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Teuthida

(Order)

Overview

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Photos

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Taxonomy

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The Order Teuthida is further organized into finer groupings including:

Families

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Ancistrocheiridae

The Sharpear Enope Squid (Ancistrocheirus lesueurii) is the only species in the genus Ancistrocheirus and family Ancistrocheiridae. With a mantle length of 25 cm, this moderately sized squid may be found throughout the tropical and subtropical oceans. They tend to be found at mesopelagic depths (200-1000 metres down). [more]

Architeuthidae

The giant squid (genus: Architeuthis) is a deep-ocean dwelling squid in the family Architeuthidae, represented by as many as eight species. Giant squid can grow to a tremendous size (see Deep-sea gigantism): recent estimates put the maximum size at 13 metres (43 ft) for females and 10 metres (33 ft) for males from caudal fin to the tip of the two long tentacles (second only to the colossal squid at an estimated 14 metres (46 ft), one of the largest living organisms). The mantle is about 2 metres (6.6 ft) long (more for females, less for males), and the length of the squid excluding its tentacles is about 5 metres (16 ft). There have been claims of specimens measuring 20 metres (66 ft) or more, but no giant squid of such size has been scientifically documented. [more]

Bathyteuthidae

Bathyteuthis is the singular genus of squid in the family Bathyteuthidae, encompassing three species. None obtain a mantle length greater than 80 mm. [more]

Batoteuthidae

Bush-club Squid (Batoteuthis skolops) is the single rare species in genus Batoteuthis, which is the only genus in family Batoteuthidae. The squid is found in Antarctic waters, and reaches a mantle length of at least 350 mm. Some features of this creature are a small head, a long tail and a very peculiar tentacle with six series of suckers on the club. [more]

Brachioteuthidae

Brachioteuthidae is a family of squid. It contains two genera and around six species. [more]

Chiroteuthidae

Chiroteuthids are deep-sea squid of the family Chiroteuthidae. They are generally small to medium in size, rather soft and gelatinous, and slow moving. They are found in most temperate and tropical oceans, but are known primarily from the North Atlantic, North Pacific, and Indo-Pacific. The family is represented by approximately twelve species and four subspecies in four genera, two of which are monotypic. They are sometimes known collectively as whip-lash squid: However, this common name is also applied to the Mastigoteuthidae, which is itself sometimes treated as a subfamily (Mastigoteuthinae) of Chiroteuthidae. [more]

Chtenopterygidae

Chtenopteryx is a genus of small, muscular, midwater squid in the monotypic family Chtenopterygidae. Four species are presently recognized in the genus, but more are believed to exist. [more]

Cranchiidae

The family Cranchiidae comprises the approximately 60 species of glass squid, also known as cranchiid or cranch squid. Cranchiid squid occur in surface and midwater depths of open oceans around the world. They range in mantle length from 10 centimetres (3.9 in) to over 3 metres (9.8 ft), in the case of the Colossal Squid. The common name, glass squid, derives from the transparent nature of most species. Cranchiid squid spend much of their lives in partially sunlit shallow waters where their transparency provides camouflage. They are characterised by a swollen body and short arms, which bear two rows of suckers or hooks. The third arm pair is often enlarged. Many species are bioluminescent organisms and possess light organs on the undersides of their eyes, used to cancel their shadow. Eye morphology varies widely, ranging from large and circular to telescopic and stalked. A large fluid-filled chamber containing ammonia solution is used to aid buoyancy. Often the only organ that is visible through the transparent tissues is a cigar-shaped digestive gland, which is the cephalopod equivalent of a mammalian liver. This is usually held in a vertical position to reduce its silhouette and a light organ is sometimes present on the lower tip to further minimise its appearance in the water. [more]

Ctenopterygidae

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Cycloteuthidae

Cycloteuthidae is a family in the order Teuthida, comprising two genera. While physically dissimilar, molecular evidence supports the relatedness of the genera. The family is found primarily in mesopelagic tropical to subtropical waters. Cycloteuthidae is characterised by a triangular funnel locking apparatus. [more]

Enoploteuthidae

Enoploteuthidea is a family of squid comprising approximately 40 species in 4 genera. Most species have a mantle length ranging from 3-13 cm. Hooks are present on all arms and tentacles. The family is best known for the large array of photophores throughout the body. [more]

Gonatidae

The Gonatidae, also known as armhook squid, are a family of moderately-sized squid. The family contains approximately 19 species in three genera, widely distributed and plentiful in cold boreal waters of the Pacific Ocean. At least one species is known from Antarctic waters, and two from the North Atlantic. [more]

Histioteuthidae

Histioteuthis is a genus of squid and the only member of the Histioteuthidae family. It goes by the English name cock-eyed squid, because in all species the right eye is normal-sized, round, blue and sunken; whereas the left eye is at least twice the diameter of the right eye, tubular, yellow-green, faces upward, and bulges out of the head. [more]

Joubiniteuthidae

Joubin's Squid (Joubiniteuthis portieri) is a rare, small squid found in both the Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean and in rare cases, the Indian Ocean. The species is named after Louis Joubin, a French zoologist. It is known to reach a mantle length of 9 cm. [more]

Lepidoteuthidae

The Grimaldi Scaled Squid (Lepidoteuthis grimaldii) is a large squid growing to 1 m in mantle length. It is named after the Grimaldi family, reigning house of Monaco. Prince Albert I of Monaco was an amateur teuthologist who pioneered the study of deep sea squids by collecting the 'precious regurgitations' of sperm whales. The Grimaldi Scaled Squid was first collected from the stomach contents of a whale.[] [more]

Loliginidae

Loliginidae, commonly known as pencil squids, is an aquatic family of the order Teuthida (squid). [more]

Lycoteuthidae

Lycoteuthidae is a family of squid comprising four known genera in two subfamilies. They are characterised by a lack of hooks and by photophores present on the viscera, eyeballs and tentacles. [more]

Magnapinnidae

The bigfin squids are a group of rarely seen cephalopods with a distinctive morphology. They are placed in the genus Magnapinna and family Magnapinnidae. The family is known only from larval, paralarval, and juvenile specimens, but some authorities believe the adult creature has been seen: several videos have been taken of animals nicknamed the "long-arm squid", which appear to have a similar morphology. Since none of the adult specimens have ever been captured or sampled, it remains uncertain if they are the same genus, or only distant relatives. [more]

Mastigoteuthidae

The Mastigoteuthidae, also known as whip-lash squid, are a family of small deep-sea squid. Approximately 20 known species in two genera are represented, with members found in both the mesopelagic and bathypelagic zone of most oceans. Originally described by Verill in 1881, it was later lowered by Chun (1920) to a subfamily (Mastigoteuthinae) of the Chiroteuthidae, which are also called whip-lash squid on occasion. However, Roper et al. (1969) raised it back to the family level, and this has not been changed since. [more]

Neoteuthidae

Neoteuthidae is a family of squid comprising four monotypic genera. [more]

Octopoteuthidae

Octopoteuthidae is a family of squid comprising two genera. The family is characterised by tentacles which cease to grow after the paralarval stage; and the use of a penis, instead of a hectocotylus. [more]

Ommastrephidae

Ommastrephidae is a family of squid. It contains 3 subfamilies, 11 genera, and over 20 species. They are widely distributed globally and are extensively fished for food. One species, Todarodes pacificus, comprises around half of the world's cephalopod catch annually. [more]

Onychoteuthidae

The family Onychoteuthidae (Hooked squid) currently comprises approximately 20?25 species (several known from only single life stages and thus unconfirmed), in 6 or 7 genera. They range in mature mantle length from 7 cm to a suggested length of 2 m for the largest member, the Robust Clubhook Squid (Onykia robusta). The family is characterised by the presence of hooks only on the tentacular clubs, a simple straight funnel?mantle locking apparatus, and a 'step' inside the jaw angle of the lower beak. With the exception of the Arctic Ocean, the family is found worldwide. [more]

Pholidoteuthidae

Pholidoteuthis is a genus of squid in the monotypic family Pholidoteuthidae, comprising at least two species. The defunct genus Tetronychoteuthis was previously incorporated into Pholidoteuthidae based upon a singular taxon known as Tetronychoteuthis massyae. Following the discovery of Pholidoteuthis boschmai in 1950, T. massaye was placed into Pholidoteuthis, with Tetronoychoteuthis considered a nomen dubium. P. boschmai is now considered a junior synonym of . [more]

Promachoteuthidae

Promachoteuthis is a genus of small, weakly muscled squid found at bathypelagic depths. Three species have been formally described, while another two await description. [more]

Psychroteuthidae

The Glacial Squid (Psychroteuthis glacialis) is the only known species in the monotypic genus Psychroteuthis, in the family Psychroteuthidae. While only one species has been confirmed, it is possible that two undescribed species also exist. The species occurs in coastal waters near Antarctica and South America. It grows to a mantle length of 44 cm. [more]

Pyroteuthidae

Fire squid are species belonging to the family Pyroteuthidae. The family comprises two genera. Species are diurnally mesopelagic, however migrate into surface waters during the night. The family is characterised by the tentacles, which have a permanent constriction and bend near the base; and photophores occurring on the tentacles, eyeballs and viscera. Members reach mantle lengths of 23-50 mm. Paralavae of the family are common around the Hawaiian Islands, with up to 17% of collected specimens in the area belonging to Pyroteuthidae. [more]

Thysanoteuthidae

Thysanoteuthis is a genus of large squid comprising one well known species, the Diamond Squid, and two dubious taxa. [more]

Uncertain Taxonomic Position

Walvisteuthidae

Walvisteuthis is a genus of squid consisting of a single species, Walvisteuthis virilis. It is found in the southern Atlantic Ocean. Walvis (the Dutch word for whale) refers to the Walvis Ridge in the South Atlantic; virilis (Latin for male) was chosen because only one, male, specimen was ever caught. [more]

More info about the Family Walvisteuthidae may be found here.

Sources

Last Revised: October 03, 2013
2013/10/03 17:02:47