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The Class Osteichthyes is a member of the Phylum Chordata. Here is the complete "parentage" of Osteichthyes:

The Class Osteichthyes is further organized into finer groupings including:


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The deep-water sculpins are a small family, Abyssocottidae, of sculpins that are almost entirely restricted to Lake Baikal in Siberia, most of them living at depths below 170 m. [more]


Acanthuridae ("thorn tails") is the family of surgeonfishes, tangs, and unicornfishes. The family includes about 80 species in six genera, all of which are marine fish living in tropical seas, usually around coral reefs. Many of the species are brightly colored and popular for aquaria. [more]


Acestrorhynchus ("needle jaw" ) is a genus of 14 species of characiform fish found only in freshwater in South America, the sole genus in the family Acestrorhynchidae. Their greatest diversity is in the Orinoco and Amazon basins. [more]


The American soles are a family (Achiridae) of flatfish occurring in both freshwater and marine environments of the Americas. The family includes about 28 species in nine genera. These are closely related to the soles (Soleidae), and have been classified as a subfamily of it, but achirids have a number of distinct characteristics. [more]


The southern (or armless) flounders are a small family of flounders found in Antarctic and sub-Antarctic waters. There are six species of southern flounders in four genera. [more]


Sturgeon is the common name used for some 26 species of fish in the family Acipenseridae, including the genera Acipenser, Huso, Scaphirhynchus and Pseudoscaphirhynchus. The term includes over 20 species commonly referred to as sturgeon and several closely related species that have distinct common names, notably sterlet, kaluga and beluga. Collectively, the family is also known as the true sturgeons. Sturgeon is sometimes used more exclusively to refer to the species in the two best-known genera, Acipenser and Huso. [more]




Acropomatidae, also known as the lanternbellies or the temperate ocean-basses, is a family of perciform fish consisting of 33 marine species. Members of Acropoma are notable for having light-emitting organs alongside their undersides. They are found in all temperate and tropical oceans, usually at depths of several hundred meters. [more]


The ricefishes are a family (Adrianichthyidae) of small ray-finned fish that are found in fresh and brackish waters from India to Japan and out into the Indo-Australian Archipelago, most notably Sulawesi. The common name of the group derives from the fact that many species are found in Japanese rice paddies. About 27 species, some extremely rare and endangered, and some 2-4 may already be extinct. [more]




The poachers are a family (Agonidae) of small bottom-dwelling cold-water marine fish. They are also known as alligatorfishes, starsnouts, hooknoses, and rockheads. Poachers are notable for having elongated bodies covered by scales modified into bony plates, and for using their large pectoral fins to move in short bursts. The family includes about 47 species in some 20 genera, some of which are quite widespread. [more]




The stream catfishes are family Akysidae of catfishes. [more]


The bonefishes are a family (Albulidae) of ray-finned fish that are popular as game fish in Florida, select locations in the South Pacific, and the Bahamas (where two bonefish are featured on the 10 cent coin) and elsewhere. The family is small, with twelve species in two genera. [more]


Lancetfishes are large oceanic predatory fishes in the genus Alepisaurus ("Scaleless lizard"), the only living genus in the family Alepisauridae. [more]


Slickheads or nakedheads are a family, Alepocephalidae, of marine smelts. They are deep-water fishes most common below 1,000 metres (3,300 ft). They get their name from the lack of scales on the head. Some authors include Bathylaconidae in this family. [more]


African tetras (family Alestidae, formerly spelled Alestiidae) are a group of Characiformes fish exclusively found in Africa. This family contains about 18 genera and 110 species. Among the best known members are the Congo tetra, and African Tigerfish. [more]




Amarsipus carlsbergi is a small and slender type of fish that lives in equatorial parts of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the only species in the family Amarsipidae. [more]


The Asiatic glassfishes are a family, Ambassidae, of freshwater and marine fishes in the order Perciformes. The species in the family are native to the waters of Asia and Oceania and the Indian and western Pacific Oceans. The family includes eight genera and about fifty species. [more]


Amblycipitidae is a family of catfishes, commonly known as torrent catfishes. It includes three genera, Amblyceps, Liobagrus, and Xiurenbagrus. [more]


The fish family Amblyopsidae are commonly referred to as cavefish, blindfish, or swampfish. They are small freshwater fish found in the dark environments of swamps, caves and deep lakes. Family members exhibit adaptations to these dark environments, including the lack of functional eyes and, in some species, the absence of pigmentation. There are more than 80 known varieties of cavefish. [more]




Amiidae is a family of primitive ray-finned fish. Only one species, Amia calva, the bowfin, survives today, although additional species in all four subfamilies are known from Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Eocene fossils. [more]


A sand lance or sandlance is a fish belonging to the family Ammodytidae. Several species of sand lance are commonly known as "sand eels" or "sandeels", though they are not related to true eels. Another variant name is launce, and all names of the fish are references to its slender body and pointed snout. The family name (and genus name, ) means "sand burrower", which describes the sand lance's habit of burrowing into sand to avoid tidal currents. [more]




Loach catfishes, Amphiliidae, are a family of catfishes (order Siluriformes). They are widespread in tropical Africa but are most common in streams at high elevations; most species are able to cling to rocks in fast-flowing streams. There are 13 genera and 68 species. [more]




The Anabantidae are a family of perciform fish commonly called the climbing gouramies or climbing perches. As labyrinth fishes, they possess a labyrinth organ, a structure in the fish's head which allows them to breathe atmospheric oxygen. Fish of this family are commonly seen gulping at air at the surface of the water; which then passes out of their gills or mouth when they dive beneath the surface. [more]


Anablepidae is a family of freshwater and brackish water fishes living on river estuaries from southern Mexico to southern South America. There are three genera with sixteen species: the four-eyed fishes (genus Anableps), the onesided livebearers (genus Jenynsia) and the white-eye, Oxyzygonectes dovii. Fish of this family eat mostly insects and other invertebrates. [more]


The wolffish are a family, Anarhichadidae, of perciform fish. They are native to cold waters of the northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, where they live on the continental shelf and slope, to depths of about 600 metres (2,000 ft). They are bottom-feeders, eating hard-shelled invertebrates such as clams, echinoderms and crustaceans, which they crush with strong canine and molar teeth. The longest species, Anarrhichthys ocellatus, grows to more than 2 metres (6.6 ft) in length. [more]




Andinichthyidae is an extinct family of catfish. [more]




Anguillidae is a family of fishes that contains the freshwater eels. There are 19 species and 6 subspecies in this family, all in genus Anguilla. They are catadromous, meaning they spend their lives in freshwater rivers, lakes, or estuaries and return to the ocean to spawn. The young eel larvae, called leptocephali, live only in the ocean and consume small particles called marine snow. They grow larger in size, and in their next growth stage they are called glass eels. At this stage they enter estuaries and when they become pigmented they are known as elvers. Elvers travel upstream in freshwater rivers where they grow to adulthood. Some details of eel reproduction are as yet unknown, and the discovery of the spawning area of the American and European eels in the Sargasso Sea is one of the more famous anecdotes in the history of Ichthyology (see Eel life history). The spawning areas of some other anguillid eels, such as the Japanese eel, and the giant mottled eel were also discovered recently in the western North Pacific Ocean. [more]




The flashlight fish are a family, the Anomalopidae, of beryciform fish. There are some unrelated fish with similar features, some of which are also called flashlight fish. Notable among these are the deep sea lanternfish, of the family Myctophidae, of which there are over 200 species. [more]


Fangtooths are beryciform fish of the family Anoplogastridae (sometimes spelled "Anoplogasteridae") that live in the deep sea. The name is from Greek anoplo meaning "unarmed" and gaster meaning "stomach". With a circumglobal distribution in tropical and cold-temperate waters, the family contains only two very similar species, in one genus, with no known close relatives: the common fangtooth, Anoplogaster cornuta, found worldwide; and the shorthorned fangtooth, Anoplogaster brachycera, found in the tropical waters of the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean. [more]


The sablefishes are a family, Anoplopomatidae, of scorpaeniform fishes. They are found in coastal waters of the north Pacific from Japan to California, where they live near the sea floor in deep water: the sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria, has been found down to 1,830 metres (6,000 ft). They are large fish, with the skilfish being up to 180 centimetres (5.9 ft) in length. They are commercially important fishes, and are often given the market name blackcod. [more]


The Anostomidae are a family of ray-finned fishes that belong to the order Characiformes. Closely related to the Chilodontidae and formerly included with them, the Anostomidae contain over 140 described species. Commonly known as anostomids, they are found in freshwater habitats from the R?o Atrato in northernmost South America to warm-temperate central Argentina; they are of Amazonian origin, with few found west of the Andes (mainly in Colombia and Venezuela). Their scientific name approximately means "mouth on top", from Ancient Greek ?no- (???) "up" (as an adverb) + st?ma (st???) "mouth", in reference to the arrangement of these fishes' mouth opening. [more]


The daggertooths (genus Anotopterus) are a genus of aulopiform fish, the sole genus of the family Anotopteridae. They are found in oceans worldwide, but prefer cooler waters. [more]


Frogfishes, family Antennariidae, are a type of anglerfish in the order Lophiiformes. They are known as anglerfishes in Australia, where 'frogfish' refers to a different type of fish. Frogfishes are found in almost all tropical and subtropical oceans and seas around the world, the primary exception being the Mediterranean Sea. [more]


The pirate perch, Aphredoderus sayanus, is a freshwater fish of the Percopsiformes order. This small fish is native to the eastern half of North America. It is dark brown, sometimes with a darker band near the base tail. A unique feature of this fish is the forward placement of its cloaca, under the head, anterior to the pelvic fins. This placement allows the females to place their eggs more precisely into root masses. [more]


Aphyonidae is a family of eel-like fishes in the order Ophidiiformes. They are found in tropical and subtropical waters throughout the world. They are deep-sea fishes, living between 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) and 6,000 metres (20,000 ft) depth. [more]




Little velvetfishes or simply velvetfishes are a family, the Aploactinidae, of scorpaeniform fishes. [more]


Aplocheilidae are a family of bony fishes containing about 15 species. Formerly, the name "Aplocheilidae" was used for the as a whole, i.e. including the Nothobranchiidae of Africa and the mainly South American Rivulidae as subfamilies. This obsolete system is sometimes still seen, e.g. in ITIS. [more]


Marblefishes are a family, Aplodactylidae, of perciform fishes. They are native to southern Australia, New Zealand, Peru and Chile. [more]


Cardinalfishes are a family, Apogonidae, of ray-finned fishes. They are found in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans, they are chiefly marine, but some species are found in brackish water. A handful of species are kept in the aquarium and are popular as small, peaceful, and colorful fish. [more]


The ghost knifefishes are a family, Apteronotidae, of ray-finned fishes in the order Gymnotiformes. These fish can be found in the freshwater of Panama and South America. [more]






The herring smelts or argentines are a family, Argentinidae, of marine smelts. They are similar in appearance to smelts (family Osmeridae) but have much smaller mouths. [more]


The Ariidae or ariid catfish are a family of catfish that mainly live in marine waters with many freshwater and brackish water species. They are found worldwide in tropical to warm temperate zones. [more]


Ariommatidae is a family of perciform fishes. The family contains a single genus Ariomma. [more]


Australian Salmon, (known as 'Kahawai' in New Zealand), are medium-sized perciform marine fish of the small family Arripidae (sometimes incorrectly spelled Arripididae). Four species are recognized, all within the genus Arripis. Despite the common name, Australian Salmon are not related to the salmon (Salmonidae) of the Northern Hemisphere; the former were named so by early European settlers after their superficial resemblance to the salmoniform fishes. [more]


Artedidraconidae is a family of marine perciform fishes comprising four genera. Artedidraconidae are endemic to deep waters off Antarctica. The operculum carries a hook-shaped spine and there are four or five . Artedidraconidae have 33 to 41 vertebrae. The name "Artedidraconidae" is derived from a combination of Artedi (from Peter Artedi, the "father of ichthyology") and the Greek drakon (d?????, dragon). A mental barbel is a characteristic of this family; the morphology of this barbel is variable with the species. Species of Artedidraconidae are said to have speciated sympatrically. [more]




The Aspredinidae are a small South American family of catfishes (order Siluriformes) also known as the banjo catfishes. [more]


Astroblepus is a genus of catfish (order Siluriformes) which contains 55 species. It is the sole genus in the family Astroblepidae, the most species-rich family in which there is a single genus. These fish are known as the naked sucker-mouth catfishes or the climbing catfishes. [more]


The jellynose fishes or tadpole fishes are the small order Ateleopodiformes. This group of ray-finned fish is monotypic, containing a single family Ateleopodidae. It has about one dozen species in four genera, but these enigmatic fishes are in need of taxonomic revision.  [more]


The Old World silversides are a family, Atherinidae, of fish in the order Atheriniformes. They occur worldwide in tropical and temperate waters. About two thirds of the species are marine, and the remainder live in fresh water. [more]


The driftwood catfishes are catfishes of the family Auchenipteridae. [more]


The Aulopidae are a small family of aulopiform fish, containing the single genus Aulopus. They are found in most tropical and subtropical oceans, being absent only in the eastern Pacific and commonly known as flagfins. [more]


The tube-snouts are a family, the Aulorhynchidae, of fish related to the sticklebacks. There are only two species in the family, each placed in its own genus. Both are found in shallow marine waters, with one living off the west coast of North America, and the other off the coast of Japan. [more]


The family Aulostomidae is a monogeneric family of highly specialized, tubularly-elongated marine fishes commonly known as trumpetfishes. Aulostomids belong to the order Syngnathiformes, along with the seahorses and the similarly built cornetfishes. There are three distinct species for the family's sole genus, Aulostomus. [more]


Bagridae are a family of catfish that originate from Africa and Asia from Japan to Borneo. These fish are commonly known as naked catfishes or bagrid catfishes. [more]


Triggerfishes are about 40 species of often brightly colored fishes of the family Balistidae. Often marked by lines and spots, they inhabit tropical and subtropical oceans throughout the world, with the greatest species richness in the Indo-Pacific. Most are found in relatively shallow, coastal habitats, especially at coral reefs, but a few, such as the aptly named oceanic triggerfish (Canthidermis maculata), are pelagic. While several species from this family are popular in the marine aquarium trade, they are often notoriously ill-tempered. [more]


The hillstream loaches or river loaches are a family, the Balitoridae, of small Eurasian fish (a single species, Afronemacheilus abyssinicus is from Africa). Many of the species are popular for aquaria. They have a number of similarities with the Cobitidae, their sibling family of "loaches", such as multiple barbels around the mouth. They should not be confused with the loricariids, which look similar but are a family of catfish. [more]


The Banjofish (Banjos banjos) is a perciform fish, the only species in the genus Banjos and in the family Banjosidae. [more]


The velvet whalefish, Barbourisia rufa, is a deep-sea whalefish, the sole known member of its family Barbourisiidae. It is found throughout the tropical and temperate parts of the world's oceans, mainly in the Pacific near Japan and New Zealand, at depths of 300 to 2,000 m. This species seems very closely related to some flabby whalefishes and it was initially believed to belong into that family by some. They have been found from 65?N to 40?S in the Atlantic, 50?N to 50?S in the Pacific, and 5?20?S in the Indian Ocean. [more]


The deepsea herrings are perciform fishes belonging to a small family (Bathyclupeidae) with a single genus (Bathyclupea) containing seven species of deep water fishes. [more]


The Antarctic dragonfishes are a family, Bathydraconidae, of deep-sea perciform fishes. [more]


The deep-sea smelts are a family, Bathylagidae, of marine smelts. [more]


Bathylutichthys taranetzi is the only species of the fish family Bathylutichthyidae (the Atlantic sculpins). It is a deep sea fish with a length of about 10 cm, and has been found exclusively in the vicinity of the South Georgia Island in the Southern Ocean at depths of 1650 metres. [more]


Ronquils (sometimes spelt ronchils) are perciform marine fish of the small family Bathymasteridae. Found only in Arctic and North Pacific waters, the ronquil family contains just seven species in three genera. The larger species are important to commercial fisheries as food fish. Ronquils are most closely related to the eelpouts and prowfish. [more]




Batrachoididae is the only family in the ray-finned fish order Batrachoidiformes. Fish in this family are usually called toadfish: both the English common name and scientific name refer to their toad-like appearance (batrakhos is Greek for frog). [more]


Bedotiidae is a family of fish known as the Madagascar rainbowfish, Madagascan rainbowfish, or Malagasy rainbowfish due to their endemism to Madagascar. It includes two genera, Bedotia and Rheocles. [more]


Needlefish (family Belonidae) are piscivorous fishes primarily associated with very shallow marine habitats or the surface of the open sea. Some genera include species found in marine, brackish, and freshwater environments (e.g., Strongylura) while a few genera are confined to freshwater rivers and streams, including Belonion, Potamorrhaphis, and Xenentodon. Needlefish closely resemble North American freshwater gars (family Lepisosteidae) in being elongated and having long, narrow jaws filled with sharp teeth, and some species of needlefish are referred to as gars or garfish despite being only distantly related to the true gars. In fact the name "garfish" was originally used for the needlefish Belone belone in Europe and only later applied to the North American fishes by European settlers during the 18th century. [more]


The Deep-water flatheads are a family, the Bembridae, of bottom-dwelling fish. They are thought to be more primitive than their close relatives, the true flatheads. Despite the common name, their heads are only slightly flattened and have spiny ridges. [more]




The Berycidae is a small family of deep sea fishes, related to the squirrelfishes. The family includes the alfonsinos and the nannygais. [more]




Combtooth blennies are blennioids; perciform marine fish of the family Blenniidae. They are the largest family of blennies, with approximately 371 species in 53 genera represented. Combtooth blennies are found in tropical and subtropical waters in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans; some species are also found in brackish and even freshwater environments. [more]


Lefteye flounders are a family, Bothidae, of flounders. They are called "lefteye flounders" because most species lie on the on their right side, with both eyes on the left side. A helpful reminder when trying to recall the family name for this fish is that "Bothidae eyes are on the same side o' dey head." The family is also distinguished by the presence of spines on the snout and near the eyes. [more]


Botiinae is the mainly Southeast Asian subfamily of cypriniform ray-finned fishes that contains the genus Botia. Placed in the true loach family Cobitidae in our time, they were formerly often treated as a distinct family Botiidae. [more]


The thornfishes are a family, Bovichtidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. The family is spelled Bovichthyidae in J. S. Nelson's Fishes of the World. They are native to coastal waters off Australia, New Zealand, and South America, and to rivers and lakes of southeast Australia and Tasmania. [more]


Handfish is an anglerfish of the family Brachionichthyidae, a group which comprises five genera and fourteen extant species. These benthic marine fish are unusual in the way they propel themselves by walking on the sea floor rather than swimming. [more]


Pomfret are perciform fishes belonging to the family Bramidae. [more]


Codlets are a family, Bregmacerotidae, of cod-like fishes, containing the single genus Bregmaceros. [more]




Brotulas are a family, Bythitidae, of ophidiiform fishes, also known as viviparous brotulas as they bear live young. They are found in tropical and subtropical waters throughout the world. They are small fishes, around 5 centimetres (2.0 in) to 10 centimetres (3.9 in) in length, and live in surface waters or around reefs. [more]


The fusilier fishes are a family, Caesionidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. They are related to the snappers, but adapted for feeding on plankton, rather than on larger prey. [more]


The splendid perches are a small family, Callanthiidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. [more]


Callichthyidae is a family of catfishes (order Siluriformes), called armored catfishes due to the two rows of bony plates (or scutes) running down the length of the body. This family contains some of the most popular freshwater aquarium fish, such as the Corydoras. [more]


Dragonets are small, perciform, marine fish of the diverse family Callionymidae (from the Greek kallis, "beautiful" and onyma, "name"). Found mainly in the tropical waters of the western Indo-Pacific, the family contains approximately 186 species in 18 genera. The Draconettidae may be considered a sister family, whose members are very much alike, though rarely seen. Due to similarities in morphology and behaviour, dragonets are sometimes confused with members of the goby family. [more]


Boarfishes are a small family, Caproidae, of marine fishes comprising two genera and twelve species. They are usually placed in the order Zeiformes with the dories, but this placement is uncertain, since boarfishes have many perciform characters, for instance in the caudal skeleton. Boarfishes are native to the Indian, Atlantic, and Pacific Oceans, where mainly found at depths below 50 metres (160 ft). [more]


The coral crouchers, or orbicular velvetfishes, are a family, the Caracanthidae, of Scorpaeniform fishes. They live in coral reefs of the tropical Indo-Pacific. Only four species are known. [more]


Carangidae is a family of fish which includes the jacks, pompanos, jack mackerels, and scads. [more]


Pearlfish is a general name for a variety of marine fish species in the Carapidae family. Pearlfish have been found in tropical waters of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans at depths up to 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) along oceanic shelves and slopes. [more]


Manefishes are perciform fishes in the family Caristiidae. They are deep-sea marine fishes that eat siphonophores. [more]


Catostomidae is the sucker family of the order Cypriniformes. There are 80 species in this family of freshwater fishes. Catostomidae are found in North America, east central China, and eastern Siberia. They are not usually fished recreationally; they are not highly prized in North America for their flesh although they are a fairly popular target with spear fisherman. [more]




Fanfins are a family, Caulophrynidae, of anglerfishes. They are found in deep, lightless waters of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans. [more]


Centracanthidae is a small family of fishes in the order Perciformes, known as picarels. They are found in the eastern Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean. The anal fin has three sharp spines, hence the name, from Greek kentron meaning "sharp point" and akantha meaning "thorn". Despite the similarity of the English or common name, it is unrelated to the pickerel or northern pike. [more]


The sunfishes are a family (Centrarchidae) of freshwater ray-finned fish belonging to the order Perciformes. The type genus is Centrarchus (consisting solely of the flier, C. macropterus). The family's 27 species includes many fishes familiar to North Americans, including the rock bass, largemouth bass, bluegill, pumpkinseed, and crappies. All are native only to North America. [more]


Centriscidae is the family of snipefishes, shrimpfishes, and bellowfishes. A small family, consisting of only about a dozen marine species, they are of an unusual appearance, as reflected by the common names. The members of the genera Aeoliscus and Centriscus are restricted to relatively shallow, tropical parts of the Indo-Pacific, while the remaining species mainly are found in deeper parts of tropical, subtropical or southern oceans. [more]


False scorpionfish (Centrogenys vaigiensis) are perciform fish, the only species in genus Centrogenys as well as family Centrogenyidae. They are pale grey or brown and usually grow no longer than 25 centimetres (9.8 in). False scorpionfish are distributed throughout the Indo-West Pacific, bounded by the Ryukyu Islands of Japan to the north and Australia to the south, the Nicobar Islands to the west and New Guinea to the east. [more]


Medusafishes are a family, Centrolophidae, of perciform fishes. They are found in temperate and tropical waters throughout the world. [more]


The horned lantern fish or prickly seadevil, Centrophryne spinulosa, is a found worldwide. It is the sole species in the family Centrophrynidae, distinguished from other deep-sea anglerfishes by various characters including four pectoral radials, an anterior spine on the subopercular bone, and a short hyoid (chin) barbel in both sexes. [more]


The Centropomidae are a single genus family of freshwater and marine fishes in Order Perciformes, including the common snook or r?balo, Centropomus undecimalis. Prior to 2004, three other genera were placed in Centropomidae in subfamily Latinae, which has since been raised to the family level and renamed Latidae because a cladistic analysis showed the old Centropomidae to be paraphyletic. Each of the four species (fat, swordspine, common, and tarpon) can be easily identified by their black lateral line. They are good tablefare, and are a sought after gamefish but tricky to catch. [more]


Sea devils are a family of deep-sea anglerfish otherwise known as Ceratiidae from the Greek keras, "horn", referring to the bioluminescent lure that projects from the fishes' forehead. [more]


The Queensland lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (also known as the Australian lungfish, Burnett salmon, and barramunda) is the sole surviving member of the family Ceratodontidae and order Ceratodontiformes. It is one of only six extant lungfish species in the world. Endemic to Australia, the Ceratodontidae is an ancient family belonging to the subclass Sarcopterygii, or fleshy-finned fishes. [more]


Flabby whalefishes are small, deep-sea cetomimiform fish of the family Cetomimidae. They are among the most deep-living fish known, with some species recorded at depths in excess of 3.5 kilometres. Within the family are nine genera and 20 species. Juveniles are known as tapetails and were formerly thought to be in a separate family, dubbed Mirapinnidae. Adults exhibit extreme sexual dimorphism, and the adult males were once thought to be exemplars of still another family, Megalomycteridae. [more]


Cetopsidae is a small family of catfishes (order Siluriformes), commonly called the whale catfishes. [more]


Chaca is the only genus in the catfish family Chacidae. These fish are commonly known as squarehead catfishes, frogmouth catfishes, or angler catfishes. These unusual fish have a sedentary lifestyle and spend much of their time immobile. [more]


The blennioid family Chaenopsidae includes the pike-blennies, tube-blennies and flagblennies: all perciform marine fish. The family is strictly tropical, ranging from North to South America. There are 14 genera and 90 species represented, the largest being the sarcastic fringehead, Neoclinus blanchardi, at 30 centimetres (12 in) in length; most are much smaller, and the group includes perhaps the smallest of all vertebrates, Acanthemblemaria paula, measuring just 1.3 centimetres (0.51 in) long as an adult. [more]


The butterflyfish are a group of conspicuous tropical marine fish of the family Chaetodontidae; the bannerfish and coralfish are also included in this group. Found mostly on the reefs of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans, there are approximately 120 species in 10 genera. A number of species pairs occur in the Indian and Pacific oceans, members of the huge genus Chaetodon. [more]


Champsodon is the sole genus in the family Champsodontidae, the crocodile toothfishes. [more]


The milkfish (Chanos chanos) is the sole living species in the family Chanidae. (About seven extinct species in five additional genera have been reported.) The Hawaiian name is awa, without initial glottal stop, not to be confused with ?awa, with initial glottal stop, the name for Kava (Piper methysticum). [more]


The crocodile icefish or white-blooded fish (Channichthyidae) are a family of perciform fish found in the cold waters around Antarctica and southern South America. Water temperature can drop below 0 ?C (the freezing point of freshwater) in the Antarctic sea but stays rather constant. There are sixteen known species of crocodile icefish. They feed on krill, copepods, and other fish. [more]


The snakeheads are members of the freshwater perciform fish family Channidae, native to Africa and Asia. These elongated, predatory fish are distinguished by a long dorsal fin, large mouth and shiny teeth. They breathe air with a , a primitive form of a labyrinth organ. The two extant genera are Channa in Asia and Parachanna in Africa, consisting of 30-35 species. [more]


The Characidae, characids or characins are a family of freshwater subtropical and tropical fish, belonging to the order Characiformes. The name "characins" is the historical one, but scientists today tend to prefer "characids" to reflect their status as a by and large monophyletic group at family rank. To arrive there, this family has undergone much systematic and taxonomic change. Among those fishes that remain in the Characidae for the time being are the tetras, comprising the very similar genera Hemigrammus and Hyphessobrycon, as well as a few related forms such as the cave and neon tetras. Fish of this family are important as food and also include popular aquarium fish species. [more]




The earthworm eels are a family (Chaudhuriidae) of small freshwater eel-like fish related to the swamp eels and spiny eels. The ten known species (as of 2011) are literally the size and shape of earthworms, thus the family name. While one species, the (Chaudhuria caudata) was reported from the Inle Lake by Nelson Annandale in 1918, the others have been only recently reported (since the 1970s), all in the eastern Asia area, from India to Korea. [more]


Coffinfish are a family, Chaunacidae, of deep-sea anglerfishes. [more]


Morwongs are perciform fishes comprising the family Cheilodactylidae. Most of the almost 30 species are found in temperate and subtropical oceans in the Southern Hemisphere, but three (Cheilodactylus quadricornis, C. zebra and C. zonatus) are restricted to northwest Pacific off Japan and China, and C. vittatus is restricted to Hawaii. The largest species grow up to 1.2 metres (3.9 ft), but most species only reach around half that length. They feed on small invertebrates on the ocean floor. Several species of morwong are commercially harvested as food fish, particularly in Australia. [more]






Chiasmodontidae, the snaketooth fishes, is a family of deep-sea fishes in the order Perciformes. [more]


Chilodontidae is the taxonomic name given to two families : [more]


The wolf herrings are a family (Chirocentridae) of two marine species of ray-finned fish related to the herrings. [more]




The kelpfishes are a family of perciform fishes, native to coastal Australia and New Zealand. [more]


The Chlopsidae, or false morays, are a family of eels found in coral reefs worldwide. As their name suggests, they somewhat resemble moray eels in appearance. However, they are smaller than true morays, ranging from 11 centimetres (4.3 in) to 42 centimetres (17 in) in length. [more]


Greeneyes are deep-sea aulopiform marine fishes in the small family Chlorophthalmidae. Thought to have a circumglobal distribution in tropical and temperate waters, the family contains just 18 species in two genera. The family name Chlorophthalmidae derives from the Greek words chloros meaning "green" and ophthalmos meaning "eye". [more]


Chondrosteidae (pronounced ) is a family of extinct actinopterygian fishes in the order Acipenseriformes. [more]


Cichlids () are fishes from the family Cichlidae in the order Perciformes. Cichlids are members of a group known as the Labroidei along with the wrasses (Labridae), damselfish (Pomacentridae), and surfperches (Embiotocidae). This family is both large and diverse. At least 1,650 species have been scientifically described, making it one of the largest vertebrate families. New species are discovered annually, and many species remain undescribed. The actual number of species is therefore unknown, with estimates varying between 1,300 and 3,000. [more]




Hawkfish are strictly tropical, perciform marine fish of the family Cirrhitidae. Associated with the coral reefs of the western and eastern Atlantic and Indo-Pacific, the hawkfish family contains 12 genera and 32 species. They share many morphological features with the scorpionfish of the family Scorpaenidae. [more]


The Citharidae are a small family of flounders. They are found in the Mediterranean Sea, the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific from Japan to Australia. [more]


Citharinidae, the lutefishes, is a small family of characiform fish. They are fresh-water fish native to Africa, and are sufficiently abundant to be a significant food fish. [more]


The family Ichthyodectidae (literally "fish-biters") was a family of marine actinopterygian fish. Sometimes classified in the primitive bony fish order Pachycormiformes, they are today generally regarded as members of the "" order Ichthyodectiformes in the far more advanced Osteoglossomorpha. The type genus is Ichthyodectes, established by Edward Drinker Cope in 1870. [more]


Airbreathing catfishes are fishes comprising the family Clariidae of order Siluriformes. There are about 14 genera and 100 species of clariids. All the clariids are freshwater species. [more]


The Claroteidae are a family of catfish (Order Siluriformes) found in Africa. This family was separated from Bagridae. However, the monophyly of the family is sometimes contested. [more]


Clinids are blennioids; perciform marine fish of the family Clinidae. Temperate blennies, the family ranges from the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans, in both the Southern and Northern Hemisphere. The family contains approximately 86 species in 20 genera, the 60 centimetre long giant kelpfish (Heterostichus rostratus) being the largest; most are far smaller. [more]


Clupeidae is the family of the herrings, shads, sardines, hilsa and menhadens. It includes many of the most important food fishes in the world. [more]


Cobitidae is the family of the true loaches, which are Old World freshwater fish. They occur throughout Eurasia and in Morocco, and inhabit riverine ecosystems. Today, most "loaches" are placed in other families (see below). But more than 100 species remain in the Cobitidae, while the number of genera has almost doubled to nearly 30 in the past few years[] due to new discoveries and divisions of older genera. New species are being described regularly. [more]


Coccodontidae is an extinct family of extinct pycnodontid fish that lived during the lower Cenomanian. The various genera had massive, curved spines. [more]


Coelacanthidae is an extinct family of coelacanths found throughout the world, originating during the Permian, and finally dying out during the Jurassic. [more]


Coiidae is a family of fish. Their taxonomic position is disputed: they are related to the Lobotidae and the Datnioides (such as Datnioides microlepis) and were once considered synonymous with the latter, and may be the same as the Anabas. [more]


The Colocongridae, the Worm eels or Short-tail eels are a family of eels, containing a single genus, Coloconger. [more]


The golomyankas (lit. "naked") or Baikal oilfish are two species of peculiar, sculpin-like fishes endemic to Lake Baikal in Russia. [more]




Congiopodidae is a family of scorpaeniform fishes native to the southern hemisphere, commonly known as pigfishes, horsefishes and racehorses. [more]


Congridae is the family of conger and garden eels. Congers are valuable and often large food fishes, while garden eels live in colonies, all protruding from the sea floor after the manner of plants in a garden (thus the name). The family includes over 180 species in 32 genera. [more]


The Coryphaenidae are a family of marine ray-finned fish belonging to the Order Perciformes. The family contains only one genus, Coryphaena, which contains two species, both of which have compressed heads and single dorsal fins that run the entire length of the fish's bodies. Dolphinfishes are unrelated to dolphins (which are mammals) and their meat is often labeled mahi-mahi commercially to reduce possible public confusion. [more]


The Cottidae is a family of demersal fish in the order Scorpaeniformes, suborder (or sculpins). There are about 300 species in 70 genera of Cottidae (cottids) that are mostly marine and found in shallow coastal waters in the northern and arctic regions. The highest diversity is in the North Pacific. [more]


Baikal sculpins, (family Cottocomephoridae), are a family of scorpaeniform fishes. [more]


Cranoglanis is the only genus of armorhead catfishes. [more]


The sandburrowers or simply burrowers are a family, Creediidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. [more]




Cryptacanthodidae is a family of fish containing a single genus, Cryptacanthodes. There are four species in the genus Cryptacanthodes. This family is also known by the common names risue?os, terrassiers and wrymouths. [more]




Ctenoluciidae (meaning "comb light family"), also known as pike-characins, is a small family of freshwater fishes from Panama and South America. [more]


Curimatidae is a family of freshwater fishes, known as the toothless characins of the order Characiformes. They originate from southern Costa Rica to northern Argentina. The family has around 95 species, many of them frequently exploited for human consumption. They are closely related to the Prochilodontidae. [more]




The bobtail snipe eels are two species of deep-sea fishes in the family Cyematidae, one only in each of two genera. They are small elongate fishes, growing up to 16 centimeters (6 inches) long. [more]


Cynodontidae fishes (order Characiformes), or dogteeth tetras, are a family of freshwater fishes found in the Neotropics. This group is not very diverse, and includes only five genera and 14 species. Most of what is known about this family is from the members of the subfamily Cynodontinae, which includes the largest species of this family, up to 65 centimetres (26 in). Understanding of the members of subfamily are less known, though they only reach up to 20 cm. [more]


Tonguefishes are a family, Cynoglossidae, of flatfishes. They are distinguished by the presence of a long hook on the snout overhanging the mouth, and the absence of pectoral fins. Their eyes are both on the left side of their body, which also lacks a pelvic fin. [more]


The family Cyprinidae, from the Ancient Greek kypr?nos (??p?????, "carp"), consists of the carps, the true minnows, and their relatives (for example, the barbs and barbels). Commonly called the carp family or the minnow family, its members are also known as cyprinids. It is the largest family of fresh-water fish, with over 2,400 species in about 220 genera. The family belongs to the order Cypriniformes, of whose genera and species the cyprinids make up two-thirds. [more]


Pupfish are a group of small killifish belonging to ten genera of the family Cyprinodontidae of ray-finned fish. All pupfish are especially noted for being found in extreme and isolated situations, in various parts of North America, South America, and the Caribbean region. As of August 2006 there were 120 known nominal species, and 9 subspecies. [more]


The flying gurnards are a family, Dactylopteridae, of marine fish notable for their greatly enlarged pectoral fins. As they cannot literally fly, an alternative name preferred by some authors is helmet gurnards. They are the only family in the suborder Dactylopteroidei. [more]


Sand stargazers are blennioids; perciform marine fish of the odd family Dactyloscopidae. Found in temperate to tropical waters of North and South America; some may also inhabit brackish environments.. There are 44 species in nine genera represented, the giant sand stargazer (Dactylagnus mundus) being the largest at 15 centimetres in length; all other species are under 10 centimetres. [more]




Mercer's tusked silverside, Dentatherina merceri, is a species of fish. [more]


The denticle herring (Denticeps clupeoides) is a small (15 cm) species of ray-finned fish found only in the rivers of Benin, Nigeria and Cameroon, related to the herrings, but notable for its large anal fin and its array of denticle like scales under the head giving it almost a furry appearance. It is the sole living member of the family Denticipitidae. [more]




Longneck eels or neck eels are a family, Derichthyidae, of eels. They are pelagic fishes, found in the middle and depths of most oceans. The name comes from Greek deres meaning "neck" and ichthys meaning "fish". [more]


Double anglers are a family, Diceratiidae, of anglerfishes. They are found in deep, lightless waters of the Atlantic, Indian and western Pacific Oceans. [more]


The galjoen fishes are a small family, Dichistiidae, of perciform fishes. There are just two species in the family in the single genus Dichistius: [more]


The long-finned pike or yellowfin pike, Dinolestes lewini, is a species of perciform fish, the only species in the genus Dinolestes as well as the familia family Dinolestidae. [more]


Dinopercidae, also known as the cavebasses, is a family of marine perciform fish consisting of a single species, , which is native to the Indian Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Angola. [more]




Porcupinefish are fish of the family Diodontidae, (order Tetraodontiformes), also commonly called blowfish (and, sometimes, "balloonfish" and "globefish"). [more]


Diplomystidae, the Velvet catfishes, is a family of catfishes endemic to South America. It currently contains six species in two genera. [more]


Dipnorhynchidae is an extinct family of prehistoric lungfishes which lived during the Devonian period. [more]


Dipteridae is an extinct family of prehistoric lungfishes which lived during the Devonian period. [more]


Spinyfins are a family, Diretmidae, of beryciform fishes. The name is from Greek, di meaning "two" and eretmos meaning "oar". They are found worldwide in deep waters, down to as much as 2,000 metres (6,600 ft). [more]


Doradidae is a family of catfishes also known as thorny catfishes or talking catfishes. These fish are native to South America, primarily in Brazil, Peru, and the Guianas. [more]




Draconettidae, the slope dragonets, is a small family of fish in the order Perciformes. They are found in temperate to tropical waters of the Atlantic, Indian and western Pacific Oceans. They are closely related to, and appear similar to, the fish of the Callionymidae. They are small fish, the largest species reaching 12 centimetres (4.7 in) long. Like the Callionymids, they are bottom-dwelling fish, and usually sexually dimorphic. [more]


The remora (), sometimes called a suckerfish or sharksucker, is an elongated, brown fish in the order Perciformes and family Echeneidae. They grow to 30?90 centimetres long (1?3 ft), and their distinctive first dorsal fin takes the form of a modified oval sucker-like organ with slat-like structures that open and close to create suction and take a firm hold against the skin of larger marine animals. By sliding backward, the remora can increase the suction, or it can release itself by swimming forward. Remoras sometimes attach to small boats. They swim well on their own, with a sinuous, or curved, motion. [more]


Elassoma is a genus of freshwater fish, the only member of family Elassomatidae and suborder Elassomatoidei of order Perciformes. The type species is E. zonatum, the banded pygmy sunfish. The Elassomatidae are known collectively as pygmy sunfishes, but are not true sunfishes, which are members of family Centrarchidae. Some researchers believe they are related to sticklebacks and pipefishes (order Syngnathiformes) rather than Perciformes. [more]


The electric eel (Electrophorus electricus), is an electric fish, and the only species of the genus Electrophorus. It is capable of generating powerful electric shocks, of up to six hundred volts, which it uses for both hunting and self-defense. It is an apex predator in its South American range. Despite its name it is not an eel but rather a knifefish. [more]


Sleeper gobies are members of the Eleotridae fish family, found predominantly in the tropical Indo-Pacific. There are approximately 35 genera and 150 species. While many eleotrids pass through a planktonic stage in the sea and some spend their entire lives in the sea, as adults the majority live in freshwater streams and brackish waters. They are especially important as predators in the freshwater stream ecosystems on oceanic islands such as New Zealand and Hawai'i that otherwise lack the predatory fish families typical of nearby continents, such as catfish. Anatomically they are similar to the gobies (Gobiidae), though unlike the majority of gobies, they do not have a pelvic sucker. [more]




Elopidae is a family of ray-finned fish containing the single genus Elops. They are commonly known as ladyfish, skipjacks, Jack-Rashes, or tenpounders. [more]


The surfperches are a family, Embiotocidae, of perciform fishes. They are found in coastal waters of the northern Pacific and grow up to 45 cm (17.7 inches) long. [more]


Rovers are a family of small to medium sized marine fish. The family was once much larger, including a wide range of plankton-eating fish, but most of the genera were discovered to be unrelated examples of parallel evolution, and were moved to other families. [more]




Anchovies are a family (Engraulidae) of small, common salt-water forage fish. There are 144 species in 17 genera, found in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans. Anchovies are usually classified as an oily fish. [more]


Enoplosus armatus is a species of perciform fish, the only species in the family Enoplosidae. [more]


Ephippidae is the fish family containing the spadefishes. There are about eight genera, with a total of 20 species, mostly marine. The most well-known species are probably those in the reef-dwelling genus Platax, the batfishes, which are kept as aquarium fish. They are spade-shaped, laterally compressed, and very symmetrical triangular dorsal and anal fins. They are shiny silver with areas of yellow and vertical brown or black banding. The eyes are often located in one of the vertical bands as a method of camouflage. Scuba divers sometimes mistake them for angelfish, which are similar in shape but not closely related. Other genera in the family are characterized by long, trailing, pointed dorsal and anal fins. Most species feed primarily on algae and small invertebrates. [more]


Deepwater cardinalfishes are perciform fishes in the family Epigonidae. [more]


Erethistidae are a family of catfishes that originate from southern Asia. [more]


Ereuniidae is a family of scorpaeniform fishes. They are native to deep marine waters around Japan. The lower four rays of the pectoral fin are elongated and free. [more]


The Erythrinidae are a family of freshwater fish found in rivers from Costa Rica south as far as Argentina. They are common and are usually caught with hooks by fishermen, partially because of their voracious behaviour. [more]


Esox is a genus of freshwater fish, the only living genus in the family Esocidae ? the esocids which were endemic to North America, Europe and Eurasia during the Paleogene through present. [more]


The Eucla cod, Euclichthys polynemus, is a deepwater marine fish belonging to the cod order (Gadiformes). It is the only species currently classified in the family Euclichthyidae. It is named after the town of Eucla, Western Australia, in whose coastal waters it is found. [more]


The pelican eel, or Eurypharynx pelecanoides, is a deep-sea fish rarely seen by humans, though the creatures are occasionally caught in fishing nets. It is an eel-like fish, the only known member of the genus Eurypharynx and the family Eurypharyngidae. It belongs to the order Saccopharyngiformes which is closely related to the true eels in Anguilliformes. It is also sometimes referred to as the umbrella mouth gulper. The specific epithet pelecanoides refers to the pelican, because the large mouth is reminiscent of that of the bird. The fish is also known by the alternative scientific names Gastrostomus pacificus, Macropharynx longicaudatus, Gastrostomus bairdii, Eurypharynx richardi and Leptocephalus pseudolatissimus. [more]




Sabertooth or sabretooth fish are small, fierce-looking deep-sea aulopiform fish comprising the family Evermannellidae. The family is small, with just eight species in three genera represented; they are distributed throughout tropical to subtropical waters of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Ocean. [more]


Exocoetidae, is a family of marine fish in the order Beloniformes of class Actinopterygii. Fish of this family are known as flying fish. There are about 64 species grouped in seven to nine genera. [more]


The cornetfishes are a small family Fistulariidae of extremely elongated fishes in the order Syngnathiformes. The family consists of just a single genus Fistularia with four species, found worldwide in tropical and subtropical marine environments. [more]






Fundulidae is the family of topminnows and (mainly) North American killifishes. The 46 species are native to North America as far south as Yucatan, and to the islands of Bermuda and Cuba, occurring in both freshwater and marine environments. [more]


Gadidae is a family of marine fish, included in the order Gadiformes. It includes the cod, haddock, whiting, and pollock. [more]


The Galaxiidae, also known by the anglicised name as galaxiids, are a family of mostly small freshwater fish in the southern hemisphere. The majority of species live in Australia or New Zealand, some are also found in South Africa, South America, Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia and the Falkland Islands. One of the galaxiid species, the common galaxias (Galaxias maculatus), is probably the most widely naturally distributed freshwater fish in the world. They are cool water species, found in temperate latitudes, with only one species known from sub-tropical habitat. Many specialise in living in cold, high altitude upland rivers, streams and lakes. [more]


The freshwater hatchetfishes are a family, Gasteropelecidae, of ray-finned fish. The common hatchetfish is the most popular member among fish keeping hobbyists. The family includes three genera: Carnegiella (4 species), Gasteropelecus (3 species), and Thoracocharax (2 species). [more]


The Gasterosteidae are a family of fish including the sticklebacks. FishBase currently recognises sixteen species in the family, grouped in five genera. However several of the species have a number of recognised subspecies, and the taxonomy of the family is thought to be in need of revision. Although some authorities give the common name of the family as "sticklebacks and tube-snouts", the tube-snouts are currently classified in the related family Aulorhynchidae. [more]


Gempylidae is a family of perciform fishes, commonly known as snake mackerels or escolars. [more]


The mojarras are a family, Gerreidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. It has seven genera. [more]


Gibberichthyidae, also known as Gibberfishes, are a type of living, vertebrata fish. This fish carries an IUCN Red List status of "Not Evaluated". [more]


The Whipnose anglers, Gigantactinidae, are a family of deep-sea anglerfishes. The family name is derived from the Greek words "gigas", meaning "big", and "aktis", meaning "ray". They are distinguished by the presence of a remarkably long lure (the illicium), which may be longer than the body of the fish. [more]


Telescopefish are small, deep-sea aulopiform fish comprising the small family Giganturidae. There are just two known species, both within the genus Gigantura. Though rarely captured, they are found in cold, deep tropical to subtropical waters worldwide. [more]


The pearl perches are members of the perciform family Glaucosomatidae containing a single genus (Glaucosoma) of four species: [more]


The red velvetfish, Gnathanacanthus goetzeei, is a marine scorpaeniform fish of the inshore waters of western and southern Australia. It is the sole member of the family Gnathanacanthidae and genus Gnathanacanthus. [more]


Clingfishes are fishes of the family Gobiesocidae. Most species are marine, being found in shallow waters of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. They are bottom-dwelling fishes; some species shelter in sea urchins or crinoids. [more]


The gobies form the family Gobiidae, which is one of the largest families of fish, with more than 2,000 species in more than 200 genera. Most are relatively small, typically less than 10 cm (4 in) in length. Gobies include some of the smallest vertebrates in the world, like species of the genera Trimmatom nanus and Pandaka pygmaea, which are under 1 cm (3/8 in) long when fully grown. There are some large gobies, such as some species of the genera or Periophthalmodon, that can reach over 30 cm (1 ft) in length, but that is exceptional. Although few are important as food for humans, they are of great significance as prey species for commercially important fish like cod, haddock, sea bass, and flatfish. Several gobies are also of interest as aquarium fish, such as the bumblebee gobies of the genus Brachygobius. [more]


The beaked salmon (also beaked sandfish) are a type of long thin gonorynchiform ray-finned fish that live on sandy bottoms near shorelines. The approximately five known species are all in the single genus Gonorynchus (sometimes spelled Gonorhynchus) of the family Gonorynchidae (sometimes spelled Gonorhynchidae). All have a distinctive angular snout (hence the name) that the fish use to dig themselves into the sand. [more]


Gonostomatidae is a family of deep-water marine fish, commonly named bristlemouths, lightfishes or anglemouths. It is a relatively small family, containing only eight known genera and 32 species. However, bristlemouths make up for their lack of diversity with numbers: Cyclothone, with 12 species, is thought to be (along with Vinciguerria), the most abundant vertebrate genus in the world. [more]


Splitfins, are a family, Goodeidae, of teleost fish endemic to Mexico and some areas of the United States. This family contains 40 species within 18 genera. The family is named after ichthyologist George Brown Goode. [more]


The basslets are a small family, Grammatidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. The twelve members (in two genera) are all small fish of the western Atlantic, typically no more than 10 cm in length. Several species are colorful and popular for marine aquaria. They can also change their gender. [more]


Grammicolepididae is a small family of deep-sea fishes, called tinselfishes due to their silvery color. [more]




Gymnarchus niloticus ? commonly known as the aba, aba aba, frankfish, freshwater rat-tail or African knifefish ? is an electric fish, and the only species in the genus Gymnarchus and the family Gymnarchidae within the order Osteoglossiformes. It is found exclusively in swamps and near vegetated edges in the Nile, Turkana, Chad, Niger, Volta, Senegal, and Gambia basins. [more]


The naked-back knifefishes are a family (Gymnotidae) of knifefishes (knivefish) that are found only in fresh waters of Central America and South America. All have organs adapted to the exploitation of bioelectricity. The family has 33 valid species in two genera. There are a number of undescribed species known in museum collections. [more]


Gyrinocheilus, also Chinese algae eater or sucking loach, is the single genus in the family Gyrinocheilidae, a family of small Southeast Asian cypriniform fishes that live in fast-flowing freshwater mountain streams. They hold on to fixed objects using a sucker-like mouth, and, despite the name, feed on a wide range of detritus, rather than simply on algae. [more]






The grunts are a family, Haemulidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. They are numerous and widespread, with about 150 species in 19 genera, found in tropical fresh, brackish and salt waters around the world. They are bottom-feeding predators, and named for their ability to produce sound by grinding their teeth. [more]




Halosaurs are eel-shaped fishes found only at great ocean depths. As the family Halosauridae, halosaurs are one of two families within the order Notacanthiformes; the other being the deep-sea spiny eels. Halosaurs are thought to have a worldwide distribution, with some seventeen species in three genera represented. Only a handful of specimens have been observed alive, all via chance encounters with remotely operated submersibles. [more]


Harpagiferidae, also known as Spiny Plunderfishes, are a type of living, vertebrata fish. This fish carries an IUCN Red List status of "Not Evaluated". [more]




Kissing gouramis, also known as kissing fish or kissers (Helostoma temminckii), are large tropical freshwater fish comprising the monotypic labyrinth fish family Helostomatidae (from the Greek elos [stud, nail], stoma [mouth]). These fish originate from Thailand to Indonesia. They can be food fish which are farmed in their native Southeast Asia. They are used fresh for steaming, baking, broiling, and pan frying. The kissing gourami is a popular aquarium fish. [more]


The Hemidontidae is a small family of freshwater characins found in northern South America, south to the Paran?-Paraguay Basin. The larger species are popular food fish. [more]


The halfbeaks (family Hemiramphidae) are a geographically widespread and numerically abundant family of epipelagic fish inhabiting warm waters around the world. The family Hemiramphidae is divided into two subfamilies, the primarily marine Hemiramphinae and the freshwater or estuarine Zenarchopterinae. The halfbeaks are named for their distinctive jaws, in which the lower jaws are significantly longer than the upper jaws. The halfbeaks show an exceptionally wide range of reproductive modes. These include egg-laying, ovoviviparity, and true vivipary where the mother is connected to the developing embryos via a placenta-like structure. In some of the livebearing species, developing embryos are also known to exhibit oophagy or intrauterine cannibalism, where developing embryos feed on eggs or other embryos within the uterus. [more]


Sea ravens are a family, Hemitripteridae of scorpaeniform fishes. They are bottom-dwelling fishes that feed on small invertebrates, found in the northwest Atlantic and north Pacific oceans. They are covered in small spines (modified scales). [more]


Hepsetus, the African pikes, is a genus of African fishes in the characin order, Characiformes. It is the sole genus in the family Hepsetidae and until 2011 was considered to be monotypic. It now is considered to consist of two described species. [more]


Heptapteridae is a family of catfish that originate from Mexico to South America. Heptapteridae is derived from Greek, hepta meaning seven and pteron meaning fin. [more]


The Heterenchelyidae or Mud eels are a small family of eels native to the Atlantic, Mediterranean, and eastern Pacific. [more]


Heteropneustes, the airsac catfishes, is a genus of catfishes native to Asia. This genus is the only one in its family. [more]


The family of marine fishes Hexagrammidae incorporates the greenlings. These fish are found on the continental shelf in the temperate or subarctic waters of the North Pacific. They are a well-known family in the littoral zone from southern California north to the Aleutian Islands. The most commercially important species is the lingcod (Ophiodon elongatus), a common food fish. [more]


The footballfish are a family, Himantolophidae, of globose, deep-sea anglerfishes found in tropical and subtropical waters of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Ocean. The family contains c. 19 species all in a single genus, Himantolophus (from the Greek imantos, "thong, strap", and lophos, "crest"). [more]


The mooneyes are a family, the Hiodontidae, of primitive ray-finned fish comprising two living and three extinct species in the genus Hiodon. They are large-eyed, fork-tailed fish that physically resemble shads. Their common name comes from the metallic gold or silver shine of their eyes. [more]




The Holocentridae is a family of ray-finned fish, belonging to the order Beryciformes with the members of the subfamily Holocentrinae typically known as squirrelfish, while the members of Myripristinae typically are known as soldierfish. In Hawaii they are known as menpachi. [more]




Hoplichthyidae is a family of scorpaeniform fishes native to the Indo-Pacific Oceans, commonly known as ghost flatheads. There is a single genus, Hoplichthys. [more]




Hypopomidae is a family of fishes in the order Gymnotiformes known as the bluntnose knifefish. They may also be called grass or leaf knifefishes. These fish are not often eaten, of little commercial importances, are rarely kept as aquarium fish, and are poorly studied; however, species in this family may constitute a significant fraction of the biomass to the areas they inhabit. [more]


Hypoptychus dybowskii is a fish, one of several commonly known as a sand eel, that is the only member of its genus and family. It is related to sticklebacks, and lives in shallow salt water off the coasts of Japan and Sakhalin (Russia). [more]






The ragfish, Icosteus aenigmaticus, is an odd ray-finned fish of the northern Pacific Ocean; although a perciform, its skeleton is mostly cartilage, and the larvae have pelvic fins that disappear as they mature. It is the sole member of the family Icosteidae, and some authorities place it into its own order Icosteiformes. It was first described by W. N. Lockington in 1880. [more]


The Ictaluridae, sometimes called Ictalurids, are a family of catfish native to North America, where they are important food fish and sometimes as a sport fish. They include fish commonly known as bullheads, madtoms, channel catfish, and blue catfish. [more]


Indostomus is sole genus in the family of fishes Indostomidae and contains only three species. The indostomids are small, tropical fish in the stickleback order Gasterosteiformes, and are closely related to seahorses and pipefishes. [more]


The Bonnetmouths (Inermiidae) are a very small family of fishes in the order Perciformes with only two known species in two genera, the bonnetmouth and the boga. [more]




Ipnopidae (deepsea tripod fishes) is a family of fishes in the order Aulopiformes. They are small slender fishes, with maximum length ranging from about 10 centimetres (3.9 in) to about 40 centimetres (16 in). They are found in temperate and tropical deep waters of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans. [more]




Marlin, family Istiophoridae, are fish with an elongated body, a spear-like snout or bill, and a long rigid dorsal fin, which extends forward to form a crest. Its common name is thought to derive from its resemblance to a sailor's marlinspike. Even more so than their close relatives the scombrids, marlin are incredibly fast swimmers, reaching speeds of about 110 kilometres per hour (68 mph). [more]




The Kneriidae are a small family of freshwater gonorhynchiform fishes native to Africa. [more]


The sand darters, family Kraemeriidae, are a small family of fishes containing eight species in two genera in the order Perciformes. Sand darters live in sandy shallow pools. They are found among coral. In breeding coloration the male fish has an occelated spot at the rear of the first dorsal fin. [more]


The flagtails (ahole or aholehole in the Hawaiian language) are a family (Kuhliidae) of perciform fish of the Indo-Pacific area. The family consists of several species in one genus, Kuhlia, of which, one, (K. rupestris), is freshwater. The others are marine. [more]


The nurseryfishes or forehead brooders are a family (Kurtidae) of fish that are notable for carrying their egg clusters on hooks protruding from the forehead () of the males. The family consists of just two species in the single genus Kurtus. [more]




The sea chubs are a family, Kyphosidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. [more]


The wrasses are a family, Labridae, of marine fish, many of which are brightly colored. The family is large and diverse, with over 600 species in 82 genera, which are divided into nine subgroups or tribes. They are typically small fish, most of them less than 20 centimetres (7.9 in) long, although the largest, the Humphead wrasse, can measure up to 2.5 metres (8.2 ft). They are efficient carnivores, feeding on a wide range of small invertebrates. Many smaller wrasses follow the feeding trails of larger fish, picking up invertebrates disturbed by their passing. [more]


Labrisomids are small blennioids, perciform marine fish belonging to the family Labrisomidae. Found mostly in the tropical Atlantic and Pacific Ocean, the family contains approximately 98 species in 14 genera. [more]


The Chiapas catfish, Lacantunia enigmatica, is an unusual species of catfish (Order Siluriformes) newly described in 2005 from the Lacant?n River in the Mexican state of Chiapas. While discovery of an undescribed species of catfish is not uncommon, discovery of a new family-level taxon of any vertebrate group is a rare event. The Chiapas catfish mainly feeds on crabs, prawns, small fish, and large, tough plant seeds. This catfish is commonly fished in its natural habitat, where it is known as madre de juil, which means "mother of Rhamdia" (a common fish in the area). [more]


This species of fish is of the genus Lactarius in the family Lactariidae. It is also known as the milky travelly or the 'parava', and is found in , brackish, and marine waters. This fish is more commonly known as Butter Fish and in Telugu as "Methani Paara" amongst fisherman community in Andhra Pradesh, India [more]


Opah (also commonly known as moonfish, sunfish, kingfish, redfin ocean pan, and Jerusalem haddock) are large, colorful, deep-bodied pelagic Lampriform fish comprising the small family Lampridae (also spelled Lamprididae). There are only two living species in a single genus: Lampris (from the Greek lamprid-, "brilliant" or "clear"). One species is found in tropical to temperate waters of most oceans, while the other is limited to a circumglobal distribution in the Southern Ocean, with the 34th parallel as its northern limit. Two additional species, one in the genus Lampris and the other in the monotypic Megalampris, are only known from fossil remains. The extinct family, Turkmenidae, from the Paleogene of Central Asia, is closely related, though much smaller. [more]


Coelacanths (, adaptation of Modern Latin C?lacanthus "hollow spine", from Greek ????-?? koilos "hollow" + ??a??-a akantha "spine", referring to the hollow caudal fin rays of the first fossil specimen described and named by Agassiz in 1839 ) are members of an order of fish that includes the oldest living lineage of Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fish + tetrapods) known to date. [more]


Trumpeters are a family of perciform fishes, Latridae. They are found in southern waters off Australia, New Zealand, and Chile, where they are fished commercially and for sport. They are closely related to Cheilodactylidae, and the majority of the species that traditionally are placed in the latter family may actually belong in Latridae. [more]




The Lebiasinidae (order Characiformes), are a family of freshwater fishes found in Costa Rica, Panama, and South America. They are usually small and are known as ornamental fishes in aquaria, including popular fishes such as the pencil fish and splashing tetra. [more]


The ponyfishes also known as slipmouths or slimys are a small family, Leiognathidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. They inhabit marine and brackish waters in the Indian Ocean and West Pacific. [more]


Lepidogalaxias salamandroides is a species of small fish of Western Australia. It is the only member of the family Lepidogalaxiidae (Lepidogalaxiid) and genus Lepidogalaxias. Common names for this fish include Salamanderfish and Shannon mudminnow. Although it is not a lungfish, it resembles lungfish in several respects, including its ability to survive dry seasons by burrowing into the sand. [more]


The South American lungfish, Lepidosiren paradoxa, is the single species of lungfish found in swamps and slow-moving waters of the Amazon, Paraguay, and lower Paran? River basins in South America. Notable as an obligate air-breather, it is the sole member of its family Lepidosirenidae. Relatively little is known about the South American lungfish. [more]


In American English the name gar (or garpike) is strictly applied to members of the Lepisosteidae, a family including seven living species of fish in two genera that inhabit fresh, brackish, and occasionally marine, waters of eastern North America, Central America, and the Caribbean islands. [more]


The beachsalmon (Leptobrama muelleri) is a species of perciform, primarily coastal marine or brackish fish and the sole representative of its family, Leptobramidae. Found in tropical coastal waters of the Western Pacific off southern New Guinea, Queensland, and Western Australia. The beachsalmon is a popular sport fish in Australia where it is sometimes called flat salmon, silver salmon, slender bream, or skippy (a name also applied to several species of trevally). [more]


Leptochilichthys is a genus of marine smelts containing four species. Leptochilichthys is the only genus in the family Leptochilichthyidae. Some sources place this genus within the broader family Alepocephalidae. [more]




The southern sandfishes are a family, Leptoscopidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. [more]


The emperor breams or simply emperors also known as pigface breams are a family, Lethrinidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. [more]


Leftvents are small, deep-sea lophiiform fish comprising the family Linophrynidae. Twenty-seven species in five genera are represented, distributed throughout tropical to subtropical waters of all oceans. [more]




Tripletails are perciform fishes in the genus Lobotes, the only genus in the family Lobotidae. [more]


Lophichthys boschmai, is a species of anglerfish, closely related to the frogfishes. It is the only member of its family, the Lophichthyidae. [more]


Monkfish are a family, Lophiidae, of anglerfishes. They are found in the Arctic, Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans where they live on sandy and muddy bottoms of the continental shelf and continental slope, at depths in excess of 1,000 metres (3,300 ft). [more]


Crestfishes are lampriform fishes in the family Lophotidae. They are elongate ribbon-like fishes, silver in color, found in deep tropical and subtropical waters worldwide. Their scientific name is from Greek lophos meaning "crest" and refer to the crest (part of the dorsal fin) that emerges from the snout and head; this structure gives them their other name of unicorn fishes. [more]


Loricariidae is the largest family of catfish (Order Siluriformes), with almost 700 species and new species being described each year. Loricariids originate from fresh water habitats of Costa Rica, Panama, and tropical and subtropical South America. These fish are noted for the bony plates covering their bodies and their suckermouths. Several genera are sold as "plecos", notably the suckermouth catfish, Hypostomus plecostomus, and are popular as aquarium fish. [more]


Lotidae is a family of cod-like fishes commonly known as lings or rocklings. [more]


Snappers are a family of perciform fish, Lutjanidae, mainly marine but with some members inhabiting estuaries, feeding in freshwater. Some are important food fish. One of the best known is the red snapper. [more]


The louvar or luvar, Luvarus imperialis, is a species of perciform fish, the only extant species in the genus Luvarus and family Luvaridae. Other species and genera are only known from fossils dating back to the Paleogene. It is closely related to the surgeonfish. The juvenile form has a pair of spines near the base of the tail, like the surgeonfish, though they are lost in the adult. [more]






Grenadiers or rattails (less commonly whiptails) are generally large, brown to black gadiform marine fish of the family Macrouridae. Found at great depths from the Arctic to Antarctic, members of this family are among the most abundant of the deep-sea fishes. [more]




Tilefishes, also known as blanquillo, are mostly small perciform marine fish comprising the family Malacanthidae. They are usually found in sandy areas, especially near coral reefs. [more]


Electric catfish is the common name for the catfish (order Siluriformes) family Malapteruridae. This family includes two genera, Malapterurus and Paradoxoglanis with 19 species. Several species of this family have the ability to produce an electric shock of up to 350 volts using electroplaques of an electric organ. Electric catfish are found in tropical Africa and the Nile River. Electric catfish are usually nocturnal and feed primarily on other fish, incapacitating their prey with electric discharges. [more]


The Mastacembelidae are a family of fishes, known as the spiny eels. The Mastacembelids are part of the Order Synbranchiformes, the swamp eels, which are part of the Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes). [more]




Flabby whalefishes are small, deep-sea cetomimiform fish of the family Cetomimidae. They are among the most deep-living fish known, with some species recorded at depths in excess of 3.5 kilometres. Within the family are nine genera and 20 species. Juveniles are known as tapetails and were formerly thought to be in a separate family, dubbed Mirapinnidae. Adults exhibit extreme sexual dimorphism, and the adult males were once thought to be exemplars of still another family, Megalomycteridae. [more]


Tarpons are large fish of the genus Megalops. There are two species of Megalops, one native to the Atlantic, and the other to the Indo-Pacific oceans. They are the only members of the family Megalopidae. [more]


Ridgeheads, also known as bigscales, are a family (Melamphaidae, from the Greek melanos [black] and amphi [by both sides]) of small, deep-sea stephanoberyciform fish. The family contains approximately 37 species in five genera; their distribution is worldwide, but ridgeheads are absent from the Arctic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Although the family is one of the most widespread and plentiful of deep-sea families, none of its members are of interest to commercial fishery. [more]


Black seadevils are small, deep-sea lophiiform fish comprising the family Melanocetidae. There are five known species (with only two given common names), all within the genus Melanocetus. They are found in tropical to temperate waters of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Ocean, with one species known only from the Ross Sea. [more]


Melanonidae is a family containing just two species of cod-like marine fishes. [more]


The rainbowfish are a family of small, colorful, freshwater fish that are found in northern and eastern Australia and New Guinea and in the Southeast Asian islands. [more]


The moonfish of the genus Mene ("Crescent"), the sole extant genus of the family Menidae are disk-shaped fish which bear a vague resemblance to gourami, thanks to their thread-like pelvic fins. Today, the genus is represented only by of the Indo-Pacific, where it is a popular food fish, especially in the Philippines, where it is known as "bilong-bilong". [more]


Merlucciidae is a family of cod-like fish, including most hakes. They are native to cold water in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and typically found at depths greater than 50 metres (160 ft) in subtropical, temperate, sub-Arctic or sub-Antarctic regions. [more]




Wormfishes are a family, Microdesmidae, of goby-like fishes in the order Perciformes. [more]


Microstomatidae is a family of marine smelts native to the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans. [more]






Flabby whalefishes are small, deep-sea cetomimiform fish of the family Cetomimidae. They are among the most deep-living fish known, with some species recorded at depths in excess of 3.5 kilometres. Within the family are nine genera and 20 species. Juveniles are known as tapetails and were formerly thought to be in a separate family, dubbed Mirapinnidae. Adults exhibit extreme sexual dimorphism, and the adult males were once thought to be exemplars of still another family, Megalomycteridae. [more]


The Mochokidae are a family of catfishes (order Siluriformes) that are known as the squeakers and upside-down catfish. There are 10 genera and about 188 species of mochokids. All the mochokids are freshwater species originating from Africa. [more]


Molidae is the family of the molas or ocean sunfishes, unique fish whose bodies come to an end just behind the dorsal and anal fins, giving them a "half-a-fish" appearance. They are also the largest of the ray-finned bony fishes, with the ocean sunfish Mola mola recorded at up to 3.3 metres (11 ft) in length and 2 tonnes (2.2 short tons) in weight. [more]


Filefish (also known as foolfish, leatherjackets or shingles) are tropical to subtropical tetraodontiform marine fish of the diverse family Monacanthidae. Found in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans, the filefish family contains approximately 107 species in 26 genera. Filefish are closely related to the triggerfish, pufferfish and trunkfish. [more]


Pinecone fishes are small and unusual beryciform marine fish of the family Monocentridae. The family contains just four species in two genera, one of which is monotypic. Their distribution is limited to tropical and subtropical waters of the Indo-Pacific. Pinecone fishes are popular subjects of public aquaria, but are both expensive and considered a challenge for the hobbyist to maintain. [more]


The Monodactylidae is a family of fish within the Perciformes commonly referred to as monos, moonyfishes or fingerfishes. All are strongly laterally compressed with an approximately disc-shaped body and tall anal and dorsal fins. Unusually for fish, there are scales on the dorsal fin and sometimes on the anal fin as well. The pelvic fins are small, sometimes vestigial. They are of moderate size, typically around 25 cm in length, and Monodactylus sebae can be taller than it is long, measuring up to 30 cm from the tip of the dorsal fin down to the tip of the anal fin. It is these long, scaly fins that has given them the name of fingerfishes. Most are silvery with yellow and black markings; the juveniles are especially attractive and most species are popular as aquarium fish (see below). [more]


Monognathus, or Onejaws, is the only genus of the family Monognathidae of deep sea eel-like fishes. The name comes from the Greek monos meaning one and gnathos meaning jaw; a reference to the large mouth in comparison with the rest of the fish, and also the absence of an upper jaw (maxilla and premaxilla bones are absent). The dorsal and anal fins lack bony supports, the pectoral fins are missing. The snout has a fang which is connected to glands. [more]


Moridae is a family of cod-like fishes, known as codlings, hakelings, and moras. [more]


The Moringuidae is a small family of eels. They are commonly known as spaghetti eels or worm eels, although the latter name is also shared with other families of eel. [more]


A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[1] [more]


Temperate Bass is in the Family Percichthyidae How to know the freshwater fishes Samuel Eddy, James C. Underhill. [more]


The mullets or grey mullets are a family (Mugilidae) and order of ray-finned fish found worldwide in coastal temperate and tropical waters, and in some species in fresh water. Mullets have served as an important source of food in Mediterranean Europe since Roman times. The family includes about 80 species in 17 genera, although half of the species are in just two genera (Liza and Mugil). [more]


Goatfishes are tropical marine perciform fish of the family Mullidae. Seldom found in brackish waters, goatfish are most associated with the reefs of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans. The goatfish are sometimes called the red mullets as opposed to the Mugilidae, the grey mullets, though that name is usually reserved for the red mullets of the genus Mullus of the Mediterranean. Within the family are approximately six genera and 55 species. [more]


The Muraenesocidae, or pike congers, are a small family of marine eels found worldwide in tropical and subtropical seas. Some species are known to enter brackish water. [more]


Moray eels are cosmopolitan eels of the family Muraenidae. The approximately 200 species in 15 genera are almost exclusively marine, but several species are regularly seen in brackish water and a few, for example the freshwater moray (Gymnothorax polyuranodon) can sometimes be found in freshwater. With a maximum length of 11.5 centimetres (4.5 in), the smallest moray is likely the Snyder's moray (Anarchias leucurus), while the longest species, the slender giant moray (Strophidon sathete) reaches up to 4 metres (13 ft). The largest in terms of total mass is the giant moray (Gymnothorax javanicus), which reaches almost 3 metres (9.8 ft) and can weigh over 36 kilograms (79 lb). [more]


Muraenolepididae is a family of cod-like fish, known as Eel cods. [more]


Lanternfishes (or myctophids, from the Greek mykter, "nose" and ophis, "serpent") are small mesopelagic fish of the large family Myctophidae. One of two families in the order Myctophiformes, the Myctophidae are represented by 246 species in 33 genera, and are found in oceans worldwide. They are aptly named after their conspicuous use of bioluminescence. Their sister family, the Neoscopelidae, are much fewer in number but superficially very similar; at least one neoscopelid shares the common name 'lanternfish': the large-scaled lantern fish, macrolepidotus. [more]


The Myrocongridae or Thin eels are a small family of eels consisting of a single genus, Myroconger. Very little is known about the group. [more]


Asian leaffishes are small freshwater fishes of the Nandidae family, from Southern Asia. There are only four genera in this group. [more]




The roosterfish, Nematistius pectoralis, is a game fish common in the marine waters surrounding Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama, and in the eastern Pacific Ocean from Baja California to Peru. It is the only fish in the genus Nematistius and the family Nematistiidae. It is distinguished by its "rooster comb", seven very long spines of the dorsal fin. [more]


Snipe eels are a family, Nemichthyidae, of eels that consists of nine species in three genera. They are pelagic fishes, found in every ocean, mostly at depths of 300-600 m but sometimes as deep as 4000 m. Depending on the species, adults may reach 1-2 m (30-60 inches) in length, yet they weigh only 80-400 g (a few ounces to a pound). They are distinguished by their very slender jaws that separate toward the tips as the upper jaw curves upward. The jaws appear similar to the beak of the bird called the snipe. Snipe eels are oviparous, and the juveniles, called Leptocephali (meaning small head), do not resemble the adults but have oval, leaf-shaped and transparent bodies. Different species of snipe eel have different shapes, sizes and colors. The similarly named bobtail snipe eel is actually in a different family and represented by two species, the black Cyema atrum and the bright red Neocyema erythrosoma. [more]


The threadfin breams are a family, Nemipteridae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. They are also known as whiptail breams and false snappers. [more]


The toothed seadevil or netbeard seadevil, Neoceratias spinifer, is a rare, little-known deep-sea anglerfish found in the mesopelagic and bathypelagic zones of the western central Pacific Ocean. It is the only species in the family Neoceratidae, and is unique amongst the deep-sea anglerfish in lacking an illicium and esca (the "fishing rod" and "lure"), and in having large teeth placed on the outside of its jaws. [more]


The Neoscopelidae (blackchins or nesoscopelids) are a small family of deep sea fish closely related to the lanternfish. They are found in tropical and subtropical marine waters worldwide. [more]




The duckbill eels or witch eels are a family, Nettastomatidae, of eels. The name is from Greek netta meaning "duck" and stoma meaning "mouth". [more]


Driftfishes are perciform fishes in the family Nomeidae. They are found in tropical and subtropical waters throughout the world. [more]


Normanichthys crockeri is a ray-finned fish, the only member of the Normanichthyidae family. It is found in tropical South Pacific waters, from Chimbote, Peru, to Isla Mocha, Chile, and reaches up to 11 cm in length. Common vernacular names for the species in Spanish include Camotillo (in Peru) and Bacaladillo (in Chile). [more]


The deep-sea spiny eels are a family, Notacanthidae, of fishes found worldwide below 125 metres (410 ft), and going as deep as 3,500 metres (11,500 ft). The earliest known spiny eel is Pronotacanthus sahelalmae, from the Cenomanian of what is now Lebanon. [more]




The surf silversides are a small family, Notocheiridae, of salt water atheriniform fish found in tropical and temperate seas. [more]




The family Notopteridae contains eight species of osteoglossiform (bony-tongued) fishes, commonly known as featherbacks and knifefishes. They are small fishes living in freshwater or brackish environments in Africa and South-east Asia. [more]


Waryfishes are deep-sea aulopiform fishes in the small family Notosudidae. They are thought to have a circumglobal distribution in sub-Arctic to subantarctic waters. The family name "Notosudidae" derives from the Greek noton (back) and Latin sudis (a fish, esox, the name of salmon). [more]


The cod icefishes or nothothens are the family Nototheniidae of acanthopterygian fishes, containing about 50 species in 13 genera. They are traditionally placed in the perciform assemblage together with their relatives, but like every lineage in the "Perciformes" their actual relationships are not yet determined with certainty. [more]


Odacidae is a small family of fishes in the order Perciformes, commonly known as butterfish, cales, and weed-whitings. They are related to the much larger families of the wrasses and parrotfish. [more]


Freshwater sleepers (Odontobutidae) is a small family of fishes in the order Perciformes. They are native to fresh water rivers flowing into the South China Sea and the northwestern Pacific Ocean. [more]


Ogcocephalidae is a family of bottom-dwelling, specially adapted fish. They are sometimes referred to as batfishes or anglerfishes. They are found in deep, lightless waters of the Atlantic, Indian and western Pacific Oceans. [more]


Olyra is a genus of catfishes (order Siluriformes) of the family Bagridae. It includes five species, O. burmanica, O. colletti, O. horae, O. kempi, and O. longicaudata. [more]


The hammerjaw, Omosudis lowii, is a small deep-sea aulopiform fish, found worldwide in tropical and temperate waters to 4,000 m (13,000 ft) depth. It is the only representative of its family, Omosudidae (from the Greek omo, "shoulder", and Latin sudis, either "esox, fish of the Rhine" or "stake"). [more]


The dreamers are a family, Oneirodidae, of in the order Lophiiformes. They are the largest and most diverse group of deep-sea anglerfish, and also the least well-known with several genera represented by only one, two, or three female specimens. They are found in deep, temperate waters around the world. They are small fishes, the largest species growing to about 20 centimeters (8 inches) long. [more]




Ophichthidae is a family of eels, comprising species commonly called worm eels and snake eels. The term "Ophichthidae" comes from Greek ophis ("serpent") and ichthys ("fish"). [more]


The cusk-eels family (Ophidiidae) are a group of marine bony fishes in the order Ophidiiformes. The scientific name is from Greek ophis meaning "snake", and refers to their eel-like appearance. However, they can be distinguished from true eels of the order Anguilliformes by the ventral fins, which are developed into a forked barbel-like organ below the mouth in the cusk-eels; in the true eels by contrast they are never well-developed and usually missing entirely. [more]




Barreleyes, also known as spook fish (a name also applied to several species of chimaera), are small deep-sea osmeriform fish comprising the family Opisthoproctidae. Found in tropical-to-temperate waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. [more]


Opistognathidae (opisto = "behind", gnath = "mouth"), commonly referred to as jawfishes, are classified within Order Perciformes, Suborder Percoidei. They are found throughout shallow reef areas of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and the Gulf of Mexico. [more]


Oplegnathidae is a family of marine fish within the Perciformes commonly known as knifejaws; some species are known as beakfish. It contains a single genus, Oplegnathus. The largest, the , can reach a maximum length of about 90 cm (35 in). Knifejaws have teeth fused into a parrotlike beak in adulthood. They feed on barnacles and mollusks, and are fished commercially. They are found in the north-western Pacific Ocean (e.g. Japan), in the southern half of Australia, in the Galapagos, Peru, and Chile, and in Southern Africa. [more]


The Oreos are a family, the Oreosomatidae, of marine fish. Most species are found in the southern hemisphere, inhabiting continental slopes down to about 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) depth. [more]




Smelts ? more precisely freshwater smelts or typical smelts to distinguish them from the related Argentinidae, Bathylagidae and Retropinnidae ? are a family of small fish, Osmeridae, found in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. They are common in the North American Great Lakes, and in the lakes and seas of the northern part of Europe, and run in large shoals along the coastline during their spring migration to their spawning streams. The Delta Smelt, Hypomesus transpacificus is found in the Sacramento Delta of California, and is an endangered species. [more]




Gouramis are a family, Osphronemidae, of freshwater perciform fishes. The fish are native to Asia, from Pakistan and India to the Malay Archipelago and north-easterly towards Korea. The name "gourami" is also used for fish of the families Helostomatidae and Anabantidae. "Gouramis" is an example of a redundant plural. Gourami is already plural, in its original language. [more]


Arowanas are freshwater bony fish of the family Osteoglossidae, also known as bonytongues. In this family of fish, the head is bony and the elongate body is covered by large, heavy scales, with a mosaic pattern of canals. The dorsal and the anal fins have soft rays and are long based, while the pectoral and ventral fins are small. The name "bonytongues" is derived from a toothed bone on the floor of the mouth, the "tongue", equipped with teeth that bite against teeth on the roof of the mouth. The fish can obtain oxygen from air by sucking it into the swim bladder, which is lined with capillaries like lung tissue. The arowana is an "obligatory air breather". [more]




Ostraciidae is a family of squared, bony fish belonging to the order Tetraodontiformes, closely related to the pufferfishes and filefishes. Fish in the family are known variously as boxfishes, cofferfishes, cowfishes and trunkfishes. It contains about 33 species in nine extant genera. [more]


A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[2] [more]












The shark catfishes are a family, the Pangasiidae, of catfishes found in fresh and brackish waters across southern Asia, from Pakistan to Borneo. Among the 30-odd members of this family is the plant-eating, endangered Mekong giant catfish Pangasianodon gigas, one of the largest known freshwater fishes. Several species have recently become a booming aquaculture success in Vietnam's Mekong Delta. [more]


The freshwater butterflyfish or African butterflyfish, Pantodon buchholzi, is the only species in the family Pantodontidae within the Order Osteoglossiformes. It is not closely related to saltwater butterflyfishes. [more]




A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[3] [more]




The stream catfishes are family Akysidae of catfishes. [more]


Barracudinas are about 50 species of marine fishes of the family Paralepididae, found almost worldwide in deep waters. [more]


Large-tooth flounders are a family, Paralichthyidae, of flounders. They lie on the sea bed on their right side; both eyes are on the left side of the head, while the Pleuronectidae are the opposite with their eyes on the right side. [more]




A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[4] [more]






Paraulopus is the only genus in the family Paraulopidae, a family of grinners in the order Aulopiformes. They are commonly known as "cucumberfishes", but locally some other Teleostei are also known by that name. [more]




Parodontidae is a family of fresh water fish of the order Characiformes. There are three genera including about 21 species, though there are several undescribed species. These fish are generally benthic and live in mountain streams of eastern Panama and South America It was formerly considered a subfamily of the family Hemiodontidae. [more]


Australian prowfishes are a family, Pataecidae, of scorpaeniform fishes. They are distinguished by a long dorsal fin that begins far forward on the head, forming a "prow" shape, and extends all the way to the caudal fin. They lack scales and pelvic fins. [more]






The seamoths are a family, the Pegasidae, of fish found in coastal tropical waters. [more]


Sweepers are small, tropical marine (occasionally brackish) perciform fish of the family Pempheridae. Found in the western Atlantic Ocean and Indo-Pacific region, the family contains approximately 26 species in two genera. One species (Pempheris xanthoptera ) is the target of subsistence fisheries in Japan, where the fish is much enjoyed for its taste. Sweepers are occasionally kept in the marine aquarium. [more]


The Armorheads are a small family, Pentacerotidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. They are native to the Indian Ocean, western and central Pacific, and southwestern Atlantic. They are generally found at rocky reefs below normal Scuba diving depths, although several species occur in low densities at shallower depths. [more]


The members of Percichthyidae family are known as the temperate perches. They belong to the Order Perciformes or perch-like fishes. [more]


The Percidae are a family of perciform fish found in fresh and brackish waters of the Northern Hemisphere. The family contains about 200 species in ten genera. The darters, perches, and their relatives are in this family: well-known species include the walleye, ruffe, and three species of perch. [more]


Duckbills are a family, Percophidae, of perciform fishes. [more]


Percopsidae is a family of fish in the order Percopsiformes. Its living members are two North American fresh water species of the genus Percopsis, trout-perch (Walbaum 1792) and sand roller Percopsis transmontana (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1892). [more]


The armored searobins, or armored gurnards are a family, Peristediidae, of scorpaeniform fishes. They are found in deep tropical waters around the world. They are related to the searobins in the family Triglidae ? and some authorities classify them in that family ? but they are encased in heavy scales with prominent spines. They have prominent and often elaborate barbels on their chins. [more]




The Priapium fishes are a family, Phallostethidae, of atheriniform fish native to South-east Asia. [more]






The gunnels are a family, Pholidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. [more]


Pholidichthys is a genus of perciform fish which consists of two species of the tropical Pacific Ocean. It is the only genus in the family Pholidichthyidae. [more]




Lightfishes are small stomiiform fishes in the family Phosichthyidae [more]


The hingemouth, Phractolaemus ansorgii, is a small freshwater fish that is found only in west central Africa, the sole member of the family Phractolaemidae. [more]


Phycidae is a family of hakes in the order Gadiformes. They are native to the Atlantic Ocean, but the juveniles of some species enter estuaries. Joseph Nelson classifies this family as the subfamily Phycinae of the cod family, Gadidae. [more]




Pimelodidae, commonly known as the long-whiskered catfishes, is a family of catfishes (order Siluriformes). [more]


The sandperches are a family, Pinguipedidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. [more]


Platycephalidae is a family of marine fishes, most commonly referred to as flatheads. They are relatives of the popular lionfishes, belonging to the order Scorpaeniformes. [more]


The tubeshoulders are a family, the Platytroctidae, of marine smelts. They are found throughout the world, except for the Mediterranean sea. Tubeshoulders live at moderate depths of 300 to 1,000 metres (980 to 3,300 ft), and some have light-producing organs. They are generally small to medium fish, ranging from 9 to 33 centimetres (3.5 to 13 in) in length. [more]


The ayu or sweetfish, Plecoglossus altivelis, is an amphidromous fish, the only species in the genus Plecoglossus and in family Plecoglossidae. It is a relative of the smelts and is placed in the order Osmeriformes. Native to the Palearctic ecozone, it occurs in rivers, lakes, and coastal waters of western Hokkaido in Japan southward to the Korean Peninsula, China, Taiwan and Hong Kong. [more]




The longfins also known as roundheads or spiny basslets are a family, Plesiopidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. They are elongated fishes, found in the Indian Ocean and western Pacific Ocean. [more]


Righteye flounders are a family, Pleuronectidae, of flounders. They are called "righteye flounders" because most species lie on the sea bottom on their left side, with both eyes on the right side. The Paralichthyidae are the opposite, with their eyes on the left side. [more]


The eeltail catfish are a family (Plotosidae) of catfish whose tails are elongated in an eel-like fashion. These catfishes are native to the Indian Ocean and western Pacific from Japan to Australia and Fiji. The family includes about 35 species in 10 genera. About half of the species are freshwater, occurring in Australia and New Guinea. [more]


Poeciliidae is a family of fresh-water fish which are live-bearing aquarium fish (they give birth to live young). They belong to the order Cyprinodontiformes, tooth-carps, and include well-known aquarium fish such as the guppy, molly, platy, and swordtail. The original distribution of the family was the southeastern United States to north of Rio de la Plata, Argentina, and central and southern Africa, including Madagascar. However, due to release of aquarium specimens and the widespread use of species of the genera Poecilia and Gambusia for mosquito control, poeciliids can today be found in all tropical and subtropical areas of the world. [more]


The beardfishes are a small family (Polymixiidae) of deep-sea marine ray-finned fish named for their pair of long hyoid barbels. They have little economic importance. [more]


Threadfins are silvery grey perciform marine fish of the family Polynemidae. Found in tropical to subtropical waters throughout the world, the threadfin family contains nine genera and 33 species. An unrelated species sometimes known by the name threadfin, Alectis indicus, is properly the Indian threadfish (family Carangidae). [more]


A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[5] [more]


The wreckfish are a family, Polyprionide, of perciform fishes. [more]


The bichirs are a family, Polypteridae, of archaic-looking ray-finned fishes, the sole family in the order Polypteriformes. [more]


Marine angelfish are perciform fish of the family Pomacanthidae. They are found on shallow reefs in the tropical Atlantic, Indian, and mostly western Pacific oceans. The family contains seven genera and approximately 86 species. They should not be confused with the freshwater angelfish, tropical cichlids of the Amazon River basin. [more]


Pomacentridae are a family of perciform fish, comprising the damselfishes and clownfishes. They are primarily marine, while a few species inhabit freshwater and brackish environments (e.g., Neopomacentrus aquadulcis, N. taeniurus, Pomacentrus taeniometopon, Stegastes otophorus). They are noted for their hardy constitutions and territoriality. Many are brightly colored, so they are popular in aquaria. [more]


The bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix), called tailor in Australia, is a species of popular marine gamefish found in all climates. It is the only extant species of the Pomatomidae family. [more]




Priacanthidae is a family of fish, common name bigeye, comprising 18 species of marine fishes. "Catalufa" is an alternate common name for some members of the priacanthidae family. The etymology of the scientific name ("prioo-", to bite + "akantha", thorn) refers to the family's very rough, spined scales. The common name of "bigeye" refers to the member species' unusually large eyes, suited to their carnivorous and nocturnal lifestyles. Priacanthidae are most typically colored bright red, but other coloration patterns do exist for some species. Most species reach a maximum total length of about 30 centimeters (12 inches), although in a few species lengths of over 50 centimeters (20 inches) are known. [more]


Profundulidae is a family of teleost fish endemic to Mexico, Guatemala and other countries of Central America. This family is monotypic with only a single genus, Profundulus. This family contains six species. [more]




The African lungfishes are the genus Protopterus and constitute the four species of lungfish found in Africa. Protopterus is the sole genus in the family Protopteridae. [more]




The spiny turbots are a family, Psettodidae, of relatively large, primitive flatfish found in the tropical waters of the east Atlantic and Indo-Pacific. The family contains just three species, all in the same genus, Psettodes. The common name comes from the presence of spines in the dorsal and anal fins, which may indicate an evolutionary relationship with the Perciformes. They are less asymmetrical than other flatfish, although the region around the eyes is twisted. [more]


The dottybacks are a family, Pseudochromidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. Around 100 species belong to this family. [more]


The Blue-eyes are the family of atheriniform fish, the Pseudomugilidae, related to the rainbowfishes. They inhabit fresh and brackish water in Australia and New Guinea. Blue-eyes are small fish, typically no more than 5 centimetres (2.0 in) in length. Like rainbowfish, they spawn all year round, and attach their eggs to vegetation. [more]


Pseudopimelodidae is a small family of catfishes. Some of these fish are popular aquarium fish. [more]


The Pseudotrichonotidae (sandliving lizardfishes or sand-diving lizardfishes) are a small family of aulopiform fish, consisting of just two species in a single genus, Pseudotrichonotus. [more]


Psilorhynchus is the sole genus of fishes in the family Psilorhynchidae mainly found in South Asia. There are currently 18 recognized species. [more]


The fish family Psychrolutidae contains the fatheads or fathead sculpins, including the blobfishes. There are 9 genera and about 30 species. This poorly known family consists of bottom-dwelling marine sculpins shaped like tadpoles, with large heads and bodies that taper back into small, flat tails. They generally have large, leaflike pectoral fins and some species are covered with soft spines. They are found in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. The adults live on the seafloor, between 100 metres (330 ft) and 1,600 metres (5,200 ft) depth. [more]




The quillfish, Ptilichthys goodei, is a species of perciform fish, the only species in the genus Ptilichthys and family Ptilichthyidae. It is an elongate eel-like fish that reaches 34 cm in length. It is native to the north Pacific Ocean, from the Bering Sea down to Oregon. [more]








Cobia (Rachycentron canadum)?also known as black kingfish, black salmon, ling, lemonfish, crabeaters, aruan tasek, etc.?are perciform marine fish, the sole representative of their family, the Rachycentridae. [more]


The tapertail, Radiicephalus elongatus, is a species of marine fish found in the central and eastern Atlantic and eastern Pacific. It is the only representative of the genus Radiicephalus as well as the family Radiicephalidae. [more]




Oarfish are large, greatly elongated, pelagic Lampriform fishes comprising the small family Regalecidae. Found in all temperate to tropical oceans yet rarely seen, the oarfish family contains four species in two genera. One of these, the king of herrings (Regalecus glesne), is listed in the Guinness Book of World Records as the longest bony fish alive, at up to 17 metres (56 ft) in length. [more]






Retropinnidae is a family of bony fish that contains the southern hemisphere smelts and graylings. They are quite closely related to the northern smelts (Osmeridae), which they greatly resemble, but not to the northern graylings (Thymallus). Species from this family are only found in southeastern Australia and New Zealand. Although a few species are partly marine, most inhabit fresh or brackish water. [more]






Sand knifefishes are freshwater fishes of the Rhamphichthyidae family, from South America. There are only 3 genera and 16 species in this group. [more]


The grunt sculpin or grunt-fish, Rhamphocottus richardsonii, is the only member of the fish family Rhamphocottidae. It is native to temperate coastal waters of the North Pacific, from Japan to Alaska and south to California where it inhabits tide pools, rocky areas, and sandy bottoms at depths of up to 165 metres. It uses its spiny pectoral fins to crawl over the sea floor. It grows up to 9 cm in length. It frequently takes shelter in discarded bottles and cans, as well as the empty shells, such as those of the giant barnacle (Balanus nubilis). During reproduction, the female chases a male into a rock crevice and keeps him there until she lays her eggs. [more]






The family Rhyacichthyidae, or loach gobies is a small family of perciform fish that consists of two genera and three species. They inhabit marine and fresh water in Oceania and the eastern Pacific. [more]




Rivulidae are a family of killifishes in the order Cyprinodontiformes. They are commonly known as rivulids, South American killifish or New World killifish. The latter names are slightly misleading however, as they are neither restricted to South America ? though most are in fact found there ?, nor are they the only killifishes from the Americas. Occasionally they are still referred to as rivulines, a term dating back to when they were considered a subfamily of the Aplocheilidae. [more]


The redmouth whalefishes are two species of deep-sea whalefishes in the genus Rondeletia, the only genus in the family Rondeletiidae. They are apparently close to the velvet whalefish (Barbourisia rufa), and apparently also to the gibberfishes (Gibberichthyidae). The latter and the Rondeletiidae are the only known living fishes which have the mysterious . [more]


Saccopharynx is a genus of deep sea eel-like fishes with large mouths, distensible stomachs and long scaleless bodies. It is the only genus in the family Saccopharyngidae. The name is from Latin saccus meaning "sack" and Greek f?????, pharynx. [more]




Icefishes or noodlefishes are a family, the Salangidae, of osmeriform fish, related to the smelts. They are found in freshwater environments in Southeast Asia, although a few species are anadromous, spending most of their life in coastal waters, and only visiting fresh water to spawn. [more]




Salmonidae is a family of ray-finned fish, the only living family currently placed in the order Salmoniformes. It includes salmon, trout, chars, freshwater whitefishes and graylings. The Atlantic salmon and trout of genus Salmo give the family and order their names. [more]


Samaridae is a family of flounders containing more than 25 species in three genera. [more]




Saurichthyiformes is a group of ray-finned fish which existed in China, Europe and North America, during the late Permian to early Jurassic periods. [more]




Parrotfishes are a group of fishes that traditionally had been considered a family (Scaridae), but now often are considered a subfamily (Scarinae) of the wrasses. They are found in relatively shallow tropical and subtropical oceans throughout the world, but with the largest species richness in the Indo-Pacific. The approximately 90 species are found in coral reefs, rocky coasts and seagrass beds, and play a significant role in bioerosion. [more]


The scats are a small family, Scatophagidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. [more]


The schilbid catfishes (Schilbeidae) are a family of catfishes native to Africa and southern Asia. These fish tend to swim in open water. [more]


Schindleria, is a genus of marine fish. It is the only genus of family Schindleriidae, among the Gobioidei of order Perciformes. The type species is S. praematura, Schindler's fish. The Schindleria species are known generically as Schindler's fishes or infantfishes. They are native to the southern Pacific Ocean, from the South China Sea to the Great Barrier Reef off eastern Australia. [more]


Sciaenidae is a family of fish commonly called drums, croakers, or hardheads for the repetitive throbbing or drumming sounds they make. The family includes the weakfish, and consists of about 275 species in about 70 genera; it belongs to the order Perciformes. [more]


Scoloplax is the only genus in the catfish (order Siluriformes) family Scoloplacidae, the spiny dwarf catfishes. It includes five species, S. baskini, S. dicra, S. distolothrix, S. dolicholophia, and S. empousa. Scoloplacidae is the second-most recent family of catfish to be "discovered"; the first species was not described until 1976. The most recent family is Lacantuniidae, described in 2005. [more]


Sauries are fish of the family Scomberesocidae. There are two genera, each containing two species. The name Scomberesocidae is derived from the Greek, skombros = tuna/mackerel, and esox = nursery of salmon. [more]


Scombridae is the family of the mackerels, tunas, and bonitos, and thus includes many of the most important and familiar food fishes. The family consists of about 55 species in 15 genera and two subfamilies. All species are Scombrinae, except Butterfly kingfish - which is the sole member of subfamily Gasterochismatinae. [more]


The longfin escolar, Scombrolabrax heterolepis, also known as the black mackerel, is a widespread but uncommon deep sea fish that presents some difficulties for taxonomy. [more]


The gnomefishes are a small family Scombropidae of marine fish, consisting of three species in the genus Scombrops. [more]


The pearleyes are a family, Scopelarchidae, of aulopiform fishes, distinguished by their unique visual system, with two retinas in each eye. [more]


Scophthalmidae is a family of flatfish which includes the turbot. It contains ten species in four genera. [more]


Scorpaenidae, the scorpionfish, are a family of mostly marine fish that includes many of the world's most venomous species. As the name suggests, scorpionfish have a type of "sting" in the form of sharp spines coated with venomous mucus. The family is a large one, with hundreds of members. They are widespread in tropical and temperate seas, but mostly found in the Indo-Pacific. They should not be confused with the cabezones, of the genus Scorpaenichthys, which belong to a separate, though related family, Cottidae. [more]


The Graveldivers (Scytalina cerdale) are perciform fish in the genus Scytalina, and the only species in the family Scytalinidae. Graveldivers are small, with a snake-like head (hence the generic name). The body is compact, and lacks pelvic fins, with very small pectoral fins. Their range encompasses the coastal area from the Bering Sea to central California. [more]


Sebastidae is a family of marine fish in the order Scorpaeniformes. Their common names include rockfishes, thornyheads and rockcods. Despite the latter name, they are not closely related to the cods in the genus Gadus, nor the rock cod, Lotella rhacina. [more]




Serranidae is a large family of fishes, belonging to the order Perciformes. The family contains about 450 species of serranids in 64 genera, including the sea basses and the groupers (subfamily Epinephelinae). They range in size from the belted sandfish (Serranus subligarius), which grows to 110 mm (4.33 in), up to the itajara (Epinephelus itajara), which grows to 2.4 m (94.5 in) and weighs up to 300 kg (660 lb). [more]




Sawtooth eels are a family, Serrivomeridae, of eels found in temperate and tropical seas worldwide. [more]


Setarchidae is a small family of scorpionfishes. [more]


Rabbitfishes or spinefoots are perciform fishes in the family Siganidae. The 28 species are in a single genus, Siganus. In some now obsolete classifications, the species having prominent face stripes?colloquially called foxfaces?are in the genus Lo. Other species like the Masked Spinefoot (S. puellus) show a reduced form of the stripe pattern. Rabbitfishes are found in shallow lagoons in the Indo-Pacific and eastern Mediterranean. [more]


The Sillaginidae, commonly known as the smelt-whitings, whitings, sillaginids, sand borers and sand-smelts, are a family of benthic coastal marine fishes in the order Perciformes. The smelt-whitings inhabit a wide region covering much of the Indo-Pacific, from the west coast of Africa east to Japan and south to Australia. The family comprises only three genera and thirty one species, of which a number are dubious, with the last major revision of the family in 1992 unable to confirm the validity of a number of species. They are elongate, slightly compressed fish often light brown to silver in color with a variety of markings and patterns on their upper body. The Sillaginidae are not related to a number of fishes commonly called 'whiting' in the Northern Hemisphere, including the fish originally called whiting, Merlangius merlangus. [more]


Siluridae is a family of catfish (order Siluriformes). There are about 100 living species of silurids. [more]




Sisoridae is a family of catfishes (order Siluriformes). These Asian catfish live in fast-moving waters and often have adaptations that allow them to adhere to objects in their habitat. [more]


The true soles are a family, Soleidae, of flatfishes, and include species that live in salt water and fresh water. They are bottom-dwelling fishes feeding on small crustaceans and other invertebrates. Other flatfishes are also known as soles. [more]


The ghost pipefishes (also called false pipefishes or tubemouth fishes) are a small family Solenostomidae in the order Syngnathiformes. The family consists of just a single genus, Solenostomus, with five species. Ghostpipefishes are related to pipefishes and seahorses. They are found in tropical waters of the Indian Ocean, from Asia to Africa. [more]


The Sparidae is a family of fish, included in the order Perciformes. The fish of the family are commonly called sea breams and porgies (North America). The sheepshead, scup, and red sea bream are species in this family. They are found in shallow temperate and tropical waters and are bottom-dwelling carnivores. Most species possess grinding, molar-like teeth. Some of the species, such as Polysteganus undulosus, have been subject to overfishing, or exploitation beyond sustainable recovery. [more]




The barracuda is a ray-finned fish known for its large size and fearsome appearance. Its body is long, fairly compressed, and covered with small, smooth scales. Some species can reach up to 1.8m in length and 30 cm in width. The barracuda is a salt water fish of the genus Sphyraena, the only genus in the family Sphyraenidae, and is found in tropical and subtropical oceans worldwide. [more]




Pricklefishes are a family, Stephanoberycidae, of fishes in the order Stephanoberyciformes. [more]


The marine hatchetfishes or deep-sea hatchetfishes as well as the related bottlelights, pearlsides and constellationfishes are small deep-sea bathypelagic ray-finned fish of the stomiiform family Sternoptychidae. They should not be confused with the freshwater hatchetfishes, which are not particularly closely related Teleostei in the characiform family Gasteropelecidae. The Sternoptychidae have 10 genera and about 70 species altogether. [more]


Glass knifefishes are fishes in the family Sternopygidae in the order Gymnotiformes. Species are also known as rattail knifefishes. [more]


The pricklebacks (also known as shannies) are a family, Stichaeidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. [more]




Stomiidae is a family of deep-sea ray-finned fish, including the barbeled dragonfishes, stareaters and loosejaws. [more]


The family Stromateidae of butterfishes contains 17 species of fish in three genera. Butterfishes live in coastal waters off the Americas, western Africa and in the Indo-Pacific. [more]


The tube-eye or thread-tail, Stylephorus chordatus, is a deep-sea fish, the only fish in the genus Stylephorus and family Stylephoridae. [more]


Sundasalanx, the Sundaland noodlefishes, is the only genus in the family Sundasalangidae which belongs to the same order as the herrings and their relatives. This family of extremely small fishes is restricted to freshwater environments of Southeast Asia with Indonesia being home to the majority of species. There are currently seven recognized species in this genus. [more]


The Symphysanodontidae are a family of small marine fishes. The family Symphysanodontidae comprises only the genus Symphysanodon. They occur in the Indo-Pacific and . [more]


Synanceiidae is a family of Actinopterygii, ray-finned fish, found in the Indo-Pacific oceans. They are primarily marine, though some species are known to live in fresh or brackish waters. The various species of this family are known informally as stonefish, stinger, stingfish and ghouls. The most prominent genus of the family is Synanceia Bloch & Schneider, which is sometimes placed in the Scorpaenidae family. Its species are known to have the most potent neurotoxins of all the fish venoms, secreted from glands at the base of their needle-like dorsal fin spines. The vernacular name of the species derives from their behaviour of camouflaging as rocks. The type species of the family is the stonefish, Synanceia verrucosa. [more]


Cutthroat eels are a family, Synaphobranchidae, of eels, the only member of the suborder Synaphobranchoidei. They are found worldwide in temperate and tropical seas. [more]


The swamp eels (also written "swamp-eels") are a family (Synbranchidae) of freshwater eel-like fishes of the worldwide tropics. [more]


Syngnathidae is a family of fish which includes the seahorses, the pipefishes, and the weedy and leafy sea dragons. The name is derived from Greek, meaning "fused jaw" - syn meaning fused or together, and gnathus meaning jaws. This fused jaw trait is something the entire family has in common. [more]


The Lizardfishes (or typical lizardfishes to distinguish them from the Bathysauridae and Pseudotrichonotidae) are a family, the Synodontidae, of aulopiform fish. They are found in tropical and subtropical marine waters throughout the world. [more]


The Sail-fin silversides are a family of atheriniform fish, the Telmatherinidae, inhabiting fresh and brackish water . All but one species are restricted to the island of Sulawesi, and most are found solely in the of that island. [more]


Grunters or tigerperches are fishes in the family Terapontidae (also spelled Teraponidae, Theraponidae or Therapontidae). They are found in shallow coastal waters in the Indian Ocean and western Pacific, where they live in saltwater, brackish and freshwater habitats. They grow up to 80 cm in length and feed on fishes, insects and other invertebrates. [more]


The four-armed frogfish, Tetrabrachium ocellatum, is a species of anglerfish, closely related to the true frogfishes. It is the only member of its family, the Tetrabrachiidae. [more]


The squaretails are a genus, Tetragonurus, of perciform fishes, the only genus in the family Tetragonuridae. [more]


Tetraodontidae is a family of primarily marine and estuarine fish of the Tetraodontiformes order. The family includes many familiar species, which are variously called pufferfish, balloonfish, blowfish, bubblefish, globefish, swellfish, toadfish, toadies, honey toads, sugar toads, and sea squab. They are morphologically similar to the closely related porcupinefish, which have large external spines (unlike the thinner, hidden spines of Tetraodontidae, which are only visible when the fish has puffed up). The scientific name refers to the four large teeth, fused into an upper and lower plate, which are used for crushing the shells of crustaceans and mollusks, their natural prey. [more]


The waspfishes are a family, the Tetrarogidae, of scorpaeniform fishes native to the Indian Ocean and the West Pacific. They are closely related to the scorpionfishes. As their name suggests, waspfishes are often venomous. They are bottom-dwelling fish, living at depths of up to 300 metres (980 ft). [more]


Thaumatichthyidae is a small family deep-sea anglerfishes, containing two genera and eight species found in all oceans. They are commonly known as wonderfish (a literal translation of Thaumatichthys) or wolftrap anglers, because of their distinctive upper jaws with movable premaxillaries that can be lowered to form a cage-like trap around the much shorter lower jaw. They are related to (and were formerly placed within) the Oneirodidae. [more]




The archerfish (Spinner Fish or Archer Fish) are a family (Toxotidae) of fish known for their habit of preying on land based insects and other small animals by literally shooting them down with water droplets from their specialized mouths. The family is small, consisting of seven species in the genus Toxotes; which typically inhabit brackish waters of estuaries and mangroves, but can also be found in the open ocean as well as far upstream in fresh waterIndia to the Philippines, Australia, and Polynesia. [more]


Slimeheads, also known as roughies and redfish, are mostly small, exceptionally long-lived, deep-sea beryciform fish constituting the family Trachichthyidae (derived from the Greek trachys ["rough"] and ichthys ["fish"]). Found in temperate to tropical waters of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Ocean, the family comprises approximately 45 species in eight genera. Slimeheads are named for the network of muciferous canals riddling their heads. [more]


Weevers (or Weeverfish) are nine extant species of fish of family Trachinidae, order Perciformes. They are long (up to 37 cm), mainly brown and have poisonous spines on their first dorsal fin and gills. During the day, weevers bury themselves in sand, just showing their eyes, and snatch prey as it comes past, which consists of shrimps and small fish. Weevers are unusual in not having a swim bladder as do most bony fishes and as a result sink as soon as they stop actively swimming. With the exception of T. cornutus from the south-east Pacific, all species in this family are restricted to the eastern Atlantic (including the Mediterranean). A tenth, extinct species, speciosus, is known from the Monte Bolca lagerstatte of the Lutetian epoch. [more]


The ribbonfish are any lampriform in the family Trachipteridae. These pelagic fish are named for their slim, ribbon-like appearance. They are rarely seen alive as they typically live in deep waters (though are not bottom feeders). [more]


Triacanthidae, commonly known as triplespines or tripodfishes, is a family of Indo-Pacific fishes. It is classified in the order Tetraodontiformes, along with the pufferfishes and the ocean sunfish. The family consists of seven species in four genera, in addition to one extinct genus. [more]


The spikefishes (family Triacanthodidae) are ray-finned fishes related to the pufferfishes and triggerfishes. They live in deep waters, below 50 metres (160 ft), but above the continental shelves. They are found in the Atlantic, Indian Ocean, and the west-central Pacific. [more]


The cutlassfishes are about 40 species of predatory fish in the family Trichiuridae (order Perciformes) found in seas throughout the world. Fish of this family are long, slender, and generally steely blue or silver in color, giving rise to their name. They have reduced or absent pelvic and caudal fins, giving them an eel-like appearance, and large fang-like teeth. [more]


The Trichodontidae, or sandfishes are a small perciform family of fishes that occur in the North Pacific. The family consists of two monotypic genera: [more]


Trichomycteridae is a family of catfishes (order Siluriformes) commonly known as the pencil or parasitic catfishes. This family includes the infamous candiru fish, feared by some people for its alleged habit of entering into the urethra of humans. [more]


Trichonotus is a genus of marine perciform fishes in suborder Trachinoidei. Trichonotus is the only genus included in the family Trichonotidae. Species of Trichonotus are distributed throughout the Indo-West Pacific. The type species is Trichonotus setiger. [more]


Sea robins, also known as gurnard, are bottom-feeding scorpaeniform fishes in the family Triglidae. They get their name from their large pectoral fins, which, when swimming, open and close like a bird's wings in flight. [more]


The threetooth puffer, Triodon macropterus, is a tetraodontiform fish, the only living species in the genus Triodon and family Triodontidae. Other members of the family are known from fossils stretching back to the Eocene. [more]


Threefin or triplefin blennies are blennioids, small perciform marine fish of the family Tripterygiidae. Found in tropical and temperate waters of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans, the family contains approximately 150 species in 30 genera. The family name derives from the Greek tripteros meaning "with three wings". [more]






Umbridae (mudminnows) are a family of Actinopterygii, ray-finned fish, that inhabit freshwater environments in temperate regions across the northern hemisphere. They are generally small fish, with the largest species reaching 33 centimetres (13 in) in length, and most less than half that. [more]




The stargazers are a family Uranoscopidae of perciform fish that have eyes on top of their heads (hence the name). The family includes about 51 species (one extinct) in 8 genera, all marine and found worldwide in shallow waters. [more]






Valencia is the only genus in the family Valenciidae. Valencia is a genus of ray-finned fishes. It is sometimes grouped into the family Cyprinodontidae. [more]


Sailfin moonfishes are a small family, Veliferidae, of lampriform fishes. They are found in the Indian and western Pacific Oceans. [more]


Collared Wrigglers are perciform fishes in the family Xenisthmidae. They are native to the Indian and Pacific oceans, where they are mostly reef-dwelling. The species is predatory and is known to be a minor threat to humans. [more]


Swordfish (Xiphias gladius; from Greek ??f??: sword, and Latin gladius: sword), also known as broadbill in some countries, are large, highly migratory, predatory fish characterized by a long, flat bill. They are a popular sport fish of the billfish category, though elusive. Swordfish are elongated, round-bodied, and lose all teeth and scales by adulthood. These fish are found widely in tropical and temperate parts of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans, and can typically be found from near the surface to a depth of 550 m (1,800 ft). They commonly reach 3 m (9.8 ft) in length, and the maximum reported is 4.55 m (14.9 ft) in length and 650 kg (1,400 lb) in weight. [more]


The moorish idol, Zanclus cornutus ("Crowned Scythe"), is a small marine fish species, the sole extant representative of the family Zanclidae (from the Greek zagkios, "oblique") in order Perciform. A common inhabitant of tropical to subtropical reefs and lagoons, the moorish idol is notable for its wide distribution throughout the Indo-Pacific. A number of butterflyfishes (genus Heniochus) closely resemble the moorish idol. It is closely related to, if not a direct descendant of the extinct Eozanclus brevirhostris, from the Middle Eocene of Monte Bolca. [more]


Prowfish (Zaprora silenus) are subtropical perciform marine fish found in the North Pacific. They are the only member of their family, Zaproridae. They should not be confused with the Australian prowfish of the unrelated family Pataecidae. [more]


The Zeidae (named after Zeus, the supreme god of Greek mythology) are a family of large, showy, deep-bodied zeiform marine fish?the "true dories". Found in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Ocean, the family contains just six species in two genera. All species are important and highly-regarded food fish supporting commercial fisheries, and some?such as the John dory (Zeus faber)?are enjoyed in large public aquaria. These fish are caught primarily via deep-sea trawling. [more]


The eelpouts are the ray-finned fish family Zoarcidae. As the common name suggests, they are somewhat eel-like in appearance, with elongated bodies and the dorsal and anal fins continuous with the caudal fin. All of the approximately 220 species are marine, mostly bottom-dwelling, some at great depths. They are sometimes called "fish doctors"[] (not to be confused with the doctorfish or surgeon fishes). [more]

At least 253 species and subspecies belong to the Family Zoarcidae.

More info about the Family Zoarcidae may be found here.


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Last Revised: August 25, 2014
2014/08/25 13:11:31