae and Pardalotinae, within an expanded Pardalotidae, before being elevated to full family level by Christidis & Boles (2008). [more]

Dasypodidae

Armadillos are New World placental mammals with a leathery armor shell. The Dasypodidae are the only surviving family in the order Cingulata, part of the superorder Xenarthra, along with the anteaters and sloths. The word armadillo in Spanish means "little armored one". The Aztec called them azotochtli, Nahuatl for ?turtle-rabbit?. [more]

Dasyproctidae

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Dasyuridae

Dasyuridae is a family of marsupials native to Australia and New Guinea, including 61 species divided into 15 genera. Many are small and mouse-like, giving them the misnomer marsupial mice, but the group also includes the cat-sized quolls, as well as the Tasmanian Devil. They are found in a wide range of habitats, including grassland, forests, and mountains, and some species are arboreal or semi-aquatic. [more]

Datnioididae

Datnioides, also known as tigerfishes, are the only genus of fish in the family Datnioididae. The species of this genus are found in fresh and brackish waters of coastal areas and river estuaries in South and South East Asia. [more]

Daubentoniidae

[more]

Debeeriidae

[more]

Deinocheiridae

[more]

Deinotheriidae

Deinotheriidae ("terrible beasts") is a family of prehistoric elephant-like proboscideans that lived during the Tertiary period, first appearing in Africa, then spreading across southern Asia (Indo-Pakistan) and Europe. During that time they changed very little, apart from growing much larger in size - by the late Miocene they had become the largest land animals of their time. Their most distinctive feature was the downward curving tusks on the lower jaw. [more]

Delphinidae

Oceanic dolphins are the members of the Delphinidae family of cetaceans. These marine mammals are related to whales and porpoises. They are found worldwide, mostly in the shallower seas of the continental shelves. As the name implies, these dolphins tend to be found in the open seas, unlike the river dolphins, although a few species such as the Irrawaddy dolphin are coastal or riverine. [more]

Deltatheridiidae

[more]

Deltatheroididae

[more]

Dendrerpetontidae

Dendrerpetontidae is a family of Temnospondyli. [more]

Dendrobatidae

Poison dart frog (also dart-poison frog, poison frog or formerly poison arrow frog) is the common name of a group of frogs in the family Dendrobatidae which are native to Central and South America. These species are diurnal and often have brightly-colored bodies. Although all wild dendrobatids are at least somewhat toxic, levels of toxicity vary considerably from one species to the next and from one population to another. Many species are critically endangered. These amphibians are often called "dart frogs" due to the Amerindians' indigenous use of their toxic secretions to poison the tips of blowdarts. However, of over 175 species, only three have been documented as being used for this purpose (curare plants are more commonly used), and none come from the Dendrobates genus, which is characterized by the brilliant color and complex patterns of its members. [more]

Dendrocolaptidae

The woodcreepers (Dendrocolaptinae) comprise a subfamily of sub-oscine passerine birds endemic to the Neotropics. They have traditionally been considered a distinct family Dendrocolaptidae, but most authorities now place them as a subfamily of the ovenbirds (Furnariidae). They superficially resemble the Old World treecreepers, but they are unrelated and the similarities are due to convergent evolution. The subfamily contains around 57 species in 15 to 20 genera. [more]

Dendrocygnidae

The whistling ducks or tree ducks are a subfamily, Dendrocygninae of the duck, goose and swan family of birds, Anatidae. In other taxonomical approaches, they are either considered a separate family "Dendrocygnidae", or a tribe "Dendrocygnini" in the goose subfamily Anserinae (e.g. Terres & NAS, 1991). [more]

Dentatherinidae

Mercer's tusked silverside, Dentatherina merceri, is a species of fish. [more]

Denticipitidae

The denticle herring (Denticeps clupeoides) is a small (15 cm) species of ray-finned fish found only in the rivers of Benin, Nigeria and Cameroon, related to the herrings, but notable for its large anal fin and its array of denticle like scales under the head giving it almost a furry appearance. It is the sole living member of the family Denticipitidae. [more]

Deperetellidae

[more]

Dercetidae

[more]

Derichthyidae

Longneck eels or neck eels are a family, Derichthyidae, of eels. They are pelagic fishes, found in the middle and depths of most oceans. The name comes from Greek deres meaning "neck" and ichthys meaning "fish". [more]

Dermatemydidae

The Central American river turtle or Mesoamerican river turtle (Dermatemys mawii) locally known as the "hickatee" or "tortuga blanca"-(white turtle) is the only living species in the family Dermatemydidae. Its closest relatives are only known from fossils [more]

Dermochelyidae

Dermochelyidae is a family of turtles which has eight extinct and one extant genera. [more]

Desmatophocidae

[more]

Desmostylidae

[more]

Deuterosauridae

Deuterosaurus is a genus of the Therapsids, one of the "mammal-like? reptiles dominating land during the late Palaeozoic. [more]

Diadectidae

Diadectidae is an extinct family of large diadectomorph reptiliomorphs. Diadectids lived in North America and Europe during the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian. They were the first herbivorous tetrapods, and also the first fully terrestrial animals to attain large sizes. Footprints indicate that diadectids walked with an erect posture. They were the first to exploit plant material in terrestrial food chains, making their appearance an important stage in both vertebrate evolution and terrestrial ecosystems. [more]

Diademodontidae

[more]

Diamantomyidae

Diamantomyidae is a family of extinct hystricognath rodents from Africa and Asia. [more]

Diatomyidae

Diatomyidae is a family of hystricomorphous, rodents found in Asia. It is currently represented by a single known living species, Laonastes aenigmamus. [more]

Diatrymidae

[more]

Dibamidae

[more]

Dicaeidae

The flowerpeckers are a family, Dicaeidae , of passerine birds. The family comprises two genera, Prionochilus and Dicaeum, with 44 species in total. The family has sometimes been included in an enlarged sunbird family Nectariniidae. The berrypeckers of the family Melanocharitidae and the painted berrypeckers, Paramythiidae, were once lumped into this family as well. The family is distributed through tropical southern Asia and Australasia from India east to the Philippines and south to Australia. The family is catholic in its habitat preferences, occupying a wide range of environments from sea level to montane habitats. Some species, such as the Mistletoebird of Australia, are recorded as being highly nomadic over parts of their range. [more]

Dicamptodontidae

Pacific giant salamanders (Dicamptodontidae) are a family of large salamanders. [more]

Dicellopygidae

[more]

Diceratiidae

Double anglers are a family, Diceratiidae, of anglerfishes. They are found in deep, lightless waters of the Atlantic, Indian and western Pacific Oceans. [more]

Dichistiidae

The galjoen fishes are a small family, Dichistiidae, of perciform fishes. There are just two species in the family in the single genus Dichistius: [more]

Dichobunidae

[more]

Dicraeosauridae

Dicraeosauridae is a family of sauropod dinosaurs known from the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous of Africa and South America. Currently only three genera are recognised; the Jurassic South American genus Brachytrachelopan, the Jurassic African Dicraeosaurus and the South American Early Cretaceous Amargasaurus, with its distinctive neck spines. All three animals are small by sauropod standards, with relatively short necks. [more]

Dicroglossidae

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Dicruridae

The drongos are a family of small passerine birds of the Old World tropics, the Dicruridae. This family was sometimes[] much enlarged to include a number of largely Australasian groups, such as the Australasian fantails, monarchs and paradise flycatchers. The name is originally from the indigenous language of Madagascar, where it refers to local species, but is now used to refer to all members of the family. The family is usually treated as having two genera, Chaetorhynchus and Dicrurus. The genus Chaetorhynchus contains a single species, the New Guinea endemic Pygmy Drongo. The placement of this species in the family is highly dubious due to both morphological and genetic differences, and it has recently been placed, along with the closely related Silktail of Fiji, with the fantails (Rhipiduridae). The remaining genus contains the remaining 25 species of drongo. [more]

Dicynodontidae

Dicynodon ("Two Dog-teeth") is a type of dicynodont therapsid that flourished during the Permian period between 251 and 299 million years ago. Like all dicynodonts, it was herbivorous. This animal was toothless, except for prominent tusks, hence the name. It probably cropped vegetation with a horny beak, much like a tortoise, while the tusks may have been used for digging up roots and tubers. [more]

Didelphidae

Opossums (colloquially possums)(Didelphimorphia, ) make up the largest order of marsupials in the Western Hemisphere, including 103 or more species in 19 genera. They are also commonly called possums, though that term technically refers to Australian fauna of the suborder Phalangeriformes. The Virginia opossum was the first animal to be named an opossum; usage of the name was published in 1610. The word opossum comes from the Proto-Algonquian aposoum, pronounced *wa?p- a??emw, meaning "white dog" or "white beast/ animal". Opossums probably diverged from the basic South American marsupials in the late Cretaceous or early Paleocene. [more]

Didolodontidae

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Didymictidae

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Didymoconidae

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Dimorphodontidae

Dimorphodontidae is a family of early "rhamphorhynchoid" pterosaurs named after Dimorphodon, that lived in the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic. [more]

Dimylidae

[more]

Dinilysiidae

[more]

Dinolestidae

The long-finned pike or yellowfin pike, Dinolestes lewini, is a species of perciform fish, the only species in the genus Dinolestes as well as the familia family Dinolestidae. [more]

Dinomyidae

[more]

Dinopercidae

Dinopercidae, also known as the cavebasses, is a family of marine perciform fish consisting of a single species, , which is native to the Indian Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Angola. [more]

Dinopterygidae

[more]

Dinornithidae

[more]

Diodontidae

Porcupinefish are fish of the family Diodontidae, (order Tetraodontiformes), also commonly called blowfish (and, sometimes, "balloonfish" and "globefish"). [more]

Diomedeidae

Albatrosses, of the biological family Diomedeidae, are large seabirds allied to the procellariids, storm-petrels and diving-petrels in the order Procellariiformes (the tubenoses). They range widely in the Southern Ocean and the North Pacific. They are absent from the North Atlantic, although fossil remains show they once occurred there too and occasional vagrants are found. [more]

Diomedeoididae

The Diomedeoididae are a prehistoric family of seabirds. The family was in the order Procellariiformes which today is composed of the albatrosses and petrels. At present the family contains a single genus, Diomedeoides, in which there are three described species. The taxonomy of the family and genus is still in need to revision, and it is likely that the genus name Diomedeoides is actually the junior synonym to Rupelornis (van Beneden, 1871). [more]

Diplodocidae

[more]

Diplomystidae

Diplomystidae, the Velvet catfishes, is a family of catfishes endemic to South America. It currently contains six species in two genera. [more]

Dipnorhynchidae

Dipnorhynchidae is an extinct family of prehistoric lungfishes which lived during the Devonian period. [more]

Dipodidae

The Dipodidae, or dipodids, are a family of rodents found across the northern hemisphere. This family includes over 50 species among the 16 genera. They include the jerboas, jumping mice, and birch mice. Different species are found in grassland, deserts, and forests. They are all capable of saltation (jumping while in a bipedal stance), a feature that is most highly evolved in the desert-dwelling jerboas. [more]

Diprotodontidae

[more]

Dipteridae

Dipteridae is an extinct family of prehistoric lungfishes which lived during the Devonian period. [more]

Diretmidae

Spinyfins are a family, Diretmidae, of beryciform fishes. The name is from Greek, di meaning "two" and eretmos meaning "oar". They are found worldwide in deep waters, down to as much as 2,000 metres (6,600 ft). [more]

Discoglossidae

Discoglossidae is a family of primitive frogs, with the common name Disc-Tongued Frogs. Most are endemic to Europe, but there are also three species in North-West Africa, and an extinct species formerly occurred in Israel. [more]

Discosauriscidae

[more]

Dissorophidae

Dissorophidae is an extinct family of medium-sized, temnospondyl amphibians that flourished during the Late Pennsylvanian and early Permian periods in what is now North America and Europe. Despite being amphibians, they seem to be well developed for life on land, with well-developed limbs, solid vertebrae, and a row of armour plates of dermal bone, which both protected the animal and further strengthened the backbone. [more]

Distobatidae

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Djadochtatheriidae

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Docodontidae

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Dolichochampsidae

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Dolichosauridae

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Donodontidae

Donodon is an extinct genus of mammal from the Early Cretaceous (?Berriasian) S?quence B des Couches Rouges of Talssint, Morocco. It is the only member of the family Donodontidae. It differs from dryolestids in having upper molars that are not compressed mesiodistally. [more]

Doradidae

Doradidae is a family of catfishes also known as thorny catfishes or talking catfishes. These fish are native to South America, primarily in Brazil, Peru, and the Guianas. [more]

Dormaaliidae

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Dortokidae

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Dorypteridae

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Draconettidae

Draconettidae, the slope dragonets, is a small family of fish in the order Perciformes. They are found in temperate to tropical waters of the Atlantic, Indian and western Pacific Oceans. They are closely related to, and appear similar to, the fish of the Callionymidae. They are small fish, the largest species reaching 12 centimetres (4.7 in) long. Like the Callionymids, they are bottom-dwelling fish, and usually sexually dimorphic. [more]

Drepaneidae

The sicklefishes are perciform fishes of the genus Drepane, the only genus in the family Drepaneidae. They are found in the Indian and western Pacific Oceans, and in the eastern Atlantic near Africa. (The name "Drepanidae" has been used in the past, but a family of hook-tip moths has priority.) [more]

Dromadidae

The Crab-plover or Crab Plover (Dromas ardeola) is a bird related to the waders, but sufficiently distinctive to merit its own family Dromadidae. Its relationship within the Charadriiformes is unclear, some have considered it to be closely related to the thick-knees, or the pratincoles, while others have considered it closer to the auks and gulls. It is the only member of the genus Dromas and is unique among waders in making use of ground warmth to aid incubation of the eggs. [more]

Dromaeosauridae

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Dromaiidae

The bird family Casuariidae has four surviving members: the three species of cassowary, and the only remaining species of Emu. The emus were formerly classified in their own family, Dromaiidae, but are regarded as sufficiently closely related to the cassowaries to be part of the same family. [more]

Dromomerycidae

Palaeomerycidae is an extinct family of ruminants (thus being even-toed ungulates of order Artiodactyla), probably ancestral to deer and musk deer. They lived in North America, Europe, Africa, and Asia from the Eocene to Miocene epoch 55.8 to 5.3 Ma, existing for approximately 50.5 million years. [more]

Dromornithidae

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Dryolestidae

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Dryornithidae

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Dryosauridae

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Dryptosauridae

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Dsungaripteridae

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Dugongidae

Dugongidae is a family in the order of Sirenia. [more]

Dyrosauridae

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Echeneidae

The remora (), sometimes called a suckerfish or sharksucker, is an elongated, brown fish in the order Perciformes and family Echeneidae. They grow to 30?90 centimetres long (1?3 ft), and their distinctive first dorsal fin takes the form of a modified oval sucker-like organ with slat-like structures that open and close to create suction and take a firm hold against the skin of larger marine animals. By sliding backward, the remora can increase the suction, or it can release itself by swimming forward. Remoras sometimes attach to small boats. They swim well on their own, with a sinuous, or curved, motion. [more]

Echeneididae

[more]

Echimyidae

The spiny rats are a group of hystricognath rodents in the family Echimyidae. They are distributed from central Central America through much of South America. They were also found in the West Indies until the 19th century. Some authorities consider the nutria from southern and central South America to be a part of this family. [more]

Echinochimaeridae

Echinochimaera is an extinct genus of fish, it was assigned to the order chimaera by Jack Sepkoski in 2002. The genus' name derives from the Greek e???? (echino) meaning spiny, and chimaera. [more]

Echinorhinidae

Echinorhinus is a genus of squaliform sharks, the only extant genus in the family Echinorhinidae. The name is from Greek echinos meaning "spiny" and rhinos meaning "nose". Both species are uncommon, little known sharks. They are found worldwide in cold temperate to tropical seas down to 900 metres (3,000 ft) depth. [more]

Ectypodontidae

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Edaphosauridae

Edaphosauridae is a family of mostly large (up to 3 meters or more) advanced, Late Pennsylvanian to early Permian pelycosaurs. [more]

Edestidae

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Ektopodontidae

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Elapidae

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Elasmosauridae

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Elassomatidae

Elassoma is a genus of freshwater fish, the only member of family Elassomatidae and suborder Elassomatoidei of order Perciformes. The type species is E. zonatum, the banded pygmy sunfish. The Elassomatidae are known collectively as pygmy sunfishes, but are not true sunfishes, which are members of family Centrarchidae. Some researchers believe they are related to sticklebacks and pipefishes (order Syngnathiformes) rather than Perciformes. [more]

Electrophoridae

The electric eel (Electrophorus electricus), is an electric fish, and the only species of the genus Electrophorus. It is capable of generating powerful electric shocks, of up to six hundred volts, which it uses for both hunting and self-defense. It is an apex predator in its South American range. Despite its name it is not an eel but rather a knifefish. [more]

Eleginopidae

Eleginops maclovinus, commonly known as the Patagonian blenny, Falkland's mullet or rock cod, is a species of icefish found in coastal and estuarine habitats around southernmost South America, ranging as far north as Valpara?so on the Pacific side, and Uruguay on the Atlantic side. It is also found around the Falkland Islands, where it has been featured on a stamp. It is the only member of its genus, which is the only member of the family Eleginopidae. Its English names refer to the vaguely blenny-, mullet- or cod-like appearance, but it is not related to true blennies, mullets or cods. Locally, it is often called R?balo, a name also used for the common snook. [more]

Eleotridae

Sleeper gobies are members of the Eleotridae fish family, found predominantly in the tropical Indo-Pacific. There are approximately 35 genera and 150 species. While many eleotrids pass through a planktonic stage in the sea and some spend their entire lives in the sea, as adults the majority live in freshwater streams and brackish waters. They are especially important as predators in the freshwater stream ecosystems on oceanic islands such as New Zealand and Hawai'i that otherwise lack the predatory fish families typical of nearby continents, such as catfish. Anatomically they are similar to the gobies (Gobiidae), though unlike the majority of gobies, they do not have a pelvic sucker. [more]

Eleotrididae

[more]

Elephantidae

Elephantidae is a taxonomic family, collectively elephants and mammoths. These are terrestrial large mammals with a trunk and tusks. Most genera and species in the family are extinct. Only two genera, Loxodonta (African elephants) and Elephas (Asiatic elephants), are living. [more]

Eleutherornithidae

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Elginerpetontidae

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Elictognathidae

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Ellimmichthyidae

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Elopidae

Elopidae is a family of ray-finned fish containing the single genus Elops. They are commonly known as ladyfish, skipjacks, Jack-Rashes, or tenpounders. [more]

Elopterygidae

[more]

Elosuchidae

[more]

Emballonuridae

The 51 species of sac-winged or sheath-tailed bats constitute the family Emballonuridae, and can be found in tropical and subtropical regions all over the world. Emballonurids include some of the smallest of all bats, and range from 3.5 to 10 cm in body length. They are generally brown or grey, although the ghost bats (genus Diclidurus) are white. [more]

Emberizidae

The Emberizidae are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with a distinctively shaped bill. [more]

Embiotocidae

The surfperches are a family, Embiotocidae, of perciform fishes. They are found in coastal waters of the northern Pacific and grow up to 45 cm (17.7 inches) long. [more]

Emeidae

[more]

Emmelichthyidae

Rovers are a family of small to medium sized marine fish. The family was once much larger, including a wide range of plankton-eating fish, but most of the genera were discovered to be unrelated examples of parallel evolution, and were moved to other families. [more]

Emydidae

Emydidae, commonly called the pond turtles or marsh turtles, is a family of turtles. Previously, several species of Asian box turtle were classified in the family. However, revised taxonomy has separated them to a different family. Now, Emydidae, with the exception of two species of pond turtle, is entirely a Western Hemisphere family. The family Emydidae includes close to 50 species in 10 genera. [more]

Enaliornithidae

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Enchodontidae

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Endotheriidae

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Endothiodontidae

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Engraulidae

Anchovies are a family (Engraulidae) of small, common salt-water forage fish. There are 144 species in 17 genera, found in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans. Anchovies are usually classified as an oily fish. [more]

Engraulididae

[more]

Enigmosauridae

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Enoplosidae

Enoplosus armatus is a species of perciform fish, the only species in the family Enoplosidae. [more]

Entelodontidae

Entelodonts, sometimes nicknamed hell pigs or terminator pigs, is an extinct family of pig-like omnivores endemic to forests and plains of North America, Europe, and Asia from the middle Eocene to early Miocene epochs (37.2?16.3 mya), existing for approximately 20.9 million years. [more]

Entelopidae

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Eoastrapostylopidae

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Eocaeciliaidae

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Eocardiidae

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Eocypselidae

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Eogruidae

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Eogyrinidae

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Eomoropidae

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Eomyidae

Eomyidae is a family of extinct rodents from North America and Eurasia related to modern day pocket gophers and kangaroo rats. The family includes the earliest known gliding rodent, Eomys (Storch et al., 1996) [more]

Eopsaltriidae

The bird family Petroicidae includes roughly 45 species in about 15 genera. All are endemic to Australasia: New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand and numerous Pacific Islands as far east as Samoa. For want of an accurate common name, the family is often called the Australasian robins. Within the family the species are known not only as robins but as scrub-robins and flycatchers. They are, however, only distantly related to the Old World family Muscicapidae (to which other species with such names belong) and the monarch flycatchers (Monarchidae). [more]

Eosimiidae

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Eothyrididae

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Ephippidae

Ephippidae is the fish family containing the spadefishes. There are about eight genera, with a total of 20 species, mostly marine. The most well-known species are probably those in the reef-dwelling genus Platax, the batfishes, which are kept as aquarium fish. They are spade-shaped, laterally compressed, and very symmetrical triangular dorsal and anal fins. They are shiny silver with areas of yellow and vertical brown or black banding. The eyes are often located in one of the vertical bands as a method of camouflage. Scuba divers sometimes mistake them for angelfish, which are similar in shape but not closely related. Other genera in the family are characterized by long, trailing, pointed dorsal and anal fins. Most species feed primarily on algae and small invertebrates. [more]

Ephippididae

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Epigonidae

Deepwater cardinalfishes are perciform fishes in the family Epigonidae. [more]

Epoicotheriidae

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Equidae

Equidae (sometimes known as the horse family) is the taxonomic family of horses and related animals, including the extant horses, donkeys, and zebras, and many other species known only from fossils. All extant species are in the genus Equus. Equidae belongs to the order Perissodactyla, which includes the extant tapirs and rhinoceros, and still more fossils. [more]

Erethistidae

Erethistidae are a family of catfishes that originate from southern Asia. [more]

Erethizontidae

The New World porcupines, or Erethizontidae, are large arboreal rodents, distinguished by the spiny covering from which they take their name. They inhabit forests and wooded regions across North America, and into northern South America. Although both the New World and Old World porcupine families belong to the Hystricognathi branch of the vast order Rodentia, they are quite different and are not closely related. [more]

Ereuniidae

Ereuniidae is a family of scorpaeniform fishes. They are native to deep marine waters around Japan. The lower four rays of the pectoral fin are elongated and free. [more]

Ergilornithidae

[more]

Ericiolacertidae

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Erinaceidae

Erinaceidae is the only living family in the order Erinaceomorpha, which has recently been subsumed with Soricomorpha into the order Eulipotyphla. Eulipotyphla has been shown to be monophyletic; Soricomorpha is paraphyletic because Soricidae shared a more recent common ancestor with Erinaceidae than with other soricomorphs. [more]

Erithizontidae

[more]

Ernanodontidae

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Erpetosuchidae

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Eryopidae

Eryopidae are a family of medium to large Permian temnospondyli amphibians, known from North America and Europe. They are defined cladistically as all Eryopoidea with interpterygoid vacuities (spaces in the ) that are rounded at the front; and large external nares (Laurin and Steyer 2000). Not all of the genera previously included in the Eryopidae (Carroll 1988) are retained under the cladistic revisions. [more]

Erythrinidae

The Erythrinidae are a family of freshwater fish found in rivers from Costa Rica south as far as Argentina. They are common and are usually caught with hooks by fishermen, partially because of their voracious behaviour. [more]

Erythrosuchidae

[more]

Eschmeyeridae

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Eschrichtiidae

Eschrichtiidae is a family of baleen whales in the suborder Mysticeti. [more]

Esocidae

Esox is a genus of freshwater fish, the only living genus in the family Esocidae ? the esocids which were endemic to North America, Europe and Eurasia during the Paleogene through present. [more]

Estemmenosuchidae

[more]

Esthonychidae

[more]

Estrildidae

The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. They can be classified as the family Estrildidae (weaver-finch), or as a sub-group within the family Passeridae, which also includes the true sparrows. [more]

Etmopteridae

Etmopteridae is a family of sharks in the order Squaliformes, commonly known as lantern sharks. Their name comes from the presence of light-producing photophores on their bodies. The members of this family are small, under 90 cm (35 in) long, and are found in deep waters worldwide. There are 45 species in five genera. Three-quarters of the species are in the genus Etmopterus. [more]

Eublepharidae

Eublepharinae is one of five subfamilies of the Gekkonidae, or geckos. Eublepharinae has 27 species in five genera. Also called eyelid geckos, the Eublepharines have more primitive features than other geckos. In particular, their feet lack the modifications that allow most other geckos to climb sheer surfaces. Unlike other geckos, they also have movable eyelids. They are nocturnal lizards, often preying on insects and similar creatures. They lay a pair of leathery eggs, and, in at least some species, the sex of the young is determined by the temperature of incubation, as in crocodiles. [more]

Eubrontidae

[more]

Euclichthyidae

The Eucla cod, Euclichthys polynemus, is a deepwater marine fish belonging to the cod order (Gadiformes). It is the only species currently classified in the family Euclichthyidae. It is named after the town of Eucla, Western Australia, in whose coastal waters it is found. [more]

Eucosmodontidae

Eucosmodontidae is a poorly preserved family of fossil mammals within the extinct order Multituberculata. Representatives are known from strata dating from the Upper Cretaceous through the Lower Eocene of North America, as well as the Paleocene to Eocene of Europe. The family is part of the suborder of Cimolodonta. They might be related with the Djadochtatherioidea but without further finds, this remains unclear. Other than a partial snout, fossil evidence is presently limited to teeth. [more]

Eudimorphodontidae

[more]

Euhelopodidae

[more]

Euparkeriidae

[more]

Eupetidae

The Rail-babbler or Malaysian Rail-babbler (Eupetes macrocerus) is a strange, rail-like, brown and pied inhabitant of the floor of primary forest in the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra (the nominate subspecies macrocerus), as well as Borneo (ssp. borneensis), distantly related to African crow-like birds. Its population has greatly decreased because much of the lowland primary forest has been cut, and secondary forests usually have too dense a bottom vegetation or do not offer enough shade to be favourable for the species. However, it is locally still common in logged forest or on hill-forest on slopes, and probably not in immediate danger of extinction. The species is poorly known and rarely seen, in no small part due to its shyness. [more]

Eupleridae

The family Eupleridae is a group of carnivorans endemic to Madagascar and comprising 10 known species in seven genera. Probably the best known species is the Fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox), in the subfamily Euplerinae. All species of Euplerinae were formerly classified as viverrids, while all species in the subfamily Galidiinae were classified as herpestids. [more]

Eurhinodelphinidae

Eurhinodelphinidae is an extinct family of toothed whales which lived from the Oligocene to the Pliocene. Members of the family possessed an elongated jaw similar in appearance to a swordfish. [more]

Eurolimnornithidae

[more]

Eurostopodidae

The Eared nightjars are a small family (or subfamily) of nocturnal birds related to nightjars, although the taxonomy is uncertain. There are seven species, mainly found in forest and scrub from China to Australia. All are placed in one genus, Eurostopodus. They are long winged birds with plumage patterned with grey and brown to camouflage them when resting on the ground. They feed on insects caught in flight. A single white egg is laid directly on the ground and incubated by both adults. The chicks can walk soon after hatching. [more]

Eurylaimidae

The broadbills are a family of small passerine birds, Eurylaimidae. The Smithornis and Pseudocalyptomena species occur in sub-Saharan Africa; the rest extend from the eastern Himalayas to Sumatra and Borneo. The family possibly also includes the Sapayoa from the Neotropics and the asities from Madagascar. [more]

Eurymylidae

[more]

Eurypharyngidae

The pelican eel, or Eurypharynx pelecanoides, is a deep-sea fish rarely seen by humans, though the creatures are occasionally caught in fishing nets. It is an eel-like fish, the only known member of the genus Eurypharynx and the family Eurypharyngidae. It belongs to the order Saccopharyngiformes which is closely related to the true eels in Anguilliformes. It is also sometimes referred to as the umbrella mouth gulper. The specific epithet pelecanoides refers to the pelican, because the large mouth is reminiscent of that of the bird. The fish is also known by the alternative scientific names Gastrostomus pacificus, Macropharynx longicaudatus, Gastrostomus bairdii, Eurypharynx richardi and Leptocephalus pseudolatissimus. [more]

Eurypholidae

[more]

Eurypygidae

The Sunbittern, Eurypyga helias is a bittern-like bird of tropical regions of the Americas, and the sole member of the family Eurypygidae (sometimes spelled Eurypigidae) and genus Eurypyga. [more]

Eutypomyidae

[more]

Evermannellidae

Sabertooth or sabretooth fish are small, fierce-looking deep-sea aulopiform fish comprising the family Evermannellidae. The family is small, with just eight species in three genera represented; they are distributed throughout tropical to subtropical waters of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Ocean. [more]

Exocoetidae

Exocoetidae, is a family of marine fish in the order Beloniformes of class Actinopterygii. Fish of this family are known as flying fish. There are about 64 species grouped in seven to nine genera. [more]

Fabrosauridae

[more]

Falcatidae

[more]

Falconidae

The falcons and caracaras are around 60 species of diurnal birds of prey that make up the family Falconidae. The family is divided into two subfamiles, Polyborinae, which includes the caracaras and forest falcons, and Falconinae, the falcons, kestrels and falconets. [more]

Felidae

A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[5] [more]

Ferugliotheriidae

[more]

Fistulariidae

The cornetfishes are a small family Fistulariidae of extremely elongated fishes in the order Syngnathiformes. The family consists of just a single genus Fistularia with four species, found worldwide in tropical and subtropical marine environments. [more]

Fistularioididae

[more]

Florentiamyidae

[more]

Forficidae

[more]

Formicariidae

The Formicariidae, formicariids, or ground antbirds are a family of smallish passerine birds of subtropical and tropical Central and South America. They are between 10 and 20 cm (4?8 in) in length, and are related to the antbirds, Thamnophilidae, and gnateaters, Conopophagidae. This family contains probably (see below) some 100?120 species in 1 or 2 large and a number of fairly small genera. [more]

Fregatidae

The frigatebirds are a family, Fregatidae, of seabirds. There are five species in the single genus Fregata. They are also sometimes called Man of War birds or Pirate birds. Since they are related to the pelicans, the term "frigate pelican" is also a name applied to them. They have long wings, tails and bills and the males have a red gular pouch that is inflated during the breeding season to attract a mate. [more]

Fringillidae

[more]

Fundulidae

Fundulidae is the family of topminnows and (mainly) North American killifishes. The 46 species are native to North America as far south as Yucatan, and to the islands of Bermuda and Cuba, occurring in both freshwater and marine environments. [more]

Furcacaudidae

[more]

Furipteridae

Furipteridae is one of the families of bats. This family contains only two species, the Smokey Bat and the Thumbless Bat. Both are from Central and South America, and are closely related to the bats in the Natalidae and Thyropteridae families. They can be recognized by their reduced and functionless thumbs, enclosed by the wing membranes, and their broad, funnel-shaped ears. There are only two genera in the group, each with a single species. They are insectivorous and can live in many different kinds of environments. They have greyish fur, and a small . Like many bats, they roost in caves. [more]

Furnariidae

Ovenbirds or furnariids are a large family of small suboscine passerine birds found in Mexico, and Central and South America. They form the family Furnariidae. The Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus), which breeds in North America, is not actually a furnariid - rather it is a distantly related bird of the wood warbler family, Parulidae. [more]

Gadidae

Gadidae is a family of marine fish, included in the order Gadiformes. It includes the cod, haddock, whiting, and pollock. [more]

Galagidae

A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[6] [more]

Galagonidae

Galagos , also known as bushbabies, bush babies or nagapies (meaning "little night monkeys" in Afrikaans), are small, nocturnal primates native to continental Africa, and make up the family Galagidae (also sometimes called Galagonidae). They are sometimes included as a subfamily within the Lorisidae or Loridae. [more]

Galaxiidae

The Galaxiidae, also known by the anglicised name as galaxiids, are a family of mostly small freshwater fish in the southern hemisphere. The majority of species live in Australia or New Zealand, some are also found in South Africa, South America, Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia and the Falkland Islands. One of the galaxiid species, the common galaxias (Galaxias maculatus), is probably the most widely naturally distributed freshwater fish in the world. They are cool water species, found in temperate latitudes, with only one species known from sub-tropical habitat. Many specialise in living in cold, high altitude upland rivers, streams and lakes. [more]

Galbulidae

The jacamars are a family, Galbulidae, of near passerine birds from tropical South and Central America, extending up to Mexico. The order contains five genera and 18 species. The family is closely related to the puffbirds, another Neotropical family, and the two families are often separated into their own order away from the Piciformes, instead being placed in the Galbuliformes. They are principally birds of low altitude woodlands and forests, and particularly of forest edge and canopy. [more]

Galeopithecidae

A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[7] [more]

Galeopsidae

[more]

Galesauridae

[more]

Gallodactylidae

[more]

Garudimimidae

[more]

Gasteropelecidae

The freshwater hatchetfishes are a family, Gasteropelecidae, of ray-finned fish. The common hatchetfish is the most popular member among fish keeping hobbyists. The family includes three genera: Carnegiella (4 species), Gasteropelecus (3 species), and Thoracocharax (2 species). [more]

Gasterosteidae

The Gasterosteidae are a family of fish including the sticklebacks. FishBase currently recognises sixteen species in the family, grouped in five genera. However several of the species have a number of recognised subspecies, and the taxonomy of the family is thought to be in need of revision. Although some authorities give the common name of the family as "sticklebacks and tube-snouts", the tube-snouts are currently classified in the related family Aulorhynchidae. [more]

Gastornithidae

[more]

Gavialidae

[more]

Gaviidae

[more]

Geckonidae

[more]

Gekkonidae

Geckos are lizards belonging to the infraorder Gekkota, found in warm climates throughout the world. They range from 1.6 cm to 60 cm. [more]

Gelocidae

[more]

Gempylidae

Gempylidae is a family of perciform fishes, commonly known as snake mackerels or escolars. [more]

Geoemydidae

Geoemydidae (formerly known as Bataguridae) is the largest and most diverse family[] in the order Testudines (turtles) with about 70 species. It includes the Eurasian pond and river turtles and Neotropical wood turtles. [more]

Geolabididae

[more]

Geomyidae

The pocket gophers are burrowing rodents of the family Geomyidae. These are the "true" gophers, though several ground squirrels of the family Sciuridae are often called gophers as well. The name "pocket gopher" on its own may be used to refer to any of a number of subspecies of the family. [more]

Geotriidae

Geotriidae, also known as Southern Lampreys, are type of living, vertebrata fish. This fish also holds an IUCN Red List status of "Not Evaluated" [more]

Geranoididae

[more]

Germanodactylidae

[more]

Gerreidae

The mojarras are a family, Gerreidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. It has seven genera. [more]

Gerrhosauridae

The Gerrhosauridae is a family of lizards native to Africa and Madagascar. Also known as plated lizards, they live in a range of habitats, from rocky crevices to sand dunes. Their form is variable, with some species having four fully developed limbs, and others with vestigial hind limbs only. Most species are believed to be oviparous. [more]

Gibberichthyidae

Gibberichthyidae, also known as Gibberfishes, are a type of living, vertebrata fish. This fish carries an IUCN Red List status of "Not Evaluated". [more]

Gigandipodidae

[more]

Gigantactinidae

The Whipnose anglers, Gigantactinidae, are a family of deep-sea anglerfishes. The family name is derived from the Greek words "gigas", meaning "big", and "aktis", meaning "ray". They are distinguished by the presence of a remarkably long lure (the illicium), which may be longer than the body of the fish. [more]

Giganturidae

Telescopefish are small, deep-sea aulopiform fish comprising the small family Giganturidae. There are just two known species, both within the genus Gigantura. Though rarely captured, they are found in cold, deep tropical to subtropical waters worldwide. [more]

Ginglymostomatidae

Ginglymostomatidae is a cosmopolitan family of carpet sharks, containing the three monotypic genera of nurse sharks. Common in shallow, tropical and subtropical waters, these sharks are sluggish and docile bottom-dwellers. Nurse sharks typically attack humans only if directly threatened. [more]

Giraffidae

The giraffids are ruminant artiodactyl mammals that share a common ancestor with deer and bovids. The biological family Giraffidae, once a diverse group spread throughout Eurasia and Africa, contains only two living members, the giraffe and the okapi. Both are confined to sub-saharan Africa: the giraffe to the open savannas, and the okapi to the dense rainforest of the Congo. The two species look very different on first sight, but share a number of common features, including a long, dark-colored tongue, lobed canine teeth, and horns covered in skin, called "ossicones". [more]

Girellidae

[more]

Glareolidae

Glareolidae is a family of birds in the wader suborder Charadri. It contains two distinct groups, the pratincoles and the coursers. The coursers include the atypical Egyptian Plover, Pluvianus aegyptius, which has sometimes been placed in its own family. The family contains 17 species in five genera. [more]

Glasbiidae

[more]

Glaucosomatidae

The pearl perches are members of the perciform family Glaucosomatidae containing a single genus (Glaucosoma) of four species: [more]

Gliridae

The dormouse is a rodent of the family Gliridae. (This family is also variously called Myoxidae or Muscardinidae by different taxonomists.) Dormice are mostly found in Europe, although some live in Africa and Asia. They are particularly known for their long periods of hibernation. Because only one species of dormouse is native to the British Isles, in everyday English usage dormouse usually refers to one species (the hazel dormouse) as well as to the family as a whole. [more]

Glyptodontidae

[more]

Glyptodontoïdea

[more]

Glyptopsidae

[more]

Gnathanacanthidae

The red velvetfish, Gnathanacanthus goetzeei, is a marine scorpaeniform fish of the inshore waters of western and southern Australia. It is the sole member of the family Gnathanacanthidae and genus Gnathanacanthus. [more]

Gobiatidae

[more]

Gobiesocidae

Clingfishes are fishes of the family Gobiesocidae. Most species are marine, being found in shallow waters of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. They are bottom-dwelling fishes; some species shelter in sea urchins or crinoids. [more]

Gobiidae

The gobies form the family Gobiidae, which is one of the largest families of fish, with more than 2,000 species in more than 200 genera. Most are relatively small, typically less than 10 cm (4 in) in length. Gobies include some of the smallest vertebrates in the world, like species of the genera Trimmatom nanus and Pandaka pygmaea, which are under 1 cm (3/8 in) long when fully grown. There are some large gobies, such as some species of the genera or Periophthalmodon, that can reach over 30 cm (1 ft) in length, but that is exceptional. Although few are important as food for humans, they are of great significance as prey species for commercially important fish like cod, haddock, sea bass, and flatfish. Several gobies are also of interest as aquarium fish, such as the bumblebee gobies of the genus Brachygobius. [more]

Gobiosuchidae

[more]

Gomphotheriidae

[more]

Gondwanatheriidae

[more]

Goniophididae

[more]

Goniopholididae

[more]

Gonorhynchidae

[more]

Gonorynchidae

The beaked salmon (also beaked sandfish) are a type of long thin gonorynchiform ray-finned fish that live on sandy bottoms near shorelines. The approximately five known species are all in the single genus Gonorynchus (sometimes spelled Gonorhynchus) of the family Gonorynchidae (sometimes spelled Gonorhynchidae). All have a distinctive angular snout (hence the name) that the fish use to dig themselves into the sand. [more]

Gonostomatidae

Gonostomatidae is a family of deep-water marine fish, commonly named bristlemouths, lightfishes or anglemouths. It is a relatively small family, containing only eight known genera and 32 species. However, bristlemouths make up for their lack of diversity with numbers: Cyclothone, with 12 species, is thought to be (along with Vinciguerria), the most abundant vertebrate genus in the world. [more]

Goodeidae

Splitfins, are a family, Goodeidae, of teleost fish endemic to Mexico and some areas of the United States. This family contains 40 species within 18 genera. The family is named after ichthyologist George Brown Goode. [more]

Gorgonopsidae

[more]

Graculavidae

[more]

Grallatoridae

[more]

Grammatidae

The basslets are a small family, Grammatidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. The twelve members (in two genera) are all small fish of the western Atlantic, typically no more than 10 cm in length. Several species are colorful and popular for marine aquaria. They can also change their gender. [more]

Grammicolepididae

Grammicolepididae is a small family of deep-sea fishes, called tinselfishes due to their silvery color. [more]

Gregoriidae

[more]

Groeberiidae

[more]

Gruidae

Cranes are a family, Gruidae, of large, long-legged and long-necked birds in the order Gruiformes. There are fifteen species of crane in four genera. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Cranes live on all continents except Antarctica and South America. [more]

Gryzajidae

[more]

Guildayichthyidae

[more]

Gymnarchidae

Gymnarchus niloticus ? commonly known as the aba, aba aba, frankfish, freshwater rat-tail or African knifefish ? is an electric fish, and the only species in the genus Gymnarchus and the family Gymnarchidae within the order Osteoglossiformes. It is found exclusively in swamps and near vegetated edges in the Nile, Turkana, Chad, Niger, Volta, Senegal, and Gambia basins. [more]

Gymnarthridae

Gymnarthridae is an extinct family of tuditanomorph microsaurs. Gymnarthrids are known from Europe and North America and existed from the Late Carboniferous through the Early Permian. Remains have been found from the Czech Republic, Nova Scotia, Illinois, Texas, and Oklahoma. [more]

Gymnophthalmidae

Gymnophthalmidae is a family of lizards, sometimes known as spectacled lizards or microteiids. They are called 'spectacled' because of their transparent lower eyelids, so they can still see with closed eyes. Like most lizards, but unlike geckos, these eyelids are movable. [more]

Gymnotidae

The naked-back knifefishes are a family (Gymnotidae) of knifefishes (knivefish) that are found only in fresh waters of Central America and South America. All have organs adapted to the exploitation of bioelectricity. The family has 33 valid species in two genera. There are a number of undescribed species known in museum collections. [more]

Gymnuridae

The butterfly rays are a group of rays forming the genus Gymnura and the family Gymnuridae. They are found in warm oceans worldwide, and occasionally in estuaries. [more]

Gypsonictopidae

[more]

Gyrinocheilidae

Gyrinocheilus, also Chinese algae eater or sucking loach, is the single genus in the family Gyrinocheilidae, a family of small Southeast Asian cypriniform fishes that live in fast-flowing freshwater mountain streams. They hold on to fixed objects using a sucker-like mouth, and, despite the name, feed on a wide range of detritus, rather than simply on algae. [more]

Gyrodontidae

[more]

Hadronectoridae

[more]

Hadrosauridae

[more]

Haematopodidae

The oystercatchers are a group of waders; they form the family Haematopodidae, which has a single genus, Haematopus. They are found on coasts worldwide apart from the polar regions and some tropical regions of Africa and South East Asia. The exception to this is the Eurasian Oystercatcher and the South Island Oystercatcher, both of which breed inland, far inland in some cases. In the past there has been a great deal of confusion as to the species limits, with discrete populations of all black oystercatchers being afforded specific status but pied oystercatchers being considered one single species. [more]

Haemulidae

The grunts are a family, Haemulidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. They are numerous and widespread, with about 150 species in 19 genera, found in tropical fresh, brackish and salt waters around the world. They are bottom-feeding predators, and named for their ability to produce sound by grinding their teeth. [more]

Hahnodontidae

[more]

Halcyonidae

A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[8] [more]

Halecidae

[more]

Halosauridae

Halosaurs are eel-shaped fishes found only at great ocean depths. As the family Halosauridae, halosaurs are one of two families within the order Notacanthiformes; the other being the deep-sea spiny eels. Halosaurs are thought to have a worldwide distribution, with some seventeen species in three genera represented. Only a handful of specimens have been observed alive, all via chance encounters with remotely operated submersibles. [more]

Hapalodectidae

[more]

Haplobunodontidae

[more]

Hapsidopareiontidae

[more]

Haramiyidae

[more]

Harpagiferidae

Harpagiferidae, also known as Spiny Plunderfishes, are a type of living, vertebrata fish. This fish carries an IUCN Red List status of "Not Evaluated". [more]

Harpyodidae

[more]

Hassianycterididae

[more]

Hegetotheriidae

[more]

Helaletidae

[more]

Heleophrynidae

The Heleophrynidae, is a family of order Anura, commonly known as ghost frogs. The family consists of a two genera, Heleophryne and Hadromophryne, with seven species. Ghost frogs live in swift-moving mountain streams in South Africa. The common name of "ghost frogs" may have been coined because of their occurrence in . [more]

Heliornithidae

The Heliornithidae are a small family of tropical birds with webbed lobes on their feet like those of grebes and coots. The family overall are known as finfoots, although one species is known as a Sungrebe. The family is composed of three species in three genera. [more]

Helodermatidae

[more]

Helogeneidae

[more]

Helohyidae

[more]

Helostomatidae

Kissing gouramis, also known as kissing fish or kissers (Helostoma temminckii), are large tropical freshwater fish comprising the monotypic labyrinth fish family Helostomatidae (from the Greek elos [stud, nail], stoma [mouth]). These fish originate from Thailand to Indonesia. They can be food fish which are farmed in their native Southeast Asia. They are used fresh for steaming, baking, broiling, and pan frying. The kissing gourami is a popular aquarium fish. [more]

Helveticosauridae

[more]

Hemicyonidae

[more]

Hemigaleidae

The weasel sharks are a family, Hemigaleidae, of ground sharks found from the eastern Atlantic Ocean to the continental Indo-Pacific. They are found in shallow coastal waters to a depth of 100 m (330 ft). [more]

Hemimastodontidae

[more]

Hemiodontidae

The Hemidontidae is a small family of freshwater characins found in northern South America, south to the Paran?-Paraguay Basin. The larger species are popular food fish. [more]

Hemiphractidae

[more]

Hemiprocnidae

The treeswifts or crested swifts are a family, Hemiprocnidae, of aerial near passerine birds, closely related to the true swifts. The family contains a single genus, Hemiprocne, with four species. They are distributed from India and South East Asia through Indonesia to New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. [more]

Hemiramphidae

The halfbeaks (family Hemiramphidae) are a geographically widespread and numerically abundant family of epipelagic fish inhabiting warm waters around the world. The family Hemiramphidae is divided into two subfamilies, the primarily marine Hemiramphinae and the freshwater or estuarine Zenarchopterinae. The halfbeaks are named for their distinctive jaws, in which the lower jaws are significantly longer than the upper jaws. The halfbeaks show an exceptionally wide range of reproductive modes. These include egg-laying, ovoviviparity, and true vivipary where the mother is connected to the developing embryos via a placenta-like structure. In some of the livebearing species, developing embryos are also known to exhibit oophagy or intrauterine cannibalism, where developing embryos feed on eggs or other embryos within the uterus. [more]

Hemirhamphidae

[more]

Hemiscylliidae

Hemiscylliidae is a family of sharks in the order Orectolobiformes, commonly known as longtail carpet sharks or bamboo sharks. They are found in shallow waters of the tropical Indo-Pacific. [more]

Hemisotidae

The shovelnose frogs are nine species of frog in the genus, Hemisus, the only genus in the Family Hemisotidae. They are found in tropical and subtropical sub-Saharan Africa. The shovelnose frogs are moderate sized frogs, reaching a length of 8 centimetres (3.1 in). They are round-bodied, with short legs. Their head is small and narrow, with a hard, upturned nose. [more]

Hemisyntrachelidae

[more]

Hemitripteridae

Sea ravens are a family, Hemitripteridae of scorpaeniform fishes. They are bottom-dwelling fishes that feed on small invertebrates, found in the northwest Atlantic and north Pacific oceans. They are covered in small spines (modified scales). [more]

Henodontidae

[more]

Henricosborniidae

[more]

Hepsetidae

Hepsetus, the African pikes, is a genus of African fishes in the characin order, Characiformes. It is the sole genus in the family Hepsetidae and until 2011 was considered to be monotypic. It now is considered to consist of two described species. [more]

Heptapteridae

Heptapteridae is a family of catfish that originate from Mexico to South America. Heptapteridae is derived from Greek, hepta meaning seven and pteron meaning fin. [more]

Heptaxodontidae

The giant hutias are an extinct group of large rodents known from fossil and subfossil material in the West Indies. One species, Amblyrhiza inundata, is estimated to have weighed between 50 and 200 kg (110 and 440 lb), big specimens being as large as an American Black Bear. This is much larger than Capybara, the largest rodent living today, but still much smaller than Josephoartigasia monesi, the largest rodent known. These animals may have persisted into historic times and were probably used as a food source by aboriginal humans. All giant hutias are in a single family Heptaxodontidae, which contains no living species; this grouping seems to be paraphyletic and artificial however. [more]

Herpestidae

Mongooses (Herpestidae) are a family of 33 living species of small carnivorans from southern Eurasia and mainland Africa. Four additional species from Madagascar in the subfamily Galidiinae, which were previously classified in this family, are also referred to as "mongooses" or "mongoose-like". Genetic evidence indicates that the Galidiinae are more closely related to other Madagascar carnivorans in the family Eupleridae, which is the closest living group to the true mongooses. [more]

Herrerasauridae

[more]

Hesperornithidae

[more]

Heterenchelyidae

The Heterenchelyidae or Mud eels are a small family of eels native to the Atlantic, Mediterranean, and eastern Pacific. [more]

Heterodontidae

The bullhead sharks are a small order (Heterodontiformes) of basal modern sharks (Neoselachii). There are nine living species in a single genus, Heterodontus, in the family Heterodontidae. All are relatively small, with the largest species being just 150 centimetres (59 in) in adult length. They are bottom feeders in tropical and subtropical waters. [more]

Heterodontosauridae

[more]

Heteropneustidae

Heteropneustes, the airsac catfishes, is a genus of catfishes native to Asia. This genus is the only one in its family. [more]

Hexagrammidae

The family of marine fishes Hexagrammidae incorporates the greenlings. These fish are found on the continental shelf in the temperate or subarctic waters of the North Pacific. They are a well-known family in the littoral zone from southern California north to the Aleutian Islands. The most commercially important species is the lingcod (Ophiodon elongatus), a common food fish. [more]

Hexanchidae

Cow sharks, or the Hexanchidae, are a family of sharks characterized by an additional pair or pairs of gill slits. There are currently known to be four species in three genera, Heptranchias, Hexanchus and Notorynchus,. [more]

Hexatrygonidae

The sixgill stingray, Hexatrygon bickelli, is an unusual species of deep-sea ray. It is distinguished by its long, soft snout and six pairs of gill slits (all other rays have five). It is the sole member of the genus Hexatrygon and the family Hexatrygonidae. Although several species of Hexatrygon have been described historically, it is now believed that they may represent variations in a single, widespread species. [more]

Himantolophidae

The footballfish are a family, Himantolophidae, of globose, deep-sea anglerfishes found in tropical and subtropical waters of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Ocean. The family contains c. 19 species all in a single genus, Himantolophus (from the Greek imantos, "thong, strap", and lophos, "crest"). [more]

Hiodontidae

The mooneyes are a family, the Hiodontidae, of primitive ray-finned fish comprising two living and three extinct species in the genus Hiodon. They are large-eyed, fork-tailed fish that physically resemble shads. Their common name comes from the metallic gold or silver shine of their eyes. [more]

Hippopotamidae

A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[9] [more]

Hipposideridae

Hipposideridae is a family of bats commonly known as the "Old World Leaf-nosed Bats". While it has often been seen as a subfamily, Hipposiderinae, of the family Rhinolophidae, it is now more generally classified as its own family. Nevertheless, it is most closely related to Rhinolophidae within the suborder Pteropodiformes (or Yinpterochiroptera). [more]

Hirundinidae

The swallows and martins are a group of passerine birds in the family Hirundinidae which are characterised by their adaptation to aerial feeding. Swallow is used colloquially in Europe as a synonym for the Barn Swallow. [more]

Hispanomerycidae

[more]

Hispidoberycidae

[more]

Holocentridae

The Holocentridae is a family of ray-finned fish, belonging to the order Beryciformes with the members of the subfamily Holocentrinae typically known as squirrelfish, while the members of Myripristinae typically are known as soldierfish. In Hawaii they are known as menpachi. [more]

Holoclemensiidae

[more]

Holonematidae

[more]

Holoptychiidae

[more]

Homalodotheriidae

[more]

Hominidae

The Hominidae (; anglicized hominids, also known as great apes), as the term is used here, form a taxonomic family, including four extant genera: chimpanzees (Pan), gorillas (Gorilla), humans (Homo), and orangutans (Pongo). The term "hominid" is also used in the more restricted sense of humans and relatives of humans closer than chimpanzees. In this usage, all hominid species other than Homo sapiens are extinct. [more]

Homostiidae

[more]

Hondadelphidae

[more]

Hoplichthyidae

Hoplichthyidae is a family of scorpaeniform fishes native to the Indo-Pacific Oceans, commonly known as ghost flatheads. There is a single genus, Hoplichthys. [more]

Hoplitomerycidae

[more]

Hoplocercidae

[more]

Howellidae

The oceanic basslets (Howellidae) are a small family of perciform fishes containing three genera and eight species of mostly deep-water, bottom-dwelling fishes: [more]

Huayangosauridae

[more]

Hyaenidae

Hyenas or Hyaenas (from Greek "?a??a" - hyaina) are the animals of the family Hyaenidae ( /h?'?n?d?/) of suborder feliforms of the Carnivora. It is the fourth smallest biological family in the Carnivora (consisting of four species), and one of the smallest in the mammalia. Despite their low diversity, hyenas are unique and vital components to most African and some Asian ecosystems. [more]

Hyaenodontidae

Hyaenodontidae ("Hyena teeth") is a family of the extinct order Creodonta, which contains several dozen genera. [more]

Hybodontidae

Hybodontidae is an extinct family of sharks, first appearing in the Mississippian period, and disappearing during the Late Cretaceous. [more]

Hydrobatidae

Storm petrels are seabirds in the family Hydrobatidae, part of the order Procellariiformes. These smallest of seabirds feed on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like. [more]

Hydrochaeridae

The capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) is the largest extant rodent in the world. Its closest relatives are agouti, chinchillas, coyphillas, and guinea pigs. Native to South America, the capybara inhabits savannas and dense forests and lives near bodies of water. It is a highly social species and can be found in groups as large as 100 individuals, but usually live in groups of 10?20 individuals. The capybara is not a threatened species, though it is hunted for its meat and skin. [more]

Hydrochoeridae

[more]

Hydrophiidae

Hydrophiinae, also known as sea snakes, is a group of venomous elapid snakes that inhabit marine environments for most or all of their lives. Though they evolved from terrestrial ancestors, most are extensively adapted to a fully aquatic life and are unable to move on land, except for the genus Laticauda, which retain ancestral characteristics, allowing limited land movement. They are found in warm coastal waters from the Indian Ocean to the Pacific. [more]

Hylaeochampsidae

[more]

Hylidae

Hylidae is a wide-ranging family of frogs commonly referred to as "tree frogs and their allies". However, the hylids include a diversity of frog species, many of which do not live in trees, but are terrestrial or semi-aquatic. [more]

Hylobatidae

Gibbons are apes in the family Hylobatidae (). The family is divided into four genera based on their diploid chromosome number: Hylobates (44), Hoolock (38), Nomascus (52), and Symphalangus (50). The extinct Bunopithecus sericus is a gibbon or gibbon-like ape which, until recently, was thought to be closely related to the hoolock gibbons. Gibbons occur in tropical and subtropical rainforests from northeast India to Indonesia and north to southern China, including the islands of Sumatra, Borneo and Java. [more]

Hylodidae

[more]

Hynobiidae

The Asiatic Salamanders (Family Hynobiidae) are primitive salamanders found all over Asia, and in European Russia. They are closely related to the Giant Salamanders (Family Cryptobranchidae), with which they form the suborder Cryptobranchoidea. About half of hynobiids are unique to Japan (Hasumi 2002). [more]

Hyopsodontidae

[more]

Hyperoliidae

Hyperoliidae is a family of small to medium sized, brightly colored, frogs which contains more than 250 species in 19 genera. Seventeen genera are native to sub-Saharan Africa. In addition, the monotypic genus Tachycnemis occurs on the Seychelles Islands, and the genus Heterixalus (currently 10 species) is endemic to Madagascar. [more]

Hyperoodontidae

A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[10] [more]

Hypertragulidae

Hypertragulidae is an extinct family of even-toed ungulates (order Artiodactyla), endemic to North America, Europe, and Asia during the Eocene through Miocene, living 46.2?13.6 Ma, existing for approximately 32.6 million years. [more]

Hypnidae

The coffin ray (Hypnos monopterygius) is a species of electric ray endemic to Australia, where it is common in inshore waters shallower than 80 m (260 ft). It is the sole member of its genus and of the subfamily Hypninae in the family Torpedinidae, which some taxonomists prefer to elevate to the full family rank as Hypnidae. This small species typically reaches 40 cm (16 in) in length. Greatly enlarged pectoral fins and an extremely short tail, coupled with diminutive dorsal and caudal fins all concentrated towards the rear, give the coffin ray a distinctive pear-like shape. It is a varying shade of brown in color above, and has tiny eyes and a large, highly distensible mouth. [more]

Hypocolidae

A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[11] [more]

Hypocoliidae

A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[12] [more]

Hypophthalmidae

[more]

Hypopomidae

Hypopomidae is a family of fishes in the order Gymnotiformes known as the bluntnose knifefish. They may also be called grass or leaf knifefishes. These fish are not often eaten, of little commercial importances, are rarely kept as aquarium fish, and are poorly studied; however, species in this family may constitute a significant fraction of the biomass to the areas they inhabit. [more]

Hypoptychidae

Hypoptychus dybowskii is a fish, one of several commonly known as a sand eel, that is the only member of its genus and family. It is related to sticklebacks, and lives in shallow salt water off the coasts of Japan and Sakhalin (Russia). [more]

Hyporhinidae

[more]

Hypsilophodontidae

[more]

Hypsiprymnodontidae

The Hypsiprymnodontidae () are a family of macropods, one of two families containing animals commonly referred to as rat-kangaroos. There is a single known extant genus and species in this family, the Musky Rat-kangaroo, Hypsiprymnodon moschatus, which occurs in northern Australia and New Guinea. During the Pleistocene megafauna from this family occurred in the genera Ekaltadeta. [more]

Hypsobatidae

[more]

Hyrachyidae

[more]

Hyracodontidae

Hyracodontidae is an extinct family of rhinoceroses endemic to North America, Europe, and Asia during the Eocene through early Miocene living from 55.8?20 mya, existing for approximately 35.8 million years. [more]

Hystricidae

The Old World porcupines, or Hystricidae, are large terrestrial rodents, distinguished by the spiny covering from which they take their name. They range over the south of Europe, most of Africa, India, and the Maritime Southeast Asia as far east as Borneo. Although both the Old World and New World porcupine families belong to the Hystricognathi branch of the vast order Rodentia, they are quite different and are not closely related. [more]

Ibidorhynchidae

The Ibisbill (Ibidorhyncha struthersii) is a bird related to the waders, but sufficiently distinctive to merit its own family Ibidorhynchidae. It is grey with a white belly, red legs and long down-curved bill, and a black face and black breast band. It occurs on the shingle riverbanks of the high plateau of central Asia and the Himalayas. [more]

Icaronycteridae

[more]

Ichthyodectidae

[more]

Ichthyophiidae

Ichthyophiidae is the family of Asiatic tailed caecilians or fish caecilians. They are found in south-east Asia. [more]

Ichthyornithidae

[more]

Ichthyosauridae

[more]

Ichthyostegidae

[more]

Ichthyotringidae

[more]

Icosteidae

The ragfish, Icosteus aenigmaticus, is an odd ray-finned fish of the northern Pacific Ocean; although a perciform, its skeleton is mostly cartilage, and the larvae have pelvic fins that disappear as they mature. It is the sole member of the family Icosteidae, and some authorities place it into its own order Icosteiformes. It was first described by W. N. Lockington in 1880. [more]

Icriodontidae

[more]

Ictaluridae

The Ictaluridae, sometimes called Ictalurids, are a family of catfish native to North America, where they are important food fish and sometimes as a sport fish. They include fish commonly known as bullheads, madtoms, channel catfish, and blue catfish. [more]

Icteridae

The Icterids are a group of small to medium-sized, often colorful passerine birds restricted to the New World. Most species have black as a predominant plumage color, often enlivened by yellow, orange or red. The family is extremely varied in size, shape, behavior and coloration. The name, meaning "jaundiced ones" (from the prominent yellow feathers of many species) comes from the Ancient Greek ikteros, through the Latin ictericus. This group includes the New World blackbirds, New World orioles, the Bobolink, meadowlarks, grackles, cowbirds, oropendolas and caciques. [more]

Ictidosuchidae

[more]

Idiacanthidae

Idiacanthidae, the black dragonfish, are a family of long, eel-shaped deep sea fish. They are found at depths of 100 to 1000 meters. They have long anal and dorsal fins, but the adults lack pectoral fins. [more]

Idiornithidae

[more]

Ignotornidae

[more]

Iguanidae

Iguanidae is a family of lizards, composed of iguanas and related species. [more]

Iguanodontidae

[more]

Ilariidae

[more]

Incerta_sedis

[more]

Indicatoridae

Honeyguides (family Indicatoridae) are near passerine bird species of the order Piciformes. They are also known as indicator birds, or honey birds, although the latter term is also used more narrowly to refer to species of the genus Prodotiscus. They have an Old World tropical distribution, with the greatest number of species in Africa and two in Asia. These birds are best known for their interaction with humans. Honeyguides are noted and named for one or two species that will deliberately lead humans directly to bee colonies, so that they can feast on the grubs that are left behind. [more]

Indostomidae

Indostomus is sole genus in the family of fishes Indostomidae and contains only three species. The indostomids are small, tropical fish in the stickleback order Gasterosteiformes, and are closely related to seahorses and pipefishes. [more]

Indricotheriidae

[more]

Indridae

The Indriidae (sometimes incorrectly spelled Indridae) are a family of strepsirrhine primates. They are medium to large sized lemurs with only four teeth in the toothcomb instead of the usual six. Indriids, like all lemurs, live exclusively on the island of Madagascar. [more]

Indriidae

[more]

Inermiidae

The Bonnetmouths (Inermiidae) are a very small family of fishes in the order Perciformes with only two known species in two genera, the bonnetmouth and the boga. [more]

Iniidae

Iniidae is a family of river dolphins containing one living and three extinct genera. [more]

Interatheriidae

[more]

Ionoscopidae

[more]

Ipnopidae

Ipnopidae (deepsea tripod fishes) is a family of fishes in the order Aulopiformes. They are small slender fishes, with maximum length ranging from about 10 centimetres (3.9 in) to about 40 centimetres (16 in). They are found in temperate and tropical deep waters of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans. [more]

Irenidae

The two fairy-bluebirds are small passerine bird species found in forests and plantations in tropical southern Asia and the Philippines. They are the sole members of the genus Irena and family Irenidae, and are related to the ioras and leafbirds. [more]

Ischnacanthidae

[more]

Ischyromyidae

[more]

Isectolophidae

[more]

Isotemnidae

[more]

Istiophoridae

Marlin, family Istiophoridae, are fish with an elongated body, a spear-like snout or bill, and a long rigid dorsal fin, which extends forward to form a crest. Its common name is thought to derive from its resemblance to a sailor's marlinspike. Even more so than their close relatives the scombrids, marlin are incredibly fast swimmers, reaching speeds of about 110 kilometres per hour (68 mph). [more]

Ivanantoniidae

[more]

Jacanidae

The ja?anas (sometimes referred to as Jesus birds or lily trotters) are a group of tropical waders in the family Jacanidae. They are found worldwide within the tropical zone. See Etymology below for pronunciation. [more]

Janjucetidae

[more]

Jeholodentidae

[more]

Jindongornipodidae

[more]

Jonkeriidae

[more]

Judeichthyidae

[more]

Jungornithidae

[more]

Kannemeyeriidae

[more]

Karauridae

[more]

Kayentachelyidae

[more]

Kentriodontidae

Kentriodontidae is an extinct family of odontocet whales related to modern dolphins. The Family lived from the Oligocene to the Pliocene before going extinct. [more]

Kenyamidae

[more]

Kenyamyidae

[more]

Keraterpetontidae

[more]

Kermackiidae

[more]

Kinosternidae

Kinosternidae is a family of mostly small turtles that includes the mud turtles and musk turtles. The family Kinosternidae contains 25 species within 4 genera, but taxonomic reclassification is an ongoing process so many sources vary on the exact numbers of species and subspecies. They inhabit slow-moving bodies of water, often with soft, muddy bottoms and abundant vegetation. [more]

Kneriidae

The Kneriidae are a small family of freshwater gonorhynchiform fishes native to Africa. [more]

Kogaionidae

[more]

Kogiidae

Physeteroidea is a superfamily including just three living species of whale; the Sperm Whale, in the genus Physeter, and the Pygmy Sperm Whale and Dwarf Sperm Whale, in the genus Kogia. In the past, these genera have sometimes been united in a single family, Physeteridae, with the two Kogia species in a subfamily (Kogiinae); however, recent practice is to allocate the genus Kogia to its own family, Kogiidae, leaving Physeteridae as a monotypic (single extant species) family, although additional fossil representatives of both families are known (see "Evolution"). [more]

Kollikodontidae

[more]

Koreanornipodidae

[more]

Kotlassiidae

[more]

Kraemeriidae

The sand darters, family Kraemeriidae, are a small family of fishes containing eight species in two genera in the order Perciformes. Sand darters live in sandy shallow pools. They are found among coral. In breeding coloration the male fish has an occelated spot at the rear of the first dorsal fin. [more]

Kuehneosauridae

[more]

Kuehneotheriidae

[more]

Kuhliidae

The flagtails (ahole or aholehole in the Hawaiian language) are a family (Kuhliidae) of perciform fish of the Indo-Pacific area. The family consists of several species in one genus, Kuhlia, of which, one, (K. rupestris), is freshwater. The others are marine. [more]

Kulbeckiidae

[more]

Kurtidae

The nurseryfishes or forehead brooders are a family (Kurtidae) of fish that are notable for carrying their egg clusters on hooks protruding from the forehead () of the males. The family consists of just two species in the single genus Kurtus. [more]

Kushlukiidae

[more]

Kyphosidae

The sea chubs are a family, Kyphosidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. [more]

Labracoglossidae

[more]

Labridae

The wrasses are a family, Labridae, of marine fish, many of which are brightly colored. The family is large and diverse, with over 600 species in 82 genera, which are divided into nine subgroups or tribes. They are typically small fish, most of them less than 20 centimetres (7.9 in) long, although the largest, the Humphead wrasse, can measure up to 2.5 metres (8.2 ft). They are efficient carnivores, feeding on a wide range of small invertebrates. Many smaller wrasses follow the feeding trails of larger fish, picking up invertebrates disturbed by their passing. [more]

Labrisomidae

Labrisomids are small blennioids, perciform marine fish belonging to the family Labrisomidae. Found mostly in the tropical Atlantic and Pacific Ocean, the family contains approximately 98 species in 14 genera. [more]

Lacantuniidae

The Chiapas catfish, Lacantunia enigmatica, is an unusual species of catfish (Order Siluriformes) newly described in 2005 from the Lacant?n River in the Mexican state of Chiapas. While discovery of an undescribed species of catfish is not uncommon, discovery of a new family-level taxon of any vertebrate group is a rare event. The Chiapas catfish mainly feeds on crabs, prawns, small fish, and large, tough plant seeds. This catfish is commonly fished in its natural habitat, where it is known as madre de juil, which means "mother of Rhamdia" (a common fish in the area). [more]

Lacertidae

Lacertidae is the family of the wall lizards, true lizards, or sometimes simply lacertas, which are native to Europe, Africa, and Asia. The group includes the genus Lacerta, which contains some of the most commonly seen lizard species in Europe. It is a diverse family with hundreds of species in 37 genera. [more]

Lactariidae

This species of fish is of the genus Lactarius in the family Lactariidae. It is also known as the milky travelly or the 'parava', and is found in , brackish, and marine waters. This fish is more commonly known as Butter Fish and in Telugu as "Methani Paara" amongst fisherman community in Andhra Pradesh, India [more]

Lagerpetonidae

[more]

Lagosuchidae

[more]

Lambeosauridae

[more]

Lamnidae

Lamnidae is a family of sharks, commonly known as mackerel sharks or white sharks. They are large, fast-swimming sharks, found in oceans worldwide. [more]

Lampridae

Opah (also commonly known as moonfish, sunfish, kingfish, redfin ocean pan, and Jerusalem haddock) are large, colorful, deep-bodied pelagic Lampriform fish comprising the small family Lampridae (also spelled Lamprididae). There are only two living species in a single genus: Lampris (from the Greek lamprid-, "brilliant" or "clear"). One species is found in tropical to temperate waters of most oceans, while the other is limited to a circumglobal distribution in the Southern Ocean, with the 34th parallel as its northern limit. Two additional species, one in the genus Lampris and the other in the monotypic Megalampris, are only known from fossil remains. The extinct family, Turkmenidae, from the Paleogene of Central Asia, is closely related, though much smaller. [more]

Lamprididae

Opah (also commonly known as moonfish, sunfish, kingfish, redfin ocean pan, and Jerusalem haddock) are large, colorful, deep-bodied pelagic Lampriform fish comprising the small family Lampridae (also spelled Lamprididae). There are only two living species in a single genus: Lampris (from the Greek lamprid-, "brilliant" or "clear"). One species is found in tropical to temperate waters of most oceans, while the other is limited to a circumglobal distribution in the Southern Ocean, with the 34th parallel as its northern limit. Two additional species, one in the genus Lampris and the other in the monotypic Megalampris, are only known from fossil remains. The extinct family, Turkmenidae, from the Paleogene of Central Asia, is closely related, though much smaller. [more]

Laniidae

Shrikes are passerine birds of the family Laniidae. The family is composed of thirty-one species in three genera. The family name, and that of the largest genus, Lanius, is derived from the Latin word for "butcher", and some shrikes were also known as "butcher birds" because of their feeding habits. Note that the Australasian butcherbirds are not shrikes. [more]

Lanthanosuchidae

[more]

Lanthanotidae

The earless monitor lizard (Lanthanotus borneensis) is a semi-aquatic, brown lizard native to northern Borneo. It is the only species in the family Lanthanotidae, a group related to the true monitor lizards, as well as to the beaded lizards. [more]

Laonastidae

Diatomyidae is a family of hystricomorphous, rodents found in Asia. It is currently represented by a single known living species, Laonastes aenigmamus. [more]

Laornithidae

[more]

Laredomyidae

[more]

Laridae

Gulls (often informally called seagulls) are birds in the family Laridae. They are most closely related to the terns (family Sternidae) and only distantly related to auks, skimmers, and more distantly to the waders. Until the twenty-first century most gulls were placed in the genus Larus, but this arrangement is now known to be polyphyletic, leading to the resurrection of several genera. [more]

Lateolabracidae

Lateolabrax is a genus of fishes, related to monotypic family Lateolabracidae. The representatives of the genus inbabit the worm coastal waters of the Western Pacific. The genus consists of two species: [more]

Latidae

The Latidae are a family of perch-like fishes found in Africa and the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The family, previously classified subfamily Latinae in family Centropomidae, was raised to family status in 2004 after a cladistic analysis showed the original Centropomidae was paraphyletic. [more]

Latimeriidae

Coelacanths (, adaptation of Modern Latin C?lacanthus "hollow spine", from Greek ????-?? koilos "hollow" + ??a??-a akantha "spine", referring to the hollow caudal fin rays of the first fossil specimen described and named by Agassiz in 1839 ) are members of an order of fish that includes the oldest living lineage of Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fish + tetrapods) known to date. [more]

Latridae

Trumpeters are a family of perciform fishes, Latridae. They are found in southern waters off Australia, New Zealand, and Chile, where they are fished commercially and for sport. They are closely related to Cheilodactylidae, and the majority of the species that traditionally are placed in the latter family may actually belong in Latridae. [more]

Laugiidae

[more]

Lebiasinidae

The Lebiasinidae (order Characiformes), are a family of freshwater fishes found in Costa Rica, Panama, and South America. They are usually small and are known as ornamental fishes in aquaria, including popular fishes such as the pencil fish and splashing tetra. [more]

Leiognathidae

The ponyfishes also known as slipmouths or slimys are a small family, Leiognathidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. They inhabit marine and brackish waters in the Indian Ocean and West Pacific. [more]

Leiopelmatidae

Leiopelmatidae, or New Zealand and North American primitive frogs, is a family belonging to the suborder Archaeobatrachia. Their relatively primitive form indicates that they have an ancient lineage. The North American frogs of the Genus Ascaphus are now united with the New Zealand frogs of the genus Leiopelma in the Leiopelmatidae family Only four Leiopelma and two Ascaphus extant species are known to belong to the family. Leiopelma are only found in New Zealand. Ascaphus are only found in North America. [more]

Leiosauridae

[more]

Leiuperidae

[more]

Lemuridae

Lemuridae is a family of prosimian primates native to Madagascar, and one of five families commonly known as lemurs. These animals were thought to be the evolutionary predecessors of monkeys and apes, but this is no longer considered correct. The family gets its name from the Ancient Roman belief[] that the animals were ghosts or spirits ('lemures'), because many species are nocturnal. [more]

Leontiniidae

[more]

Lepidogalaxiidae

Lepidogalaxias salamandroides is a species of small fish of Western Australia. It is the only member of the family Lepidogalaxiidae (Lepidogalaxiid) and genus Lepidogalaxias. Common names for this fish include Salamanderfish and Shannon mudminnow. Although it is not a lungfish, it resembles lungfish in several respects, including its ability to survive dry seasons by burrowing into the sand. [more]

Lepidosirenidae

The South American lungfish, Lepidosiren paradoxa, is the single species of lungfish found in swamps and slow-moving waters of the Amazon, Paraguay, and lower Paran? River basins in South America. Notable as an obligate air-breather, it is the sole member of its family Lepidosirenidae. Relatively little is known about the South American lungfish. [more]

Lepilemuridae

A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[13] [more]

Lepisosteidae

In American English the name gar (or garpike) is strictly applied to members of the Lepisosteidae, a family including seven living species of fish in two genera that inhabit fresh, brackish, and occasionally marine, waters of eastern North America, Central America, and the Caribbean islands. [more]

Leporidae

Leporids are the approximately 50 species of rabbits and hares which form the family Leporidae. The leporids, together with the pikas, constitute the mammalian order Lagomorpha. Leporids differ from pikas in having short furry tails, and elongated ears and hind legs. The name leporid is simply an abbreviation of the family name Leporidae meaning animals resembling "lepus", Latin for hare. [more]

Leptictidae

[more]

Leptobramidae

The beachsalmon (Leptobrama muelleri) is a species of perciform, primarily coastal marine or brackish fish and the sole representative of its family, Leptobramidae. Found in tropical coastal waters of the Western Pacific off southern New Guinea, Queensland, and Western Australia. The beachsalmon is a popular sport fish in Australia where it is sometimes called flat salmon, silver salmon, slender bream, or skippy (a name also applied to several species of trevally). [more]

Leptoceratopsidae

[more]

Leptochariidae

The barbeled houndshark (Leptocharias smithii) is a species of ground shark and the only member of the family Leptochariidae. This demersal species is found in the coastal waters of the eastern Atlantic Ocean from Mauritania to Angola, at depths of 10?75 m (33?246 ft). It favors muddy habitats, particularly around river mouths. The barbeled houndshark is characterized by a very slender body, nasal barbels, long furrows at the corners of the mouth, and sexually dimorphic teeth. Its maximum known length is 82 cm (32 in). [more]

Leptochilichthyidae

Leptochilichthys is a genus of marine smelts containing four species. Leptochilichthys is the only genus in the family Leptochilichthyidae. Some sources place this genus within the broader family Alepocephalidae. [more]

Leptodactylidae

Leptodactylidae is a diverse family of frogs that probably diverged from other hyloids during the Cenozoic era, or possibly at the end of the Mesozoic. There are roughly 50 genera, one of which is Eleutherodactylus, the largest vertebrate genus, with over 700 species. In total, there are approximately 1100 leptodactylid species, which are widely distributed throughout Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America. The family is often considered paraphyletic and has no morphological synapomorphies. The family includes terrestrial, burrowing, aquatic, and arboreal members, inhabiting a wide range of different habitats. [more]

Leptolepididae

[more]

Leptomerycidae

[more]

Leptopterygiidae

[more]

Leptoscopidae

The southern sandfishes are a family, Leptoscopidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. [more]

Leptosomidae

The Cuckoo Roller (Leptosomus discolor) is the only bird in the family Leptosomatidae, which is usually considered to be within the order Coraciiformes, which also includes the kingfishers, bee-eaters and rollers. However, the position of this family is not very clear. Morphological evidence may suggest a placement within or near to Falconiformes. In the rather comprehensive DNA study by Hackett et al. this is one of only two birds ? besides the Hoatzin ? of which the position is not clear, although it seems to be at the root of a group that contains the Trogoniformes, Bucerotiformes, Piciformes and Coraciiformes. [more]

Leptotyphlopidae

The Leptotyphlopidae (commonly called Slender Blind Snakes or Thread Snakes) are a family of snakes found in North and South America, Africa, and Asia. All are fossorial and adapted to burrowing, feeding on ants and termites. Two genera are recognized comprising eighty-seven species. [more]

Lethrinidae

The emperor breams or simply emperors also known as pigface breams are a family, Lethrinidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. [more]

Limnodynastidae

Myobatrachidae is a family of frogs found in Australia and New Guinea. Members of this family vary greatly in size, from species less than 1.5 centimetres (0.59 in) long, to the second largest frog in Australia, the Giant Barred Frog (Mixophyes iteratus), at 12 centimetres (4.7 in) in length. The entire family are either terrestrial or aquatic frogs, with no arboreal species. [more]

Limnornithidae

[more]

Limnoscelidae

[more]

Lindholmemydidae

[more]

Linophrynidae

Leftvents are small, deep-sea lophiiform fish comprising the family Linophrynidae. Twenty-seven species in five genera are represented, distributed throughout tropical to subtropical waters of all oceans. [more]

Liodesmidae

[more]

Liparidae

Snailfish are scorpaeniform marine fish of the family Liparidae. Widely distributed from the Arctic to Antarctic Oceans including the northern Pacific, the snailfish family contains 30 genera and 361 species. They are closely related to the sculpins of the family Cottidae and the lumpfish of the family Cyclopteridae. Snailfish are sometimes included within the latter family. [more]

Lipotidae

The Baiji (Chinese: ; pinyin: About this sound b?ij?t?n ) (Lipotes vexillifer, Lipotes meaning "left behind", vexillifer "flag bearer") is a freshwater dolphin found only in the Yangtze River in China. Nicknamed "Goddess of the Yangtze" (simplified Chinese: ????; traditional Chinese: ????; pinyin: Ch?ng Jiang nush?n) in China, the dolphin is also called Chinese River Dolphin, Yangtze River Dolphin, Whitefin Dolphin and Yangtze Dolphin. It is not to be confused with the Chinese White Dolphin. [more]

Lithornidae

[more]

Lithornithidae

[more]

Llanocetidae

[more]

Lobotidae

Tripletails are perciform fishes in the genus Lobotes, the only genus in the family Lobotidae. [more]

Lonchodytidae

[more]

Lophialetidae

[more]

Lophichthyidae

Lophichthys boschmai, is a species of anglerfish, closely related to the frogfishes. It is the only member of its family, the Lophichthyidae. [more]

Lophiidae

Monkfish are a family, Lophiidae, of anglerfishes. They are found in the Arctic, Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans where they live on sandy and muddy bottoms of the continental shelf and continental slope, at depths in excess of 1,000 metres (3,300 ft). [more]

Lophiodontidae

[more]

Lophiomerycidae

[more]

Lophotidae

Crestfishes are lampriform fishes in the family Lophotidae. They are elongate ribbon-like fishes, silver in color, found in deep tropical and subtropical waters worldwide. Their scientific name is from Greek lophos meaning "crest" and refer to the crest (part of the dorsal fin) that emerges from the snout and head; this structure gives them their other name of unicorn fishes. [more]

Loricariidae

Loricariidae is the largest family of catfish (Order Siluriformes), with almost 700 species and new species being described each year. Loricariids originate from fresh water habitats of Costa Rica, Panama, and tropical and subtropical South America. These fish are noted for the bony plates covering their bodies and their suckermouths. Several genera are sold as "plecos", notably the suckermouth catfish, Hypostomus plecostomus, and are popular as aquarium fish. [more]

Loridae

Lorisidae (or sometimes Loridae) is a family of strepsirrhine primates. The lorisids are all slim arboreal animals and include the lorises, pottos and angwantibos. Lorisids live in tropical, central Africa as well as in south and southeast Asia. [more]

Lorisidae

A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[14] [more]

Lotidae

Lotidae is a family of cod-like fishes commonly known as lings or rocklings. [more]

Loxocemidae

The Loxocemidae are a monotypic family of snakes created for the monotypic genus Loxocemus that contains the species L. bicolor found in Central America. Loxocemidae is the smallest snake family, having just one species and one genera. No subspecies are currently recognized. [more]

Lumkuiidae

[more]

Lutianidae

[more]

Lutjanidae

Snappers are a family of perciform fish, Lutjanidae, mainly marine but with some members inhabiting estuaries, feeding in freshwater. Some are important food fish. One of the best known is the red snapper. [more]

Luvaridae

The louvar or luvar, Luvarus imperialis, is a species of perciform fish, the only extant species in the genus Luvarus and family Luvaridae. Other species and genera are only known from fossils dating back to the Paleogene. It is closely related to the surgeonfish. The juvenile form has a pair of spines near the base of the tail, like the surgeonfish, though they are lost in the adult. [more]

Lybiidae

The Lybiidae is a bird family containing the African barbets. They were usually united with their American and Asian relatives in the Capitonidae for quite some time, but this has been confirmed to be limited to the main American lineage[]. There are 42 species ranging from the type genus Lybius of forest interior to the tinkerbirds (Pogoniulus) of forest and scrubland. They are found throughout sub-Saharan Africa, with the exception of the far south-west of South Africa. [more]

Lycopteridae

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Lydekkerinidae

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Lysorophidae

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Lystrosauridae

[more]

Macraucheniidae

[more]

Macrocephalosauridae

[more]

Macropetalichthyidae

[more]

Macropodidae

Macropods are marsupials belonging to the family Macropodidae, which includes kangaroos, wallabies, tree-kangaroos, pademelons, and several others. Macropods are native to Australia, New Guinea, and some nearby islands. Before European settlement of Australia, there were about 53 species of Macropods. Six species have since become extinct. Another 11 species have been greatly reduced in numbers. Other species (e.g. Simosthenurus, Propleopus, Macropus titan) became extinct after the Australian Aborigines arrived and before the Europeans arrived. [more]

Macroramphosidae

Centriscidae is the family of snipefishes, shrimpfishes, and bellowfishes. A small family, consisting of only about a dozen marine species, they are of an unusual appearance, as reflected by the common names. The members of the genera Aeoliscus and Centriscus are restricted to relatively shallow, tropical parts of the Indo-Pacific, while the remaining species mainly are found in deeper parts of tropical, subtropical or southern oceans. [more]

Macrorhamphosidae

[more]

Macroscelididae

Elephant shrews or jumping shrews are small insectivorous mammals native to Africa, belonging to the family Macroscelididae, in the order Macroscelidea. Their traditional common English name comes from a fancied resemblance between their long noses and the trunk of an elephant, and an assumed relationship with the true shrews (family Soricidae) in the order Insectivora because of their superficial similarities. As it has become plain that the elephant shrews are unrelated to the shrews, the biologist Jonathan Kingdon has proposed that they instead be called sengis, a term derived from the Bantu languages of Africa. [more]

Macrosemiidae

[more]

Macrouridae

Grenadiers or rattails (less commonly whiptails) are generally large, brown to black gadiform marine fish of the family Macrouridae. Found at great depths from the Arctic to Antarctic, members of this family are among the most abundant of the deep-sea fishes. [more]

Macrurocyttidae

[more]

Madtsoiidae

[more]

Malacanthidae

Tilefishes, also known as blanquillo, are mostly small perciform marine fish comprising the family Malacanthidae. They are usually found in sandy areas, especially near coral reefs. [more]

Malaconotidae

The bushshrikes are smallish passerine bird species. They were formerly classed with the true shrikes in the family Laniidae, but are now considered sufficiently distinctive to be separated from that group as the family Malaconotidae. [more]

Malapteruridae

Electric catfish is the common name for the catfish (order Siluriformes) family Malapteruridae. This family includes two genera, Malapterurus and Paradoxoglanis with 19 species. Several species of this family have the ability to produce an electric shock of up to 350 volts using electroplaques of an electric organ. Electric catfish are found in tropical Africa and the Nile River. Electric catfish are usually nocturnal and feed primarily on other fish, incapacitating their prey with electric discharges. [more]

Maluridae

The Maluridae are a family of small, insectivorous passerine birds endemic to Australia and New Guinea. Commonly known as wrens, they are unrelated to the true wrens of the Northern Hemisphere. The family includes 14 species of fairywren, 3 emu-wrens, and 10 grasswrens. [more]

Mammalodontidae

[more]

Mammutidae

Mammutidae is a family of extinct proboscideans that lived between the Miocene to the Pleistocene or Holocene. The family was first described in 1922, classifying fossil specimens of the type genus Mammut (mastodons), and has since been placed in various arrangements of the order. The name mastodon derives from Greek, ?ast?? "nipple" and ?d??? "tooth", as with the genus, to indicate a characteristic that distinguishes them from allied families. The genus Zygolophodon has also been assigned to this family. [more]

Manidae

A pangolin (), scaly anteater, or trenggiling, is a mammal of the order Pholidota. The only one extant family (Manidae) has one genus (Manis) of pangolins, comprising eight species. There are also a number of extinct taxa. Pangolins have large keratin scales covering their skin and are the only mammals with this adaptation. They are found in tropical regions of Africa and Asia. The name "pangolin" derives from the Malay word pengguling ("something that rolls up"). [more]

Mantellidae

Mantellidae is a family of the order Anura. These frogs are found only in Madagascar and Mayotte. [more]

Massospondylidae

[more]

Mastacembelidae

The Mastacembelidae are a family of fishes, known as the spiny eels. The Mastacembelids are part of the Order Synbranchiformes, the swamp eels, which are part of the Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes). [more]

Mastodonsauridae

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Mayulestidae

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Mcconichthyidae

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Megachasmidae

The megamouth shark, Megachasma pelagios, is an extremely rare species of deepwater shark. Since its discovery in 1976, only a few megamouth sharks have been seen, with 54 specimens known to have been caught or sighted as of 2012, including three recordings on film. Like the basking shark and whale shark, it is a filter feeder, and swims with its enormous mouth wide open, filtering water for plankton and jellyfish. It is distinctive for its large head with rubbery lips. It is so unlike any other type of shark that it is classified in its own family Megachasmidae, though it has been suggested that it may belong in the family Cetorhinidae of which the basking shark is currently the sole member. [more]

Megacricetodontidae

[more]

Megadermatidae

Megadermatidae, or False Vampire Bats, are a family of bats found from central Africa, eastwards through southern Asia, and into Australia. They are relatively large bats, ranging from 6.5 cm to 14 cm in head-body length. They have large eyes, very large ears and a prominent . They have a wide membrane between the hind legs, or uropatagium, but no tail. Many species are a drab brown in color, but some are white, bluish-grey or even olive-green, helping to camouflage them against their preferred roosting environments. They are primarily insectivorous, but will also eat a wide range of small vertebrates. [more]

Megaladapidae

Koala lemurs, genus Megaladapis, belong to the family Megaladapidae, consisting of three extinct species of lemurs that once inhabited the island of Madagascar. The largest measured between 1.3 to 1.5 m (4 to 5 ft) in length. [more]

Megalaimidae

A family of birds comprising the Asian barbets, the Megalaimidae were once united with all other barbets in the Capitonidae (Short & Horne 2002) but they have turned out to be distinct[]. There are 26 species living in wooded areas from Tibet to Indonesia. [more]

Megalomycteridae

Flabby whalefishes are small, deep-sea cetomimiform fish of the family Cetomimidae. They are among the most deep-living fish known, with some species recorded at depths in excess of 3.5 kilometres. Within the family are nine genera and 20 species. Juveniles are known as tapetails and were formerly thought to be in a separate family, dubbed Mirapinnidae. Adults exhibit extreme sexual dimorphism, and the adult males were once thought to be exemplars of still another family, Megalomycteridae. [more]

Megalonychidae

Megalonychidae is a group of sloths including the extinct Megalonyx and the living two toed sloths. Megalonychids first appeared in the early Oligocene, about 35 million years ago, in southern Argentina (Patagonia), and spread as far as the Antilles by the early Miocene. Megalonychids first reached North America by island-hopping, about 9 million years ago, prior to the formation of the Isthmus of Panama. Some lineages of megalonychids increased in size as time passed. The first species of these were small and may have been partly tree-dwelling, whereas the Pliocene (about 5 to 2 million years ago) species were already approximately half the size of the huge Late Pleistocene Megalonyx jeffersonii from the last ice age. Some West Indian island species were as small as a large cat; their dwarf condition typified both tropical adaptation and their restricted island environment. This small size also enabled them a degree of arboreality. [more]

Megalopidae

Tarpons are large fish of the genus Megalops. There are two species of Megalops, one native to the Atlantic, and the other to the Indo-Pacific oceans. They are the only members of the family Megalopidae. [more]

Megalosauridae

[more]

Megapodiidae

The megapodes, also known as incubator birds or mound-builders, are stocky, medium-large chicken-like birds with small heads and large feet in the family Megapodiidae. Their name literally means large foot (Greek: mega = large, poda = foot), and is a reference to the heavy legs and feet typical of these terrestrial birds. All are browsers, all but the Malleefowl occupy wooded habitats, and most are brown or black colored. Megapodes are superprecocial, hatching from their eggs in the most mature condition of any birds. They hatch with open eyes, with bodily coordination and strength, with full wing feathers and downy body feathers, able to run, pursue prey, and, in some species, fly on the same day they hatch. [more]

Megatheriidae

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Megatherioïdea

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Megazostrodontidae

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Megophryidae

Megophryidae are a large family of frogs native to the warm southeast of Asia, from the Himalaya foothills eastwards, south to Indonesia and the Greater Sunda Islands in Maritime Southeast Asia, and extending to the Philippines. As of mid-2008 it encompasses approximately 70-100 species of frog divided between 12 genera. For lack of a vernacular name, they are commonly called megophryids. [more]

Meiolaniidae

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Mekosuchidae

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Melamphaidae

Ridgeheads, also known as bigscales, are a family (Melamphaidae, from the Greek melanos [black] and amphi [by both sides]) of small, deep-sea stephanoberyciform fish. The family contains approximately 37 species in five genera; their distribution is worldwide, but ridgeheads are absent from the Arctic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Although the family is one of the most widespread and plentiful of deep-sea families, none of its members are of interest to commercial fishery. [more]

Melanocetidae

Black seadevils are small, deep-sea lophiiform fish comprising the family Melanocetidae. There are five known species (with only two given common names), all within the genus Melanocetus. They are found in tropical to temperate waters of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Ocean, with one species known only from the Ross Sea. [more]

Melanocharitidae

The Melanocharitidae, the berrypeckers and longbills, is a small bird family restricted to the forests of New Guinea. The family contains ten species in four (sometimes three) genera. They are small songbirds with generally dull plumage but a range of body shapes. [more]

Melanonidae

Melanonidae is a family containing just two species of cod-like marine fishes. [more]

Melanorosauridae

[more]

Melanostomiidae

[more]

Melanotaeniidae

The rainbowfish are a family of small, colorful, freshwater fish that are found in northern and eastern Australia and New Guinea and in the Southeast Asian islands. [more]

Meleagrididae

A turkey is a large bird in the genus Meleagris. One species, Meleagris gallopavo, commonly known as the Wild Turkey, is native to the forests of North America. The domestic turkey is a descendant of this species. The other living species is Meleagris ocellata or the Ocellated Turkey, native to the forests of the Yucat?n Peninsula. [more]

Meliphagidae

The honeyeaters are a large and diverse family of small to medium sized birds most common in Australia and New Guinea, but also found in New Zealand, the Pacific islands as far east as Samoa and Tonga, and the islands to the north and west of New Guinea known as Wallacea. Bali, on the other side of the Wallace Line, has a single species. [more]

Melosauridae

[more]

Menaspidae

[more]

Menidae

The moonfish of the genus Mene ("Crescent"), the sole extant genus of the family Menidae are disk-shaped fish which bear a vague resemblance to gourami, thanks to their thread-like pelvic fins. Today, the genus is represented only by of the Indo-Pacific, where it is a popular food fish, especially in the Philippines, where it is known as "bilong-bilong". [more]

Menuridae

A Lyrebird is either of two species of ground-dwelling Australian birds, that form the genus, Menura, and the family Menuridae. They are most notable for their superb ability to mimic natural and artificial sounds from their environment. Lyrebirds have unique plumes of neutral colored tailfeathers. [more]

Mephitidae

Skunks (in the United States, occasionally called polecats) are mammals best known for their ability to secrete a liquid with a strong, foul odor. General appearance varies from species to species, from black-and-white to brown or cream colored. Skunks, together with their closest living relatives, the stink badgers, belong to the "skunk family", the "Mephitidae" and to the order Carnivora. There are twelve species of Mephistids, which are divided into four genera: Mephitis, the (hooded and striped skunks, two species), Spilogale the (spotted skunks, four species), the Mydaus or stink badgers, two species), and Conepatus, the (hog-nosed skunks, four species). The two stink badgers in the Mydaus genus inhabit Indonesia and the Philippines; while all skunks inhabit the Americas from Canada to central South America. All other known Mephistids are extinct and known only through fossils, many in Eurasia[]. [more]

Merluccidae

[more]

Merlucciidae

Merlucciidae is a family of cod-like fish, including most hakes. They are native to cold water in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and typically found at depths greater than 50 metres (160 ft) in subtropical, temperate, sub-Arctic or sub-Antarctic regions. [more]

Meropidae

The bee-eaters are a group of near-passerine birds in the family Meropidae. Most species are found in Africa and Asia but others occur in southern Europe, Australia, and New Guinea. They are characterised by richly colored plumage, slender bodies, and usually elongated central tail feathers. All have long downturned bills and pointed wings, which give them a swallow-like appearance when seen from afar. There are 26 different species of bee-eaters. [more]

Merycoidodontidae

Oreodonts, sometimes called prehistoric "ruminating hogs," were a family of cud-chewing plant-eater with a short face and tusk-like canine teeth. As their name implies, some of the better known forms were generally hog-like, and the group was once thought to be a member of Suina, the pigs, peccaries and their ancestors, though recent work indicate they were more closely related to camels. The scientific name means Mountain teeth and refer to the appearance of the molars. Most oreodonts were sheep-sized, though some genera grew to the size of cattle. They were heavy bodied, with short four-toed hooves. Unlike any modern ruminant, they had long tails. [more]

Mesitornithidae

The mesites (Mesitornithidae) are a family of birds of uncertain affinities. They are smallish, near flightless birds endemic to Madagascar. Generally brownish with paler undersides, they are of somewhat pheasant-like appearance and were initially placed with the Galliformes. Most commonly, they are placed in the Gruiformes (cranes, rails and allies), but this has been disputed in more recent times. They are the only family with more than two species in which every species is threatened; all three are listed as vulnerable and are expected to decline greatly in the next 20 years.[] [more]

Mesonychidae

[more]

Mesosauridae

[more]

Mesotheriidae

[more]

Messelornithidae

[more]

Mestiornithidae

Mesturidae

[more]

Mesungulatidae

[more]

Metacheiromyidae

[more]

Metoposauridae

[more]

Metriorhynchidae

[more]

Miacidae

[more]

Micrixalidae

[more]

Microbiotheriidae

The Monito del Monte is the only extant member of its family (Microbiotheriidae) and the only surviving member of an ancient order, the Microbiotheria. The oldest microbiothere currently recognised is , based on fossil teeth from Early Palaeocene deposits at Tiupampa, Bolivia. Numerous genera are known from various Palaeogene and Neogene fossil sites in South America. A number of possible microbiotheres, again represented by isolated teeth, have also been recovered from the Middle Eocene La Meseta Formation of Seymour Island, Western Antarctica. Finally, several undescribed microbiotheres have been reported from the Early Eocene Tingamarra Local Fauna in Northeastern Australia; if this is indeed the case, then these Australian fossils have important implications for our understanding of marsupial evolution and biogeography. [more]

Microbrachidae

[more]

Microchoeridae

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Microcosmodontidae

[more]

Microdesmidae

Wormfishes are a family, Microdesmidae, of goby-like fishes in the order Perciformes. [more]

Microhylidae

Microhylidae is a geographically widespread family of frogs. There are 495 species in 68 genera and nine subfamilies, which is the largest number of genera of any frog family. [more]

Micromelerpetontidae

[more]

Micromomyidae

[more]

Micropternodontidae

[more]

Microstomatidae

Microstomatidae is a family of marine smelts native to the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans. [more]

Microsyopidae

[more]

Milananguillidae

[more]

Millerettidae

[more]

Millerosauridae

[more]

Mimidae

The mimids are the New World family of passerine birds, Mimidae, that includes thrashers, mockingbirds, tremblers, and the New World catbirds. As their name (Latin for "mimic") suggests, these birds are notable for their vocalization, especially some species' remarkable ability to mimic a wide variety of birds and other sounds heard outdoors. [more]

Mimiidae

[more]

Mimotonidae

[more]

Mioclaenidae

[more]

Miralinidae

[more]

Mirapinnidae

Flabby whalefishes are small, deep-sea cetomimiform fish of the family Cetomimidae. They are among the most deep-living fish known, with some species recorded at depths in excess of 3.5 kilometres. Within the family are nine genera and 20 species. Juveniles are known as tapetails and were formerly thought to be in a separate family, dubbed Mirapinnidae. Adults exhibit extreme sexual dimorphism, and the adult males were once thought to be exemplars of still another family, Megalomycteridae. [more]

Mitsukurinidae

Mitsukurinidae, also called goblin sharks is a family of sharks with one living genus, Mitsukurina, and three extinct genera: Anomotodon, and Scapanorhynchus, though some taxonomists consider Scapanorhynchus to be a synonym of Mitsukurina. The only known living species is the goblin shark, Mitsukurina owstoni. [more]

Mixodectidae

[more]

Mixosauridae

[more]

Mixtotheriidae

[more]

Mobulidae

Mobula is a genus of ray in the family Myliobatidae (eagle rays). Their appearance is similar to that of Manta rays, which are in the same family. The Devil fish can attain a disc width of up to 5.2 meters (17 feet) and can probably weigh over a ton, second only to the Manta in size. Despite their size, little is known about this genus. [more]

Mochokidae

The Mochokidae are a family of catfishes (order Siluriformes) that are known as the squeakers and upside-down catfish. There are 10 genera and about 188 species of mochokids. All the mochokids are freshwater species originating from Africa. [more]

Moeritheriidae

[more]

Molidae

Molidae is the family of the molas or ocean sunfishes, unique fish whose bodies come to an end just behind the dorsal and anal fins, giving them a "half-a-fish" appearance. They are also the largest of the ray-finned bony fishes, with the ocean sunfish Mola mola recorded at up to 3.3 metres (11 ft) in length and 2 tonnes (2.2 short tons) in weight. [more]

Molossidae

Molossidae, or free-tailed bats, are a family of bats within the order Chiroptera. They are generally quite robust, and consist of many strong flying forms with relatively long and narrow wings. Another common name for some members of this group, and indeed a few species from other families, is mastiff bat. The western mastiff bat, Eumops perotis, a large species from the southwestern United States and Mexico with wings over 0.5 m (1.6 ft) across, is perhaps one of the best known with this name. They are widespread, being found on every continent except Antarctica. [more]

Momotidae

The motmots or Momotidae are a family of birds in the near passerine order Coraciiformes, which also includes the kingfishers, bee-eaters and rollers. All extant motmots are restricted to woodland or forest in the Neotropics, and the largest diversity is in Middle America. They have a colorful plumage and a relatively heavy bill. All except the Tody Motmot have relatively long tails that in some species has a distinctive racket-like tip. [more]

Monacanthidae

Filefish (also known as foolfish, leatherjackets or shingles) are tropical to subtropical tetraodontiform marine fish of the diverse family Monacanthidae. Found in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans, the filefish family contains approximately 107 species in 26 genera. Filefish are closely related to the triggerfish, pufferfish and trunkfish. [more]

Monarchidae

The monarch flycatchers (Monarchidae) comprise a family of passerine birds which includes boatbills, shrikebills, paradise flycatchers, and magpie-larks. [more]

Monocentridae

Pinecone fishes are small and unusual beryciform marine fish of the family Monocentridae. The family contains just four species in two genera, one of which is monotypic. Their distribution is limited to tropical and subtropical waters of the Indo-Pacific. Pinecone fishes are popular subjects of public aquaria, but are both expensive and considered a challenge for the hobbyist to maintain. [more]

Monocentrididae

[more]

Monodactylidae

The Monodactylidae is a family of fish within the Perciformes commonly referred to as monos, moonyfishes or fingerfishes. All are strongly laterally compressed with an approximately disc-shaped body and tall anal and dorsal fins. Unusually for fish, there are scales on the dorsal fin and sometimes on the anal fin as well. The pelvic fins are small, sometimes vestigial. They are of moderate size, typically around 25 cm in length, and Monodactylus sebae can be taller than it is long, measuring up to 30 cm from the tip of the dorsal fin down to the tip of the anal fin. It is these long, scaly fins that has given them the name of fingerfishes. Most are silvery with yellow and black markings; the juveniles are especially attractive and most species are popular as aquarium fish (see below). [more]

Monodontidae

The cetacean family Monodontidae comprises two unusual whale species, the narwhal, in which the male has a long tusk, and the white beluga whale. They are native to coastal regions and pack ice around the Arctic Sea, and the far north of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. [more]

Monognathidae

Monognathus, or Onejaws, is the only genus of the family Monognathidae of deep sea eel-like fishes. The name comes from the Greek monos meaning one and gnathos meaning jaw; a reference to the large mouth in comparison with the rest of the fish, and also the absence of an upper jaw (maxilla and premaxilla bones are absent). The dorsal and anal fins lack bony supports, the pectoral fins are missing. The snout has a fang which is connected to glands. [more]

Morganucodontidae

[more]

Moridae

Moridae is a family of cod-like fishes, known as codlings, hakelings, and moras. [more]

Moringuidae

The Moringuidae is a small family of eels. They are commonly known as spaghetti eels or worm eels, although the latter name is also shared with other families of eel. [more]

Mormoopidae

The family Mormoopidae contains bats known generally as mustached bats, ghost-faced bats, and naked-backed bats. They are found in the Americas from the Southwestern United States to Southeastern Brazil. [more]

Mormyridae

A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[15] [more]

Moronidae

Temperate Bass is in the Family Percichthyidae How to know the freshwater fishes Samuel Eddy, James C. Underhill. [more]

Mosasauridae

Mosasaurs (from Latin Mosa meaning the 'Meuse river', and Greek sauros meaning 'lizard') are large extinct marine lizards. The first fossil remains were discovered in a limestone quarry at Maastricht on the Meuse in 1764. Mosasaurs are now considered to be the closest relatives of snakes, due to cladistic analyses that have taken into account similarities in jaw and skull anatomies. Mosasaurs were varanoids closely related to terrestrial monitor lizards. They probably evolved from semi-aquatic squamates known as aigialosaurs, which were more similar in appearance to modern-day monitor lizards, in the Early Cretaceous. During the last 20 million years of the Cretaceous Period (Turonian-Maastrichtian), with the extinction of the ichthyosaurs and pliosaurs, mosasaurs became the dominant marine predators. [more]

Moschidae

Musk deer are artiodactyls of the genus Moschus, the only genus of family Moschidae. They are more primitive than the cervids, or true deer, in not having antlers or facial glands, in having only a single pair of teats, and in possessing a gall bladder, a caudal gland, a pair of tusk-like teeth and?of particular economic importance to humans?a musk gland. Moschids live mainly in forested and alpine scrub habitats in the mountains of southern Asia, notably Himalayas. Moschids are entirely Asian in their present distribution, being extinct in Europe where the earliest musk deer are known from Oligocene deposits. [more]

Moschorhinidae

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Motacillidae

The Motacillidae are a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. There are around 65 species in 6 genera and they include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. The longclaws are entirely restricted to the Afrotropics, and the wagtails are predominately found in Europe, Africa and Asia, with two species migrating and breeding in Alaska. The pipits have the most cosmopolitan distribution, being found across mostly in the Old World but occurring also in the Americas and oceanic islands such as New Zealand and the Falklands. Two African species, the Yellow-breasted Pipit and Sharpe's Longclaw are sometimes placed in a separate seventh genus, Hemimacronyx, which is closely related to the longclaws. [more]

Mugilidae

The mullets or grey mullets are a family (Mugilidae) and order of ray-finned fish found worldwide in coastal temperate and tropical waters, and in some species in fresh water. Mullets have served as an important source of food in Mediterranean Europe since Roman times. The family includes about 80 species in 17 genera, although half of the species are in just two genera (Liza and Mugil). [more]

Mullidae

Goatfishes are tropical marine perciform fish of the family Mullidae. Seldom found in brackish waters, goatfish are most associated with the reefs of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans. The goatfish are sometimes called the red mullets as opposed to the Mugilidae, the grey mullets, though that name is usually reserved for the red mullets of the genus Mullus of the Mediterranean. Within the family are approximately six genera and 55 species. [more]

Muraenesocidae

The Muraenesocidae, or pike congers, are a small family of marine eels found worldwide in tropical and subtropical seas. Some species are known to enter brackish water. [more]

Muraenidae

Moray eels are cosmopolitan eels of the family Muraenidae. The approximately 200 species in 15 genera are almost exclusively marine, but several species are regularly seen in brackish water and a few, for example the freshwater moray (Gymnothorax polyuranodon) can sometimes be found in freshwater. With a maximum length of 11.5 centimetres (4.5 in), the smallest moray is likely the Snyder's moray (Anarchias leucurus), while the longest species, the slender giant moray (Strophidon sathete) reaches up to 4 metres (13 ft). The largest in terms of total mass is the giant moray (Gymnothorax javanicus), which reaches almost 3 metres (9.8 ft) and can weigh over 36 kilograms (79 lb). [more]

Muraenolepididae

Muraenolepididae is a family of cod-like fish, known as Eel cods. [more]

Muridae

Muridae is the largest family of mammals. It contains over 700 species found naturally throughout Eurasia, Africa, and Australia. They have been introduced worldwide. The group includes true mice and rats, gerbils, and relatives. [more]

Muscicapidae

The Old World flycatcher family Muscicapidae is a large family of small passerine birds mostly restricted to the Old World. These are mainly small arboreal insectivores, many of which, as the name implies, take their prey on the wing. [more]

Musophagidae

The turacos make up the bird family Musophagidae (literally "banana-eaters"), which includes plantain-eaters and go-away-birds. In southern Africa both turacos and go-away-birds are commonly known as louries. They are semi-zygodactylous - the fourth (outer) toe can be switched back and forth. The second and third toes, which always point forward, are conjoined in some species. Musophagids often have prominent crests and long tails; the turacos are noted for peculiar and unique pigments giving them their bright green and red feathers. [more]

Mustelidae

Mustelidae (from Latin mustela, weasel), commonly referred to as the weasel family, are a family of carnivorous mammals. Mustelids are diverse and the largest family in the order Carnivora, at least partly because in the past it has been a catch-all category for many early or poorly differentiated taxa.[] The internal classification seems to be still quite unsettled, with rival proposals containing between two and eight subfamilies. One study published in 2008 questions the long-accepted Mustelinae subfamily, and suggests Mustelidae consists of four major clades and three much smaller lineages. [more]

Myctophidae

Lanternfishes (or myctophids, from the Greek mykter, "nose" and ophis, "serpent") are small mesopelagic fish of the large family Myctophidae. One of two families in the order Myctophiformes, the Myctophidae are represented by 246 species in 33 genera, and are found in oceans worldwide. They are aptly named after their conspicuous use of bioluminescence. Their sister family, the Neoscopelidae, are much fewer in number but superficially very similar; at least one neoscopelid shares the common name 'lanternfish': the large-scaled lantern fish, macrolepidotus. [more]

Mylagaulidae

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Myliobatidae

The eagle rays are a group of cartilaginous fishes in the family Myliobatidae, consisting mostly of large species living in the open ocean rather than on the sea bottom. [more]

Myllokunmingiidae

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Mylodontidae

Mylodontidae is a family of extinct mammals within the order of Pilosa and suborder Folivora living from approximately 23 mya?11,000 years ago, existing for approximately 22.89 million years. This family of ground sloths is related to the other families of extinct ground sloths, being the Megatheriidae, the , the Orophodontidae and the Scelidotheriidae. The only extant families of the suborder Folivora are the Bradypodidae and the Megalonychidae. Phylogenetic analyses using homologous sequences from all extant edentate groups indicates that the Mylodontidae were closer related to Megalonychidae than to Bradypodidae. [more]

Myobatrachidae

Myobatrachidae is a family of frogs found in Australia and New Guinea. Members of this family vary greatly in size, from species less than 1.5 centimetres (0.59 in) long, to the second largest frog in Australia, the Giant Barred Frog (Mixophyes iteratus), at 12 centimetres (4.7 in) in length. The entire family are either terrestrial or aquatic frogs, with no arboreal species. [more]

Myocastoridae

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Myophiomyidae

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Myoxidae

The dormouse is a rodent of the family Gliridae. (This family is also variously called Myoxidae or Muscardinidae by different taxonomists.) Dormice are mostly found in Europe, although some live in Africa and Asia. They are particularly known for their long periods of hibernation. Because only one species of dormouse is native to the British Isles, in everyday English usage dormouse usually refers to one species (the hazel dormouse) as well as to the family as a whole. [more]

Myrmecobiidae

The numbat (Myrmecobius fasciatus), also known as the banded anteater, or walpurti, is a marsupial found in Western Australia. Its diet consists almost exclusively of termites. Once widespread across southern Australia, the range is now restricted to several small colonies and it is listed as an endangered species. The numbat is an emblem of Western Australia and protected by conservation programs. [more]

Myrmecophagidae

Myrmecophagidae is a family of anteaters, the name being derived from the Ancient Greek words for 'ant' and 'eat' (Myrmeco- and phagos). Myrmecophagids are native to Central and South America, from southern Mexico to northern Argentina. There are 2 genera and 3 species in the family, consisting of the Giant Anteater, and the tamanduas. The fossil Eurotamandua from the Messel Pit in Germany may be an early anteater, but its status is currently debated. [more]

Myrocongridae

The Myrocongridae or Thin eels are a small family of eels consisting of a single genus, Myroconger. Very little is known about the group. [more]

Mystacinidae

Mystacinidae is a family of unusual bats, the New Zealand short-tailed bats. There is one living genus, Mystacina, with two extant species, one of which is believed to have become extinct in the 1960s. They are medium-sized bats, about 6 centimetres (2.4 in) in length, with grey, velvety fur. [more]

Myxinidae

Hagfish, the clade Myxini (also known as Hyperotreti), are eel-shaped slime-producing marine animals (occasionally called slime eels). They are the only living animals that have a skull but not a vertebral column. Along with lampreys, hagfish are jawless and are living fossils; hagfish are basal to vertebrates, and living hagfish remain similar to hagfish 300 million years ago. [more]

Myzopodidae

Myzopoda is the only genus in family Myzopodidae, a family of bats, endemic to Madagascar. [more]

Nandidae

Asian leaffishes are small freshwater fishes of the Nandidae family, from Southern Asia. There are only four genera in this group. [more]

Nandiniidae

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Nanhsiungchelyidae

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Narcinidae

The numbfishes are a group of electric rays (order Torpediniformes) in the family Narcinidae. They are bottom-dwelling cartilaginous fishes with large, rounded pectoral fin discs and long tails. They can produce an electric discharge for defense, from which their scientific name is derived (Greek narke, meaning "paralysis"). [more]

Nardoichthyidae

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Narkidae

Members of the family Narkidae are commonly known as sleeper rays. They are restricted to the temperate and tropical Indo-West Pacific from South Africa to Japan to Indonesia, and are exclusively marine and are absent from freshwater habitats. They occur from the intertidal zone to the continental shelf and the upper continental slope to a depth of 350 meters, favoring soft-bottomed habitats. [more]

Nasikabatrachidae

Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis is a frog species belonging to the family Sooglossidae. It can be found in the Western Ghats in India. Common names for this species are Purple Frog, Indian Purple Frog, Pignose Frog or Doughnut Frog. It was discovered by S.D. Biju and F. Bossyut in October 2003 and was found to be unique for the geographic region. [more]

Natalidae

The family Natalidae, or funnel-eared bats are found from Mexico to Brazil and the Caribbean islands. The family has three genera, Chilonatalus, Natalus and Nyctiellus. They are slender bats with unusually long tails and, as their name suggests, funnel-shaped ears. They are small, at only 3.5 to 5.5 cm in length, with brown, grey, or reddish fur. Like many other bats, they are insectivorous, and roost in caves. [more]

Necrolestidae

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Necrosauridae

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Nectariniidae

The sunbirds and spiderhunters are a family, Nectariniidae, of very small passerine birds. There are 132 species in 15 genera. The family is distributed throughout Africa, the Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia and just reaches northern Australia. Most sunbirds feed largely on nectar, but also take insects and spiders, especially when feeding young. Flower tubes that bar access to nectar because of their shape, are simply punctured at the base near the nectaries. Fruit is also part of the diet of some species. Their flight is fast and direct on their short wings. [more]

Nematistiidae

The roosterfish, Nematistius pectoralis, is a game fish common in the marine waters surrounding Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama, and in the eastern Pacific Ocean from Baja California to Peru. It is the only fish in the genus Nematistius and the family Nematistiidae. It is distinguished by its "rooster comb", seven very long spines of the dorsal fin. [more]

Nematogenyidae

Nematogenys inermis is a kind of catfish, and the only extant species in the family Nematogenyiidae. This fish originates from fresh water in central Chile. [more]

Nemichthyidae

Snipe eels are a family, Nemichthyidae, of eels that consists of nine species in three genera. They are pelagic fishes, found in every ocean, mostly at depths of 300-600 m but sometimes as deep as 4000 m. Depending on the species, adults may reach 1-2 m (30-60 inches) in length, yet they weigh only 80-400 g (a few ounces to a pound). They are distinguished by their very slender jaws that separate toward the tips as the upper jaw curves upward. The jaws appear similar to the beak of the bird called the snipe. Snipe eels are oviparous, and the juveniles, called Leptocephali (meaning small head), do not resemble the adults but have oval, leaf-shaped and transparent bodies. Different species of snipe eel have different shapes, sizes and colors. The similarly named bobtail snipe eel is actually in a different family and represented by two species, the black Cyema atrum and the bright red Neocyema erythrosoma. [more]

Nemipteridae

The threadfin breams are a family, Nemipteridae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. They are also known as whiptail breams and false snappers. [more]

Neobalaenidae

The pygmy right whale (Caperea marginata) is a baleen whale, the sole member of the family Neobalaenidae. First described by John Edward Gray in 1846, it is the smallest of the baleen whales, ranging between 6 metres (20 ft) and 6.5 metres (21 ft) in length and 3,000 and 3,500 kg in mass. Despite its name, the pygmy right whale may have more in common with the gray whale and rorquals than the bowhead and right whales. [more]

Neocathartidae

[more]

Neoceratiidae

The toothed seadevil or netbeard seadevil, Neoceratias spinifer, is a rare, little-known deep-sea anglerfish found in the mesopelagic and bathypelagic zones of the western central Pacific Ocean. It is the only species in the family Neoceratidae, and is unique amongst the deep-sea anglerfish in lacking an illicium and esca (the "fishing rod" and "lure"), and in having large teeth placed on the outside of its jaws. [more]

Neoepiblemidae

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Neomorphidae

Neomorphidae is a proposed family of birds, separating the ground cuckoos (including roadrunners) from the rest of the cuckoo family. It is traditionally nested within the family Cuculidae as the subfamily Neomorphinae. [more]

Neoplagiaulacidae

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Neoscopelidae

The Neoscopelidae (blackchins or nesoscopelids) are a small family of deep sea fish closely related to the lanternfish. They are found in tropical and subtropical marine waters worldwide. [more]

Neosebastidae

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Nesophontidae

The members of the genus Nesophontes, sometimes called West Indies shrews, were members of the extinct family of mammals Nesophontidae in the order Soricomorpha. This is the only genus described for this family. They were endemic to Cuba, Hispaniola (Dominican Republic and Haiti), Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, and the Cayman Islands. Although reliable estimates are unavailable, these animals are widely believed to have survived the Pleistocene extinction since remains have been found among those of Rattus and Mus species. Some authorities estimate extinction coinciding with the arrivals of rats (Rattus) aboard Spanish vessels in the early 16th century (1500). Others, such as Morgan and Woods, claim that some species survived until the early 20th century. Their relations to the other West Indian soricomorphs, the solenodons, remain unclear. [more]

Nettastomatidae

The duckbill eels or witch eels are a family, Nettastomatidae, of eels. The name is from Greek netta meaning "duck" and stoma meaning "mouth". [more]

Nigeropheidae

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Nigerophiidae

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Nimravidae

The Nimravidae, sometimes known as false saber-toothed cats, are an extinct family of mammalian carnivores belonging to the suborder Feliformia and endemic to North America, Europe, and Asia living from the Eocene through the Miocene epochs (42?7.2 mya), existing for approximately 34.8 million years. [more]

Noctilionidae

The Noctilionidae family of bats, commonly known as bulldog bats or fisherman bats, are represented by two species, the Greater Bulldog Bat and the Lesser Bulldog Bat. They are found near water, from Mexico to Argentina. The Naked Bulldog Bat (Cheiromeles torquatus) does not belong to this family, but to the family Molossidae, the free-tailed bats. [more]

Nodosauridae

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Nomeidae

Driftfishes are perciform fishes in the family Nomeidae. They are found in tropical and subtropical waters throughout the world. [more]

None

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Normanichthyidae

Normanichthys crockeri is a ray-finned fish, the only member of the Normanichthyidae family. It is found in tropical South Pacific waters, from Chimbote, Peru, to Isla Mocha, Chile, and reaches up to 11 cm in length. Common vernacular names for the species in Spanish include Camotillo (in Peru) and Bacaladillo (in Chile). [more]

Notacanthidae

The deep-sea spiny eels are a family, Notacanthidae, of fishes found worldwide below 125 metres (410 ft), and going as deep as 3,500 metres (11,500 ft). The earliest known spiny eel is Pronotacanthus sahelalmae, from the Cenomanian of what is now Lebanon. [more]

Notelopidae

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Noterpetontidae

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Notharctidae

Notharctidae is an extinct family of primitive primates. [more]

Nothosauridae

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Notobatrachidae

A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[16] [more]

Notochampsidae

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Notocheiridae

The surf silversides are a small family, Notocheiridae, of salt water atheriniform fish found in tropical and temperate seas. [more]

Notograptidae

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Notohippidae

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Notonychopidae

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Notopteridae

The family Notopteridae contains eight species of osteoglossiform (bony-tongued) fishes, commonly known as featherbacks and knifefishes. They are small fishes living in freshwater or brackish environments in Africa and South-east Asia. [more]

Notoryctidae

Marsupial moles (Notoryctidae) is a family of marsupials of the order Notoryctemorphia, consisting of only two extant species: [more]

Notorynchidae

[more]

Notostylopidae

Notostylopidae is an extinct family comprising five genera of notoungulate mammals known from the early Eocene to early Oligocene of South America [more]

Notosuchidae

[more]

Notosudidae

Waryfishes are deep-sea aulopiform fishes in the small family Notosudidae. They are thought to have a circumglobal distribution in sub-Arctic to subantarctic waters. The family name "Notosudidae" derives from the Greek noton (back) and Latin sudis (a fish, esox, the name of salmon). [more]

Nototheniidae

The cod icefishes or nothothens are the family Nototheniidae of acanthopterygian fishes, containing about 50 species in 13 genera. They are traditionally placed in the perciform assemblage together with their relatives, but like every lineage in the "Perciformes" their actual relationships are not yet determined with certainty. [more]

Numididae

The guineafowl (; sometimes called guineahen) are a family of birds in the Galliformes order, although some authorities (for example the American Ornithologists' Union) include the guineafowl as a subfamily, Numidinae, of the family Phasianidae. The guineafowl are native to Africa, but the Helmeted Guineafowl has been domesticated, and both feral and wild-type birds have been introduced elsewhere. [more]

Numidotheriidae

[more]

Nycteridae

Nycteridae is the family of slit-faced or hollow-faced bats. They are grouped in a single genus, Nycteris. The bats are found in East Malaysia, Indonesia and many parts of Africa. [more]

Nyctibatrachidae

[more]

Nyctibiidae

The potoos are a family, Nyctibiidae of near passerine birds related to the nightjars and frogmouths. They are sometimes called Poor-me-ones, after their haunting calls. There are seven species in one genus, Nyctibius, in tropical Central and South America. [more]

Nyctitheriidae

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Nyctosauridae

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Ochotonidae

The pika ( py-k?; archaically spelled pica) is a small mammal, with short limbs, rounded ears, and short tail. The name pika is used for any member of the Ochotonidae, a family within the order of lagomorphs, which also includes the Leporidae (rabbits and hares). One genus, Ochotona, is recognised within the family, and it includes 30 species. It is also known as the "whistling hare" due to its high-pitched alarm call when diving into its burrow. The name "pika" appears to be derived from the Tungus piika. [more]

Octodontidae

Octodontidae is a family of rodents, restricted to southwestern South America. Thirteen species of octodontid are recognised, arranged in nine genera. The best known species is the degu, Octodon degus. [more]

Odacidae

Odacidae is a small family of fishes in the order Perciformes, commonly known as butterfish, cales, and weed-whitings. They are related to the much larger families of the wrasses and parrotfish. [more]

Odobenidae

Odobenidae is a family of Pinnipeds. The only living species is walrus. In the past, however, the group was much more diverse, and includes more than ten fossil genera. [more]

Odobenocetopsidae

[more]

Odontaspididae

Sand sharks, also known as sand tiger sharks or ragged tooth sharks, are mackerel sharks of the family Odontaspididae. They are found worldwide in temperate and tropical waters. There are four species in two genera. [more]

Odontobutidae

Freshwater sleepers (Odontobutidae) is a small family of fishes in the order Perciformes. They are native to fresh water rivers flowing into the South China Sea and the northwestern Pacific Ocean. [more]

Odontophoridae

The New World quails or Odontophorids are small birds only distantly related to the Old World Quails, but named for their similar appearance and habits. The American species are in their own family Odontophoridae, whereas Old World Quail are in the pheasant family Phasianidae. The family ranges from Canada through to southern Brazil, and two species, the California Quail and the Bobwhite Quail, have been successfully introduced to New Zealand. A variety of habitats are used by the family from tropical rainforest to deserts, although few species are capable of surviving at very low temperatures. There are 32 species in nine genera. [more]

Ogcocephalidae

Ogcocephalidae is a family of bottom-dwelling, specially adapted fish. They are sometimes referred to as batfishes or anglerfishes. They are found in deep, lightless waters of the Atlantic, Indian and western Pacific Oceans. [more]

Ogygoptyngidae

[more]

Oldfieldthomasiidae

[more]

Oligodontosauridae

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Oligopithecidae

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Olyridae

Olyra is a genus of catfishes (order Siluriformes) of the family Bagridae. It includes five species, O. burmanica, O. colletti, O. horae, O. kempi, and O. longicaudata. [more]

Omeisauridae

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Omomyidae

Omomyids (members of the family Omomyidae) are a diverse group of early primates that radiated during the Eocene epoch between about 55 to 34 million years ago (mya). Fossils of omomyids are found in North America, Europe, Asia, and possibly Africa, making it one of two groups of Eocene primates with a geographic distribution spanning holarctic continents, the other being the adapids (family Adapidae). Early representatives of the Omomyidae and Adapidae appear suddenly at the beginning of the Eocene (59 mya) in North America, Europe, and Asia, and are the earliest known crown primates. [more]

Omosudidae

The hammerjaw, Omosudis lowii, is a small deep-sea aulopiform fish, found worldwide in tropical and temperate waters to 4,000 m (13,000 ft) depth. It is the only representative of its family, Omosudidae (from the Greek omo, "shoulder", and Latin sudis, either "esox, fish of the Rhine" or "stake"). [more]

Omphalosauridae

[more]

Oneirodidae

The dreamers are a family, Oneirodidae, of in the order Lophiiformes. They are the largest and most diverse group of deep-sea anglerfish, and also the least well-known with several genera represented by only one, two, or three female specimens. They are found in deep, temperate waters around the world. They are small fishes, the largest species growing to about 20 centimeters (8 inches) long. [more]

Onychodontidae

[more]

Ophiacodontidae

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Ophichthidae

Ophichthidae is a family of eels, comprising species commonly called worm eels and snake eels. The term "Ophichthidae" comes from Greek ophis ("serpent") and ichthys ("fish"). [more]

Ophiderpetontidae

[more]

Ophidiidae

The cusk-eels family (Ophidiidae) are a group of marine bony fishes in the order Ophidiiformes. The scientific name is from Greek ophis meaning "snake", and refers to their eel-like appearance. However, they can be distinguished from true eels of the order Anguilliformes by the ventral fins, which are developed into a forked barbel-like organ below the mouth in the cusk-eels; in the true eels by contrast they are never well-developed and usually missing entirely. [more]

Ophiopsidae

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Opisthocomidae

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Opisthodactylidae

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Opisthognathidae

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Opisthoproctidae

Barreleyes, also known as spook fish (a name also applied to several species of chimaera), are small deep-sea osmeriform fish comprising the family Opisthoproctidae. Found in tropical-to-temperate waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. [more]

Opistognathidae

Opistognathidae (opisto = "behind", gnath = "mouth"), commonly referred to as jawfishes, are classified within Order Perciformes, Suborder Percoidei. They are found throughout shallow reef areas of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and the Gulf of Mexico. [more]

Oplegnathidae

Oplegnathidae is a family of marine fish within the Perciformes commonly known as knifejaws; some species are known as beakfish. It contains a single genus, Oplegnathus. The largest, the , can reach a maximum length of about 90 cm (35 in). Knifejaws have teeth fused into a parrotlike beak in adulthood. They feed on barnacles and mollusks, and are fished commercially. They are found in the north-western Pacific Ocean (e.g. Japan), in the southern half of Australia, in the Galapagos, Peru, and Chile, and in Southern Africa. [more]

Opluridae

The Opluridae, or Madagascan iguanas, are a family of moderately sized lizards native to Madagascar. There are seven species in two genera, with most of the species being in Oplurus. The family includes species that live amongst rocks, some that live in trees, and one that inhabits sand dunes. All of the species lay eggs, and have teeth that resemble those of the true iguanas. [more]

Orectolobidae

Wobbegong is the common name given to the 12 species of carpet sharks in the family Orectolobidae. They are found in shallow temperate and tropical waters of the western Pacific Ocean and eastern Indian Ocean, chiefly around Australia and Indonesia, although one species (the Japanese wobbegong, Orectolobus japonicus) occurs as far north as Japan. The word wobbegong is believed to come from an Australian Aboriginal language, meaning "shaggy beard", referring to the growths around the mouth of the shark of the western Pacific. [more]

Oreodontidae

[more]

Oreosomatidae

The Oreos are a family, the Oreosomatidae, of marine fish. Most species are found in the southern hemisphere, inhabiting continental slopes down to about 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) depth. [more]

Oriolidae

The orioles are a family of Old World passerine birds. [more]

Ornithocheiridae

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Ornithodesmidae

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Ornithomimidae

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Ornithorhynchidae

Ornithorhynchidae is one of the two extant families in the order Monotremata, and contains the Platypus and its extinct relatives. The other family is the Tachyglossidae, or echidnas. Within Ornithorhynchidae are two genera, Obdurodon and Ornithorhynchus: [more]

Ornithosuchidae

[more]

Oromerycidae

[more]

Orophodontidae

[more]

Orthonychidae

The Orthonychidae is a family of birds with a single genus, Orthonyx, which comprises three species of passerine birds endemic to Australia and New Guinea, the Logrunners and the Chowchilla. Some authorities consider the Australian family Cinclosomatidae to be part of the Orthonychidae. The three species use their stiffened tails to brace themselves when feeding. [more]

Orycteropodidae

Orycteropodidae is a family of afrotherian mammals. Although there are many fossil species, the only species surviving today is the aardvark, Orycteropus afer. Orycteropodidae is recognized as the only family within the order Tubulidentata, so the two are effectively synonyms. [more]

Oshuniidae

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Osmeridae

Smelts ? more precisely freshwater smelts or typical smelts to distinguish them from the related Argentinidae, Bathylagidae and Retropinnidae ? are a family of small fish, Osmeridae, found in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. They are common in the North American Great Lakes, and in the lakes and seas of the northern part of Europe, and run in large shoals along the coastline during their spring migration to their spawning streams. The Delta Smelt, Hypomesus transpacificus is found in the Sacramento Delta of California, and is an endangered species. [more]

Osmeroididae

[more]

Osphronemidae

Gouramis are a family, Osphronemidae, of freshwater perciform fishes. The fish are native to Asia, from Pakistan and India to the Malay Archipelago and north-easterly towards Korea. The name "gourami" is also used for fish of the families Helostomatidae and Anabantidae. "Gouramis" is an example of a redundant plural. Gourami is already plural, in its original language. [more]

Osteoglossidae

Arowanas are freshwater bony fish of the family Osteoglossidae, also known as bonytongues. In this family of fish, the head is bony and the elongate body is covered by large, heavy scales, with a mosaic pattern of canals. The dorsal and the anal fins have soft rays and are long based, while the pectoral and ventral fins are small. The name "bonytongues" is derived from a toothed bone on the floor of the mouth, the "tongue", equipped with teeth that bite against teeth on the roof of the mouth. The fish can obtain oxygen from air by sucking it into the swim bladder, which is lined with capillaries like lung tissue. The arowana is an "obligatory air breather". [more]

Osteolepidae

[more]

Ostodolepididae

[more]

Ostraciidae

Ostraciidae is a family of squared, bony fish belonging to the order Tetraodontiformes, closely related to the pufferfishes and filefishes. Fish in the family are known variously as boxfishes, cofferfishes, cowfishes and trunkfishes. It contains about 33 species in nine extant genera. [more]

Ostracoberycidae

A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[17] [more]

Otariidae

The eared seals or otariids are marine mammals in the family Otariidae, one of three groupings of Pinnipeds. They comprise 16 species in seven genera commonly known either as sea lions or fur seals, distinct from true seals (phocids) and the Walrus (odobenids). Otariids are adapted to a semi-aquatic lifestyle, feeding and migrating in the water but breeding and resting on land or ice. They reside in subpolar, temperate, and equatorial waters throughout the Pacific and Southern oceans and the southern Indian and Atlantic oceans. They are conspicuously absent in the north Atlantic. [more]

Otidae

Bustards, including floricans and korhaans, are large terrestrial birds mainly associated with dry open country and steppes in the Old World. They make up the family Otididae (formerly known as Otidae). [more]

Otididae

Bustards, including floricans and korhaans, are large terrestrial birds mainly associated with dry open country and steppes in the Old World. They make up the family Otididae (formerly known as Otidae). [more]

Otlestidae

[more]

Ovaloolithidae

[more]

Oviraptoridae

[more]

Oxyaenidae

[more]

Oxyclaenidae

[more]

Pachycephalidae

The family Pachycephalidae, collectively the whistlers, includes the whistlers, shrike-thrushes, shrike-tits, pitohuis and Crested Bellbird, and is part of the ancient Australo-Papuan radiation of songbirds. Its members range from small to medium in size, and occupy most of Australasia. Australia and New Guinea are the centre of their diversity, with species and genera also reaching New Zealand, and in the case of the whistlers, the South Pacific islands as far as Tonga and Samoa and parts of Asia as far as India. The exact delimitation of boundaries of the family are uncertain, for example the genus Mohoua, which is endemic to New Zealand has been placed with the family based on a number of morphological features and DNA-DNA hybridization studies, but the placement is still controversial. [more]

Pachycephalosauridae

[more]

Pachycormidae

[more]

Pachynolophidae

[more]

Pachyophiidae

[more]

Pachypleurosauridae

[more]

Pachyrhizodontidae

[more]

Pachystropheidae

[more]

Pakicetidae

[more]

Palaechthonidae

[more]

Palaelodidae

[more]

Palaeobatrachidae

A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[18] [more]

Palaeochiropterygidae

[more]

Palaeolabridae

[more]

Palaeomastodontidae

[more]

Palaeomerycidae

[more]

Palaeoniscidae

[more]

Palaeopeltidae

[more]

Palaeopheidae

[more]

Palaeophidae

[more]

Palaeophiidae

[more]

Palaeopropithecidae

[more]

Palaeorhynchidae

[more]

Palaeoryctidae

[more]

Palaeospinacidae

[more]

Palaeothentidae

[more]

Palaeotheriidae

Palaeotheres are an extinct group of herbivorous mammals related to tapirs and rhinoceros, and probably ancestral to horses. They ranged across Europe and Asia during the Eocene through Oligocene 55?28 Ma, existing for approximately 27 million years. [more]

Palaeotididae

[more]

Palmatolepidae

[more]

Palorchestidae

[more]

Pampatheriidae

[more]

Panderichthyidae

[more]

Pangasiidae

The shark catfishes are a family, the Pangasiidae, of catfishes found in fresh and brackish waters across southern Asia, from Pakistan to Borneo. Among the 30-odd members of this family is the plant-eating, endangered Mekong giant catfish Pangasianodon gigas, one of the largest known freshwater fishes. Several species have recently become a booming aquaculture success in Vietnam's Mekong Delta. [more]

Pantodontidae

The freshwater butterflyfish or African butterflyfish, Pantodon buchholzi, is the only species in the family Pantodontidae within the Order Osteoglossiformes. It is not closely related to saltwater butterflyfishes. [more]

Pantolambdidae

[more]

Pantolambdodontidae

[more]

Pantolestidae

Pantolestidae is an extinct family of semi-aquatic, placental mammals that took part in the first placental evolutionary radiation together with other early mammals such as the leptictids. Forming the core of the equally extinct order , the pantolestids evolved as a series of increasingly otter-like forms, ranging from the Middle Paleocene (60 mya) Bessoecetor to the Middle Eocene (50-40 mya) Buxolestes. They first appear in North America from where they spread to Europe. [more]

Pantylidae

[more]

Panuridae

A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[19] [more]

Pappotheriidae

[more]

Parabembridae

[more]

Parabrotulidae

A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[20] [more]

Paradisaeidae

The birds-of-paradise are members of the family Paradisaeidae of the order Passeriformes. The majority of species in this family are found on the island of New Guinea and its satellites, with a few species occurring in the Moluccas and eastern Australia. The family has forty species in 14 genera. The members of this family are perhaps best known for the plumage of the males of most species, in particular highly elongated and elaborate feathers extending from the beak, wings or head. For the most part they are confined to dense rainforest habitat. The diet of all species is dominated by fruit and to a lesser extent arthropods. The birds-of-paradise have a variety of breeding systems, ranging from monogamy to lek-based polygamy. [more]

Paraeoliscidae

[more]

Parakysidae

The stream catfishes are family Akysidae of catfishes. [more]

Paralepididae

Barracudinas are about 50 species of marine fishes of the family Paralepididae, found almost worldwide in deep waters. [more]

Paralichthodidae

[more]

Paralichthyidae

Large-tooth flounders are a family, Paralichthyidae, of flounders. They lie on the sea bed on their right side; both eyes are on the left side of the head, while the Pleuronectidae are the opposite with their eyes on the right side. [more]

Paralligatoridae

[more]

Paramacellodidae

[more]

Paramyidae

[more]

Paramythiidae

The painted berrypeckers, Paramythiidae, are a very small bird family restricted to the mountain forests of New Guinea. The family comprises two species in two genera: the Tit Berrypecker (Oreocharis arfaki) and the Crested Berrypecker (Paramythia montium). These are colorful medium-sized birds which feed on fruit and some insects. These species were formerly included in the Dicaeidae, but DNA-DNA hybridization studies showed these species were related to each other but distinct from the flowerpeckers. Some sources [1] group painted berrypeckers as two genera belonging to the berrypecker family Melanocharitidae. [more]

Paranguillidae

[more]

Parapedetidae

[more]

Parapithecidae

[more]

Parasaniwidae

[more]

Parascorpididae

A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[21] [more]

Parascyllidae

[more]

Parascylliidae

The Parascylliidae, or collared carpet sharks are a family of sharks. They are only found in shallow waters of the western Pacific. [more]

Parasemionotidae

[more]

Parasynarcualidae

[more]

Paraulopidae

Paraulopus is the only genus in the family Paraulopidae, a family of grinners in the order Aulopiformes. They are commonly known as "cucumberfishes", but locally some other Teleostei are also known by that name. [more]

Parazenidae

[more]

Pardalotidae

Pardalotes or peep-wrens are a family, Pardalotidae, of very small, brightly colored birds native to Australia, with short tails, strong legs, and stubby blunt beaks. This family is composed of four species in one genus, Pardalotus, and several subspecies. The name derives from a Greek word meaning "spotted". The family once contained several other species now split into the family Acanthizidae. [more]

Pareiasauridae

[more]

Paridae

The tits, chickadees, and titmice constitute Paridae, a large family of small passerine birds which occur in the northern hemisphere and Africa. Most were formerly classified in the genus Parus. [more]

Parioxyidae

[more]

Parodontidae

Parodontidae is a family of fresh water fish of the order Characiformes. There are three genera including about 21 species, though there are several undescribed species. These fish are generally benthic and live in mountain streams of eastern Panama and South America It was formerly considered a subfamily of the family Hemiodontidae. [more]

Paromomyidae

[more]

Paroxyclaenidae

[more]

Parulidae

The New World warblers or wood-warblers are a group of small, often colorful, passerine birds restricted to the New World. They are closely related to neither the Old World warblers nor the Australian warblers. [more]

Parvicuculidae

[more]

Parvigruidae

[more]

Passeridae

[more]

Pastoralodontidae

[more]

Pataecidae

Australian prowfishes are a family, Pataecidae, of scorpaeniform fishes. They are distinguished by a long dorsal fin that begins far forward on the head, forming a "prow" shape, and extends all the way to the caudal fin. They lack scales and pelvic fins. [more]

Patagoniidae

[more]

Patavichthyidae

[more]

Patriocetidae

[more]

Patriomanidae

[more]

Pattersonellidae

[more]

Paulchoffatiidae

[more]

Pedeticosauridae

[more]

Pedetidae

Pedetidae is a family of mammals from the rodent order. The two living species, the springhares, are distributed throughout much of southern Africa and also around Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Fossils have been found as far north as Turkey. Together with the anomalures, Pedetidae forms the suborder Anomaluromorpha. The fossil genus is also related. [more]

Pediomyidae

[more]

Pedionomidae

The Plains-wanderer (Pedionomus torquatus) or Plains Wanderer, is a bird, the only representative of its family. It is endemic to Australia. The majority of the remaining population are found in the Riverina region of New South Wales. [more]

Pegasidae

The seamoths are a family, the Pegasidae, of fish found in coastal tropical waters. [more]

Peipiaosteidae

[more]

Peirosauridae

[more]

Pelagornithidae

[more]

Pelecanidae

A pelican, derived from the Greek word pe?e??? pelekys (meaning ?axe? and applied to birds that cut wood with their bills or beaks) is a large water bird with a large throat pouch, belonging to the bird family Pelecanidae. [more]

Pelecanoididae

The diving petrels are seabirds in the bird order Procellariiformes. There are four very similar species all in the family Pelecanoididae and genus Pelecanoides (Lac?p?de, 1799), distinguished only by small differences in the coloration of their plumage and their bill construction. [more]

Peligrotheriidae

[more]

Pelobatidae

The European spadefoot toads are a family of frogs, the Pelobatidae, with only one extant genus Pelobates, containing four species. They are native to Europe, the Mediterranean, northwestern Africa and western Asia. [more]

Pelodytidae

Parsley frogs or Pelodytidae, is a family of order Anura. The family consists of just one genus, Pelodytes, which contains only three species. These frogs can be found in southwestern Europe and the Caucasus. The common name of "parsley frogs" comes from the Common parsley frog (Pelodytes punctatus) which, because of its coloring, looks garnished with parsley. [more]

Pelomedusidae

Pelomedusidae is a family of freshwater turtles native to eastern and southern Africa. They range in size from 12 centimetres (4.7 in) to 45 centimetres (18 in) in shell length, and are generally roundish in shape. They are unable to fully withdraw their heads into their shells, instead drawing it to the side and folding it beneath the upper edge of the shell, and hence are called African side-necked turtles. [more]

Peltephilidae

[more]

Pempheridae

Sweepers are small, tropical marine (occasionally brackish) perciform fish of the family Pempheridae. Found in the western Atlantic Ocean and Indo-Pacific region, the family contains approximately 26 species in two genera. One species (Pempheris xanthoptera ) is the target of subsistence fisheries in Japan, where the fish is much enjoyed for its taste. Sweepers are occasionally kept in the marine aquarium. [more]

Pempherididae

[more]

Pentacerotidae

The Armorheads are a small family, Pentacerotidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. They are native to the Indian Ocean, western and central Pacific, and southwestern Atlantic. They are generally found at rocky reefs below normal Scuba diving depths, although several species occur in low densities at shallower depths. [more]

Peramelidae

Peramelidae is the family of marsupials that contains all of the extant bandicoots. One known extinct species of bandicoot, the Pig-footed bandicoot, was so different than the other species that it was recently moved into its own family. There are four described fossil Peramelids. They are found throughout Australia and New Guinea, with at least some species living in every available habitat, from rain forest to desert. [more]

Peramuridae

[more]

Percichthyidae

The members of Percichthyidae family are known as the temperate perches. They belong to the Order Perciformes or perch-like fishes. [more]

Percidae

The Percidae are a family of perciform fish found in fresh and brackish waters of the Northern Hemisphere. The family contains about 200 species in ten genera. The darters, perches, and their relatives are in this family: well-known species include the walleye, ruffe, and three species of perch. [more]

Perciliidae

[more]

Percophidae

Duckbills are a family, Percophidae, of perciform fishes. [more]

Percopsidae

Percopsidae is a family of fish in the order Percopsiformes. Its living members are two North American fresh water species of the genus Percopsis, trout-perch (Walbaum 1792) and sand roller Percopsis transmontana (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1892). [more]

Percrocutidae

[more]

Periptychidae

[more]

Peristediidae

The armored searobins, or armored gurnards are a family, Peristediidae, of scorpaeniform fishes. They are found in deep tropical waters around the world. They are related to the searobins in the family Triglidae ? and some authorities classify them in that family ? but they are encased in heavy scales with prominent spines. They have prominent and often elaborate barbels on their chins. [more]

Perleididae

[more]

Peroryctidae

The New Guinean long-nosed bandicoots (genus Peroryctes) are members of the Peramelemorphia order. They are small to medium sized marsupial omnivores native to New Guinea. [more]

Perutheriidae

[more]

Petalodontida

[more]

Petauridae

The family Petauridae includes 11 medium-sized possum species: four striped possums, the six species wrist-winged gliders in genus Petaurus, and Leadbeater's Possum which has only vestigal gliding membranes. Most of the wrist-winged gliders are native to Australia, most of the striped possums (genus Dactylopsila) to New Guinea, but some members of each are found on both sides of Torres Strait. [more]

Petauristidae

[more]

Petroicidae

The bird family Petroicidae includes roughly 45 species in about 15 genera. All are endemic to Australasia: New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand and numerous Pacific Islands as far east as Samoa. For want of an accurate common name, the family is often called the Australasian robins. Within the family the species are known not only as robins but as scrub-robins and flycatchers. They are, however, only distantly related to the Old World family Muscicapidae (to which other species with such names belong) and the monarch flycatchers (Monarchidae). [more]

Petrolacosauridae

[more]

Petromuridae

The dassie rat, Petromus typicus, is an African rodent found among rocky outcroppings. It is the only living member of its genus, Petromus, and family, Petromuridae. The name "dassie" means "hyrax" in Afrikaans, and the two animals are found in similar habitats. Petromus means "rock mouse" and dassie rats are one of many rodents that are sometimes called rock rats. The family and genus names are sometimes misspelled as Petromyidae and Petromys. [more]

Petromyzontidae

Lampreys (sometimes also called lamprey eels) are a family of jawless fish, whose adults are characterized by a toothed, funnel-like sucking mouth. Translated from a mixture of Latin and Greek, lamprey means stone lickers (: to lick, and petra: stone). While lampreys are well-known for those species which bore into the flesh of other fish to suck their blood, most species of lamprey are not parasitic and never feed on other fish. In zoology, lampreys are sometimes not considered to be true fish because of their distinctive morphology and physiology. The lampreys are the basal group of Vertebrata (hagfishes are actually not vertebrates, but craniates). [more]

Petropedetidae

Petropedetinae are a subfamily of frogs. They are placed in the true frog family (Ranidae) by many authors. But this is quite disputed and at least part of this group is often treated as a distinct family Petropedetidae, in which case the Cacosterninae and Phrynobatrachinae are usually separated as subfamilies or even distinct families Cacosternidae and Phrynobatrachidae. Most members of this subfamily are in the genus Phrynobatrachus. These frogs are essentially[] limited to sub-Saharan Africa, with the highest diversity - and as it seems their evolutionary origin - in the very south of the continent. [more]

Phaethontidae

Tropicbirds are a family, Phaethontidae, of tropical pelagic seabirds now classified in their own order Phaethontiformes. Their relationship to other living birds is unclear, and they appear to have no close relatives. There are three species in one genus, Phaethon. They have predominately white plumage with elongated tail feathers and small feeble legs and feet. [more]

Phalacrocoracidae

The bird family Phalacrocoracidae is represented by some 40 species of cormorants and shags. Several different classifications of the family have been proposed recently, and the number of genera is disputed. [more]

Phalangeridae

Phalangeridae is a family of nocturnal marsupials native to Australia and New Guinea, including the cuscuses, brushtail possums, and their close relatives. Considered a type of possum, most species are arboreal, and they inhabit a wide range of forest habitats from alpine woodland to eucalypt forest and tropical jungle. [more]

Phallostethidae

The Priapium fishes are a family, Phallostethidae, of atheriniform fish native to South-east Asia. [more]

Phaneropleuridae

[more]

Pharmacichthyidae

[more]

Phascolarctidae

Phascolarctidae (Phasco - pouch or bag, larct- from the Greek ?arctos? meaning bear) is a family of marsupials of the order Diprotodontia, consisting of only one extant species, the koala, six well-known fossil species, with another five less well known fossil species, and two fossil species of the genus Koobor, whose taxonomy is debatable but are placed in this group. The closest relatives of the Phascolarctidae are the wombats, which comprise the family Vombatidae. [more]

Phasianidae

The Phasianidae is a family of birds which consists of the pheasants and partridges, including the junglefowl (including chicken), Old World Quail, francolins, monals and peafowl. The family is a large one, and is occasionally broken up into two subfamilies, the Phasianinae, and the Perdicinae. Sometimes additional families and birds are treated as being in this family as well; the American Ornithologists' Union includes Tetraonidae (the grouse), Numididae (guineafowls), and Meleagrididae (turkeys) in Phasianidae as subfamilies. [more]

Phenacodontidae

[more]

Phenacolophidae

[more]

Philepittidae

The asities, are a family, the Philepittidae, of small suboscine passerine birds. The family consists of four species in two genera endemic to Madagascar. They were thought to have been related to the pittas, hence the scientific name of the family, but a 1993 study suggested that they are actually just a subfamily of broadbills. The morphology of the syrinx is very similar to the Grauer's Broadbill of Africa. Here they are considered traditionally as a separate family. Some authors have placed the Sapayoa of South America in the family, although it is now mostly considered a broadbill. The Neodrepanis species are known as sunbird-asities and were formerly known as false sunbirds. [more]

Philisidae

[more]

Phiomiidae

[more]

Phiomyidae

[more]

Phlegethontiidae

[more]

Phlyctaeniidae

Phlyctaeniidae is an extinct family of placoderm fishes that lived during the Devonian period, mainly in Norway and North America. [more]

Phocidae

The true seals or earless seals are one of the three main groups of mammals within the seal superfamily, Pinnipedia. All true seals are members of the family Phocidae (). They are sometimes called crawling seals to distinguish them from the fur seals and sea lions of the family Otariidae. Seals live in the oceans of both hemispheres and are mostly confined to polar, subpolar, and temperate climates, with the exception of the more tropical monk seals. [more]

Phocoenidae

Porpoises (; also called mereswine) are small cetaceans of the family Phocoenidae; they are related to whales and dolphins. They are distinct from dolphins, although the word "porpoise" has been used to refer to any small dolphin, especially by sailors and fishermen. The most obvious visible difference between the two groups is that porpoises have shorter beaks and flattened, spade-shaped teeth distinct from the conical teeth of dolphins. [more]

Phoenicopteridae

Flamingos or flamingoes (About this sound  ) are a type of wading bird in the genus Phoenicopterus (from Greek f??????pte??? meaning "purple wing"), the only genus in the family Phoenicopteridae. There are four flamingo species in the Americas and two species in the Old World. [more]

Phoeniculidae

The Wood hoopoes and scimitarbills are a small African family, Phoeniculidae, of near passerine birds. They live south of the Sahara Desert and are not migratory. While the family is now restricted to sub-Saharan Africa, fossil evidence shows that the family once had a larger distribution. Fossils attributed to this family have been found in Miocene rocks in Germany. [more]

Pholidae

The gunnels are a family, Pholidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. [more]

Pholidichthyidae

Pholidichthys is a genus of perciform fish which consists of two species of the tropical Pacific Ocean. It is the only genus in the family Pholidichthyidae. [more]

Pholidogasteridae

[more]

Pholidophoridae

[more]

Phororhacidae

[more]

Phorusrhacidae

[more]

Phosichthyidae

Lightfishes are small stomiiform fishes in the family Phosichthyidae [more]

Phractolaemidae

The hingemouth, Phractolaemus ansorgii, is a small freshwater fish that is found only in west central Africa, the sole member of the family Phractolaemidae. [more]

Phrynobatrachidae

[more]

Phrynomeridae

[more]

Phrynosomatidae

Phrynosomatidae is a diverse family of lizards, found from Panama to the extreme south of Canada. Many members of the group are adapted to life in hot, sandy deserts, although the spiny lizards prefer rocky deserts or even relatively moist forest edges, and the short-horned lizard lives in prairie or sagebrush environments. The group includes both egg-laying and viviparous species, with the latter being more common in species living at high elevations. [more]

Phycidae

Phycidae is a family of hakes in the order Gadiformes. They are native to the Atlantic Ocean, but the juveniles of some species enter estuaries. Joseph Nelson classifies this family as the subfamily Phycinae of the cod family, Gadidae. [more]

Phyllodontidae

[more]

Phyllostomatidae

[more]

Phyllostomidae

The New World leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae) are found throughout Central and South America, from Mexico to northern Argentina. They are ecologically the most varied and diverse family within the order Chiroptera. Most species are insectivorous, but the phyllostomid bats include within their number true predatory species as well as frugivores (subfamily Stenodermatinae and Carolliinae). For example, the False Vampire, Vampyrum spectrum, the largest bat in the Americas, eats vertebrate prey including small dove-sized birds. Members of this family have evolved to utilize food groups such as fruit, nectar, pollen, insects, frogs, other bats and small vertebrates, and, in the case of the vampire bats, even blood. [more]

Physeteridae

Physeteroidea is a superfamily including just three living species of whale; the sperm whale, in the genus Physeter, and the pygmy sperm whale and dwarf sperm whale, in the genus Kogia. In the past, these genera have sometimes been united in a single family, Physeteridae, with the two Kogia species in a subfamily (Kogiinae); however, recent practice is to allocate the genus Kogia to its own family, Kogiidae, leaving Physeteridae as a monotypic (single extant species) family, although additional fossil representatives of both families are known. [more]

Phytosauridae

[more]

Picathartidae

The picathartes, rockfowl or bald crows are a small genus of two passerine bird species forming the family Picathartidae found in the rain-forests of tropical west and central Africa. They have unfeathered heads, and feed on insects and invertebrates picked from damp rocky areas. Both species are totally non-migratory, being dependent on a specialised rocky jungle habitat. [more]

Picidae

The woodpeckers, piculets, wrynecks, and sapsuckers are a family, Picidae, of near-passerine birds. Members of this family are found worldwide, except for Australia and New Zealand, Madagascar, and the extreme polar regions. Most species live in forests or woodland habitats, although a few species are known to live in treeless areas such as rocky hillsides and deserts. [more]

Picopsidae

[more]

Picrodontidae

[more]

Picromomyidae

[more]

Pilkipildridae

[more]

Pimelodidae

Pimelodidae, commonly known as the long-whiskered catfishes, is a family of catfishes (order Siluriformes). [more]

Pinguipedidae

The sandperches are a family, Pinguipedidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. [more]

Pipidae

The Pipidae are a family of primitive, tongueless frogs. The thirty species in the family Pipidae are found in tropical South America (genus Pipa) and sub-Saharan Africa (four other genera). [more]

Pipridae

The manakins are a family, Pipridae, of unique small suboscine passerine birds. The family contains some 60 species. They are distributed through the American tropics. The name is from Middle Dutch mannekijn 'little man' (also the source of the different bird name mannikin). [more]

Pisanosauridae

[more]

Pitheciidae

The Pitheciidae are one of the five families of New World monkeys now recognised. Formerly they were included in the family Atelidae. The family includes the titis, saki monkeys and uakaris. Most species are native to the Amazonia region of Brazil, with some being found from Colombia in the north to Bolivia in the south. [more]

Pittidae

[more]

Pityriaseidae

The Bornean Bristlehead (Pityriasis gymnocephala), also variously known as the Bristled Shrike, Bald-headed Crow or the Bald-headed Wood-Shrike, is the only member of the passerine family Pityriaseidae and genus Pityriasis. It is an enigmatic and uncommon species of the rainforest canopy of Borneo. [more]

Placodontidae

[more]

Plagiaulacidae

[more]

Plagiomenidae

[more]

Plagiosauridae

[more]

Platanistidae

The South Asian river dolphin (Platanista) is a freshwater or river dolphin found in India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan which is split into two sub-species, the Ganges river dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica) and Indus river dolphin (Platanista gangetica minor). The Ganges river dolphin is primarily found in the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers and their tributaries in Bangladesh, India and Nepal, while the Indus river dolphin is found in the Indus river in Pakistan and its Beas and Sutlej tributaries. From the 1970s until 1998, they were regarded as separate species; however, in 1998, their classification was changed from two separate species to subspecies of a single species (see taxonomy below). The Ganges river dolphin has been recognized by the government of India as its National Aquatic Animal. [more]

Plateosauridae

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Platycephalidae

Platycephalidae is a family of marine fishes, most commonly referred to as flatheads. They are relatives of the popular lionfishes, belonging to the order Scorpaeniformes. [more]

Platyrhinidae

Platyrhinidae is a family of rays in the order Myliobatiformes, commonly known as thornbacks due to their dorsal rows of large thorns. They resemble guitarfishes in shape, but are in fact more closely related to stingrays. [more]

Platysteiridae

Platysteiridae is a family of small stout passerine birds of the African tropics. The family contains the wattle-eyes, batises and shrike-flycatchers. They were previously classed as a subfamily of the Old World flycatcher family Muscicapidae. [more]

Platysternidae

The big-headed turtle (Platysternon megacephalum) is a species of turtle in the family Platysternidae. [more]

Platytroctidae

The tubeshoulders are a family, the Platytroctidae, of marine smelts. They are found throughout the world, except for the Mediterranean sea. Tubeshoulders live at moderate depths of 300 to 1,000 metres (980 to 3,300 ft), and some have light-producing organs. They are generally small to medium fish, ranging from 9 to 33 centimetres (3.5 to 13 in) in length. [more]

Plecoglossidae

The ayu or sweetfish, Plecoglossus altivelis, is an amphidromous fish, the only species in the genus Plecoglossus and in family Plecoglossidae. It is a relative of the smelts and is placed in the order Osmeriformes. Native to the Palearctic ecozone, it occurs in rivers, lakes, and coastal waters of western Hokkaido in Japan southward to the Korean Peninsula, China, Taiwan and Hong Kong. [more]

Plectrogenidae

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Plegadornithidae

[more]

Plesiadapidae

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Plesiobatidae

The deepwater stingray or giant stingaree (Plesiobatis daviesi) is a species of stingray and the sole member of the family Plesiobatidae. It is widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific, typically over fine sediments on the upper continental slope at depths of 275?680 m (900?2,230 ft). This species reaches 2.7 m (8.9 ft) in length and 1.5 m (4.9 ft) in width. It has an oval pectoral fin disc with a long, flexible, broad-angled snout. Most of the entire latter half of its tail supports a distinctively long, slender, leaf-shaped caudal fin. Its coloration is dark above and white below, and its skin is almost completely covered by tiny dermal denticles. [more]

Plesiochelyidae

[more]

Plesiopidae

The longfins also known as roundheads or spiny basslets are a family, Plesiopidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. They are elongated fishes, found in the Indian Ocean and western Pacific Ocean. [more]

Plesiopithecidae

[more]

Plesiosauridae

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Plesiosoricidae

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Plethodontidae

The Plethodontidae, or Lungless salamanders, are a family of salamanders. Most species are native to the western hemisphere, from British Columbia to Brazil, although a few species are found in Sardinia, Europe south of the Alps, and South Korea. In terms of number of species, they are by far the largest group of salamanders. [more]

Pleuronectidae

Righteye flounders are a family, Pleuronectidae, of flounders. They are called "righteye flounders" because most species lie on the sea bottom on their left side, with both eyes on the right side. The Paralichthyidae are the opposite, with their eyes on the left side. [more]

Pleurosauridae

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Pleurosternidae

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Plicatodontidae

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Pliohyracidae

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Pliopithecidae

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Pliosauridae

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Ploceidae

A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[22] [more]

Plotopteridae

[more]

Plotosidae

The eeltail catfish are a family (Plotosidae) of catfish whose tails are elongated in an eel-like fashion. These catfishes are native to the Indian Ocean and western Pacific from Japan to Australia and Fiji. The family includes about 35 species in 10 genera. About half of the species are freshwater, occurring in Australia and New Guinea. [more]

Pluvianellidae

The Magellanic Plover (Pluvianellus socialis) is a rare and unique wader found only in southernmost South America. It was long placed in with the other plovers in the family Charadriidae, however behavioural evidence suggested they were distinct, and molecular studies confirmed this, suggesting that they are actually more closely related to the sheathbills, a uniquely Antarctic family. As such it is now placed in its own family, Pluvianellidae. This species is not a long distance migratant, although some birds move further north in southern Argentina in winter. The species breeds inland and then moves to the coast during the winter, particularly to estuaries. [more]

Podargidae

The frogmouths are a group of nocturnal birds related to the nightjars. They are found from the Indian Subcontinent across Southeast Asia to Australia. [more]

Podicipedidae

A grebe () is a member of the Podicipediformes order, a widely distributed order of freshwater diving birds, some of which visit the sea when migrating and in winter. This order contains only a single family, the Podicipedidae, containing 22 species in 6 extant genera. [more]

Podocnemidae

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Podocnemididae

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Podokesauridae

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Poeciliidae

Poeciliidae is a family of fresh-water fish which are live-bearing aquarium fish (they give birth to live young). They belong to the order Cyprinodontiformes, tooth-carps, and include well-known aquarium fish such as the guppy, molly, platy, and swordtail. The original distribution of the family was the southeastern United States to north of Rio de la Plata, Argentina, and central and southern Africa, including Madagascar. However, due to release of aquarium specimens and the widespread use of species of the genera Poecilia and Gambusia for mosquito control, poeciliids can today be found in all tropical and subtropical areas of the world. [more]

Poecilopsettidae

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Polioptilidae

The 15-20 species of small passerine birds in the gnatcatcher family occur in North and South America (except far south and high Andean regions). Most species of this mainly tropical and subtropical group are resident, but the Blue-gray Gnatcatcher of the USA and southern Canada migrates south in winter. They are close relatives of the wrens. [more]

Polycentridae

Leaffishes are small freshwater fishes of the Polycentridae family, from South America. [more]

Polychridae

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Polychrotidae

Polychrotidae is a family of lizards commonly known as anoles (). NCBI places the anole in subfamily Polychrotinae of the family Iguanidae. Four genera are common: Anolis, Norops, Phenacosaurus, and Polychrus. [more]

Polycotylidae

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Polydolopidae

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Polygnathidae

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Polymixiidae

The beardfishes are a small family (Polymixiidae) of deep-sea marine ray-finned fish named for their pair of long hyoid barbels. They have little economic importance. [more]

Polynemidae

Threadfins are silvery grey perciform marine fish of the family Polynemidae. Found in tropical to subtropical waters throughout the world, the threadfin family contains nine genera and 33 species. An unrelated species sometimes known by the name threadfin, Alectis indicus, is properly the Indian threadfish (family Carangidae). [more]

Polyodontidae

A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[23] [more]

Polyprionidae

The wreckfish are a family, Polyprionide, of perciform fishes. [more]

Polypteridae

The bichirs are a family, Polypteridae, of archaic-looking ray-finned fishes, the sole family in the order Polypteriformes. [more]

Pomacanthidae

Marine angelfish are perciform fish of the family Pomacanthidae. They are found on shallow reefs in the tropical Atlantic, Indian, and mostly western Pacific oceans. The family contains seven genera and approximately 86 species. They should not be confused with the freshwater angelfish, tropical cichlids of the Amazon River basin. [more]

Pomacentridae

Pomacentridae are a family of perciform fish, comprising the damselfishes and clownfishes. They are primarily marine, while a few species inhabit freshwater and brackish environments (e.g., Neopomacentrus aquadulcis, N. taeniurus, Pomacentrus taeniometopon, Stegastes otophorus). They are noted for their hardy constitutions and territoriality. Many are brightly colored, so they are popular in aquaria. [more]

Pomadasyidae

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Pomatomidae

The bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix), called tailor in Australia, is a species of popular marine gamefish found in all climates. It is the only extant species of the Pomatomidae family. [more]

Pomatostomidae

The Pomatostomidae (Australo-Papuan or Australasian babblers, also known as pseudo-babblers) are small to medium-sized birds endemic to Australia-New Guinea. For many years, the Australo-Papuan babblers were classified, rather uncertainly, with the Old World babblers (Timaliidae), on the grounds of similar appearance and habits. More recent research, however, indicates that they are too basal to belong the Passerida - let alone the Sylvioidea where the Old World babblers are placed - and they are now classed as a separate family close to the Orthonychidae (logrunners). Five species in one genus are currently recognised, although the red-breasted subspecies rubeculus of the Grey-crowned Babbler may prove to be a separate species. Further investigation is required. [more]

Pongidae

Pongidae (or pongid) is a taxonomical family which is no longer in use. [more]

Pontoporiidae

The La Plata dolphin or Franciscana (Pontoporia blainvillei) is found in coastal Atlantic waters of southeastern South America. Taxonomically, it is a member of the river dolphin group and the only one that actually lives in the ocean and saltwater estuaries, rather than inhabiting exclusively freshwater systems. [more]

Poposauridae

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Porolepidae

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Potamotelsidae

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Potamotrygonidae

River stingrays are Neotropical freshwater fishes of the Potamotrygonidae family (order Myliobatiformes). [more]

Potoroidae

The marsupial family Potoroidae includes the bettongs, potoroos, and two of the rat-kangaroos. All are rabbit-sized, brown, jumping marsupials and resemble a large rodent or a very small wallaby. [more]

Praeornithidae

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Prepidolopidae

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Presbyornithidae

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Prestosuchidae

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Priacanthidae

Priacanthidae is a family of fish, common name bigeye, comprising 18 species of marine fishes. "Catalufa" is an alternate common name for some members of the priacanthidae family. The etymology of the scientific name ("prioo-", to bite + "akantha", thorn) refers to the family's very rough, spined scales. The common name of "bigeye" refers to the member species' unusually large eyes, suited to their carnivorous and nocturnal lifestyles. Priacanthidae are most typically colored bright red, but other coloration patterns do exist for some species. Most species reach a maximum total length of about 30 centimeters (12 inches), although in a few species lengths of over 50 centimeters (20 inches) are known. [more]

Primobucconidae

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Pristerognathidae

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Pristidae

Sawfish, also known as the Carpenter Shark, are a family of rays, characterized by a long, toothy nose extension snout. Several species can grow to approximately 7 metres or 23 feet. The family as a whole is largely unknown and little studied. They are members of the sole living family Pristidae within the order Pristiformes, from the Ancient Greek pristes (p??st??) meaning "a sawyer" or "a saw". [more]

Pristigasteridae

Pristigasteridae is a family of fish related to the herrings, and including the genera Ilisha and Pellona. The taxonomic classification of this family is in doubt. One common name for the taxon is longfin herring. [more]

Pristiophoridae

The sawsharks or saw sharks are an order (Pristiophoriformes) of sharks bearing long blade-like snouts edged with teeth, which they use to slash and disable their prey. Most occur in waters from South Africa to Australia and Japan, at depths of 40 metres (130 ft) and below; in 1960 the Bahamas sawshark was discovered in the deeper waters (640 m to 915 m) of the northwestern Caribbean. [more]

Procaviidae

A hyrax (from Greek "shrewmouse") is any species of fairly small, thickset, herbivorous mammals in the order Hyracoidea. The rock hyrax Procavia capensis, the yellow-spotted rock hyrax Heterohyrax brucei, the western tree hyrax Dendrohyrax dorsalis, and the southern tree hyrax, Dendrohyrax arboreus live in Africa and the Middle East. [more]

Procellariidae

The family Procellariidae is a group of seabirds that comprises the fulmarine petrels, the gadfly petrels, the prions, and the shearwaters. This family is part of the bird order Procellariiformes (or tubenoses), which also includes the albatrosses, the storm-petrels, and the diving petrels. [more]

Prochilodontidae

The Prochilodontidae, or flannel-mouthed characins, are a small family of fishes found primarily in the northern half of South America, south to Paraguay and northern Argentina. This family is closely related to the Curimatidae, and in the past they were included in Characidae. [more]

Procolophonidae

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Proconsulidae

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Procynosuchidae

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Procyonidae

Procyonidae is a New World family of the order Carnivora. It includes the raccoons, coatis, kinkajous, olingos, ringtails and cacomistles. Procyonids inhabit a wide range of environments, and are generally omnivorous. [more]

Prodinoceratidae

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Profundulidae

Profundulidae is a family of teleost fish endemic to Mexico, Guatemala and other countries of Central America. This family is monotypic with only a single genus, Profundulus. This family contains six species. [more]

Proganochelyidae

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Prorastomidae

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Prosaliridae

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Proscalopidae

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Proscylliidae

The finback catsharks are a small family, Proscylliidae, of ground sharks. [more]

Prosirenidae

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Prosqualodontidae

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Proteidae

Mudpuppies or waterdogs are aquatic salamanders of the family Proteidae. Their name originates from the misconception that they make a dog-like barking sound. The range of the genus Necturus runs from southern central Canada, through the midwestern United States, east to North Carolina and south to Georgia and Mississippi. The range of the olm, the only extant member of the genus Proteus, is limited to the Western Balkans. [more]

Proteomyridae

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Proterochampsidae

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Proterosuchidae

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Proterotheriidae

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Protoavidae

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Protobatrachidae

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Protobradidae

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Protoceratidae

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Protoceratopsidae

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Protocetidae

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Protohydrochoeridae

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Protolipternidae

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Protoplotidae

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Protopteridae

The African lungfishes are the genus Protopterus and constitute the four species of lungfish found in Africa. Protopterus is the sole genus in the family Protopteridae. [more]

Protoptychidae

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Protorosauridae

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Protorothyrididae

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Protosirenidae

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Protostegidae

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Protostomiidae

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Protostrigidae

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Protosuchidae

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Prunellidae

The accentors are in the only bird family, the Prunellidae, which is completely endemic to the Palearctic. This small group of closely related passerines are all in a single genus Prunella. All but the Dunnock and the Japanese Accentor are inhabitants of the mountainous regions of Europe and Asia; these two also occur in lowland areas, as does the Siberian Accentor in the far north of Siberia. This genus is not strongly migratory, but they will leave the coldest parts of their range in winter, and make altitudinal movements. [more]

Psettodidae

The spiny turbots are a family, Psettodidae, of relatively large, primitive flatfish found in the tropical waters of the east Atlantic and Indo-Pacific. The family contains just three species, all in the same genus, Psettodes. The common name comes from the presence of spines in the dorsal and anal fins, which may indicate an evolutionary relationship with the Perciformes. They are less asymmetrical than other flatfish, although the region around the eyes is twisted. [more]

Pseudaphritidae

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Pseudictopidae

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Pseudocarchariidae

The crocodile shark (Pseudocarcharias kamoharai) is a species of mackerel shark and the only member of the family Pseudocarchariidae. A specialized inhabitant of the mesopelagic zone, the crocodile shark can be found worldwide in tropical waters from the surface to a depth of 590 m (1,940 ft). It performs a diel vertical migration, staying below a depth of 200 m (660 ft) during the day and ascending into shallower water at night to feed. Typically measuring only 1 m (3.3 ft) in length, the crocodile shark is the smallest living mackerel shark. It can be distinguished by its elongated cigar-shaped body, extremely large eyes, and relatively small fins. [more]

Pseudocheiridae

Pseudocheiridae is a family of arboreal marsupials containing 17 extant species of ringtailed possums and close relatives. They are found in forested areas and shrublands throughout Australia and New Guinea. [more]

Pseudochromidae

The dottybacks are a family, Pseudochromidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. Around 100 species belong to this family. [more]

Pseudocricetodontidae

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Pseudodontornithidae

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Pseudomugilidae

The Blue-eyes are the family of atheriniform fish, the Pseudomugilidae, related to the rainbowfishes. They inhabit fresh and brackish water in Australia and New Guinea. Blue-eyes are small fish, typically no more than 5 centimetres (2.0 in) in length. Like rainbowfish, they spawn all year round, and attach their eggs to vegetation. [more]

Pseudopimelodidae

Pseudopimelodidae is a small family of catfishes. Some of these fish are popular aquarium fish. [more]

Pseudosciuridae

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Pseudosulidae

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Pseudotriakidae

Pseudotriakidae is a small family of ground sharks, order Carcharhiniformes, containing the false catsharks and gollumsharks. It contains the only ground shark species that exhibit intrauterine oophagy, in which developing fetuses are nourished by eggs produced by their mother. [more]

Pseudotrichonotidae

The Pseudotrichonotidae (sandliving lizardfishes or sand-diving lizardfishes) are a small family of aulopiform fish, consisting of just two species in a single genus, Pseudotrichonotus. [more]

Psilopteridae

[more]

Psilorhynchidae

Psilorhynchus is the sole genus of fishes in the family Psilorhynchidae mainly found in South Asia. There are currently 18 recognized species. [more]

Psittacidae

The family Psittacidae consists of the subfamilies, the African parrots (Psittacinae) and the Neotropical parrots (Arinae). [more]

Psittacosauridae

[more]

Psophiidae

The trumpeters are a family of birds restricted to the humid forests of the Amazon and Guiana Shield in South America. They are named for the trumpeting or cackling threat call of the males. The three species resemble chickens in size; they measure 45 to 52 centimetres (18 to 20 inches) long and weigh 1 to 1.5 kilograms (2.2 to 3.3 pounds). They are dumpy birds with long necks and legs and curved bills and a hunched posture. Their heads are small, but their eyes are relatively large, making them look "good-natured". The plumage is soft, resembling fur or velvet on the head and neck. It is mostly black, with purple, green, or bronze iridescence, particularly on the wing coverts and the lower neck. In the best-known taxa the secondary and tertial flight feathers are white, grey, or greenish to black, and hairlike, falling over the lower back, which is the same color. These colors give the three generally accepted species their names. [more]

Psychrolutidae

The fish family Psychrolutidae contains the fatheads or fathead sculpins, including the blobfishes. There are 9 genera and about 30 species. This poorly known family consists of bottom-dwelling marine sculpins shaped like tadpoles, with large heads and bodies that taper back into small, flat tails. They generally have large, leaflike pectoral fins and some species are covered with soft spines. They are found in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. The adults live on the seafloor, between 100 metres (330 ft) and 1,600 metres (5,200 ft) depth. [more]

Ptenopodiscidae

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Pteranodontidae

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Pteraspidae

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Ptereleotridae

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Pteroclidae

A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[24] [more]

Pteroclididae

The sandgrouse are a family, Pteroclididae, of 16 bird species, the only living members of the order Pteroclidiformes. They are restricted to treeless open country in the Old World, such as plains and semi-deserts. They are distributed across northern, southern and eastern Africa as well as Madagascar; the Middle East, India through to central Asia; and the Iberian Peninsula. Sandgrouse are traditionally placed in two genera. Two central Asian species in Syrrhaptes, and the rest in Pterocles, but recent research casts some doubt on this division. [more]

Pterodactylidae

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Pterodaustridae

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Pterodaustriidae

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Pteropidae

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Pteropodidae

Megabats constitute the suborder Megachiroptera, family Pteropodidae of the order Chiroptera (bats). They are also called fruit bats, old world fruit bats, or flying foxes. [more]

Pterothrissidae

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Ptilichthyidae

The quillfish, Ptilichthys goodei, is a species of perciform fish, the only species in the genus Ptilichthys and family Ptilichthyidae. It is an elongate eel-like fish that reaches 34 cm in length. It is native to the north Pacific Ocean, from the Bering Sea down to Oregon. [more]

Ptilocercidae

The pen-tailed treeshrew (Ptilocercus lowii) is a species of treeshrew in the Ptilocercidae family. It is found in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand. It is the only species in the genus Ptilocercus and the family Ptilocercidae. All other treeshrews are in the family Tupaiidae. [more]

Ptilodontidae

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Ptilogonatidae

The silky-flycatchers are a small family, Ptilogonatidae , of passerine birds. The family contains only four species in three genera. They were formerly lumped with waxwings and Hypocolius in the family Bombycillidae, and they are listed in that family by the Sibley-Monroe checklist. The family is named for their silky plumage and their aerial flycatching techniques, although they are unrelated to the Old World flycatchers (Muscicapidae) and the tyrant flycatchers (Tyrannidae). [more]

Ptilonorhynchidae

Bowerbirds () make up the bird family Ptilonorhynchidae. The family has 20 species in eight genera. These are medium-sized passerines, ranging from the Golden Bowerbird (22 cm and 70 grams) to the Great Bowerbird (40 cm and 230 grams). Their diet consists mainly of fruit but may also include insects (fed to young),[clarification needed] flowers, nectar and leaves in some species. [more]

Ptolemaiidae

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Ptychadenidae

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Ptychodontidae

Ptychodontidae is a family of extinct hybodontiform sharks which lived from the Cretaceous to the Paleogene. [more]

Ptycholepididae

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Ptyctodontidae

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Purgatoriidae

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Pycnodontidae

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Pycnonotidae

Bulbuls are a family, Pycnonotidae, of medium-sized passerine songbirds. Many forest species are known as greenbuls. The family is distributed across most of Africa and into the Middle East, tropical Asia to Indonesia, and north as far as Japan. A few insular species occur on the tropical islands of the Indian Ocean There are about 130 species in around 24 genera. While some species are found in most habitats, overall African species are predominately found in rainforest whilst rainforest species are rare in Asia, instead preferring more open areas. The only Bulbul which occurs in Europe was spotted in the Cyclades and bears a yellow patch, being otherwise of a snuffy brown and this is possibly the bird which has got mixed up with the nightingale in Sufi, particularly Persian Sufi, poetry. [more]

Pycnosteroididae

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Pygopodidae

Pygopodidae (commonly known as legless lizards, snake-lizards or flap-footed lizards) is a family of squamates that have reduced or absent limbs and are related to the geckos. There are at least 35 species in two subfamilies and eight genera. They have unusually long, slender, bodies, giving them a strong resemblance to snakes. Like both snakes and most geckos, they have no eyelids, but unlike snakes, they have external ear-holes and flat, non-forked tongues. They are native to Australia and New Guinea. [more]

Pyrotheriidae

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Pythonidae

The Pythonidae, commonly known simply as pythons, from the Greek word python (p????), are a family of nonvenomous snakes found in Africa, Asia and Australia. Among its members are some of the largest snakes in the world. Eight genera and 26 species are currently recognized. [more]

Pyxicephalidae

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Quercypsittidae

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Rachycentridae

Cobia (Rachycentron canadum)?also known as black kingfish, black salmon, ling, lemonfish, crabeaters, aruan tasek, etc.?are perciform marine fish, the sole representative of their family, the Rachycentridae. [more]

Radiicephalidae

The tapertail, Radiicephalus elongatus, is a species of marine fish found in the central and eastern Atlantic and eastern Pacific. It is the only representative of the genus Radiicephalus as well as the family Radiicephalidae. [more]

Rajidae

Skates are cartilaginous fish belonging to the family Rajidae in the superorder Batoidea of rays. There are more than 200 described species in 27 genera. There are two subfamilies, Rajinae (hardnose skates) and Arhynchobatinae (softnose skates). [more]

Rallidae

The rails, or Rallidae, are a large cosmopolitan family of small to medium-sized birds. The family exhibits considerable diversity and the family also includes the crakes, coots, and gallinules. Many species are associated with wetlands, although the family is found in every terrestrial habitat except dry deserts, polar regions and alpine areas above the snow line. [more]

Ramphastidae

Toucans are members of the family Ramphastidae of near passerine birds from the Neotropics. The Ramphastidae family is most closely related to the American barbets. They are brightly marked and have large, often colorful bills. The family includes five genera and about forty different species. The name of this bird group is derived from the Tupi word tukana, via Portuguese. [more]

Ranidae

The true frogs, family Ranidae, have the widest distribution of any frog family. They are abundant throughout most of the world, occurring on most continents except Antarctica. The true frogs are present in North America, northern South America, Europe, Asia, Madagascar, Africa, and from the East Indies to New Guinea; the species native to Australia?the Australian Wood Frog (Hylarana daemelii)?is restricted to the far north. [more]

Ranixalidae

[more]

Raoellidae

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Raphidae

The Raphinae are a subfamily of extinct flightless birds colloquially called didines or didine birds. They inhabited the Mascarene Islands of Mauritius and Rodrigues, but became extinct through hunting by humans and predation by introduced non-native mammals following human colonisation in the 17th century. [more]

Rathymotheriidae

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Rauisuchidae

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Rebbachisauridae

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Recurvirostridae

Recurvirostridae is a family of birds in the wader suborder Charadrii. It contains two distinct groups of birds, the avocets (one genus) and the stilts (two genera). [more]

Redfieldiidae

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Regalecidae

Oarfish are large, greatly elongated, pelagic Lampriform fishes comprising the small family Regalecidae. Found in all temperate to tropical oceans yet rarely seen, the oarfish family contains four species in two genera. One of these, the king of herrings (Regalecus glesne), is listed in the Guinness Book of World Records as the longest bony fish alive, at up to 17 metres (56 ft) in length. [more]

Regulidae

The kinglets or crests are a small group of birds sometimes included in the Old World warblers, but are frequently given family status because they also resemble the titmice. The scientific name Regulidae is derived from the Latin word regulus for "petty king" or prince, and comes from the colored crowns of adult birds. This family has representatives in North America and Eurasia. There are seven species in this family; one, the Madeira Firecrest, Regulus madeirensis, was only recently split from Common Firecrest as a separate species. One species, the Ruby-crowned Kinglet, differs sufficiently in its voice and plumage to occasionally be afforded its own genus, Corthylio. [more]

Reigitheriidae

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Reithroparamyidae

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Remingtonocetidae

[more]

Remizidae

The penduline tits are a family of small passerine birds, related to the true tits. All but the Verdin and Fire-capped Tit make elaborate bag nests hanging from trees (whence "penduline", hanging), usually over water; inclusion of the Fire-capped Tit in this family is disputed by some authorities[]. [more]

Repenomamidae

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Repropcidae

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Reptilia

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Retropinnidae

Retropinnidae is a family of bony fish that contains the southern hemisphere smelts and graylings. They are quite closely related to the northern smelts (Osmeridae), which they greatly resemble, but not to the northern graylings (Thymallus). Species from this family are only found in southeastern Australia and New Zealand. Although a few species are partly marine, most inhabit fresh or brackish water. [more]

Rhabdodermatidae

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Rhabdodontidae

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Rhabdornithidae

The Philippine creepers or rhabdornises are small passerine birds. They are endemic to the Philippines. The group contains a single genus Rhabdornis with three species. They do not migrate, other than to make local movements. [more]

Rhabdosteidae

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Rhabodlepidae

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Rhacophoridae

Rhacophoridae is a family of frog species, which occur in tropical regions of Asia and Africa. They are commonly known as shrub frogs, or more ambiguously as '"moss frogs" or "bush frogs". Some Rhacophoridae are called "tree frogs". Among the most spectacular members of this family are numerous "flying frogs". [more]

Rhadinichthyidae

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Rhamphichthyidae

Sand knifefishes are freshwater fishes of the Rhamphichthyidae family, from South America. There are only 3 genera and 16 species in this group. [more]

Rhamphocottidae

The grunt sculpin or grunt-fish, Rhamphocottus richardsonii, is the only member of the fish family Rhamphocottidae. It is native to temperate coastal waters of the North Pacific, from Japan to Alaska and south to California where it inhabits tide pools, rocky areas, and sandy bottoms at depths of up to 165 metres. It uses its spiny pectoral fins to crawl over the sea floor. It grows up to 9 cm in length. It frequently takes shelter in discarded bottles and cans, as well as the empty shells, such as those of the giant barnacle (Balanus nubilis). During reproduction, the female chases a male into a rock crevice and keeps him there until she lays her eggs. [more]

Rhamphorhynchidae

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Rheidae

The rheas are ratites (flightless birds, with unkeeled sterna) in the genus Rhea, native to South America. There are two existing species: the Greater or American Rhea and the Lesser or Darwin's Rhea. The genus name was given in 1752 by Paul M?hring and adopted as the English common name. M?hring's named the rhea based on the greek titan Rhea, whose name is derived from the greek Rhea ('??a) by metathesis from ??a "ground". This was fitting, the rhea being a flightless ground bird. Depending on the South American region, the rhea is known locally as ?and? guazu (Guaran?, meaning big spider, most probably in relation to their habit of opening and lowering alternatively wings when they run), ema (Portuguese), suri (Quechua), or choique (Mapudungun). [more]

Rheobatrachidae

The gastric-brooding frogs or Platypus frogs (Rheobatrachus) were a genus of ground-dwelling frogs native to Queensland in eastern Australia. The genus consisted of only two species, both of which became extinct in the mid-1980s. The genus was unique because it contained the only two known frog species that incubated the prejuvenile stages of their offspring in the stomach of the mother. [more]

Rhinatrematidae

Rhinatrematidae is the family of neotropical tailed caecilians or beaked caecilians. Members of the family are found in the equatorial countries of South America. [more]

Rhincodontidae

The whale shark, Rhincodon typus, is a slow-moving filter feeding shark and the largest extant fish species. The largest confirmed individual had a length of 12.65 metres (41.50 ft) and a weight of more than 21.5 tonnes (47,000 lb), and there are unconfirmed reports of considerably larger whale sharks. This distinctively-marked fish is the only member of its genus Rhincodon and its family, Rhincodontidae (called Rhiniodon and Rhinodontidae before 1984), which belongs to the subclass Elasmobranchii in the class Chondrichthyes. The species originated about 60 million years ago. [more]

Rhinesuchidae

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Rhineuridae

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Rhinidae

The bowmouth guitarfish, mud skate, or shark ray (Rhina ancylostoma, sometimes misgendered ancylostomus) is a species of ray related to guitarfishes and skates, and the sole member of the family Rhinidae. It is found widely in the tropical coastal waters of the Indo-Pacific region, at depths of up to 90 m (300 ft). Highly distinctive in appearance, the bowmouth guitarfish has a wide, thick body with a blunt snout and large, shark-like dorsal and tail fins. The line of its mouth is strongly undulating, and there are multiple thorny ridges over its head and back. It has dorsal color pattern of many white spots over a bluish gray to brown background, with a pair of prominent markings over the pectoral fins. This large species can grow to 2.7 m (8.9 ft) long and 135 kg (300 lb). [more]

Rhinobatidae

The guitarfish are a family, Rhinobatidae, of rays. The guitarfish are known for an elongated body with a flattened head and trunk and small ray like wings. The combined range of the various species is tropical, subtropical and temperate waters worldwide. They often travel in large schools. [more]

Rhinocerotidae

Rhinoceros (pronounced ), often abbreviated as rhino, is a group of five extant species of knee-less, odd-toed ungulates in the family Rhinocerotidae. Two of these species are native to Africa and three to southern Asia. [more]

Rhinochimaeridae

Rhinochimaeridae, commonly known as long-nosed chimaeras, is a family of cartilaginous fish. They are similar in form and habits to other chimaeras, but have an exceptionally long, conical or paddle-shaped, snout. The snout has numerous sensory nerve endings, and is used to find food such as small fish. The first dorsal fin includes a mildly poisonous spine, used in defence. [more]

Rhinocryptidae

The tapaculos are a group of small suboscine passeriform birds with numerous species, found mainly in South America and with the highest diversity in the Andean regions. Three species, the Choco, the Pale-throated and the Silvery-fronted Tapaculo, are found in southern Central America. [more]

Rhinodermatidae

Rhinodermatidae are a family of small frogs found on the south-west coast of South America. There is only one genus (Rhinoderma), with just two species, of which the Chile Darwin's Frog (R. rufum) is highly endangered or may already be extinct. The better known Darwin's Frog (R. darwinii) is vulnerable. [more]

Rhinolophidae

Horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae) are a family of bats. In addition to the single living genus, Rhinolophus, there is one extinct genus, . The closely related Hipposideridae are sometimes included within the horseshoe bats as a subfamily, Hipposiderinae. Both families are classified in the suborder Yinpterochiroptera or Pteropodiformes and were previously included in Microchiroptera. [more]

Rhinophrynidae

The Mexican Burrowing Toad (Rhinophrynus dorsalis) is the only species in the genus Rhinophrynus and the family Rhinophrynidae of order Anura. These frogs live from the southern Texas through Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador to Nicaragua and Costa Rica. The family was once more widespread, including species ranging as far north as Canada, but these died out in the Oligocene. [more]

Rhinopomastidae

Scimitarbills (also spelt Scimitar-bills) are three species of African bird belonging to the genus Rhinopomastus. They are often classified in the woodhoopoe family Phoeniculidae; however, genetic studies show that they diverged from the true woodhoopoes about 10 million years ago and so they are sometimes placed in a family of their own, the Rhinopomastidae. [more]

Rhinopomatidae

Mouse-tailed bats are a group of insectivorous bats of the family Rhinopomatidae with only three to five species, all contained in the single genus Rhinopoma. They are found in the Old World, from North Africa to Thailand and Sumatra, in arid and semi-arid regions, roosting in caves, houses and even the Egyptian pyramids. They are relatively small, with a body length of just 5 to 6 centimetres. They weigh between 6 to 14 g. [more]

Rhinopteridae

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Rhipiduridae

Fantails are small insectivorous birds of southern Asia and Australasia belonging to the genus Rhipidura in the family Rhipiduridae. Most of the species are about 15 to 18 cm long, specialist aerial feeders, and named as "fantails", but the Australian Willie Wagtail, is a little larger, and though still an expert hunter of insects on the wing, concentrates equally on terrestrial prey. [more]

Rhizodontidae

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Rhizodopsidae

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Rhizomyidae

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Rhizospalacidae

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Rhomaleosauridae

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Rhombosoleidae

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Rhyacichthyidae

The family Rhyacichthyidae, or loach gobies is a small family of perciform fish that consists of two genera and three species. They inhabit marine and fresh water in Oceania and the eastern Pacific. [more]

Rhyacotritonidae

The torrent salamanders or Cascade salamanders are a family (Rhyacotritonidae) with only one genus (Rhyacotriton) of salamanders. Originally the genus Rhyacotriton was placed in the family Ambystomatidae, later in the family Dicamptodontidae, and finally in 1992 it was placed into a family of its own. At the same time the only species Rhyacotriton olympicus was split into four species due to genetic analysis. The torrent salamanders are limited to the western USA, namely the states California, Oregon, and Washington. [more]

Rhynchobatidae

Rhynchobatus is a group of rays commonly known as wedgefishes, and the sole genus in the family Rhynchobatidae. They are found in the tropical and subtropical Indo-Pacific with a single species in the eastern Atlantic. All species in this genus are assessed as Vulnerable or Endangered by IUCN. [more]

Rhynchocetidae

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Rhynchodipteridae

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Rhyncholepididae

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Rhynchosauridae

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Rhynochetidae

The Kagu or Cagou (Rhynochetos jubatus) is a crested, long-legged, and bluish-grey bird endemic to the dense mountain forests of New Caledonia. It is the only surviving member of the genus Rhynochetos and the family Rhynochetidae, although a second species has been described from the fossil record. Measuring 55 cm (22 in) in length, it has pale grey plumage and bright red legs. Its 'nasal corns' are a unique feature not shared with any other bird. Almost flightless, it a spends its time on or near the ground, where it hunts its invertebrate prey, and builds a nest of sticks on the forest floor. Both parents share incubation of single egg, as well as rearing the chick. It has proved vulnerable to introduced predators, and is threatened with extinction. [more]

Rhytidosteidae

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Rigalitidae

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Rivulidae

Rivulidae are a family of killifishes in the order Cyprinodontiformes. They are commonly known as rivulids, South American killifish or New World killifish. The latter names are slightly misleading however, as they are neither restricted to South America ? though most are in fact found there ?, nor are they the only killifishes from the Americas. Occasionally they are still referred to as rivulines, a term dating back to when they were considered a subfamily of the Aplocheilidae. [more]

Robertiidae

Pylaecephalidae is a family of dicynodont therapsids that includes Diictodon, Robertia, and Prosictodon from the Permian of South Africa. Pylaecephalids were small burrowing dicynodonts with long tusks. The family was first named in 1934 and was redefined in 2009. Diictodontidae and Robertiidae are considered junior synonyms of Pylaecephalidae. [more]

Rondeletiidae

The redmouth whalefishes are two species of deep-sea whalefishes in the genus Rondeletia, the only genus in the family Rondeletiidae. They are apparently close to the velvet whalefish (Barbourisia rufa), and apparently also to the gibberfishes (Gibberichthyidae). The latter and the Rondeletiidae are the only known living fishes which have the mysterious . [more]

Rooneyidae

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Rostratulidae

Painted-snipes are three distinctive wader species in the family Rostratulidae. The family is composed to two genera, Rostratula and Nycticryphes. The Australian Painted-snipe is often treated as a subspecies of the Greater Painted-snipe, but morphological and genetic differences have resulted in the species being split in recent years. While they superficially resemble true snipes, they are considered to be more closely related to the jacanas. [more]

Rotodactylidae

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Saccopharyngidae

Saccopharynx is a genus of deep sea eel-like fishes with large mouths, distensible stomachs and long scaleless bodies. It is the only genus in the family Saccopharyngidae. The name is from Latin saccus meaning "sack" and Greek f?????, pharynx. [more]

Sagenodontidae

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Saghatheriidae

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Sagittariidae

The Secretarybird or Secretary Bird (Sagittarius serpentarius) is a large, mostly terrestrial bird of prey. Endemic to Africa, it is usually found in the open grasslands and savannah of the sub-Sahara. Although a member of the order Accipitriformes, which also includes many other diurnal raptors such as kites, buzzards, vultures, and harriers, it is given its own family, Sagittariidae. [more]

Salamandridae

Salamandridae is a family of salamanders consisting of true salamanders and newts. Currently, 74 species (with more expected) have been identified in the northern hemisphere - Europe, Asia, the northern tip of Africa and North America. Salamandrids are distinguished from other salamanders by the lack of rib or costal grooves along the sides of the body and by their rough skin and wierd looks. [more]

Salangidae

Icefishes or noodlefishes are a family, the Salangidae, of osmeriform fish, related to the smelts. They are found in freshwater environments in Southeast Asia, although a few species are anadromous, spending most of their life in coastal waters, and only visiting fresh water to spawn. [more]

Salminopsidae

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Salmonidae

Salmonidae is a family of ray-finned fish, the only living family currently placed in the order Salmoniformes. It includes salmon, trout, chars, freshwater whitefishes and graylings. The Atlantic salmon and trout of genus Salmo give the family and order their names. [more]

Saltoposuchidae

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Samaridae

Samaridae is a family of flounders containing more than 25 species in three genera. [more]

Sanitheriidae

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Sardinioididae

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Saurerpetontidae

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Saurichthyidae

Saurichthyiformes is a group of ray-finned fish which existed in China, Europe and North America, during the late Permian to early Jurassic periods. [more]

Saurodontidae

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Saurornithoididae

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Saxicolidae

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Scaloposauridae

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Scaniornithidae

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Scapherpetontidae

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Scaphiopodidae

Scaphiopodidae is a family of American spadefoot toads. They are native to southern Canada and USA south to southern Mexico. Scaphiopodidae is a small family, comprising only seven species. [more]

Scaridae

Parrotfishes are a group of fishes that traditionally had been considered a family (Scaridae), but now often are considered a subfamily (Scarinae) of the wrasses. They are found in relatively shallow tropical and subtropical oceans throughout the world, but with the largest species richness in the Indo-Pacific. The approximately 90 species are found in coral reefs, rocky coasts and seagrass beds, and play a significant role in bioerosion. [more]

Scatophagidae

The scats are a small family, Scatophagidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. [more]

Scelidosauridae

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Scelidotheriidae

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Schilbeidae

The schilbid catfishes (Schilbeidae) are a family of catfishes native to Africa and southern Asia. These fish tend to swim in open water. [more]

Schindleriidae

Schindleria, is a genus of marine fish. It is the only genus of family Schindleriidae, among the Gobioidei of order Perciformes. The type species is S. praematura, Schindler's fish. The Schindleria species are known generically as Schindler's fishes or infantfishes. They are native to the southern Pacific Ocean, from the South China Sea to the Great Barrier Reef off eastern Australia. [more]

Sciaenidae

Sciaenidae is a family of fish commonly called drums, croakers, or hardheads for the repetitive throbbing or drumming sounds they make. The family includes the weakfish, and consists of about 275 species in about 70 genera; it belongs to the order Perciformes. [more]

Scincidae

Skinks are lizards belonging to the family Scincidae. Together with several other lizard families, including Lacertidae (the "true" or wall lizards), they comprise the superfamily or infraorder Scincomorpha. With about 1200 described species, the Scincidae are the second most diverse family of lizards, exceeded only by the Gekkonidae (or geckos). [more]

Scincosauridae

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Sciuravidae

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Sciuridae

Squirrels belong to a large family of small or medium-sized rodents called the Sciuridae. The family includes tree squirrels, ground squirrels, chipmunks, marmots (including woodchucks), flying squirrels, and prairie dogs. Squirrels are indigenous to the Americas, Eurasia, and Africa, and have been introduced to Australia. The earliest known squirrels date from the Eocene and are most closely related to the mountain beaver and to the dormouse among living species. [more]

Sclerocalyptidae

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Scleromochlidae

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Sclerorhynchidae

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Scolecomorphidae

Scolecomorphidae is the family of tropical caecilians (Frost) or African caecilians (ITIS). They are found in Cameroon in west Africa, and Malawi and Tanzania in east Africa. Caecilians are legless amphibians which superficially resemble worms or snakes. [more]

Scolopacidae

The sandpipers are a large family, Scolopacidae, of waders or shorebirds. They include many species called sandpipers, as well as those called by names such as curlew and snipe. The majority of these species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Different lengths of bills enable different species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food. [more]

Scoloplacidae

Scoloplax is the only genus in the catfish (order Siluriformes) family Scoloplacidae, the spiny dwarf catfishes. It includes five species, S. baskini, S. dicra, S. distolothrix, S. dolicholophia, and S. empousa. Scoloplacidae is the second-most recent family of catfish to be "discovered"; the first species was not described until 1976. The most recent family is Lacantuniidae, described in 2005. [more]

Scomberesocidae

Sauries are fish of the family Scomberesocidae. There are two genera, each containing two species. The name Scomberesocidae is derived from the Greek, skombros = tuna/mackerel, and esox = nursery of salmon. [more]

Scombridae

Scombridae is the family of the mackerels, tunas, and bonitos, and thus includes many of the most important and familiar food fishes. The family consists of about 55 species in 15 genera and two subfamilies. All species are Scombrinae, except Butterfly kingfish - which is the sole member of subfamily Gasterochismatinae. [more]

Scombrolabracidae

The longfin escolar, Scombrolabrax heterolepis, also known as the black mackerel, is a widespread but uncommon deep sea fish that presents some difficulties for taxonomy. [more]

Scombropidae

The gnomefishes are a small family Scombropidae of marine fish, consisting of three species in the genus Scombrops. [more]

Scopelarchidae

The pearleyes are a family, Scopelarchidae, of aulopiform fishes, distinguished by their unique visual system, with two retinas in each eye. [more]

Scopelosauridae

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Scophthalmidae

Scophthalmidae is a family of flatfish which includes the turbot. It contains ten species in four genera. [more]

Scopidae

The Hamerkop (Scopus umbretta), also known as Hammerkop, Hammerkopf, Hammerhead, Hammerhead Stork, Umbrette, Umber Bird, Tufted Umber, or Anvilhead, is a medium-sized wading bird (56 cm long, weighing 470 g). The shape of its head with a curved bill and crest at the back is reminiscent of a hammer, hence its name. [more]

Scorpaeinidae

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Scorpaenidae

Scorpaenidae, the scorpionfish, are a family of mostly marine fish that includes many of the world's most venomous species. As the name suggests, scorpionfish have a type of "sting" in the form of sharp spines coated with venomous mucus. The family is a large one, with hundreds of members. They are widespread in tropical and temperate seas, but mostly found in the Indo-Pacific. They should not be confused with the cabezones, of the genus Scorpaenichthys, which belong to a separate, though related family, Cottidae. [more]

Scyliorhinidae

Catsharks are ground sharks of the family Scyliorhinidae, with over 150 known species. While they are generally known as catsharks, many species are commonly called dogfish. [more]

Scytalinidae

The Graveldivers (Scytalina cerdale) are perciform fish in the genus Scytalina, and the only species in the family Scytalinidae. Graveldivers are small, with a snake-like head (hence the generic name). The body is compact, and lacks pelvic fins, with very small pectoral fins. Their range encompasses the coastal area from the Bering Sea to central California. [more]

Sebastidae

Sebastidae is a family of marine fish in the order Scorpaeniformes. Their common names include rockfishes, thornyheads and rockcods. Despite the latter name, they are not closely related to the cods in the genus Gadus, nor the rock cod, Lotella rhacina. [more]

Sebecidae

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Segnosauridae

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Selenichnidae

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Semionotidae

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Serranidae

Serranidae is a large family of fishes, belonging to the order Perciformes. The family contains about 450 species of serranids in 64 genera, including the sea basses and the groupers (subfamily Epinephelinae). They range in size from the belted sandfish (Serranus subligarius), which grows to 110 mm (4.33 in), up to the itajara (Epinephelus itajara), which grows to 2.4 m (94.5 in) and weighs up to 300 kg (660 lb). [more]

Serrilepidae

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Serrivomeridae

Sawtooth eels are a family, Serrivomeridae, of eels found in temperate and tropical seas worldwide. [more]

Sespedectidae

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Setarchidae

Setarchidae is a small family of scorpionfishes. [more]

Seymouriidae

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Shartegosuchidae

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Shastasauridae

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Shuotheriidae

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Siganidae

Rabbitfishes or spinefoots are perciform fishes in the family Siganidae. The 28 species are in a single genus, Siganus. In some now obsolete classifications, the species having prominent face stripes?colloquially called foxfaces?are in the genus Lo. Other species like the Masked Spinefoot (S. puellus) show a reduced form of the stripe pattern. Rabbitfishes are found in shallow lagoons in the Indo-Pacific and eastern Mediterranean. [more]

Sillaginidae

The Sillaginidae, commonly known as the smelt-whitings, whitings, sillaginids, sand borers and sand-smelts, are a family of benthic coastal marine fishes in the order Perciformes. The smelt-whitings inhabit a wide region covering much of the Indo-Pacific, from the west coast of Africa east to Japan and south to Australia. The family comprises only three genera and thirty one species, of which a number are dubious, with the last major revision of the family in 1992 unable to confirm the validity of a number of species. They are elongate, slightly compressed fish often light brown to silver in color with a variety of markings and patterns on their upper body. The Sillaginidae are not related to a number of fishes commonly called 'whiting' in the Northern Hemisphere, including the fish originally called whiting, Merlangius merlangus. [more]

Sillustaniidae

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Siluridae

Siluridae is a family of catfish (order Siluriformes). There are about 100 living species of silurids. [more]

Simimyidae

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Simocetidae

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Simoedosauridae

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Simoliophiidae

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Simosauridae

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Sinamiidae

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Sinemydidae

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Sinoconodontidae

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Sinraptoridae

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Sirenidae

Sirenidae, the sirens, is a family of aquatic salamanders. Family members have very small forelimbs, and lack hind limbs altogether. In one species, the skeleton in their forelimbs is made of only cartilage. In contrast to most other salamanders, they have external gills bunched together on the neck in both larval and adult states. Sirens are found only in the southeastern United States and northern Mexico. [more]

Sisoridae

Sisoridae is a family of catfishes (order Siluriformes). These Asian catfish live in fast-moving waters and often have adaptations that allow them to adhere to objects in their habitat. [more]

Sittidae

The nuthatches are a genus, Sitta, of small passerine birds belonging to the family Sittidae. Characterised by large heads, short tails, and powerful bills and feet, nuthatches advertise their territory using loud, simple songs. Most species exhibit grey or bluish upperparts and a black eye stripe. [more]

Sloanbaataridae

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Soleidae

The true soles are a family, Soleidae, of flatfishes, and include species that live in salt water and fresh water. They are bottom-dwelling fishes feeding on small crustaceans and other invertebrates. Other flatfishes are also known as soles. [more]

Solemydidae

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Solenodontidae

Solenodons (meaning "slotted-tooth") are venomous, nocturnal, burrowing, insectivorous mammals belonging to the family Solenodontidae. Only one genus, Solenodon, is known, although a few other genera were erected at one time and are now regarded as junior synonyms. Solenodontidae is interesting to phylogenetics researchers because of its retention of primitive mammal characteristics; their species resemble very closely those that lived near the end of the age of the dinosaurs. They are one of two families of Caribbean soricomorphs; it is uncertain whether the other family, Nesophontidae, which went extinct during the Holocene, was closely related to solenodons. [more]

Solenostomidae

The ghost pipefishes (also called false pipefishes or tubemouth fishes) are a small family Solenostomidae in the order Syngnathiformes. The family consists of just a single genus, Solenostomus, with five species. Ghostpipefishes are related to pipefishes and seahorses. They are found in tropical waters of the Indian Ocean, from Asia to Africa. [more]

Somniosidae

Somniosidae is a family of sharks in the order Squaliformes, commonly known as sleeper sharks. [more]

Somnosidae

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Songzidae

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Sooglossidae

The Seychelles frogs (Sooglossidae) are a family of frogs found on the Seychelles Islands and India. Until recently this family was believed to include the genera Nesomantis and Sooglossus, but following a major revision of amphibians in 2006 the genus Nesomantis was named a junior synonym of Sooglossus; conversely, the recently-discovered purple frog which was initially assigned to a distinct monotypic family (Nasikabatrachidae) is now included in the Sooglossidae. [more]

Sophiornithidae

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Soricidae

A shrew or shrew mouse (family Soricidae) is a small molelike mammal classified in the order Soricomorpha. True shrews are also not to be confused with West Indies shrews, treeshrews, otter shrews, or elephant shrews, which belong to different families or orders. [more]

Spalacidae

The Spalacidae, or spalacids are a family of rodents in the large and complex superfamily Muroidea. They are native to eastern Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, and south-eastern Europe. It includes the blind mole rats, bamboo rats, root rats, and zokors. This family represents the oldest split (excluding perhaps the Platacanthomyinae) in the muroid superfamily, and comprises animals adapted to a way of life. It was thought that these rodents evolved adaptations to living underground independently until recent genetic studies demonstrated that they form a monophyletic group. Members of the Spalacidae are often placed in the family Muridae along with all other members of the Muroidea. [more]

Spalacotheriidae

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Sparassocynidae

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Sparidae

The Sparidae is a family of fish, included in the order Perciformes. The fish of the family are commonly called sea breams and porgies (North America). The sheepshead, scup, and red sea bream are species in this family. They are found in shallow temperate and tropical waters and are bottom-dwelling carnivores. Most species possess grinding, molar-like teeth. Some of the species, such as Polysteganus undulosus, have been subject to overfishing, or exploitation beyond sustainable recovery. [more]

Sparnotheriodontidae

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Spathicephalidae

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Spathognathodontidae

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Sphagesauridae

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Sphenacodontidae

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Spheniscidae

Penguins (order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are a group of aquatic, flightless birds living almost exclusively in the southern hemisphere, especially in Antarctica. Highly adapted for life in the water, penguins have countershaded dark and white plumage, and their wings have become flippers. Most penguins feed on krill, fish, squid, and other forms of sealife caught while swimming underwater. They spend about half of their lives on land and half in the oceans. [more]

Sphenocephalidae

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Sphenodontidae

[more]

Sphenosuchidae

[more]

Spheroolithidae

[more]

Sphyraenidae

The barracuda is a ray-finned fish known for its large size and fearsome appearance. Its body is long, fairly compressed, and covered with small, smooth scales. Some species can reach up to 1.8m in length and 30 cm in width. The barracuda is a salt water fish of the genus Sphyraena, the only genus in the family Sphyraenidae, and is found in tropical and subtropical oceans worldwide. [more]

Sphyrnidae

The hammerhead sharks are a group of sharks in the family Sphyrnidae, so named for the unusual and distinctive structure of their heads, which are flattened and laterally extended into a "hammer" shape called a "cephalofoil". Most hammerhead species are placed in the genus Sphyrna while the winghead shark is placed in its own genus, Eusphyra. Many, not necessarily mutually exclusive, functions have been proposed for the cephalofoil, including sensory reception, maneuvering, and prey manipulation. Hammerheads are found worldwide in warmer waters along coastlines and continental shelves. Unlike most sharks, hammerheads usually swim in schools during the day, becoming solitary hunters at night. Some of these schools can be found near Malpelo Island in Colombia, Cocos Island, off Costa Rica, and near Molokai Island, in Hawaii. Large schools are also seen in southern and eastern Africa. [more]

Spinosauridae

[more]

Squalidae

Squalidae is the family of dogfish sharks. They are found in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans, from tropical equatorial climates to the Arctic and Antarctic. [more]

Squalodelphinidae

[more]

Squalodontidae

[more]

Squalorajidae

[more]

Squatinactidae

[more]

Squatinidae

The angel sharks are an unusual genus of sharks with flattened bodies and broad pectoral fins that give them a strong resemblance to rays. The more than 16 known species are in the genus Squatina, the only genus in its family, Squatinidae, and order Squatiniformes. They occur worldwide in temperate and tropical seas. Most species inhabit shallow temperate or tropical seas, but one species inhabits deeper water, down to 1,300 metres (4,300 ft). [more]

Stagodontidae

[more]

Stagonolepididae

[more]

Steatornithidae

The Oilbird (Steatornis caripensis), locally known as the gu?charo, is a bird found in the northern areas of South America (including the island of Trinidad in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago). They are nocturnal feeders on the fruits of the Oil Palm and tropical laurels, and are the only nocturnal fruit eating birds in the world. They forage at night, navigating by echolocation in the same way as bats, but with a high-pitched clicking sound audible to humans. [more]

Stegodontidae

[more]

Stegosauridae

[more]

Stegostomatidae

The zebra shark (Stegostoma fasciatum or varium) is a species of carpet shark and the sole member of the family Stegostomatidae. It is found throughout the tropical Indo-Pacific, frequenting coral reefs and sandy flats to a depth of 62 m (210 ft). Adult zebra sharks are distinctive in appearance, with five longitudinal ridges on a cylindrical body, a low caudal fin comprising nearly half the total length, and a pattern of dark spots on a pale background. Young zebra sharks under 50?90 cm (20?35 in) long have a completely different pattern, consisting of light vertical stripes on a brown background, and lack the ridges. This species attains a length of 2.5 m (8.2 ft). [more]

Stegostomidae

[more]

Stegotrachelidae

[more]

Stenopterygiidae

[more]

Stephanoberycidae

Pricklefishes are a family, Stephanoberycidae, of fishes in the order Stephanoberyciformes. [more]

Stercorariidae

The skuas () are a group of seabirds with about seven species forming the family Stercorariidae and the genus Stercorarius. The three smaller skuas are called jaegers in the Americas. [more]

Sternbergiidae

[more]

Sternoptychidae

The marine hatchetfishes or deep-sea hatchetfishes as well as the related bottlelights, pearlsides and constellationfishes are small deep-sea bathypelagic ray-finned fish of the stomiiform family Sternoptychidae. They should not be confused with the freshwater hatchetfishes, which are not particularly closely related Teleostei in the characiform family Gasteropelecidae. The Sternoptychidae have 10 genera and about 70 species altogether. [more]

Sternopygidae

Glass knifefishes are fishes in the family Sternopygidae in the order Gymnotiformes. Species are also known as rattail knifefishes. [more]

Stethacanthidae

[more]

Stichaeidae

The pricklebacks (also known as shannies) are a family, Stichaeidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. [more]

Stichocentridae

[more]

Stomatosuchidae

[more]

Stomiidae

Stomiidae is a family of deep-sea ray-finned fish, including the barbeled dragonfishes, stareaters and loosejaws. [more]

Strigidae

[more]

Stromateidae

The family Stromateidae of butterfishes contains 17 species of fish in three genera. Butterfishes live in coastal waters off the Americas, western Africa and in the Indo-Pacific. [more]

Struthionidae

Struthio is a genus of bird in the order Struthioniformes. [more]

Sturnidae

Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds in the family Sturnidae. The name "Sturnidae" comes from the Latin word for starling, sturnus. Many Asian species, particularly the larger ones, are called mynas, and many African species are known as glossy starlings because of their iridescent plumage. Starlings occur naturally in the Old World, from Europe, Asia and Africa, to northern Australia and the islands of the tropical Pacific. Several European and Asian species have been introduced to these areas as well as North America, Hawaii and New Zealand, where they generally compete for habitat with native birds and are considered to be invasive species. The starling species familiar to most people in Europe and North America is the European Starling, and throughout much of Asia and the Pacific the Common Myna is indeed common. [more]

Stylephoridae

The tube-eye or thread-tail, Stylephorus chordatus, is a deep-sea fish, the only fish in the genus Stylephorus and family Stylephoridae. [more]

Stylinodontidae

[more]

Sudamericidae

[more]

Suidae

Suidae is the biological family to which pigs belong. In addition to numerous fossil species, up to sixteen extant species are currently recognized, classified into between four and eight genera. The family includes the domestic pig, Sus scrofa domesticus or Sus domesticus, in addition to numerous species of wild pig, such as the babirusa Babyrousa babyrussa and the warthog Phacochoerus aethiopicus. All suids are native to the Old World, ranging from Asia and its islands, to Europe, and Africa. [more]

Sulidae

The bird family Sulidae comprises the gannets and boobies. Collectively called sulids, they are medium-large coastal seabirds that plunge-dive for fish and similar prey. The ten species in this family are often considered congeneric in older sources, placing all in the genus Sula. However, Sula (true boobies) and Morus (gannets) can be readily distinguished by morphological and behavioral and DNA sequence characters. Abbott's Booby (Papasula) is given its own genus as it stands apart from both in these respects. It appears to be a distinct and ancient lineage, maybe closer to the gannets than to the true boobies. [more]

Sundasalangidae

Sundasalanx, the Sundaland noodlefishes, is the only genus in the family Sundasalangidae which belongs to the same order as the herrings and their relatives. This family of extremely small fishes is restricted to freshwater environments of Southeast Asia with Indonesia being home to the majority of species. There are currently seven recognized species in this genus. [more]

Sylphornithidae

[more]

Sylviidae

Sylviidae is a family of passerine birds that was part of an assemblage known as the Old World warblers. The family was formerly a wastebin taxon with over 400 species of bird in over 70 genera. The family was poorly defined with many characteristics shared with other families. Advances in classification, particularly helped with molecular data, have led to the splitting out of several new families from within this group. Today the smaller family Sylviidae includes the typical warblers in the genus Sylvia, the parrotbills of Asia (formerly a separate family Paradoxornithidae), a number of babblers formerly placed within the family Timaliidae (which is itself currently being split) and the Wrentit, an unusual North American bird that has been a longstanding taxonomic mystery. [more]

Symmoriidae

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Symphysanodontidae

The Symphysanodontidae are a family of small marine fishes. The family Symphysanodontidae comprises only the genus Symphysanodon. They occur in the Indo-Pacific and . [more]

Synanceidae

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Synanceiidae

Synanceiidae is a family of Actinopterygii, ray-finned fish, found in the Indo-Pacific oceans. They are primarily marine, though some species are known to live in fresh or brackish waters. The various species of this family are known informally as stonefish, stinger, stingfish and ghouls. The most prominent genus of the family is Synanceia Bloch & Schneider, which is sometimes placed in the Scorpaenidae family. Its species are known to have the most potent neurotoxins of all the fish venoms, secreted from glands at the base of their needle-like dorsal fin spines. The vernacular name of the species derives from their behaviour of camouflaging as rocks. The type species of the family is the stonefish, Synanceia verrucosa. [more]

Synaphobranchidae

Cutthroat eels are a family, Synaphobranchidae, of eels, the only member of the suborder Synaphobranchoidei. They are found worldwide in temperate and tropical seas. [more]

Synbranchidae

The swamp eels (also written "swamp-eels") are a family (Synbranchidae) of freshwater eel-like fishes of the worldwide tropics. [more]

Syngnathidae

Syngnathidae is a family of fish which includes the seahorses, the pipefishes, and the weedy and leafy sea dragons. The name is derived from Greek, meaning "fused jaw" - syn meaning fused or together, and gnathus meaning jaws. This fused jaw trait is something the entire family has in common. [more]

Synodontidae

The Lizardfishes (or typical lizardfishes to distinguish them from the Bathysauridae and Pseudotrichonotidae) are a family, the Synodontidae, of aulopiform fish. They are found in tropical and subtropical marine waters throughout the world. [more]

Tachyglossidae

Echidnas (), also known as spiny anteaters, belong to the family Tachyglossidae in the monotreme order of egg-laying mammals. There are four extant species, which, together with the platypus, are the only surviving members of that order and are the only extant mammals that lay eggs. Although their diet consists largely of ants and termites, they are no more closely related to the true anteaters of the Americas than to any other placental mammal. They live in Australia and New Guinea. The echidnas are named after a monster in ancient Greek mythology. [more]

Taeniolabididae

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Talpidae

The family Talpidae includes the moles, shrew moles, desmans, and other intermediate forms of small insectivorous mammals of the order Soricomorpha. Talpids are all digging animals to various degrees: moles are completely subterranean animals; shew-moles and shrew-like moles somewhat less so; and desmans, while basically aquatic, excavate dry sleeping chambers; whilst the quite unique star-nosed mole is equally adept in the water and underground. Talpids are found across the northern hemisphere and SouthernAsia, Europe, and North America, although there are none in Ireland nor anywhere in the Americas south of northern Mexico. [more]

Tangasauridae

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Tanystropheidae

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Tapejaridae

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Tapinocephalidae

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Tapiridae

A tapir ( TAY-p?r or /t?'p??r/ t?-PEER) is a large browsing mammal, similar in shape to a pig, with a short, prehensile snout. Tapirs inhabit jungle and forest regions of South America, Central America, and Southeast Asia. The four species of tapirs are: the Brazilian tapir, the Malayan tapir, Baird's tapir and the mountain tapir. All four are classified as endangered or vulnerable. Their closest relatives are the other odd-toed ungulates, including horses and rhinoceroses. [more]

Tarsiidae

Tarsiers are haplorrhine primates of the family Tarsiidae, which is itself the lone extant family within the infraorder Tarsiiformes. Although the group was once more widespread, all the species living today are found in the islands of Southeast Asia. [more]

Tarsipedidae

The honey possum (Tarsipes rostratus) or tait, its Native Australian name or noolbenger is a tiny Australian marsupial weighing just seven to eleven grams for the male, and eight to sixteen grams for the female?about half the weight of a mouse. Their physical size ranges from a body length of between 6.5 ? 9 cm. They have a typical lifespan of between one and two years. [more]

Tayassuidae

A peccary (plural peccaries; also javelina and skunk pig; Portuguese javali and Spanish jabal?, sajino or pecar?) is a medium-sized mammal of the family Tayassuidae, or New World pigs. Peccaries are members of the artiodactyl suborder Suina, as are the pig family (Suidae) and possibly the hippopotamus family (Hippopotamidae). They are found in the southwestern area of North America and throughout Central and South America. Peccaries usually measure between 90 and 130 centimetres (3.0 and 4.3 ft) in length, and a full-grown adult usually weighs between about 20 to 40 kilograms (44 to 88 lb). The word ?peccary? is derived from the Carib word pakira or paquira. [more]

Teidae

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Teiidae

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Teleosauridae

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Telmabatidae

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Telmatherinidae

The Sail-fin silversides are a family of atheriniform fish, the Telmatherinidae, inhabiting fresh and brackish water . All but one species are restricted to the island of Sulawesi, and most are found solely in the of that island. [more]

Telmatornithidae

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Tenrecidae

Tenrecidae (common name tenrecs) is a family of mammals found on Madagascar and parts of Africa. Tenrecs are widely diverse, resembling hedgehogs, shrews, opossums, mice and even otters, as a result of convergent evolution. They occupy aquatic, arboreal, terrestrial and fossorial environments. Some of these species can be found in the Madagascar dry deciduous forests, including the greater hedgehog tenrec. [more]

Teraponidae

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Terapontidae

Grunters or tigerperches are fishes in the family Terapontidae (also spelled Teraponidae, Theraponidae or Therapontidae). They are found in shallow coastal waters in the Indian Ocean and western Pacific, where they live in saltwater, brackish and freshwater habitats. They grow up to 80 cm in length and feed on fishes, insects and other invertebrates. [more]

Teratornithidae

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Testudinidae

Tortoises (, Testudinidae) are a family of land-dwelling reptiles of the order of turtles (Testudines). Like their marine cousins, the sea turtles, tortoises are shielded from predators by a shell. The top part of the shell is the carapace, the underside is the plastron, and the two are connected by the bridge. The tortoise has both an endoskeleton and an exoskeleton. Tortoises can vary in size from a few centimeters to two meters. Tortoises are usually diurnal animals with tendencies to be crepuscular depending on the ambient temperatures. They are generally reclusive animals. [more]

Tetrabrachiidae

The four-armed frogfish, Tetrabrachium ocellatum, is a species of anglerfish, closely related to the true frogfishes. It is the only member of its family, the Tetrabrachiidae. [more]

Tetragonuridae

The squaretails are a genus, Tetragonurus, of perciform fishes, the only genus in the family Tetragonuridae. [more]

Tetraodontidae

Tetraodontidae is a family of primarily marine and estuarine fish of the Tetraodontiformes order. The family includes many familiar species, which are variously called pufferfish, balloonfish, blowfish, bubblefish, globefish, swellfish, toadfish, toadies, honey toads, sugar toads, and sea squab. They are morphologically similar to the closely related porcupinefish, which have large external spines (unlike the thinner, hidden spines of Tetraodontidae, which are only visible when the fish has puffed up). The scientific name refers to the four large teeth, fused into an upper and lower plate, which are used for crushing the shells of crustaceans and mollusks, their natural prey. [more]

Tetraonidae

Grouse () are a group of birds from the order Galliformes. They are sometimes considered a family Tetraonidae, though the American Ornithologists' Union and many others include grouse as a subfamily Tetraoninae in the family Phasianidae. Grouse inhabit temperate and subarctic regions of the northern hemisphere, from pine forests to moorland and mountainside, from 83? North (Rock Ptarmigan in northern Greenland) to 28? North (Attwater's Prairie Chicken in Texas). Presumably they evolved in this zone. [more]

Tetrapodosauridae

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Tetrarogidae

The waspfishes are a family, the Tetrarogidae, of scorpaeniform fishes native to the Indian Ocean and the West Pacific. They are closely related to the scorpionfishes. As their name suggests, waspfishes are often venomous. They are bottom-dwelling fish, living at depths of up to 300 metres (980 ft). [more]

Thalattosauridae

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Thamnophilidae

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Thaumatichthyidae

Thaumatichthyidae is a small family deep-sea anglerfishes, containing two genera and eight species found in all oceans. They are commonly known as wonderfish (a literal translation of Thaumatichthys) or wolftrap anglers, because of their distinctive upper jaws with movable premaxillaries that can be lowered to form a cage-like trap around the much shorter lower jaw. They are related to (and were formerly placed within) the Oneirodidae. [more]

Thecodontosauridae

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Theridomyidae

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Therioherpetontidae

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Therizinosauridae

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Theroteinidae

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Thescelosauridae

[more]

Thinocoridae

The seedsnipes are a small family, Thinocoridae, of small gregarious waders which have adapted to a herbivorous diet. The family is divided into two genera, Attagis and Thinocorus, each containing two species. The family has a South American distribution, in the Andean and Patagonian regions. The relationships with other families within the order Charadriiformes are uncertain, it has been suggested that the Plains Wanderer of Australia, the jacanas and the painted snipes are their closest relatives. The Plains Wanderer in particular has a similar feeding ecology, although differs markedly in breeding biology. The family's common name is misleading, as they do not resemble true snipe, having short bills on small heads, and seeds do not form a major part of the diet. [more]

Thraupidae

The tanagers (sg. ) comprise the bird family Thraupidae, in the order Passeriformes. The family has an American distribution. [more]

Threskiornithidae

The family Threskiornithidae includes 34 species of large wading birds. The family has been traditionally classified into two subfamilies, the ibises and the spoonbills, however recent genetic studies are casting doubt on the arrangement, and revealing the spoonbills to be nested within the old world ibises, and the new world ibises as an early offshoot. [more]

Thryonomyidae

The genus Thryonomys, also known as cane rats, grass cutters, or cutting grass, is a genus of rodent found throughout Africa south of the Sahara, the only members of the family Thryonomyidae. They are eaten in some African countries and are a pest species on many crops. [more]

Thryptodontidae

[more]

Thylacinidae

The animals in the Thylacinidae family were all carnivorous marsupials from the order Dasyuromorphia. The only recent member was the Thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus), which became extinct in 1936. The other animals in the group all lived in prehistoric times in Australia. [more]

Thylacoleonidae

[more]

Thylacomyidae

Bilbies are desert-dwelling marsupial omnivores; they are members of the order Peramelemorphia. Before European colonisation of Australia, there were two species. One became extinct in the 1950s; the other survives but remains endangered. [more]

Thyropteridae

Disc-winged bats are a small group of bats of the family Thyropteridae. They are found in Central and South America, usually in moist tropical rain forests. It is a very small family, consisting of a single genus with four species. [more]

Tillotheriidae

[more]

Timaliidae

The Old World babblers or timaliids are a large family of mostly Old World passerine birds. They are rather diverse in size and coloration, but are characterised by soft fluffy plumage. These are birds of tropical areas, with the greatest variety in Southeast Asia and the Indian Subcontinent. The timaliids are one of two unrelated groups of birds known as babblers, the other being the Australasian Babblers of the family Pomatostomidae (also known as pseudo-babblers). [more]

Tinamidae

The tinamous are a family comprising 47 species of birds found in Central and South America. One of the most ancient living groups of bird, they are related to the ratites. Generally ground dwelling, they are found in a range of habitats. [more]

Tinodontidae

[more]

Titanoideidae

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Titanosauridae

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Titanosuchidae

[more]

Todidae

The todies are a family, Todidae, of Caribbean birds in the order Coraciiformes, which also includes the kingfishers, bee-eaters and rollers. The family has one genus, Todus. These are small near passerine species of forests of the Greater Antilles: Puerto Rico, Jamaica, and Cuba with adjacent islands have one species each, and Hispaniola has two, the Broad-billed Tody in the lowlands (including Gon?ve Island) and the Narrow-billed Tody in the highlands. [more]

Tomistomidae

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Tomognathidae

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Torotigidae

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Torpedinidae

Torpedo is a genus of rays, commonly known as electric rays, torpedo rays, or torpedoes. It is the sole genus of the family Torpedinidae. They are slow-moving bottom-dwellers capable of generating electricity as a defense and feeding mechanism. There are between fifteen and twenty-two extant species. [more]

Toxochelyidae

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Toxodontidae

Toxodontidae is an extinct family of notoungulate mammals known from the Oligocene through the Pleistocene of South America, with one genus, Mixotoxodon, also known from the Pleistocene of Central America. They somewhat resembled rhinoceroses, and had teeth with high crowns and open roots, suggesting that they often fed on tough pampas grass. However, isotopic analyses have led to the conclusion that the most recent forms were grazing and browsing generalists. [more]

Toxotidae

The archerfish (Spinner Fish or Archer Fish) are a family (Toxotidae) of fish known for their habit of preying on land based insects and other small animals by literally shooting them down with water droplets from their specialized mouths. The family is small, consisting of seven species in the genus Toxotes; which typically inhabit brackish waters of estuaries and mangroves, but can also be found in the open ocean as well as far upstream in fresh waterIndia to the Philippines, Australia, and Polynesia. [more]

Trachichthyidae

Slimeheads, also known as roughies and redfish, are mostly small, exceptionally long-lived, deep-sea beryciform fish constituting the family Trachichthyidae (derived from the Greek trachys ["rough"] and ichthys ["fish"]). Found in temperate to tropical waters of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Ocean, the family comprises approximately 45 species in eight genera. Slimeheads are named for the network of muciferous canals riddling their heads. [more]

Trachinidae

Weevers (or Weeverfish) are nine extant species of fish of family Trachinidae, order Perciformes. They are long (up to 37 cm), mainly brown and have poisonous spines on their first dorsal fin and gills. During the day, weevers bury themselves in sand, just showing their eyes, and snatch prey as it comes past, which consists of shrimps and small fish. Weevers are unusual in not having a swim bladder as do most bony fishes and as a result sink as soon as they stop actively swimming. With the exception of T. cornutus from the south-east Pacific, all species in this family are restricted to the eastern Atlantic (including the Mediterranean). A tenth, extinct species, speciosus, is known from the Monte Bolca lagerstatte of the Lutetian epoch. [more]

Trachipteridae

The ribbonfish are any lampriform in the family Trachipteridae. These pelagic fish are named for their slim, ribbon-like appearance. They are rarely seen alive as they typically live in deep waters (though are not bottom feeders). [more]

Tragulidae

Chevrotains, also known as mouse deer, are small ungulates that make up the family Tragulidae, the only members of the infraorder Tragulina. There are 10 living (extant) species in three genera, but there are also several species only known from fossils. The extant species are found in forests in South and Southeast Asia, with a single species in the rainforests of Central and West Africa. They are solitary or live in pairs, and feed almost exclusively on plant material. Depending on exact species, the Asian species weigh between 0.7 and 8.0 kilograms (1.5 and 18 lb), and the smallest species are also the smallest ungulates in the world. The African chevrotain is considerably larger at 7?16 kilograms (15?35 lb). [more]

Traquairiidae

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Traversodontidae

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Tregobatrachidae

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Tremataspidae

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Trematopsidae

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Trematosauridae

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Triacanthidae

Triacanthidae, commonly known as triplespines or tripodfishes, is a family of Indo-Pacific fishes. It is classified in the order Tetraodontiformes, along with the pufferfishes and the ocean sunfish. The family consists of seven species in four genera, in addition to one extinct genus. [more]

Triacanthodidae

The spikefishes (family Triacanthodidae) are ray-finned fishes related to the pufferfishes and triggerfishes. They live in deep waters, below 50 metres (160 ft), but above the continental shelves. They are found in the Atlantic, Indian Ocean, and the west-central Pacific. [more]

Triakidae

Houndsharks are a family, Triakidae, of ground sharks, consisting of about 40 species in 9 genera. In some classifications, the family is split into two sub-families, with Mustelus, Scylliogaleus, and Triakis in sub-family Triakinae, and the remaining genera in sub-family . [more]

Triassuridae

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Trichechidae

Manatees (family Trichechidae, genus Trichechus) are large, fully aquatic, mostly herbivorous marine mammals sometimes known as sea cows. There are three accepted living species of Trichechidae, representing three of the four living species in the order Sirenia: the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis), the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), and the West African manatee (Trichechus senegalensis). They measure up to 13 feet (4.0 m) long, weigh as much as 1,300 pounds (590 kg), and have paddle-like flippers. The name manat? comes from the Ta?no, a pre-Columbian people of the Caribbean, meaning "breast". [more]

Trichiuridae

The cutlassfishes are about 40 species of predatory fish in the family Trichiuridae (order Perciformes) found in seas throughout the world. Fish of this family are long, slender, and generally steely blue or silver in color, giving rise to their name. They have reduced or absent pelvic and caudal fins, giving them an eel-like appearance, and large fang-like teeth. [more]

Trichodontidae

The Trichodontidae, or sandfishes are a small perciform family of fishes that occur in the North Pacific. The family consists of two monotypic genera: [more]

Trichomycteridae

Trichomycteridae is a family of catfishes (order Siluriformes) commonly known as the pencil or parasitic catfishes. This family includes the infamous candiru fish, feared by some people for its alleged habit of entering into the urethra of humans. [more]

Trichonotidae

Trichonotus is a genus of marine perciform fishes in suborder Trachinoidei. Trichonotus is the only genus included in the family Trichonotidae. Species of Trichonotus are distributed throughout the Indo-West Pacific. The type species is Trichonotus setiger. [more]

Triconodontidae

[more]

Triglidae

Sea robins, also known as gurnard, are bottom-feeding scorpaeniform fishes in the family Triglidae. They get their name from their large pectoral fins, which, when swimming, open and close like a bird's wings in flight. [more]

Trigonodontidae

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Trigonostylopidae

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Triisodontidae

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Trilophosauridae

Trilophosaurs were lizard-like Triassic diapsid reptiles related to the archosaurs. The best known genus is Trilophosaurus, a herbivore up to 2.5 meters long. It had a short, unusually heavily-built skull, equipped with massive, broad flattened cheek teeth with sharp shearing surfaces for cutting up tough plant material. Teeth are absent from the premaxilla and front of the lower jaw, which in life were probably equipped with a horny beak. [more]

Trimerorhachidae

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Triodontidae

The threetooth puffer, Triodon macropterus, is a tetraodontiform fish, the only living species in the genus Triodon and family Triodontidae. Other members of the family are known from fossils stretching back to the Eocene. [more]

Trionychidae

Trionychidae is a taxonomic family which comprises a number of turtle genera commonly known as softshells. They are also sometimes called pancake turtles. Softshells consist of some of the world's largest fresh water turtles, though many can adapt to living in highly brackish areas. Members of this family occur in Africa, Asia, North America, and Southeast Asia. North American members of genus Trionyx were fairly recently (1987) assigned the resurrected genus name Apalone by Meylan, though they are still listed semi-correctly as Trionyx in some texts. [more]

Tripterygiidae

Threefin or triplefin blennies are blennioids, small perciform marine fish of the family Tripterygiidae. Found in tropical and temperate waters of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans, the family contains approximately 150 species in 30 genera. The family name derives from the Greek tripteros meaning "with three wings". [more]

Trisauropodiscidae

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Tristichopteridae

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Tritheledontidae

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Tritylodontidae

[more]

Trochilidae

Hummingbirds are birds that comprise the family Trochilidae. They are among the smallest of birds, most species measuring in the 7.5?13 cm (3?5 in) range. Indeed, the smallest extant bird species is a hummingbird, the 5-cm Bee Hummingbird. They can hover in mid-air by rapidly flapping their wings 12?80 times per second (depending on the species). They are also the only group of birds able to fly backwards. Their English name derives from the characteristic hum made by their rapid wing beats. They can fly at speeds exceeding 15 m/s (54 km/h; 34 mph). [more]

Troglodytidae

The wrens are passerine birds in the mainly New World family Troglodytidae. There are approximately 80 species of true wrens in approximately 20 genera. The genus eponymous of the family is Troglodytes. Only the Eurasian Wren occurs in the Old World, where in Anglophone regions it is commonly known simply as the "wren" as it is the originator of the name. The name wren has been applied to other unrelated birds, particularly the New Zealand wrens (Acanthisittidae) and the Australian wrens (Maluridae). [more]

Trogonidae

The trogons and quetzals are birds in the order Trogoniformes which contains only one family, the Trogonidae. The family contains 39 species in eight genera. The fossil record of the trogons dates back 49 million years to the mid-Eocene. They might constitute a member of the basal radiation of the order Coraciiformes. The word "trogon" is Greek for "nibbling" and refers to the fact that these birds gnaw holes in trees to make their nests. [more]

Trogonophidae

[more]

Troodontidae

[more]

Tropidophiidae

The Tropidophiinae, common name dwarf boas, are a subfamily of snakes found from Mexico and the West Indies south to southeastern Brazil. These are small to medium-sized fossorial snakes, some with beautiful and striking color patterns. Currently, 4 living genera containing 22 species and one extinct genus with one species are recognized. [more]

Tropiduridae

The Tropiduridae is a family of iguanid lizards native to South America and the West Indies. Commonly known as Neotropical ground lizards, most are ground-dwelling animals, and the family includes some lizards adapted to relatively cold climates, including those of the Andes mountains and Tierra del Fuego. Several species give birth to live young. [more]

Trudidae

[more]

Tsaganomyidae

[more]

Tulerpetontidae

[more]

Tupaiidae

Tupaiidae is one of two families of treeshrews, the other family being Ptilocercidae. It contains 4 genera and 19 species. The family name derives from "tupai", the Malay word for treeshrew and also for squirrel (which Tupaiidae superficially resemble). [more]

Tupilakosauridae

[more]

Turdidae

The thrushes, family Turdidae, are a group of passerine birds that occur worldwide. [more]

Turkmenidae

[more]

Turnagridae

The Piopio or Turnagra are a genus of two passerine birds endemic to New Zealand, both of which are now considered extinct. Sometimes described as New Zealand Thrushes, the Piopio had only a coincidental, passing resemblance to the Thrush family. Piopio have been a longstanding taxonomic mystery. They are often said to have more in common with the Bowerbird families of Australia, but differ in terms of nest construction, egg marking, and voice. A relationship has also suggested with the whistlers (Pachycephalidae). The IOC regarded this family as incertae sedis until the question is resolved whether the genus Turnagra belongs to the Ptilonorhynchidae family. The genus was finally placed in the Old World oriole family Oriolidae, possibly closely related to the figbirds within that family. The specific names of both species were based on mistakes; Turnagra capensis was so named because Anders Sparrman mixed up his specimens and thought the bird had been collected in South Africa. The North Island Turnagra tanagra was so named because it was thought to be related to the tanagers of North America. [more]

Turnicidae

Buttonquail or hemipodes are members of a small family of birds, Turnicidae, which resemble, but are unrelated to, the quails of Phasianidae. They inhabit warm grasslands in Asia, Africa, Europe, and Australia. There are 16 species in two genera, with most species being found in the genus Turnix and only one being found in the genus Ortyxelos. [more]

Typhlopidae

The Typhlopidae are a family of blind snakes. They are found mostly in the tropical regions of Africa, Asia, the Americas, and all mainland Australia and various islands. The rostral scale overhangs the mouth to form a shovel like burrowing structure. They live underground in burrows, and since they have no use for vision, their eyes are mostly vestigial. They have light-detecting black eyespots, and teeth occur in the upper jaw. The tail ends with a horn like scale. Most of these species are oviparous. Currently, 6 genera are recognized containing 203 species. [more]

Tyrannidae

The tyrant flycatchers (Tyrannidae) are a family of passerine birds which occur throughout North and South America. They are considered the largest family of birds on Earth, with more than 400 species. They are the most diverse avian family in every country in the Americas, except for the United States and Canada. As could be expected from a family this large, the members vary greatly in shape, patterns, size and colors. Some Tyrant flycatchers superficially resemble the Old World flycatchers. They are members of suborder Tyranni (suboscines) that do not have the sophisticated vocal capabilities of other songbirds. [more]

Tyrannosauridae

[more]

Tytonidae

Barn-owls (family Tytonidae) are one of the two families of owls, the other being the true owls, Strigidae. They are medium to large sized owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long, strong legs with powerful talons. They also differ from Strigidae in structural details relating in particular to the sternum and feet. [more]

Tytthostonychidae

[more]

Uintatheriidae

[more]

Umbridae

Umbridae (mudminnows) are a family of Actinopterygii, ray-finned fish, that inhabit freshwater environments in temperate regions across the northern hemisphere. They are generally small fish, with the largest species reaching 33 centimetres (13 in) in length, and most less than half that. [more]

Undetermined

[more]

Unidentified

[more]

Upupidae

The Hoopoe () (Upupa epops) is a colorful bird that is found across Afro-Eurasia, notable for its distinctive 'crown' of feathers. It is the only extant species in the family Upupidae. One insular species, the Giant Hoopoe of Saint Helena, is extinct, and the Madagascar subspecies of the Hoopoe is sometimes elevated to a full species. Like the Latin name upupa, the English name is an onomatopoetic form which imitates the cry of the bird. [more]

Uraeotyphlidae

Uraeotyphlidae is the family of Indian caecilians. It is a monotypic family containing a single genus, Uraeotyphlus. There are six species of caecilians in this genus, all of which are found in the Western Ghats in Kerala State, peninsular India. [more]

Uranolophidae

[more]

Uranoscopidae

The stargazers are a family Uranoscopidae of perciform fish that have eyes on top of their heads (hence the name). The family includes about 51 species (one extinct) in 8 genera, all marine and found worldwide in shallow waters. [more]

Urenchelyidae

[more]

Urolophidae

Urolophidae is a family of rays in the order Myliobatiformes, commonly known as stingarees or round stingrays; this family formerly included the genera Urobatis and Urotrygon of the Americas, which are presently recognized as forming their own family Urotrygonidae. Stingarees are found in the Indo-Pacific region, with the greatest diversity off Australia. They are sluggish, bottom-dwelling fish that have been recorded from shallow waters close to shore to deep waters over the upper continental slope. Measuring between 15?80 cm (5.9?31 in) long, these rays have oval to diamond-shaped pectoral fin discs and relatively short tails that terminate in leaf-shaped caudal fins, and may also have small dorsal fins and lateral skin folds. Most are smooth-skinned, and some have ornate dorsal color patterns. [more]

Uronemidae

[more]

Uropeltidae

The Uropeltidae are a family of primitive burrowing snakes endemic to southern India and Sri Lanka. The name is derived from the Greek words ura ("tail") and pelte ("shield"), indicating the presence of the large keratinous shield at the tip of the tail. Currently, 8 genera are recognized comprising 47 species. These snakes are nonvenomous. [more]

Urotrygonidae

Urotrygonidae is a family of rays in the order Myliobatiformes, commonly referred to as the American round stingrays or round rays. They are native to the tropical and warm temperate marine waters of the Americas. The two genera in this family were formerly placed within the family Urolophidae, whose species are now restricted to the Indo-Pacific. They have a round pectoral fin disk, a slender tail with a caudal fin, no dorsal fins, and a venomous tail spine. [more]

Ursidae

Bears are mammals of the family Ursidae. Bears are classified as caniforms, or doglike carnivorans, with the pinnipeds being their closest living relatives. Although there are only eight living species of bear, they are widespread, appearing in a wide variety of habitats throughout the Northern Hemisphere and partially in the Southern Hemisphere. Bears are found in the continents of North America, South America, Europe, and Asia. [more]

Uruguaysuchidae

[more]

Valenciidae

Valencia is the only genus in the family Valenciidae. Valencia is a genus of ray-finned fishes. It is sometimes grouped into the family Cyprinodontidae. [more]

Vangidae

The vangas (from vanga, Malagasy for the Hook-billed Vanga, Vanga curvirostris) are a group of little-known small to medium-sized passerine birds restricted to Madagascar and the Comoros. They are usually classified as the family Vangidae. There are about 22 species, depending on taxonomy. Most species are shrike-like, arboreal forest birds, feeding on reptiles, frogs and insects. Several other Madagascan birds more similar to Old World warblers, Old World babblers or Old world flycatchers are now often placed in this family. Vangas differ greatly in bill shape and have a variety of foraging methods. Their stick nests are built in trees. They do not migrate. [more]

Varanidae

Varanidae is a group of lizards of the superfamily Varanoidea. The family is a group of carnivorous lizards which includes the largest living lizard, the Komodo dragon, and the crocodile monitor. Varanidae contains the living genus Varanus and a number of extinct taxa. Their closest living relatives are the anguid and helodermatid lizards. [more]

Varanopseidae

[more]

Various

[more]

Vastanidae

[more]

Veliferidae

Sailfin moonfishes are a small family, Veliferidae, of lampriform fishes. They are found in the Indian and western Pacific Oceans. [more]

Venjukoviidae

[more]

Vespertilionidae

Vesper bats (family Vespertilionidae), also known as evening bats or common bats, are the largest and best-known family of bats. They belong to the suborder Microchiroptera (microbats). Over three hundred species are distributed all over the world, on every continent except Antarctica. It owes its name to the Latin word vespertilio ("bat"), from vesper, meaning "evening". [more]

Vincelestidae

[more]

Viperidae

The Viperidae are a family of venomous snakes found all over the world, except in Antarctica, Australia, Ireland, Madagascar, Hawaii, various other isolated islands, and above the Arctic Circle. All have relatively long, hinged fangs that permit deep penetration and injection of venom. Four subfamilies are currently recognized. They are commonly known as vipers or viperids. [more]

Vireonidae

The vireos () are a group of small to medium-sized passerine birds (mostly) restricted to the New World. They are typically dull-plumaged and greenish in color, the smaller species resembling wood warblers apart from their heavier bills. They range in size from the Choco Vireo, Dwarf Vireo and Lesser Greenlet, all at around 10 centimeters and 8 grams, to the peppershrikes and shrike-vireos at up to 17 centimeters and 40 grams (Forshaw & Parkes 1991). [more]

Viverravidae

[more]

Viverridae

The family Viverridae is made up of around 30 species of medium-sized mammals, the viverrids, including all of the genets, the binturong, most of the civets, and the two African linsangs. [more]

Volaticotheriidae

[more]

Vombatidae

Wombats, Australian marsupials, are short-legged, muscular quadrupeds, approximately 1 metre (39 in) in length with a short, stubby tail. They are adaptable in habitat tolerance, and are found in forested, mountainous, and heathland areas of south-eastern Australia, including Tasmania, as well as an isolated patch of about 300 ha in Epping Forest National Park in central Queensland. [more]

Vulcanodontidae

[more]

Vulturidae

[more]

Waipatiidae

[more]

Waitsiidae

[more]

Wangliidae

[more]

Weigeltisauridae

[more]

Whatcheeriidae

[more]

Woutersiidae

[more]

Wynyardiidae

[more]

Xantusiidae

Night lizards (family name Xantusiidae) are a group of very small, viviparous (live-bearing) lizards, averaging from less than 4 cm to over 12 cm long. The family has only three genera, with approximately 23 living species. The genera are divided by geographic range: Xantusia in southwestern North America and Baja California, Cricosaura in Cuba, and Lepidophyma, the most populous night lizard genus, in Central America. [more]

Xenacanthidae

[more]

Xenerodiopidae

[more]

Xenisthmidae

Collared Wrigglers are perciform fishes in the family Xenisthmidae. They are native to the Indian and Pacific oceans, where they are mostly reef-dwelling. The species is predatory and is known to be a minor threat to humans. [more]

Xenopeltidae

The Xenopeltidae are a monotypic family of snakes created to the genus Xenopeltis, which is found in Southeast Asia. Its members are known for their highly iridescent scales. Currently, two species are recognized and no subspecies. [more]

Xenosauridae

The Xenosauridae is a family of lizards native to Central America and China. Also known as knob-scaled lizards, they have rounded, bumpy scales and osteoderms. Most species prefer moist or semi-aquatic habitats, although they are widespread within their native regions, with some even inhabiting semi-arid scrub environments. They are carnivorous or insectivorous, and give birth to live young. [more]

Xiphiidae

Swordfish (Xiphias gladius; from Greek ??f??: sword, and Latin gladius: sword), also known as broadbill in some countries, are large, highly migratory, predatory fish characterized by a long, flat bill. They are a popular sport fish of the billfish category, though elusive. Swordfish are elongated, round-bodied, and lose all teeth and scales by adulthood. These fish are found widely in tropical and temperate parts of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans, and can typically be found from near the surface to a depth of 550 m (1,800 ft). They commonly reach 3 m (9.8 ft) in length, and the maximum reported is 4.55 m (14.9 ft) in length and 650 kg (1,400 lb) in weight. [more]

Xiphodontidae

[more]

Yalkaparidontidae

[more]

Yingabalanaridae

[more]

Younginidae

[more]

Yunnanosauridae

[more]

Yuomyidae

[more]

Zalambdalestidae

[more]

Zanclidae

The moorish idol, Zanclus cornutus ("Crowned Scythe"), is a small marine fish species, the sole extant representative of the family Zanclidae (from the Greek zagkios, "oblique") in order Perciform. A common inhabitant of tropical to subtropical reefs and lagoons, the moorish idol is notable for its wide distribution throughout the Indo-Pacific. A number of butterflyfishes (genus Heniochus) closely resemble the moorish idol. It is closely related to, if not a direct descendant of the extinct Eozanclus brevirhostris, from the Middle Eocene of Monte Bolca. [more]

Zanobatidae

The striped panray (Zanobatus schoenleinii) is a species of ray and the only member of the genus Zanobatus and the family Zanobatidae. [more]

Zapodidae

A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[25] [more]

Zaproridae

Prowfish (Zaprora silenus) are subtropical perciform marine fish found in the North Pacific. They are the only member of their family, Zaproridae. They should not be confused with the Australian prowfish of the unrelated family Pataecidae. [more]

Zatracheidae

[more]

Zegdoumyidae

[more]

Zeidae

The Zeidae (named after Zeus, the supreme god of Greek mythology) are a family of large, showy, deep-bodied zeiform marine fish?the "true dories". Found in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Ocean, the family contains just six species in two genera. All species are important and highly-regarded food fish supporting commercial fisheries, and some?such as the John dory (Zeus faber)?are enjoyed in large public aquaria. These fish are caught primarily via deep-sea trawling. [more]

Zenionidae

The Zenionidae are a family of large, showy, deep-bodied zeiform marine fish. Found in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Ocean, the family contains just seven species in three genera. [more]

Zeniontidae

The Zenionidae are a family of large, showy, deep-bodied zeiform marine fish. Found in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Ocean, the family contains just seven species in three genera. [more]

Zhelestidae

[more]

Zhyraornithidae

[more]

Zignodelphinidae

[more]

Ziphiidae

Beaked whales are the members of the family Ziphiidae which consists of 21 species. These toothed whales are notable for their elongated beaks. Beaked whales are one of the world's most extreme divers. They can dive for long periods?20 to 30 minutes is common, and 85 minute dives have been recorded?and to great depths: 1,899 metres (1,038 fathoms) and possibly more. To avoid getting decompression sickness?the potentially fatal build-up of nitrogen bubbles in body tissues?they must surface slowly. [more]

Zoarcidae

The eelpouts are the ray-finned fish family Zoarcidae. As the common name suggests, they are somewhat eel-like in appearance, with elongated bodies and the dorsal and anal fins continuous with the caudal fin. All of the approximately 220 species are marine, mostly bottom-dwelling, some at great depths. They are sometimes called "fish doctors"[] (not to be confused with the doctorfish or surgeon fishes). [more]

Zosteropidae

The white-eyes are small passerine birds native to tropical, subtropical and temperate Sub-Saharan Africa, southern and eastern Asia, and Australasia. White-eyes inhabit most tropical islands in the Indian Ocean, the western Pacific Ocean, and the Gulf of Guinea. Discounting some widespread members of the genus Zosterops, most species are endemic to single islands or archipelagos. The Silvereye, Zosterops lateralis, naturally colonised New Zealand, where it is known as the "Wax-eye" or Tauhau ("stranger"), from 1855. The Silvereye has also been introduced to the Society Islands in French Polynesia, while the Japanese White-eye has been introduced to Hawaii. [more]

Zzunknown

More info about the Family Zzunknown may be found here.

Bibliography

  • Gracenea M, Gómez MS, Fernández J, Feliu C, Journal of medical primatology. 1998 Feb;27(1):38-43.
  • Hershkovitz, P., Catalog of Living Whales, United States National Museum Bulletin 246, p. 6, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C., 1966
  • Nofre C, Tinti JM, Glaser D, Chemical senses. 1996 Dec;21(6):747-62.
  • Pence DB, Gray PN, Journal of medical entomology. 1996 Sep;33(5):772-6.

Footnotes

  1. http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=31665
  2. http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=22800
  3. http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=22801
  4. http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=22831
  5. http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=105462
  6. http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=113670
  7. http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=113682
  8. http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=21534
  9. http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=106011
  10. http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=113649
  11. http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=22833
  12. http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=21636
  13. http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=113676
  14. http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=113669
  15. http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=114233
  16. http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=31808
  17. http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=114279
  18. http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=31780
  19. http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=22815
  20. http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=114283
  21. http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=114287
  22. http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=22759
  23. http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=114319
  24. http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=21570
  25. http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=113695

Sources

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Last Revised: August 25, 2014
2014/08/25 12:44:06