Neoaves is a clade that consists of all modern birds (Neornithes) with the exception of Paleognathae and Galloanserae. The early diversification of neoavian branches occurred in rapid succession, and attempts to resolve the phylogenetic relationships have concluded some concordance but much controversy.1]
Cladogram based on Hackett et al. (2008).
- ^ Mayr G. (2011) Metaves, Mirandornithes, Strisores and other novelties - a critical review of the higher-level phylogeny of ne ornithine birds. J Zool Syst Evol Res. 49:58-76.
- ^ Matzke, A. et al. (2012) Retroposon insertion patterns of neoavian birds: strong evidence for an extensive incomplete lineage sorting era Mol. Biol. Evol.
- ^ Hackett, Shannon J.; et al. (2008-06-27). "A Phylogenomic Study of Birds Reveals Their Evolutionary History". Science 320 (5884): 1763?1768. doi:10.1126/science.1157704. PMID 18583609. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/320/5884/1763. Retrieved 2008-10-18.
The Infraclass Neoaves is a member of the Subclass Neornithes. Here is the complete "parentage" of Neoaves:
- Domain: Eukaryota
Whittaker & Margulis,1978 - eukaryotes
- Kingdom: Animalia
Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
- Subkingdom: Bilateria
(Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983 - bilaterians
- Branch: Deuterostomia
Grobben, 1908 - Deuterostomes
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia Grobben, 1908 - Deuterostomes
- Subkingdom: Bilateria (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983 - bilaterians
- Kingdom: Animalia Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
The Infraclass Neoaves is further organized into finer groupings including:
- Order (11): Anseriformes · Bucerotiformes · Ciconiiformes · Coraciiformes · Cuculiformes · Galliformes · Gruiformes · Passeriformes · Piciformes · Strigiformes · Upupiformes
The order Anseriformes contains about 150 living species of birds in three extant families: the Anhimidae (the screamers), Anseranatidae (the Magpie Goose), and the Anatidae, which includes over 140 species of waterfowl, among them the ducks, geese, and swans. [more]
Hornbills (Bucerotidae) are a family of bird found in tropical and subtropical Africa, Asia and Melanesia. They are characterized by a long, down-curved bill which is frequently brightly-colored and sometimes has a casque on the upper mandible. Both the common English and the scientific name of the family refer to the shape of the bill, "buceros" being "cow horn" in Greek. In addition, they possess a two-lobed kidney. Hornbills are the only birds in which the first two neck vertebrae (the axis and atlas) are fused together; this probably provides a more stable platform for carrying the bill. The family is omnivorous, feeding on fruit and small animals. They are monogamous breeders nesting in natural cavities in trees and sometimes cliffs. A number of species of hornbill are threatened with extinction, mostly insular species with small ranges. [more]
Traditionally, the order Ciconiiformes has included a variety of large, long-legged wading birds with large bills: storks, herons, egrets, ibises, spoonbills, and several others. Ciconiiformes are known from the Late Eocene. At present the only family retained in the order is the storks, Ciconiidae. [more]
The Coraciiformes are a group of usually colorful near passerine birds including the kingfishers, the Hoopoe, the bee-eaters, the rollers, and the hornbills. They generally have syndactyly, with three forward-pointing toes (and toes 3 & 4 fused at their base), though in many kingfishers one of these is missing. [more]
The near passerine bird order Cuculiformes traditionally included three families as below: [more]
Galliformes are an order of heavy-bodied ground-feeding domestic or game birds, containing turkey, grouse, chicken, New and Old World Quail, ptarmigan, partridge, pheasant, and the Cracidae. Common names are gamefowl or gamebirds, landfowl, gallinaceous birds or galliforms. "Wildfowl" or just "fowl" are also often used for Galliformes, but usually these terms also refer to waterfowl (Anseriformes), and occasionally to other commonly hunted birds. [more]
The Gruiformes are an order containing a considerable number of living and extinct bird families, with a widespread geographical diversity. Gruiform means "crane-like". [more]
Nine families of largely arboreal birds make up the order Piciformes, the best-known of them being the Picidae, which includes the woodpeckers and close relatives. The Piciformes contain about 67 living genera with a little over 400 species, of which the Picidae (woodpeckers and relatives) make up about half. [more]
Owls are a group of birds that belong to the order Strigiformes, constituting 200 bird of prey species. Most are solitary and nocturnal, with some exceptions (e.g. the Northern Hawk Owl). Owls hunt mostly small mammals, insects, and other birds, although a few species specialize in hunting fish. They are found in all regions of the Earth except Antarctica, most of Greenland and some remote islands. Though owls are typically solitary, the literary collective noun for a group of owls is a parliament. Owls are characterized by their small beaks and wide faces, and are divided into two families: the typical owls, Strigidae; and the barn-owls, Tytonidae. [more]
The Hoopoe () (Upupa epops) is a colorful bird that is found across Afro-Eurasia, notable for its distinctive 'crown' of feathers. It is the only extant species in the family Upupidae. One insular species, the Giant Hoopoe of Saint Helena, is extinct, and the Madagascar subspecies of the Hoopoe is sometimes elevated to a full species. Like the Latin name upupa, the English name is an onomatopoetic form which imitates the cry of the bird. [more]
More info about the Order Upupiformes may be found here.
- Mindell, David P. & Brown, Joseph W. (2005): The Tree of Life Web Project - Neornithes. Version of 2005-DEC-14. Retrieved 2008-JAN-08.
- Mindell, David P.; Brown, Joseph W. & Harshman, John (2005): The Tree of Life Web Project - Neoaves. Version of 2005-DEC-14. Retrieved 2008-JAN-08.
- ^ Mindell & Brown (2005)
- ^ For a draft phylogeny of Neoaves that is based on a review of massive amounts of published sources and probably rather close to "the real thing", see Mindell et al. (2005)
- ^ Mindell et al. (2005)
- The text on this page is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It includes material from Wikipedia retrieved Wednesday, April 25, 2012.
- Photographs on this page are copyrighted by individual photographers, and individual copyrights apply.
- The technology underlying this page, including the controls behind Keep Exploring, is owned by the BayScience Foundation. All rights are reserved.