Scorpaeniformes is an order of ray-finned fish, but it has also been called the Scleroparei.
They are known as "mail-cheeked" fishes due to their distinguishing characteristic, the suborbital stay: a backwards extension of the third circumorbital bone (part of the lateral head/cheek skeleton, below the eye socket) across the cheek to the preoperculum, to which it is connected in most species.1]
Scorpaeniform fishes are carnivorous, mostly feeding on crustaceans and on smaller fish. Most species live on the sea bottom in relatively shallow waters, although species are known from deep water, from the mid-water, and even from fresh water. They typically have spiny heads, and rounded pectoral and caudal fins. Most species are less than 30 centimetres (12 in) in length, but the full size range of the order varies from the velvetfishes, which can be just 2 centimetres (0.79 in) long as adults, to the Lingcod, which can reach 150 centimetres (4.9 ft) in length.
- Suborder Anoplopomatoidei
- Anoplopomatidae (sablefish and skilfish)
- Suborder Cottoidei
- Superfamily Cottoidea
- Abyssocottidae (deep-water sculpins)
- Agonidae (poachers)
- Comephoridae (Baikal oilfishes)
- Cottidae (sculpins)
- Cottocomephoridae (Baikal sculpins)
- Hemitripteridae (sea ravens and sailfin sculpins)
- Hemilepidotus (Hemilepidotus hemilepidotus, (Irish Lord or Bullhead))
- Icelidae (scaled sculpins)
- Psychrolutidae (fatheads)
- Rhamphocottidae (grunt sculpin)
- Superfamily Cyclopteroidea
- Cyclopteridae (lumpsuckers)
- Liparidae (snailfishes)
- Superfamily Cottoidea
- Suborder Dactylopteroidei
- Dactylopteridae (flying gurnards)
- Suborder Hexagrammoidei
- Hexagrammidae (greenlings)
- Suborder Normanichthyiodei
- Suborder Platycephaloidei
- Bembridae (deepwater flatheads)
- Hoplichthyidae (ghost flatheads)
- Platycephalidae (flatheads)
- Suborder Scorpaenoidei
- Aploactinidae (velvetfishes)
- Caracanthidae (orbicular velvetfishes)
- Congiopodidae (horsefishes and pigfishes)
- Gnathanacanthidae (red velvetfish)
- Pataecidae (Australian prowfishes)
- Scorpaenidae (scorpionfishes and rockfish[disambiguation needed ]es)
- Synanceiidae (stonefishes)
- Tetrarogidae (waspfishes)
- Triglidae (searobins)
Timeline of genera
- List of fish families
Notes and references
- ^ a b Eschmeyer, William N. (1998). Paxton, J.R. & Eschmeyer, W.N.. ed. Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 175. ISBN 0-12-547665-5.
- ^ Joseph S. Nelson. Fishes of the World. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-54713-1.
- ^ "Scorpaeniformes". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=166702. Retrieved 31 March 2006.
- ^ William N. Eschmeyer, Carl J. Ferraris, Mysi D. Hoang, Douglas J. Long (1998). Catalog of Fishes. California Academy of Sciences. ISBN 0-940228-47-5.
- ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2006). "Scorpaeniformes" in FishBase. February 2006 version.
- ^ Icelidae is described as a separate family by some sources , containing only the genus Icelus. However, this genus which is considered to be a member of Cottidae by most other sources 
- ^ Parabembridae is included in Bembridae in ITIS and Nelson, but split in FishBase and Eschmeyer.
- ^ a b c d e f Apistidae, Neosebastidae, Plectrogenidae, Sebastidae, and Setarchidae are included in Scorpaenidae in ITIS and Nelson, but split in FishBase and Eschmeyer.
- ^ Peristediidae is included in Triglidae in ITIS and Nelson, but split in FishBase and Eschmeyer.
- Sepkoski, Jack (2002). "A compendium of fossil marine animal genera". Bulletins of American Paleontology 364: p.560. http://strata.ummp.lsa.umich.edu/jack/showgenera.php?taxon=611&rank=class. Retrieved 2011-05-17.
The Order Scorpaeniformes is further organized into finer groupings including:
- Suborder (6): Anoplopomatoidei · Cottoidei · Hexagrammoidei · Normanichthyoidei · Platycephaloidei · Scorpaenoidei
- Family (37): Abyssocottidae · Agonidae · Anoplopomatidae · Apistidae · Aploactinidae · Bathylutichthyidae · Bembridae · Caracanthidae · Comephoridae · Congiopodidae · Cottidae · Cottocomephoridae · Cyclopteridae · Ereuniidae · Eschmeyeridae · Gnathanacanthidae · Hemitripteridae · Hexagrammidae · Hoplichthyidae · Liparidae · Neosebastidae · Normanichthyidae · Parabembridae · Pataecidae · Peristediidae · Platycephalidae · Plectrogenidae · Psychrolutidae · Rhamphocottidae · Scorpaeinidae · Scorpaenidae · Sebastidae · Setarchidae · Synanceidae · Synanceiidae · Tetrarogidae · Triglidae
- Species: ZipcodeZoo has pages for 3,341 species and subspecies in the Order Scorpaeniformes.
The deep-water sculpins are a small family, Abyssocottidae, of sculpins that are almost entirely restricted to Lake Baikal in Siberia, most of them living at depths below 170 m. [more]
The poachers are a family (Agonidae) of small bottom-dwelling cold-water marine fish. They are also known as alligatorfishes, starsnouts, hooknoses, and rockheads. Poachers are notable for having elongated bodies covered by scales modified into bony plates, and for using their large pectoral fins to move in short bursts. The family includes about 47 species in some 20 genera, some of which are quite widespread. [more]
The sablefishes are a family, Anoplopomatidae, of scorpaeniform fishes. They are found in coastal waters of the north Pacific from Japan to California, where they live near the sea floor in deep water: the sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria, has been found down to 1,830 metres (6,000 ft). They are large fish, with the skilfish being up to 180 centimetres (5.9 ft) in length. They are commercially important fishes, and are often given the market name blackcod. [more]
Little velvetfishes or simply velvetfishes are a family, the Aploactinidae, of scorpaeniform fishes. [more]
Bathylutichthys taranetzi is the only species of the fish family Bathylutichthyidae (the Atlantic sculpins). It is a deep sea fish with a length of about 10 cm, and has been found exclusively in the vicinity of the South Georgia Island in the Southern Ocean at depths of 1650 metres. [more]
The Deep-water flatheads are a family, the Bembridae, of bottom-dwelling fish. They are thought to be more primitive than their close relatives, the true flatheads. Despite the common name, their heads are only slightly flattened and have spiny ridges. [more]
The coral crouchers, or orbicular velvetfishes, are a family, the Caracanthidae, of Scorpaeniform fishes. They live in coral reefs of the tropical Indo-Pacific. Only four species are known. [more]
The golomyankas (lit. "naked") or Baikal oilfish are two species of peculiar, sculpin-like fishes endemic to Lake Baikal in Russia. [more]
Congiopodidae is a family of scorpaeniform fishes native to the southern hemisphere, commonly known as pigfishes, horsefishes and racehorses. [more]
The Cottidae is a family of demersal fish in the order Scorpaeniformes, suborder (or sculpins). There are about 300 species in 70 genera of Cottidae (cottids) that are mostly marine and found in shallow coastal waters in the northern and arctic regions. The highest diversity is in the North Pacific. [more]
Baikal sculpins, (family Cottocomephoridae), are a family of scorpaeniform fishes. [more]
Ereuniidae is a family of scorpaeniform fishes. They are native to deep marine waters around Japan. The lower four rays of the pectoral fin are elongated and free. [more]
The red velvetfish, Gnathanacanthus goetzeei, is a marine scorpaeniform fish of the inshore waters of western and southern Australia. It is the sole member of the family Gnathanacanthidae and genus Gnathanacanthus. [more]
Sea ravens are a family, Hemitripteridae of scorpaeniform fishes. They are bottom-dwelling fishes that feed on small invertebrates, found in the northwest Atlantic and north Pacific oceans. They are covered in small spines (modified scales). [more]
The family of marine fishes Hexagrammidae incorporates the greenlings. These fish are found on the continental shelf in the temperate or subarctic waters of the North Pacific. They are a well-known family in the littoral zone from southern California north to the Aleutian Islands. The most commercially important species is the lingcod (Ophiodon elongatus), a common food fish. [more]
Hoplichthyidae is a family of scorpaeniform fishes native to the Indo-Pacific Oceans, commonly known as ghost flatheads. There is a single genus, Hoplichthys. [more]
Snailfish are scorpaeniform marine fish of the family Liparidae. Widely distributed from the Arctic to Antarctic Oceans including the northern Pacific, the snailfish family contains 30 genera and 361 species. They are closely related to the sculpins of the family Cottidae and the lumpfish of the family Cyclopteridae. Snailfish are sometimes included within the latter family. [more]
Normanichthys crockeri is a ray-finned fish, the only member of the Normanichthyidae family. It is found in tropical South Pacific waters, from Chimbote, Peru, to Isla Mocha, Chile, and reaches up to 11 cm in length. Common vernacular names for the species in Spanish include Camotillo (in Peru) and Bacaladillo (in Chile). [more]
Australian prowfishes are a family, Pataecidae, of scorpaeniform fishes. They are distinguished by a long dorsal fin that begins far forward on the head, forming a "prow" shape, and extends all the way to the caudal fin. They lack scales and pelvic fins. [more]
The armored searobins, or armored gurnards are a family, Peristediidae, of scorpaeniform fishes. They are found in deep tropical waters around the world. They are related to the searobins in the family Triglidae ? and some authorities classify them in that family ? but they are encased in heavy scales with prominent spines. They have prominent and often elaborate barbels on their chins. [more]
Platycephalidae is a family of marine fishes, most commonly referred to as flatheads. They are relatives of the popular lionfishes, belonging to the order Scorpaeniformes. [more]
The fish family Psychrolutidae contains the fatheads or fathead sculpins, including the blobfishes. There are 9 genera and about 30 species. This poorly known family consists of bottom-dwelling marine sculpins shaped like tadpoles, with large heads and bodies that taper back into small, flat tails. They generally have large, leaflike pectoral fins and some species are covered with soft spines. They are found in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. The adults live on the seafloor, between 100 metres (330 ft) and 1,600 metres (5,200 ft) depth. [more]
The grunt sculpin or grunt-fish, Rhamphocottus richardsonii, is the only member of the fish family Rhamphocottidae. It is native to temperate coastal waters of the North Pacific, from Japan to Alaska and south to California where it inhabits tide pools, rocky areas, and sandy bottoms at depths of up to 165 metres. It uses its spiny pectoral fins to crawl over the sea floor. It grows up to 9 cm in length. It frequently takes shelter in discarded bottles and cans, as well as the empty shells, such as those of the giant barnacle (Balanus nubilis). During reproduction, the female chases a male into a rock crevice and keeps him there until she lays her eggs. [more]
Scorpaenidae, the scorpionfish, are a family of mostly marine fish that includes many of the world's most venomous species. As the name suggests, scorpionfish have a type of "sting" in the form of sharp spines coated with venomous mucus. The family is a large one, with hundreds of members. They are widespread in tropical and temperate seas, but mostly found in the Indo-Pacific. They should not be confused with the cabezones, of the genus Scorpaenichthys, which belong to a separate, though related family, Cottidae. [more]
Sebastidae is a family of marine fish in the order Scorpaeniformes. Their common names include rockfishes, thornyheads and rockcods. Despite the latter name, they are not closely related to the cods in the genus Gadus, nor the rock cod, Lotella rhacina. [more]
Setarchidae is a small family of scorpionfishes. [more]
Synanceiidae is a family of Actinopterygii, ray-finned fish, found in the Indo-Pacific oceans. They are primarily marine, though some species are known to live in fresh or brackish waters. The various species of this family are known informally as stonefish, stinger, stingfish and ghouls. The most prominent genus of the family is Synanceia Bloch & Schneider, which is sometimes placed in the Scorpaenidae family. Its species are known to have the most potent neurotoxins of all the fish venoms, secreted from glands at the base of their needle-like dorsal fin spines. The vernacular name of the species derives from their behaviour of camouflaging as rocks. The type species of the family is the stonefish, Synanceia verrucosa. [more]
The waspfishes are a family, the Tetrarogidae, of scorpaeniform fishes native to the Indian Ocean and the West Pacific. They are closely related to the scorpionfishes. As their name suggests, waspfishes are often venomous. They are bottom-dwelling fish, living at depths of up to 300 metres (980 ft). [more]
Sea robins, also known as gurnard, are bottom-feeding scorpaeniform fishes in the family Triglidae. They get their name from their large pectoral fins, which, when swimming, open and close like a bird's wings in flight. [more]
At least 176 species and subspecies belong to the Family Triglidae.
More info about the Family Triglidae may be found here.
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