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Mammalia

(Class)

Overview

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A Class in the Kingdom Animalia.

Photos

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Taxonomy

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The Class Mammalia is a member of the Series Amniota. Here is the complete "parentage" of Mammalia:

The Class Mammalia is further organized into finer groupings including:

Families

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Abderitidae

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Abrocomidae

Chinchilla rats or chinchillones are members of the family Abrocomidae. This family has few members compared to most rodent families with only 9 known living species. They resemble Chinchillas in appearance, with a similar soft fur and silvery-grey color, but have a body-structure more like a short-tailed rat. They are social, tunnel-dwelling animals, and live in the Andes Mountains of South America. They are probably herbivorous, although this is not clear. [more]

Acrobatidae

Acrobatidae is a small family of gliding marsupials containing two genera, each with a single species, the Feathertail Glider (Acrobates pygmaeus) from Australia and Feather-tailed Possum (Distoechurus pennatus) from New Guinea. [more]

Acrodelphinidae

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Adapidae

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Adapisoricidae

Adapisoriculidae is an extinct family of placental mammals present during the Paleocene and possibly Cretaceous. They were once thought to be members of the order Erinaceomorpha, closely related to the Hedgehog family (Erinaceidae), because of their similar dentition, but they are now thought to be basal Euarchontans. They were also thought to be Marsupials at one point. They were small placentals of about 15 cm long, with a tail of equal length. They were probably nocturnal, eating insects and fruits. [more]

Adapisoriculidae

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Adianthidae

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Aegialodontidae

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Aetiocetidae

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Afrotarsiidae

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Agorophiidae

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Agoutidae

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Agriochoeridae

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Ailuridae

Ailuridae is a family in the mammal order Carnivora. The family includes the Red Panda (the sole living representative) and its extinct relatives. [more]

Alagomyidae

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Albionbaataridae

Albionbaataridae is a family of small, extinct mammals within the order Multituberculata. Fossil remains are known from the Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous of Europe and Asia. These herbivores lived their obscure lives during the Mesozoic, also known as the "age of the dinosaurs." They were among the more derived representatives of the informal suborder "Plagiaulacida". The taxon Albionbaataridae was named by Kielan-Jaworowska Z. and Ensom P.C. in 1994. [more]

Albireonidae

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Allomyidae

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Ambulocetidae

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Amilnedwardsiidae

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Amphicyonidae

Amphicyonidae is an extinct family of large terrestrial carnivores belonging to the suborder Caniformia (meaning "dog-like") and which inhabited North America, Europe, Asia, and Africa from the Middle Eocene subepoch to the Pleistocene epoch 46.2?1.8 Mya, existing for approximately 44.4 million years. [more]

Amphidontidae

The Amphidontidae are a family of extinct mammals from the Early Creataceous, belonging to the triconodonts. It contains most of the species previously belonged to Amphilestidae. [more]

Amphilemuridae

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Amphilestidae

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Amphimerycidae

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Amphitheriidae

Amphitheriida is an order of mesozoic mammals restricted to the Middle Jurassic of Britain. They were closely related to the Dryolestids but possessed five molars instead of the usual four in Dryolestida, (with the exception of the family Dryolestidae whose members possessed between 8 and 9 molars). The Amphitheriida contains one family, the Amphitheriidae. [more]

Anagalidae

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Anchilophidae

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Anomaluridae

Anomaluridae is a family of rodents found in central Africa. They are known as anomalures or scaly-tailed squirrels. There are seven extant species, classified into three genera. Most are brightly colored. [more]

Anoplotheriidae

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Anthracobunidae

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Anthracotheriidae

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Antilocapridae

Antilocapridae is a family of artiodactyls endemic to North America. Their closest extant relatives are the giraffids. Only one species, the pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), is living today; all other members of the family are extinct. The living pronghorn is a small ruminant mammal resembling an antelope. It bears small, forked horns. [more]

Aotidae

The night monkeys, also known as the owl monkeys or douroucoulis, are the members of the genus Aotus of New World monkeys (monotypic in family Aotidae). They are widely distributed in the forests of Central and South America, from Panama south to Paraguay and northern Argentina. The species that live at higher elevations tend to have thicker fur than the monkeys at sea level. The genus name means "earless"; they have ears, of course, but the external ears are tiny and hard to see. Night monkeys have big brown eyes and therefore have increased ability to be active at night. They are called night monkeys because all species are active at night and are in fact the only truly nocturnal monkeys (an exception is the subspecies , which is cathemeral). Both male and female night monkeys weigh almost the same amount. For example, in one of these Night Monkeys, A. azarae, the male weighs 2.76 pounds while the female weighs 2.75 pounds. [more]

Apatemyidae

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Aplodontidae

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Aplodontiidae

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Apternodontidae

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Archaeohyracidae

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Archaeolemuridae

The Monkey lemurs or Baboon lemurs are an extinct type of lemurs that includes one family, Archaeolemuridae, two genera (Hadropithecus and Archaeolemur) and three species. Despite their common names, members of Archaeolemuridae were not as closely related to monkeys as they were to other lemurs. [more]

Archaeonycteridae

Archaeonycteridae (formerly spelled Archaeonycterididae) is a family of extinct bats. It was originally erected by the Swiss naturalist Pierre Revilliod as Archaeonycterididae to hold the genus Archaeonycteris. It was formerly classified under the superfamily Icaronycteroidea (disused) by Kurten and Anderson in 1980. In 2007, the spelling was corrected to Archaeonycteridae and it was reclassified to the unranked clade by Smith et al.. The family Palaeochiropterygidae was also merged into Archaeonycteridae by Kurten and Anderson, but modern authorities specializing in bat fossils maintain the distinction between the two. [more]

Archaeopithecidae

Archaeopithecidae is an extinct family comprising two genera of notoungulate mammals, and Archaeopithecus, both known from the early Eocene of South America (McKenna and Bell, 1997). [more]

Arctocyonidae

Arctocyonidae (from Greek arktos ky?n, "bear/dog-like") is an extinct family of unspecialized, primitive mammals with more than 20 genera most abundant during the Paleocene, but extant from the late Cretaceous to the early Eocene (65.5 to 50 million years ago). These animals are thought to be the ancestors of the orders Mesonychia and Cetartiodactyla. [more]

Arctostylopidae

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Arginbaataridae

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Arguimuridae

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Arguitheriidae

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Argyrolagidae

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Armintomyidae

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Arsinoitheriidae

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Asiatheriidae

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Astrapotheriidae

Astrapotheria is an extinct order of South American hoofed animals. The history of this order is enigmatic, but it may taxonomically belong to Meridiungulata (along with Notoungulata, Litopterna and Pyrotheria). In turn, Meridungulata is believed to belong to the extant superorder Laurasiatheria. However, some scientists regard the astrapotheres (and sometimes the Meridiungulata all together) to be members of the clade Atlantogenata. An example of this order is Astrapotherium magnum. When alive, Astrapotherium might have resembled a mastodon, but was only three meters (ten feet) long. [more]

Atelidae

Atelidae is one of the five families of New World monkeys now recognised. It was formerly included in the family Cebidae. Atelids are generally larger monkeys; the family includes the howler, spider, woolly and woolly spider monkeys (the latter being the largest of the New World monkeys). They are found throughout the forested regions of Central and South America, from Mexico to northern Argentina. [more]

Austrotriconodontidae

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Bachitheriidae

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Balaenidae

Balaenidae () is a family of mysticete whales that contains two living genera. Commonly called the right whales as it contains mainly right whale species. This name can be confusing, however, since one of the species is the Bowhead Whale, which is different from the right whales. [more]

Balaenopteridae

Rorquals () (family Balaenopteridae) are the largest group of baleen whales, with nine species in two genera. They include the largest animal that has ever lived, the blue whale, which can reach 150 tonnes (170 short tons), and another that reaches 70 tonnes (77 short tons); even the smallest of the group, the northern minke whale, reaches 9 tonnes (9.9 short tons). [more]

Barbereniidae

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Barylambdidae

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Barytheriidae

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Basilosauridae

Basilosauridae is family of extinct cetaceans that lived in tropical seas during the late Eocene. [more]

Bathyergidae

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Bathyergoididae

Bathyergoides is an extinct genus of rodent from Africa thought to be related to the modern blesmols. It is the only member of the family Bathyergoididae. [more]

Bemalambdidae

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Bolodontidae

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Bonapartheriidae

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Borhyaenidae

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Bovidae

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Bradypodidae

The three-toed sloths are tree-living mammals from South and Central America. They are the only members of the genus Bradypus and the family Bradypodidae. There are four living species of three-toed sloths. These are the Brown-throated Sloth, the Maned Sloth, the Pale-throated Sloth, and the Pygmy Three-toed Sloth. [more]

Brandoniidae

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Brontotheriidae

Brontotheriidae, also called Titanotheriidae, is a family of extinct mammals belonging to the order Perissodactyla, the order that includes horses, rhinoceroses, and tapirs. Superficially they looked rather like rhinos, although they were not true rhinos and are probably most closely related to horses. They lived around 56?34 million years ago, until the very close of the Eocene. [more]

Burramyidae

The pygmy possums are a family of small possums that together form the marsupial family Burramyidae. There are five extant species of pygmy possum, grouped into two genera. Four of the species are endemic to Australia, with one species also co-occurring in Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. [more]

Caenolestidae

The order Paucituberculata () contains the six surviving species of shrew opossum: small, shrew-like marsupials which are confined to the Andes mountains of South America. It is thought that the order diverged from the ancestral marsupial line very early. As recently as 20 million years ago, there were at least seven genera in South America. Today, just three genera remain. They live in inaccessible forest and grassland regions of the High Andes. Insectivores were entirely absent from South America until the Great American Interchange three million years ago, and are currently present only in the northwestern part of the continent. Shrew opossums have lost ground to the these and other placental invaders that fill the same ecological niches. Nevertheless, the ranges of shrew opossums and insectivores overlap broadly. [more]

Cainotheriidae

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Callitrichidae

The Callitrichidae (synonym Hapalidae) is one of five families of New World monkeys. The family includes several genera, including the marmosets, tamarins, and lion tamarins. For a few years, this group of animals was regarded as a subfamily, called the Callitrichinae, of the family Cebidae. [more]

Calomyscidae

Mouse-like hamsters are a group of small rodents found in Syria, Azerbaijan, Iran, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. They are found in rocky outcrops and semi-mountainous area in desert regions. [more]

Camelidae

Camelids are members of the biological family Camelidae, the only living family in the suborder Tylopoda. dromedaries, Bactrian camels, llamas, alpacas, vicu?as, and guanacos are in this group. [more]

Campanorcidae

Campanorco is an extinct genus of notoungulate mammal from the early Eocene of South America and the only member of the family Campanorcidae (McKenna and Bell, 1997). [more]

Canidae

Canidae () is the biological family of carnivorous and omnivorous mammals that includes domestic dogs, wolves, foxes, jackals, coyotes, and many other lesser known extant and extinct dog-like mammals. A member of this family is called a canid (/'ke?n?d/). The Canidae family is divided into two tribes: Canini (related to wolves) and Vulpini (related to foxes). The two species of the basal Caninae are more primitive and do not fit into either tribe. [more]

Capromyidae

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Carodniidae

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Caroloameghiniidae

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Carpolestidae

Carpolestidae is a family of primate-like Plesiadapiformes that were prevalent in North America and Asia from the mid Paleocene through the early Eocene. Typically, they are characterized by two large upper posterior premolars and one large lower posterior premolar. They weighed about 20-150g, and were about the size of a mouse. Though they come from the order, Plesiadapiformes, that may have given rise to the primate order, carpolestids are too specialized and derived to be ancestors of primates. [more]

Castoridae

The family Castoridae contains the two living species of beaver and their fossil relatives. This was once a highly diverse group of rodents, but is now restricted to a single genus, Castor. [more]

Caviidae

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Cebidae

The Cebidae is one of the five families of New World monkeys now recognised. It includes the capuchin monkeys and squirrel monkeys. These species are found throughout tropical and subtropical South and Central America. [more]

Cebochoeridae

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Cercopithecidae

The Old World monkeys or Cercopithecidae are a group of primates, falling in the superfamily Cercopithecoidea in the clade (or parvorder) of Catarrhini. The Old World monkeys are native to Africa and Asia today, inhabiting a range of environments from tropical rain forest to savanna, shrubland and mountainous terrain, and are also known from Europe in the fossil record. However, a (possibly introduced) free-roaming group of monkeys still survives in Gibraltar (Europe) to this day. Old World monkeys include many of the most familiar species of nonhuman primates, such as baboons and macaques. [more]

Cervidae

Deer (singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae. Species in the Cervidae family include white-tailed deer, mule deer such as black-tailed deer, elk, moose, red deer, reindeer (caribou), fallow deer, roe deer and chital. Male deer of all species (except the Chinese water deer) and also female reindeer grow and shed new antlers each year. In this they differ from permanently horned animals such as antelope; these are in the same order as deer and may bear a superficial resemblance. The musk deer of Asia and water chevrotain (or mouse deer) of tropical African and Asian forests are not usually regarded as true deer and form their own families, Moschidae and Tragulidae, respectively. [more]

Cetotheriidae

Cetotheriidae is an extinct family of baleen whales in the suborder Mysticeti. The family existed from the Late Oligocene to the Late Pliocene before going extinct. [more]

Chaeropodidae

The Pig-footed Bandicoot, Chaeropus ecaudatus, was a small marsupial of the arid and semi-arid plains of Australia. The distribution range of the species was later reduced to an inland desert region, where it was last recorded in the 1950s, and is now presumed to be extinct. [more]

Chalicotheriidae

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Chapattimyidae

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Cheirogaleidae

Cheirogaleidae is the family of strepsirrhine primates that contains the various dwarf and mouse lemurs. Like all other lemurs, cheirogaleids live exclusively on the island of Madagascar. [more]

Chinchillidae

The family Chinchillidae contains the chinchillas, viscachas, and their fossil relatives. They are restricted to southern and western South America, often in association with the Andes. They are large rodents, weighing from 800 g (28 oz) to 8 kg (18 lb), with strong hind legs and large ears. All species have thick, soft fur, which is considered valuable in some species. [more]

Choeropotamidae

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Chronoperatidae

Chronoperates paradoxus is a possible therapsid whose remains have been found in Alberta, Canada. It has also been suggested that it may be a symmetrodont. [more]

Chrysochloridae

Golden moles are small, insectivorous burrowing mammals native to southern Africa. They form the family Chrysochloridae, and are taxonomically distinct from the true moles which they resemble due to convergence. The golden moles bear a remarkable resemblance to the marsupial moles of Australia, so much so that, the marsupial/placental divide notwithstanding, arguments were once made that they were related, possibly because they are very primitive placentals and because of the many mole-like specializations. [more]

Cimolestidae

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Cimolodontidae

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Cimolomyidae

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Climacoceratidae

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Coryphodontidae

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Craseonycteridae

Kitti's hog-nosed bat (Craseonycteris thonglongyai), also known as the bumblebee bat, is a vulnerable species of bat and the only extant member of the family Craseonycteridae. It occurs in western Thailand and southeast Burma, where it occupies limestone caves along rivers. [more]

Creotarsidae

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Cricetidae

The Cricetidae are a family of rodents in the large and complex superfamily Muroidea. It includes true hamsters, voles, lemmings, and New World rats and mice. At almost 600 species, it is the second largest family of mammals, and has members throughout the New World, Asia, and Europe. [more]

Ctenodactylidae

Gundis or comb rats (family Ctenodactylidae) are a group of small, stocky rodents found in Africa. They live in rocky deserts across the northern parts of the continent. The family comprises 4 living genera and 5 species (Speke's Gundi, Felou Gundi, Desert Gundi, North African Gundi and Mzab Gundi), as well as numerous extinct genera and species (McKenna and Bell, 1997). They are in the superfamily . They first came to the notice of western naturalists in Tripoli in 1774 and were given the name 'gundi mice'. [more]

Ctenomyidae

The tuco-tucos are members of a group of rodents that belong to the family Ctenomyidae. The tuco-tucos belong to a single genus: Ctenomys, but they include some 60 different species. The relationships among the species are debated by taxonomists. Their closest relatives are degus and other octodontids (Woods and Kilpatrick, 2005). All species of tuco-tuco are found in South America from Peru and central Brazil southward. The tuco-tucos of South America have an ecological role equivalent to that of the pocket gophers of North America. [more]

Cyclopedidae

Cyclopedidae is a family of anteaters that includes the silky anteater and its extinct relatives. [more]

Cylindrodontidae

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Cynocephalidae

Colugos () are arboreal gliding mammals found in South-east Asia. There are just two extant species, which make up the entire family Cynocephalidae (play /?sa?n?s?'f??l?di?/) and order Dermoptera. They are the most capable of all gliding mammals, using flaps of extra skin between their legs to glide from higher to lower locations. They are also known as cobegos or flying lemurs, though they are not true lemurs. [more]

Cyriacotheriidae

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Dacrytheriidae

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Dalpiazinidae

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Dasypodidae

Armadillos are New World placental mammals with a leathery armor shell. The Dasypodidae are the only surviving family in the order Cingulata, part of the superorder Xenarthra, along with the anteaters and sloths. The word armadillo in Spanish means "little armored one". The Aztec called them azotochtli, Nahuatl for ?turtle-rabbit?. [more]

Dasyproctidae

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Dasyuridae

Dasyuridae is a family of marsupials native to Australia and New Guinea, including 61 species divided into 15 genera. Many are small and mouse-like, giving them the misnomer marsupial mice, but the group also includes the cat-sized quolls, as well as the Tasmanian Devil. They are found in a wide range of habitats, including grassland, forests, and mountains, and some species are arboreal or semi-aquatic. [more]

Daubentoniidae

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Deinotheriidae

Deinotheriidae ("terrible beasts") is a family of prehistoric elephant-like proboscideans that lived during the Tertiary period, first appearing in Africa, then spreading across southern Asia (Indo-Pakistan) and Europe. During that time they changed very little, apart from growing much larger in size - by the late Miocene they had become the largest land animals of their time. Their most distinctive feature was the downward curving tusks on the lower jaw. [more]

Delphinidae

Oceanic dolphins are the members of the Delphinidae family of cetaceans. These marine mammals are related to whales and porpoises. They are found worldwide, mostly in the shallower seas of the continental shelves. As the name implies, these dolphins tend to be found in the open seas, unlike the river dolphins, although a few species such as the Irrawaddy dolphin are coastal or riverine. [more]

Deltatheridiidae

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Deltatheroididae

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Deperetellidae

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Desmostylidae

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Diamantomyidae

Diamantomyidae is a family of extinct hystricognath rodents from Africa and Asia. [more]

Diatomyidae

Diatomyidae is a family of hystricomorphous, rodents found in Asia. It is currently represented by a single known living species, Laonastes aenigmamus. [more]

Dichobunidae

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Didelphidae

Opossums (colloquially possums)(Didelphimorphia, ) make up the largest order of marsupials in the Western Hemisphere, including 103 or more species in 19 genera. They are also commonly called possums, though that term technically refers to Australian fauna of the suborder Phalangeriformes. The Virginia opossum was the first animal to be named an opossum; usage of the name was published in 1610. The word opossum comes from the Proto-Algonquian aposoum, pronounced *wa?p- a??emw, meaning "white dog" or "white beast/ animal". Opossums probably diverged from the basic South American marsupials in the late Cretaceous or early Paleocene. [more]

Didolodontidae

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Didymoconidae

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Dimylidae

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Dinomyidae

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Dipodidae

The Dipodidae, or dipodids, are a family of rodents found across the northern hemisphere. This family includes over 50 species among the 16 genera. They include the jerboas, jumping mice, and birch mice. Different species are found in grassland, deserts, and forests. They are all capable of saltation (jumping while in a bipedal stance), a feature that is most highly evolved in the desert-dwelling jerboas. [more]

Diprotodontidae

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Donodontidae

Donodon is an extinct genus of mammal from the Early Cretaceous (?Berriasian) S?quence B des Couches Rouges of Talssint, Morocco. It is the only member of the family Donodontidae. It differs from dryolestids in having upper molars that are not compressed mesiodistally. [more]

Dormaaliidae

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Dryolestidae

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Dugongidae

Dugongidae is a family in the order of Sirenia. [more]

Echimyidae

The spiny rats are a group of hystricognath rodents in the family Echimyidae. They are distributed from central Central America through much of South America. They were also found in the West Indies until the 19th century. Some authorities consider the nutria from southern and central South America to be a part of this family. [more]

Ektopodontidae

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Elephantidae

Elephantidae is a taxonomic family, collectively elephants and mammoths. These are terrestrial large mammals with a trunk and tusks. Most genera and species in the family are extinct. Only two genera, Loxodonta (African elephants) and Elephas (Asiatic elephants), are living. [more]

Emballonuridae

The 51 species of sac-winged or sheath-tailed bats constitute the family Emballonuridae, and can be found in tropical and subtropical regions all over the world. Emballonurids include some of the smallest of all bats, and range from 3.5 to 10 cm in body length. They are generally brown or grey, although the ghost bats (genus Diclidurus) are white. [more]

Endotheriidae

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Entelodontidae

Entelodonts, sometimes nicknamed hell pigs or terminator pigs, is an extinct family of pig-like omnivores endemic to forests and plains of North America, Europe, and Asia from the middle Eocene to early Miocene epochs (37.2?16.3 mya), existing for approximately 20.9 million years. [more]

Entelopidae

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Eoastrapostylopidae

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Eocardiidae

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Eomoropidae

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Eomyidae

Eomyidae is a family of extinct rodents from North America and Eurasia related to modern day pocket gophers and kangaroo rats. The family includes the earliest known gliding rodent, Eomys (Storch et al., 1996) [more]

Eosimiidae

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Epoicotheriidae

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Equidae

Equidae (sometimes known as the horse family) is the taxonomic family of horses and related animals, including the extant horses, donkeys, and zebras, and many other species known only from fossils. All extant species are in the genus Equus. Equidae belongs to the order Perissodactyla, which includes the extant tapirs and rhinoceros, and still more fossils. [more]

Erethizontidae

The New World porcupines, or Erethizontidae, are large arboreal rodents, distinguished by the spiny covering from which they take their name. They inhabit forests and wooded regions across North America, and into northern South America. Although both the New World and Old World porcupine families belong to the Hystricognathi branch of the vast order Rodentia, they are quite different and are not closely related. [more]

Erinaceidae

Erinaceidae is the only living family in the order Erinaceomorpha, which has recently been subsumed with Soricomorpha into the order Eulipotyphla. Eulipotyphla has been shown to be monophyletic; Soricomorpha is paraphyletic because Soricidae shared a more recent common ancestor with Erinaceidae than with other soricomorphs. [more]

Erithizontidae

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Ernanodontidae

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Eschrichtiidae

Eschrichtiidae is a family of baleen whales in the suborder Mysticeti. [more]

Eucosmodontidae

Eucosmodontidae is a poorly preserved family of fossil mammals within the extinct order Multituberculata. Representatives are known from strata dating from the Upper Cretaceous through the Lower Eocene of North America, as well as the Paleocene to Eocene of Europe. The family is part of the suborder of Cimolodonta. They might be related with the Djadochtatherioidea but without further finds, this remains unclear. Other than a partial snout, fossil evidence is presently limited to teeth. [more]

Eupleridae

The family Eupleridae is a group of carnivorans endemic to Madagascar and comprising 10 known species in seven genera. Probably the best known species is the Fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox), in the subfamily Euplerinae. All species of Euplerinae were formerly classified as viverrids, while all species in the subfamily Galidiinae were classified as herpestids. [more]

Eurymylidae

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Eutypomyidae

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Felidae

A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[1] [more]

Ferugliotheriidae

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Florentiamyidae

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Furipteridae

Furipteridae is one of the families of bats. This family contains only two species, the Smokey Bat and the Thumbless Bat. Both are from Central and South America, and are closely related to the bats in the Natalidae and Thyropteridae families. They can be recognized by their reduced and functionless thumbs, enclosed by the wing membranes, and their broad, funnel-shaped ears. There are only two genera in the group, each with a single species. They are insectivorous and can live in many different kinds of environments. They have greyish fur, and a small . Like many bats, they roost in caves. [more]

Galagidae

A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[2] [more]

Galagonidae

Galagos , also known as bushbabies, bush babies or nagapies (meaning "little night monkeys" in Afrikaans), are small, nocturnal primates native to continental Africa, and make up the family Galagidae (also sometimes called Galagonidae). They are sometimes included as a subfamily within the Lorisidae or Loridae. [more]

Galeopithecidae

A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[3] [more]

Gelocidae

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Geolabididae

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Geomyidae

The pocket gophers are burrowing rodents of the family Geomyidae. These are the "true" gophers, though several ground squirrels of the family Sciuridae are often called gophers as well. The name "pocket gopher" on its own may be used to refer to any of a number of subspecies of the family. [more]

Giraffidae

The giraffids are ruminant artiodactyl mammals that share a common ancestor with deer and bovids. The biological family Giraffidae, once a diverse group spread throughout Eurasia and Africa, contains only two living members, the giraffe and the okapi. Both are confined to sub-saharan Africa: the giraffe to the open savannas, and the okapi to the dense rainforest of the Congo. The two species look very different on first sight, but share a number of common features, including a long, dark-colored tongue, lobed canine teeth, and horns covered in skin, called "ossicones". [more]

Glasbiidae

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Gliridae

The dormouse is a rodent of the family Gliridae. (This family is also variously called Myoxidae or Muscardinidae by different taxonomists.) Dormice are mostly found in Europe, although some live in Africa and Asia. They are particularly known for their long periods of hibernation. Because only one species of dormouse is native to the British Isles, in everyday English usage dormouse usually refers to one species (the hazel dormouse) as well as to the family as a whole. [more]

Glyptodontidae

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Glyptodontoïdea

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Gomphotheriidae

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Groeberiidae

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Gypsonictopidae

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Hahnodontidae

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Hapalodectidae

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Haplobunodontidae

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Harpyodidae

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Hassianycterididae

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Hegetotheriidae

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Helaletidae

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Helohyidae

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Hemicyonidae

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Hemimastodontidae

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Hemisyntrachelidae

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Henricosborniidae

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Heptaxodontidae

The giant hutias are an extinct group of large rodents known from fossil and subfossil material in the West Indies. One species, Amblyrhiza inundata, is estimated to have weighed between 50 and 200 kg (110 and 440 lb), big specimens being as large as an American Black Bear. This is much larger than Capybara, the largest rodent living today, but still much smaller than Josephoartigasia monesi, the largest rodent known. These animals may have persisted into historic times and were probably used as a food source by aboriginal humans. All giant hutias are in a single family Heptaxodontidae, which contains no living species; this grouping seems to be paraphyletic and artificial however. [more]

Herpestidae

Mongooses (Herpestidae) are a family of 33 living species of small carnivorans from southern Eurasia and mainland Africa. Four additional species from Madagascar in the subfamily Galidiinae, which were previously classified in this family, are also referred to as "mongooses" or "mongoose-like". Genetic evidence indicates that the Galidiinae are more closely related to other Madagascar carnivorans in the family Eupleridae, which is the closest living group to the true mongooses. [more]

Hippopotamidae

A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[4] [more]

Hipposideridae

Hipposideridae is a family of bats commonly known as the "Old World Leaf-nosed Bats". While it has often been seen as a subfamily, Hipposiderinae, of the family Rhinolophidae, it is now more generally classified as its own family. Nevertheless, it is most closely related to Rhinolophidae within the suborder Pteropodiformes (or Yinpterochiroptera). [more]

Holoclemensiidae

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Homalodotheriidae

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Hominidae

The Hominidae (; anglicized hominids, also known as great apes), as the term is used here, form a taxonomic family, including four extant genera: chimpanzees (Pan), gorillas (Gorilla), humans (Homo), and orangutans (Pongo). The term "hominid" is also used in the more restricted sense of humans and relatives of humans closer than chimpanzees. In this usage, all hominid species other than Homo sapiens are extinct. [more]

Hondadelphidae

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Hoplitomerycidae

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Hyaenidae

Hyenas or Hyaenas (from Greek "?a??a" - hyaina) are the animals of the family Hyaenidae ( /h?'?n?d?/) of suborder feliforms of the Carnivora. It is the fourth smallest biological family in the Carnivora (consisting of four species), and one of the smallest in the mammalia. Despite their low diversity, hyenas are unique and vital components to most African and some Asian ecosystems. [more]

Hyaenodontidae

Hyaenodontidae ("Hyena teeth") is a family of the extinct order Creodonta, which contains several dozen genera. [more]

Hydrochaeridae

The capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) is the largest extant rodent in the world. Its closest relatives are agouti, chinchillas, coyphillas, and guinea pigs. Native to South America, the capybara inhabits savannas and dense forests and lives near bodies of water. It is a highly social species and can be found in groups as large as 100 individuals, but usually live in groups of 10?20 individuals. The capybara is not a threatened species, though it is hunted for its meat and skin. [more]

Hydrochoeridae

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Hylobatidae

Gibbons are apes in the family Hylobatidae (). The family is divided into four genera based on their diploid chromosome number: Hylobates (44), Hoolock (38), Nomascus (52), and Symphalangus (50). The extinct Bunopithecus sericus is a gibbon or gibbon-like ape which, until recently, was thought to be closely related to the hoolock gibbons. Gibbons occur in tropical and subtropical rainforests from northeast India to Indonesia and north to southern China, including the islands of Sumatra, Borneo and Java. [more]

Hyopsodontidae

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Hyperoodontidae

A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[5] [more]

Hypertragulidae

Hypertragulidae is an extinct family of even-toed ungulates (order Artiodactyla), endemic to North America, Europe, and Asia during the Eocene through Miocene, living 46.2?13.6 Ma, existing for approximately 32.6 million years. [more]

Hypsiprymnodontidae

The Hypsiprymnodontidae () are a family of macropods, one of two families containing animals commonly referred to as rat-kangaroos. There is a single known extant genus and species in this family, the Musky Rat-kangaroo, Hypsiprymnodon moschatus, which occurs in northern Australia and New Guinea. During the Pleistocene megafauna from this family occurred in the genera Ekaltadeta. [more]

Hyracodontidae

Hyracodontidae is an extinct family of rhinoceroses endemic to North America, Europe, and Asia during the Eocene through early Miocene living from 55.8?20 mya, existing for approximately 35.8 million years. [more]

Hystricidae

The Old World porcupines, or Hystricidae, are large terrestrial rodents, distinguished by the spiny covering from which they take their name. They range over the south of Europe, most of Africa, India, and the Maritime Southeast Asia as far east as Borneo. Although both the Old World and New World porcupine families belong to the Hystricognathi branch of the vast order Rodentia, they are quite different and are not closely related. [more]

Icaronycteridae

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Ilariidae

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Indridae

The Indriidae (sometimes incorrectly spelled Indridae) are a family of strepsirrhine primates. They are medium to large sized lemurs with only four teeth in the toothcomb instead of the usual six. Indriids, like all lemurs, live exclusively on the island of Madagascar. [more]

Indriidae

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Iniidae

Iniidae is a family of river dolphins containing one living and three extinct genera. [more]

Interatheriidae

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Ischyromyidae

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Isectolophidae

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Isotemnidae

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Ivanantoniidae

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Jeholodentidae

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Kentriodontidae

Kentriodontidae is an extinct family of odontocet whales related to modern dolphins. The Family lived from the Oligocene to the Pliocene before going extinct. [more]

Kenyamyidae

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Kermackiidae

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Kogaionidae

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Kogiidae

Physeteroidea is a superfamily including just three living species of whale; the Sperm Whale, in the genus Physeter, and the Pygmy Sperm Whale and Dwarf Sperm Whale, in the genus Kogia. In the past, these genera have sometimes been united in a single family, Physeteridae, with the two Kogia species in a subfamily (Kogiinae); however, recent practice is to allocate the genus Kogia to its own family, Kogiidae, leaving Physeteridae as a monotypic (single extant species) family, although additional fossil representatives of both families are known (see "Evolution"). [more]

Kuehneotheriidae

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Kulbeckiidae

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Laonastidae

Diatomyidae is a family of hystricomorphous, rodents found in Asia. It is currently represented by a single known living species, Laonastes aenigmamus. [more]

Laredomyidae

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Lemuridae

Lemuridae is a family of prosimian primates native to Madagascar, and one of five families commonly known as lemurs. These animals were thought to be the evolutionary predecessors of monkeys and apes, but this is no longer considered correct. The family gets its name from the Ancient Roman belief[] that the animals were ghosts or spirits ('lemures'), because many species are nocturnal. [more]

Leontiniidae

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Lepilemuridae

A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[6] [more]

Leporidae

Leporids are the approximately 50 species of rabbits and hares which form the family Leporidae. The leporids, together with the pikas, constitute the mammalian order Lagomorpha. Leporids differ from pikas in having short furry tails, and elongated ears and hind legs. The name leporid is simply an abbreviation of the family name Leporidae meaning animals resembling "lepus", Latin for hare. [more]

Leptictidae

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Leptomerycidae

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Lipotidae

The Baiji (Chinese: ; pinyin: About this sound b?ij?t?n ) (Lipotes vexillifer, Lipotes meaning "left behind", vexillifer "flag bearer") is a freshwater dolphin found only in the Yangtze River in China. Nicknamed "Goddess of the Yangtze" (simplified Chinese: ????; traditional Chinese: ????; pinyin: Ch?ng Jiang nush?n) in China, the dolphin is also called Chinese River Dolphin, Yangtze River Dolphin, Whitefin Dolphin and Yangtze Dolphin. It is not to be confused with the Chinese White Dolphin. [more]

Llanocetidae

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Lophialetidae

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Lophiodontidae

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Lophiomerycidae

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Loridae

Lorisidae (or sometimes Loridae) is a family of strepsirrhine primates. The lorisids are all slim arboreal animals and include the lorises, pottos and angwantibos. Lorisids live in tropical, central Africa as well as in south and southeast Asia. [more]

Lorisidae

A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[7] [more]

Macraucheniidae

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Macropodidae

Macropods are marsupials belonging to the family Macropodidae, which includes kangaroos, wallabies, tree-kangaroos, pademelons, and several others. Macropods are native to Australia, New Guinea, and some nearby islands. Before European settlement of Australia, there were about 53 species of Macropods. Six species have since become extinct. Another 11 species have been greatly reduced in numbers. Other species (e.g. Simosthenurus, Propleopus, Macropus titan) became extinct after the Australian Aborigines arrived and before the Europeans arrived. [more]

Macroscelididae

Elephant shrews or jumping shrews are small insectivorous mammals native to Africa, belonging to the family Macroscelididae, in the order Macroscelidea. Their traditional common English name comes from a fancied resemblance between their long noses and the trunk of an elephant, and an assumed relationship with the true shrews (family Soricidae) in the order Insectivora because of their superficial similarities. As it has become plain that the elephant shrews are unrelated to the shrews, the biologist Jonathan Kingdon has proposed that they instead be called sengis, a term derived from the Bantu languages of Africa. [more]

Mammalodontidae

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Mammutidae

Mammutidae is a family of extinct proboscideans that lived between the Miocene to the Pleistocene or Holocene. The family was first described in 1922, classifying fossil specimens of the type genus Mammut (mastodons), and has since been placed in various arrangements of the order. The name mastodon derives from Greek, ?ast?? "nipple" and ?d??? "tooth", as with the genus, to indicate a characteristic that distinguishes them from allied families. The genus Zygolophodon has also been assigned to this family. [more]

Manidae

A pangolin (), scaly anteater, or trenggiling, is a mammal of the order Pholidota. The only one extant family (Manidae) has one genus (Manis) of pangolins, comprising eight species. There are also a number of extinct taxa. Pangolins have large keratin scales covering their skin and are the only mammals with this adaptation. They are found in tropical regions of Africa and Asia. The name "pangolin" derives from the Malay word pengguling ("something that rolls up"). [more]

Mayulestidae

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Megadermatidae

Megadermatidae, or False Vampire Bats, are a family of bats found from central Africa, eastwards through southern Asia, and into Australia. They are relatively large bats, ranging from 6.5 cm to 14 cm in head-body length. They have large eyes, very large ears and a prominent . They have a wide membrane between the hind legs, or uropatagium, but no tail. Many species are a drab brown in color, but some are white, bluish-grey or even olive-green, helping to camouflage them against their preferred roosting environments. They are primarily insectivorous, but will also eat a wide range of small vertebrates. [more]

Megaladapidae

Koala lemurs, genus Megaladapis, belong to the family Megaladapidae, consisting of three extinct species of lemurs that once inhabited the island of Madagascar. The largest measured between 1.3 to 1.5 m (4 to 5 ft) in length. [more]

Megalonychidae

Megalonychidae is a group of sloths including the extinct Megalonyx and the living two toed sloths. Megalonychids first appeared in the early Oligocene, about 35 million years ago, in southern Argentina (Patagonia), and spread as far as the Antilles by the early Miocene. Megalonychids first reached North America by island-hopping, about 9 million years ago, prior to the formation of the Isthmus of Panama. Some lineages of megalonychids increased in size as time passed. The first species of these were small and may have been partly tree-dwelling, whereas the Pliocene (about 5 to 2 million years ago) species were already approximately half the size of the huge Late Pleistocene Megalonyx jeffersonii from the last ice age. Some West Indian island species were as small as a large cat; their dwarf condition typified both tropical adaptation and their restricted island environment. This small size also enabled them a degree of arboreality. [more]

Megatheriidae

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Megatherioïdea

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Mephitidae

Skunks (in the United States, occasionally called polecats) are mammals best known for their ability to secrete a liquid with a strong, foul odor. General appearance varies from species to species, from black-and-white to brown or cream colored. Skunks, together with their closest living relatives, the stink badgers, belong to the "skunk family", the "Mephitidae" and to the order Carnivora. There are twelve species of Mephistids, which are divided into four genera: Mephitis, the (hooded and striped skunks, two species), Spilogale the (spotted skunks, four species), the Mydaus or stink badgers, two species), and Conepatus, the (hog-nosed skunks, four species). The two stink badgers in the Mydaus genus inhabit Indonesia and the Philippines; while all skunks inhabit the Americas from Canada to central South America. All other known Mephistids are extinct and known only through fossils, many in Eurasia[]. [more]

Merycoidodontidae

Oreodonts, sometimes called prehistoric "ruminating hogs," were a family of cud-chewing plant-eater with a short face and tusk-like canine teeth. As their name implies, some of the better known forms were generally hog-like, and the group was once thought to be a member of Suina, the pigs, peccaries and their ancestors, though recent work indicate they were more closely related to camels. The scientific name means Mountain teeth and refer to the appearance of the molars. Most oreodonts were sheep-sized, though some genera grew to the size of cattle. They were heavy bodied, with short four-toed hooves. Unlike any modern ruminant, they had long tails. [more]

Mesonychidae

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Mesotheriidae

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Mesungulatidae

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Metacheiromyidae

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Miacidae

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Microbiotheriidae

The Monito del Monte is the only extant member of its family (Microbiotheriidae) and the only surviving member of an ancient order, the Microbiotheria. The oldest microbiothere currently recognised is , based on fossil teeth from Early Palaeocene deposits at Tiupampa, Bolivia. Numerous genera are known from various Palaeogene and Neogene fossil sites in South America. A number of possible microbiotheres, again represented by isolated teeth, have also been recovered from the Middle Eocene La Meseta Formation of Seymour Island, Western Antarctica. Finally, several undescribed microbiotheres have been reported from the Early Eocene Tingamarra Local Fauna in Northeastern Australia; if this is indeed the case, then these Australian fossils have important implications for our understanding of marsupial evolution and biogeography. [more]

Microchoeridae

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Micromomyidae

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Micropternodontidae

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Microsyopidae

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Mimotonidae

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Mioclaenidae

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Miralinidae

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Mixodectidae

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Mixtotheriidae

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Moeritheriidae

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Molossidae

Molossidae, or free-tailed bats, are a family of bats within the order Chiroptera. They are generally quite robust, and consist of many strong flying forms with relatively long and narrow wings. Another common name for some members of this group, and indeed a few species from other families, is mastiff bat. The western mastiff bat, Eumops perotis, a large species from the southwestern United States and Mexico with wings over 0.5 m (1.6 ft) across, is perhaps one of the best known with this name. They are widespread, being found on every continent except Antarctica. [more]

Monodontidae

The cetacean family Monodontidae comprises two unusual whale species, the narwhal, in which the male has a long tusk, and the white beluga whale. They are native to coastal regions and pack ice around the Arctic Sea, and the far north of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. [more]

Mormoopidae

The family Mormoopidae contains bats known generally as mustached bats, ghost-faced bats, and naked-backed bats. They are found in the Americas from the Southwestern United States to Southeastern Brazil. [more]

Moschidae

Musk deer are artiodactyls of the genus Moschus, the only genus of family Moschidae. They are more primitive than the cervids, or true deer, in not having antlers or facial glands, in having only a single pair of teats, and in possessing a gall bladder, a caudal gland, a pair of tusk-like teeth and?of particular economic importance to humans?a musk gland. Moschids live mainly in forested and alpine scrub habitats in the mountains of southern Asia, notably Himalayas. Moschids are entirely Asian in their present distribution, being extinct in Europe where the earliest musk deer are known from Oligocene deposits. [more]

Muridae

Muridae is the largest family of mammals. It contains over 700 species found naturally throughout Eurasia, Africa, and Australia. They have been introduced worldwide. The group includes true mice and rats, gerbils, and relatives. [more]

Mustelidae

Mustelidae (from Latin mustela, weasel), commonly referred to as the weasel family, are a family of carnivorous mammals. Mustelids are diverse and the largest family in the order Carnivora, at least partly because in the past it has been a catch-all category for many early or poorly differentiated taxa.[] The internal classification seems to be still quite unsettled, with rival proposals containing between two and eight subfamilies. One study published in 2008 questions the long-accepted Mustelinae subfamily, and suggests Mustelidae consists of four major clades and three much smaller lineages. [more]

Mylagaulidae

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Mylodontidae

Mylodontidae is a family of extinct mammals within the order of Pilosa and suborder Folivora living from approximately 23 mya?11,000 years ago, existing for approximately 22.89 million years. This family of ground sloths is related to the other families of extinct ground sloths, being the Megatheriidae, the , the Orophodontidae and the Scelidotheriidae. The only extant families of the suborder Folivora are the Bradypodidae and the Megalonychidae. Phylogenetic analyses using homologous sequences from all extant edentate groups indicates that the Mylodontidae were closer related to Megalonychidae than to Bradypodidae. [more]

Myocastoridae

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Myophiomyidae

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Myoxidae

The dormouse is a rodent of the family Gliridae. (This family is also variously called Myoxidae or Muscardinidae by different taxonomists.) Dormice are mostly found in Europe, although some live in Africa and Asia. They are particularly known for their long periods of hibernation. Because only one species of dormouse is native to the British Isles, in everyday English usage dormouse usually refers to one species (the hazel dormouse) as well as to the family as a whole. [more]

Myrmecobiidae

The numbat (Myrmecobius fasciatus), also known as the banded anteater, or walpurti, is a marsupial found in Western Australia. Its diet consists almost exclusively of termites. Once widespread across southern Australia, the range is now restricted to several small colonies and it is listed as an endangered species. The numbat is an emblem of Western Australia and protected by conservation programs. [more]

Myrmecophagidae

Myrmecophagidae is a family of anteaters, the name being derived from the Ancient Greek words for 'ant' and 'eat' (Myrmeco- and phagos). Myrmecophagids are native to Central and South America, from southern Mexico to northern Argentina. There are 2 genera and 3 species in the family, consisting of the Giant Anteater, and the tamanduas. The fossil Eurotamandua from the Messel Pit in Germany may be an early anteater, but its status is currently debated. [more]

Mystacinidae

Mystacinidae is a family of unusual bats, the New Zealand short-tailed bats. There is one living genus, Mystacina, with two extant species, one of which is believed to have become extinct in the 1960s. They are medium-sized bats, about 6 centimetres (2.4 in) in length, with grey, velvety fur. [more]

Myzopodidae

Myzopoda is the only genus in family Myzopodidae, a family of bats, endemic to Madagascar. [more]

Nandiniidae

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Natalidae

The family Natalidae, or funnel-eared bats are found from Mexico to Brazil and the Caribbean islands. The family has three genera, Chilonatalus, Natalus and Nyctiellus. They are slender bats with unusually long tails and, as their name suggests, funnel-shaped ears. They are small, at only 3.5 to 5.5 cm in length, with brown, grey, or reddish fur. Like many other bats, they are insectivorous, and roost in caves. [more]

Necrolestidae

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Neobalaenidae

The pygmy right whale (Caperea marginata) is a baleen whale, the sole member of the family Neobalaenidae. First described by John Edward Gray in 1846, it is the smallest of the baleen whales, ranging between 6 metres (20 ft) and 6.5 metres (21 ft) in length and 3,000 and 3,500 kg in mass. Despite its name, the pygmy right whale may have more in common with the gray whale and rorquals than the bowhead and right whales. [more]

Neoepiblemidae

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Nesophontidae

The members of the genus Nesophontes, sometimes called West Indies shrews, were members of the extinct family of mammals Nesophontidae in the order Soricomorpha. This is the only genus described for this family. They were endemic to Cuba, Hispaniola (Dominican Republic and Haiti), Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, and the Cayman Islands. Although reliable estimates are unavailable, these animals are widely believed to have survived the Pleistocene extinction since remains have been found among those of Rattus and Mus species. Some authorities estimate extinction coinciding with the arrivals of rats (Rattus) aboard Spanish vessels in the early 16th century (1500). Others, such as Morgan and Woods, claim that some species survived until the early 20th century. Their relations to the other West Indian soricomorphs, the solenodons, remain unclear. [more]

Nimravidae

The Nimravidae, sometimes known as false saber-toothed cats, are an extinct family of mammalian carnivores belonging to the suborder Feliformia and endemic to North America, Europe, and Asia living from the Eocene through the Miocene epochs (42?7.2 mya), existing for approximately 34.8 million years. [more]

Noctilionidae

The Noctilionidae family of bats, commonly known as bulldog bats or fisherman bats, are represented by two species, the Greater Bulldog Bat and the Lesser Bulldog Bat. They are found near water, from Mexico to Argentina. The Naked Bulldog Bat (Cheiromeles torquatus) does not belong to this family, but to the family Molossidae, the free-tailed bats. [more]

Notharctidae

Notharctidae is an extinct family of primitive primates. [more]

Notohippidae

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Notonychopidae

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Notoryctidae

Marsupial moles (Notoryctidae) is a family of marsupials of the order Notoryctemorphia, consisting of only two extant species: [more]

Notostylopidae

Notostylopidae is an extinct family comprising five genera of notoungulate mammals known from the early Eocene to early Oligocene of South America [more]

Numidotheriidae

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Nycteridae

Nycteridae is the family of slit-faced or hollow-faced bats. They are grouped in a single genus, Nycteris. The bats are found in East Malaysia, Indonesia and many parts of Africa. [more]

Nyctitheriidae

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Ochotonidae

The pika ( py-k?; archaically spelled pica) is a small mammal, with short limbs, rounded ears, and short tail. The name pika is used for any member of the Ochotonidae, a family within the order of lagomorphs, which also includes the Leporidae (rabbits and hares). One genus, Ochotona, is recognised within the family, and it includes 30 species. It is also known as the "whistling hare" due to its high-pitched alarm call when diving into its burrow. The name "pika" appears to be derived from the Tungus piika. [more]

Octodontidae

Octodontidae is a family of rodents, restricted to southwestern South America. Thirteen species of octodontid are recognised, arranged in nine genera. The best known species is the degu, Octodon degus. [more]

Odobenidae

Odobenidae is a family of Pinnipeds. The only living species is walrus. In the past, however, the group was much more diverse, and includes more than ten fossil genera. [more]

Odobenocetopsidae

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Oldfieldthomasiidae

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Omomyidae

Omomyids (members of the family Omomyidae) are a diverse group of early primates that radiated during the Eocene epoch between about 55 to 34 million years ago (mya). Fossils of omomyids are found in North America, Europe, Asia, and possibly Africa, making it one of two groups of Eocene primates with a geographic distribution spanning holarctic continents, the other being the adapids (family Adapidae). Early representatives of the Omomyidae and Adapidae appear suddenly at the beginning of the Eocene (59 mya) in North America, Europe, and Asia, and are the earliest known crown primates. [more]

Oreodontidae

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Ornithorhynchidae

Ornithorhynchidae is one of the two extant families in the order Monotremata, and contains the Platypus and its extinct relatives. The other family is the Tachyglossidae, or echidnas. Within Ornithorhynchidae are two genera, Obdurodon and Ornithorhynchus: [more]

Oromerycidae

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Orophodontidae

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Orycteropodidae

Orycteropodidae is a family of afrotherian mammals. Although there are many fossil species, the only species surviving today is the aardvark, Orycteropus afer. Orycteropodidae is recognized as the only family within the order Tubulidentata, so the two are effectively synonyms. [more]

Otariidae

The eared seals or otariids are marine mammals in the family Otariidae, one of three groupings of Pinnipeds. They comprise 16 species in seven genera commonly known either as sea lions or fur seals, distinct from true seals (phocids) and the Walrus (odobenids). Otariids are adapted to a semi-aquatic lifestyle, feeding and migrating in the water but breeding and resting on land or ice. They reside in subpolar, temperate, and equatorial waters throughout the Pacific and Southern oceans and the southern Indian and Atlantic oceans. They are conspicuously absent in the north Atlantic. [more]

Otlestidae

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Oxyaenidae

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Oxyclaenidae

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Pakicetidae

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Palaechthonidae

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Palaeochiropterygidae

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Palaeomastodontidae

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Palaeomerycidae

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Palaeopeltidae

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Palaeopropithecidae

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Palaeoryctidae

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Palaeothentidae

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Palaeotheriidae

Palaeotheres are an extinct group of herbivorous mammals related to tapirs and rhinoceros, and probably ancestral to horses. They ranged across Europe and Asia during the Eocene through Oligocene 55?28 Ma, existing for approximately 27 million years. [more]

Palorchestidae

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Pampatheriidae

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Pantolambdidae

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Pantolambdodontidae

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Pantolestidae

Pantolestidae is an extinct family of semi-aquatic, placental mammals that took part in the first placental evolutionary radiation together with other early mammals such as the leptictids. Forming the core of the equally extinct order , the pantolestids evolved as a series of increasingly otter-like forms, ranging from the Middle Paleocene (60 mya) Bessoecetor to the Middle Eocene (50-40 mya) Buxolestes. They first appear in North America from where they spread to Europe. [more]

Pappotheriidae

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Parapedetidae

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Parapithecidae

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Paromomyidae

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Paroxyclaenidae

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Pastoralodontidae

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Patagoniidae

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Patriocetidae

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Pedetidae

Pedetidae is a family of mammals from the rodent order. The two living species, the springhares, are distributed throughout much of southern Africa and also around Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Fossils have been found as far north as Turkey. Together with the anomalures, Pedetidae forms the suborder Anomaluromorpha. The fossil genus is also related. [more]

Pediomyidae

[more]

Peligrotheriidae

[more]

Peltephilidae

[more]

Peramelidae

Peramelidae is the family of marsupials that contains all of the extant bandicoots. One known extinct species of bandicoot, the Pig-footed bandicoot, was so different than the other species that it was recently moved into its own family. There are four described fossil Peramelids. They are found throughout Australia and New Guinea, with at least some species living in every available habitat, from rain forest to desert. [more]

Peramuridae

[more]

Periptychidae

[more]

Peroryctidae

The New Guinean long-nosed bandicoots (genus Peroryctes) are members of the Peramelemorphia order. They are small to medium sized marsupial omnivores native to New Guinea. [more]

Perutheriidae

[more]

Petauridae

The family Petauridae includes 11 medium-sized possum species: four striped possums, the six species wrist-winged gliders in genus Petaurus, and Leadbeater's Possum which has only vestigal gliding membranes. Most of the wrist-winged gliders are native to Australia, most of the striped possums (genus Dactylopsila) to New Guinea, but some members of each are found on both sides of Torres Strait. [more]

Petauristidae

[more]

Petromuridae

The dassie rat, Petromus typicus, is an African rodent found among rocky outcroppings. It is the only living member of its genus, Petromus, and family, Petromuridae. The name "dassie" means "hyrax" in Afrikaans, and the two animals are found in similar habitats. Petromus means "rock mouse" and dassie rats are one of many rodents that are sometimes called rock rats. The family and genus names are sometimes misspelled as Petromyidae and Petromys. [more]

Phalangeridae

Phalangeridae is a family of nocturnal marsupials native to Australia and New Guinea, including the cuscuses, brushtail possums, and their close relatives. Considered a type of possum, most species are arboreal, and they inhabit a wide range of forest habitats from alpine woodland to eucalypt forest and tropical jungle. [more]

Phascolarctidae

Phascolarctidae (Phasco - pouch or bag, larct- from the Greek ?arctos? meaning bear) is a family of marsupials of the order Diprotodontia, consisting of only one extant species, the koala, six well-known fossil species, with another five less well known fossil species, and two fossil species of the genus Koobor, whose taxonomy is debatable but are placed in this group. The closest relatives of the Phascolarctidae are the wombats, which comprise the family Vombatidae. [more]

Phenacodontidae

[more]

Phenacolophidae

[more]

Philisidae

[more]

Phiomiidae

[more]

Phiomyidae

[more]

Phocidae

The true seals or earless seals are one of the three main groups of mammals within the seal superfamily, Pinnipedia. All true seals are members of the family Phocidae (). They are sometimes called crawling seals to distinguish them from the fur seals and sea lions of the family Otariidae. Seals live in the oceans of both hemispheres and are mostly confined to polar, subpolar, and temperate climates, with the exception of the more tropical monk seals. [more]

Phocoenidae

Porpoises (; also called mereswine) are small cetaceans of the family Phocoenidae; they are related to whales and dolphins. They are distinct from dolphins, although the word "porpoise" has been used to refer to any small dolphin, especially by sailors and fishermen. The most obvious visible difference between the two groups is that porpoises have shorter beaks and flattened, spade-shaped teeth distinct from the conical teeth of dolphins. [more]

Phyllostomatidae

[more]

Phyllostomidae

The New World leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae) are found throughout Central and South America, from Mexico to northern Argentina. They are ecologically the most varied and diverse family within the order Chiroptera. Most species are insectivorous, but the phyllostomid bats include within their number true predatory species as well as frugivores (subfamily Stenodermatinae and Carolliinae). For example, the False Vampire, Vampyrum spectrum, the largest bat in the Americas, eats vertebrate prey including small dove-sized birds. Members of this family have evolved to utilize food groups such as fruit, nectar, pollen, insects, frogs, other bats and small vertebrates, and, in the case of the vampire bats, even blood. [more]

Physeteridae

Physeteroidea is a superfamily including just three living species of whale; the sperm whale, in the genus Physeter, and the pygmy sperm whale and dwarf sperm whale, in the genus Kogia. In the past, these genera have sometimes been united in a single family, Physeteridae, with the two Kogia species in a subfamily (Kogiinae); however, recent practice is to allocate the genus Kogia to its own family, Kogiidae, leaving Physeteridae as a monotypic (single extant species) family, although additional fossil representatives of both families are known. [more]

Picopsidae

[more]

Picrodontidae

[more]

Picromomyidae

[more]

Pilkipildridae

[more]

Pitheciidae

The Pitheciidae are one of the five families of New World monkeys now recognised. Formerly they were included in the family Atelidae. The family includes the titis, saki monkeys and uakaris. Most species are native to the Amazonia region of Brazil, with some being found from Colombia in the north to Bolivia in the south. [more]

Plagiaulacidae

[more]

Plagiomenidae

[more]

Platanistidae

The South Asian river dolphin (Platanista) is a freshwater or river dolphin found in India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan which is split into two sub-species, the Ganges river dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica) and Indus river dolphin (Platanista gangetica minor). The Ganges river dolphin is primarily found in the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers and their tributaries in Bangladesh, India and Nepal, while the Indus river dolphin is found in the Indus river in Pakistan and its Beas and Sutlej tributaries. From the 1970s until 1998, they were regarded as separate species; however, in 1998, their classification was changed from two separate species to subspecies of a single species (see taxonomy below). The Ganges river dolphin has been recognized by the government of India as its National Aquatic Animal. [more]

Plesiadapidae

[more]

Plesiopithecidae

[more]

Plesiosoricidae

[more]

Plicatodontidae

[more]

Pliohyracidae

[more]

Pliopithecidae

[more]

Polydolopidae

[more]

Pongidae

Pongidae (or pongid) is a taxonomical family which is no longer in use. [more]

Pontoporiidae

The La Plata dolphin or Franciscana (Pontoporia blainvillei) is found in coastal Atlantic waters of southeastern South America. Taxonomically, it is a member of the river dolphin group and the only one that actually lives in the ocean and saltwater estuaries, rather than inhabiting exclusively freshwater systems. [more]

Potamotelsidae

[more]

Potoroidae

The marsupial family Potoroidae includes the bettongs, potoroos, and two of the rat-kangaroos. All are rabbit-sized, brown, jumping marsupials and resemble a large rodent or a very small wallaby. [more]

Prepidolopidae

[more]

Procaviidae

A hyrax (from Greek "shrewmouse") is any species of fairly small, thickset, herbivorous mammals in the order Hyracoidea. The rock hyrax Procavia capensis, the yellow-spotted rock hyrax Heterohyrax brucei, the western tree hyrax Dendrohyrax dorsalis, and the southern tree hyrax, Dendrohyrax arboreus live in Africa and the Middle East. [more]

Proconsulidae

[more]

Procyonidae

Procyonidae is a New World family of the order Carnivora. It includes the raccoons, coatis, kinkajous, olingos, ringtails and cacomistles. Procyonids inhabit a wide range of environments, and are generally omnivorous. [more]

Prorastomidae

[more]

Proscalopidae

[more]

Proterotheriidae

[more]

Protobradidae

[more]

Protoceratidae

[more]

Protocetidae

[more]

Protolipternidae

[more]

Protoptychidae

[more]

Pseudictopidae

[more]

Pseudocheiridae

Pseudocheiridae is a family of arboreal marsupials containing 17 extant species of ringtailed possums and close relatives. They are found in forested areas and shrublands throughout Australia and New Guinea. [more]

Pteropidae

[more]

Pteropodidae

Megabats constitute the suborder Megachiroptera, family Pteropodidae of the order Chiroptera (bats). They are also called fruit bats, old world fruit bats, or flying foxes. [more]

Ptilocercidae

The pen-tailed treeshrew (Ptilocercus lowii) is a species of treeshrew in the Ptilocercidae family. It is found in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand. It is the only species in the genus Ptilocercus and the family Ptilocercidae. All other treeshrews are in the family Tupaiidae. [more]

Ptilodontidae

[more]

Ptolemaiidae

[more]

Purgatoriidae

[more]

Pyrotheriidae

[more]

Raoellidae

[more]

Rathymotheriidae

[more]

Reigitheriidae

[more]

Reithroparamyidae

[more]

Remingtonocetidae

[more]

Rhabdosteidae

[more]

Rhinocerotidae

Rhinoceros (pronounced ), often abbreviated as rhino, is a group of five extant species of knee-less, odd-toed ungulates in the family Rhinocerotidae. Two of these species are native to Africa and three to southern Asia. [more]

Rhinolophidae

Horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae) are a family of bats. In addition to the single living genus, Rhinolophus, there is one extinct genus, . The closely related Hipposideridae are sometimes included within the horseshoe bats as a subfamily, Hipposiderinae. Both families are classified in the suborder Yinpterochiroptera or Pteropodiformes and were previously included in Microchiroptera. [more]

Rhinopomatidae

Mouse-tailed bats are a group of insectivorous bats of the family Rhinopomatidae with only three to five species, all contained in the single genus Rhinopoma. They are found in the Old World, from North Africa to Thailand and Sumatra, in arid and semi-arid regions, roosting in caves, houses and even the Egyptian pyramids. They are relatively small, with a body length of just 5 to 6 centimetres. They weigh between 6 to 14 g. [more]

Rhizomyidae

[more]

Rhizospalacidae

[more]

Sanitheriidae

[more]

Scelidotheriidae

[more]

Sciuravidae

[more]

Sciuridae

Squirrels belong to a large family of small or medium-sized rodents called the Sciuridae. The family includes tree squirrels, ground squirrels, chipmunks, marmots (including woodchucks), flying squirrels, and prairie dogs. Squirrels are indigenous to the Americas, Eurasia, and Africa, and have been introduced to Australia. The earliest known squirrels date from the Eocene and are most closely related to the mountain beaver and to the dormouse among living species. [more]

Sespedectidae

[more]

Shuotheriidae

[more]

Sillustaniidae

[more]

Simimyidae

[more]

Sloanbaataridae

[more]

Solenodontidae

Solenodons (meaning "slotted-tooth") are venomous, nocturnal, burrowing, insectivorous mammals belonging to the family Solenodontidae. Only one genus, Solenodon, is known, although a few other genera were erected at one time and are now regarded as junior synonyms. Solenodontidae is interesting to phylogenetics researchers because of its retention of primitive mammal characteristics; their species resemble very closely those that lived near the end of the age of the dinosaurs. They are one of two families of Caribbean soricomorphs; it is uncertain whether the other family, Nesophontidae, which went extinct during the Holocene, was closely related to solenodons. [more]

Soricidae

A shrew or shrew mouse (family Soricidae) is a small molelike mammal classified in the order Soricomorpha. True shrews are also not to be confused with West Indies shrews, treeshrews, otter shrews, or elephant shrews, which belong to different families or orders. [more]

Spalacidae

The Spalacidae, or spalacids are a family of rodents in the large and complex superfamily Muroidea. They are native to eastern Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, and south-eastern Europe. It includes the blind mole rats, bamboo rats, root rats, and zokors. This family represents the oldest split (excluding perhaps the Platacanthomyinae) in the muroid superfamily, and comprises animals adapted to a way of life. It was thought that these rodents evolved adaptations to living underground independently until recent genetic studies demonstrated that they form a monophyletic group. Members of the Spalacidae are often placed in the family Muridae along with all other members of the Muroidea. [more]

Spalacotheriidae

[more]

Sparassocynidae

[more]

Squalodontidae

[more]

Stagodontidae

[more]

Stegodontidae

[more]

Sternbergiidae

[more]

Stylinodontidae

[more]

Sudamericidae

[more]

Suidae

Suidae is the biological family to which pigs belong. In addition to numerous fossil species, up to sixteen extant species are currently recognized, classified into between four and eight genera. The family includes the domestic pig, Sus scrofa domesticus or Sus domesticus, in addition to numerous species of wild pig, such as the babirusa Babyrousa babyrussa and the warthog Phacochoerus aethiopicus. All suids are native to the Old World, ranging from Asia and its islands, to Europe, and Africa. [more]

Tachyglossidae

Echidnas (), also known as spiny anteaters, belong to the family Tachyglossidae in the monotreme order of egg-laying mammals. There are four extant species, which, together with the platypus, are the only surviving members of that order and are the only extant mammals that lay eggs. Although their diet consists largely of ants and termites, they are no more closely related to the true anteaters of the Americas than to any other placental mammal. They live in Australia and New Guinea. The echidnas are named after a monster in ancient Greek mythology. [more]

Taeniolabididae

[more]

Talpidae

The family Talpidae includes the moles, shrew moles, desmans, and other intermediate forms of small insectivorous mammals of the order Soricomorpha. Talpids are all digging animals to various degrees: moles are completely subterranean animals; shew-moles and shrew-like moles somewhat less so; and desmans, while basically aquatic, excavate dry sleeping chambers; whilst the quite unique star-nosed mole is equally adept in the water and underground. Talpids are found across the northern hemisphere and SouthernAsia, Europe, and North America, although there are none in Ireland nor anywhere in the Americas south of northern Mexico. [more]

Tapiridae

A tapir ( TAY-p?r or /t?'p??r/ t?-PEER) is a large browsing mammal, similar in shape to a pig, with a short, prehensile snout. Tapirs inhabit jungle and forest regions of South America, Central America, and Southeast Asia. The four species of tapirs are: the Brazilian tapir, the Malayan tapir, Baird's tapir and the mountain tapir. All four are classified as endangered or vulnerable. Their closest relatives are the other odd-toed ungulates, including horses and rhinoceroses. [more]

Tarsiidae

Tarsiers are haplorrhine primates of the family Tarsiidae, which is itself the lone extant family within the infraorder Tarsiiformes. Although the group was once more widespread, all the species living today are found in the islands of Southeast Asia. [more]

Tarsipedidae

The honey possum (Tarsipes rostratus) or tait, its Native Australian name or noolbenger is a tiny Australian marsupial weighing just seven to eleven grams for the male, and eight to sixteen grams for the female?about half the weight of a mouse. Their physical size ranges from a body length of between 6.5 ? 9 cm. They have a typical lifespan of between one and two years. [more]

Tayassuidae

A peccary (plural peccaries; also javelina and skunk pig; Portuguese javali and Spanish jabal?, sajino or pecar?) is a medium-sized mammal of the family Tayassuidae, or New World pigs. Peccaries are members of the artiodactyl suborder Suina, as are the pig family (Suidae) and possibly the hippopotamus family (Hippopotamidae). They are found in the southwestern area of North America and throughout Central and South America. Peccaries usually measure between 90 and 130 centimetres (3.0 and 4.3 ft) in length, and a full-grown adult usually weighs between about 20 to 40 kilograms (44 to 88 lb). The word ?peccary? is derived from the Carib word pakira or paquira. [more]

Tenrecidae

Tenrecidae (common name tenrecs) is a family of mammals found on Madagascar and parts of Africa. Tenrecs are widely diverse, resembling hedgehogs, shrews, opossums, mice and even otters, as a result of convergent evolution. They occupy aquatic, arboreal, terrestrial and fossorial environments. Some of these species can be found in the Madagascar dry deciduous forests, including the greater hedgehog tenrec. [more]

Theridomyidae

[more]

Thryonomyidae

The genus Thryonomys, also known as cane rats, grass cutters, or cutting grass, is a genus of rodent found throughout Africa south of the Sahara, the only members of the family Thryonomyidae. They are eaten in some African countries and are a pest species on many crops. [more]

Thylacinidae

The animals in the Thylacinidae family were all carnivorous marsupials from the order Dasyuromorphia. The only recent member was the Thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus), which became extinct in 1936. The other animals in the group all lived in prehistoric times in Australia. [more]

Thylacoleonidae

[more]

Thylacomyidae

Bilbies are desert-dwelling marsupial omnivores; they are members of the order Peramelemorphia. Before European colonisation of Australia, there were two species. One became extinct in the 1950s; the other survives but remains endangered. [more]

Thyropteridae

Disc-winged bats are a small group of bats of the family Thyropteridae. They are found in Central and South America, usually in moist tropical rain forests. It is a very small family, consisting of a single genus with four species. [more]

Tillotheriidae

[more]

Tinodontidae

[more]

Titanoideidae

[more]

Toxodontidae

Toxodontidae is an extinct family of notoungulate mammals known from the Oligocene through the Pleistocene of South America, with one genus, Mixotoxodon, also known from the Pleistocene of Central America. They somewhat resembled rhinoceroses, and had teeth with high crowns and open roots, suggesting that they often fed on tough pampas grass. However, isotopic analyses have led to the conclusion that the most recent forms were grazing and browsing generalists. [more]

Tragulidae

Chevrotains, also known as mouse deer, are small ungulates that make up the family Tragulidae, the only members of the infraorder Tragulina. There are 10 living (extant) species in three genera, but there are also several species only known from fossils. The extant species are found in forests in South and Southeast Asia, with a single species in the rainforests of Central and West Africa. They are solitary or live in pairs, and feed almost exclusively on plant material. Depending on exact species, the Asian species weigh between 0.7 and 8.0 kilograms (1.5 and 18 lb), and the smallest species are also the smallest ungulates in the world. The African chevrotain is considerably larger at 7?16 kilograms (15?35 lb). [more]

Trichechidae

Manatees (family Trichechidae, genus Trichechus) are large, fully aquatic, mostly herbivorous marine mammals sometimes known as sea cows. There are three accepted living species of Trichechidae, representing three of the four living species in the order Sirenia: the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis), the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), and the West African manatee (Trichechus senegalensis). They measure up to 13 feet (4.0 m) long, weigh as much as 1,300 pounds (590 kg), and have paddle-like flippers. The name manat? comes from the Ta?no, a pre-Columbian people of the Caribbean, meaning "breast". [more]

Triconodontidae

[more]

Trigonostylopidae

[more]

Triisodontidae

[more]

Tsaganomyidae

[more]

Tupaiidae

Tupaiidae is one of two families of treeshrews, the other family being Ptilocercidae. It contains 4 genera and 19 species. The family name derives from "tupai", the Malay word for treeshrew and also for squirrel (which Tupaiidae superficially resemble). [more]

Uintatheriidae

[more]

Ursidae

Bears are mammals of the family Ursidae. Bears are classified as caniforms, or doglike carnivorans, with the pinnipeds being their closest living relatives. Although there are only eight living species of bear, they are widespread, appearing in a wide variety of habitats throughout the Northern Hemisphere and partially in the Southern Hemisphere. Bears are found in the continents of North America, South America, Europe, and Asia. [more]

Vespertilionidae

Vesper bats (family Vespertilionidae), also known as evening bats or common bats, are the largest and best-known family of bats. They belong to the suborder Microchiroptera (microbats). Over three hundred species are distributed all over the world, on every continent except Antarctica. It owes its name to the Latin word vespertilio ("bat"), from vesper, meaning "evening". [more]

Vincelestidae

[more]

Viverravidae

[more]

Viverridae

The family Viverridae is made up of around 30 species of medium-sized mammals, the viverrids, including all of the genets, the binturong, most of the civets, and the two African linsangs. [more]

Vombatidae

Wombats, Australian marsupials, are short-legged, muscular quadrupeds, approximately 1 metre (39 in) in length with a short, stubby tail. They are adaptable in habitat tolerance, and are found in forested, mountainous, and heathland areas of south-eastern Australia, including Tasmania, as well as an isolated patch of about 300 ha in Epping Forest National Park in central Queensland. [more]

Waipatiidae

[more]

Wangliidae

[more]

Woutersiidae

[more]

Wynyardiidae

[more]

Xiphodontidae

[more]

Yalkaparidontidae

[more]

Yingabalanaridae

[more]

Yuomyidae

[more]

Zalambdalestidae

[more]

Zapodidae

A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[8] [more]

Zegdoumyidae

[more]

Ziphiidae

Beaked whales are the members of the family Ziphiidae which consists of 21 species. These toothed whales are notable for their elongated beaks. Beaked whales are one of the world's most extreme divers. They can dive for long periods?20 to 30 minutes is common, and 85 minute dives have been recorded?and to great depths: 1,899 metres (1,038 fathoms) and possibly more. To avoid getting decompression sickness?the potentially fatal build-up of nitrogen bubbles in body tissues?they must surface slowly. [more]

At least 12 species and subspecies belong to the Family Ziphiidae.

More info about the Family Ziphiidae may be found here.

Bibliography

  • Davies and Guiler, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 129: 579
  • Gracenea M, Gómez MS, Fernández J, Feliu C, Journal of medical primatology. 1998 Feb;27(1):38-43.
  • Hershkovitz, P., Catalog of Living Whales, United States National Museum Bulletin 246, p. 6, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C., 1966
  • Nofre C, Tinti JM, Glaser D, Chemical senses. 1996 Dec;21(6):747-62.

Footnotes

  1. http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=105462
  2. http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=113670
  3. http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=113682
  4. http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=106011
  5. http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=113649
  6. http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=113676
  7. http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=113669
  8. http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=113695

Sources

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Last Revised: August 25, 2014
2014/08/25 13:10:48