font settings

Font Size: Large | Normal | Small
Font Face: Verdana | Geneva | Georgia




[ Back to top ]


[ Back to top ]


[ Back to top ]

The Order Hemiptera is a member of the Class Insecta. Here is the complete "parentage" of Hemiptera:

The Order Hemiptera is further organized into finer groupings including:


[ Back to top ]




Acanthosomatidae is a family of Hemiptera, commonly named ?shield bugs,? for which Kumar in his World revision recognizes 47 genera; now this number is 54 genera, with about 200 species, and is one of the least diversified families within Pentatomoidea. [more]






Aclerdidae are a family of Coccoidea, the scale insects. They are usually found on grasses, sucking sap from the stem, inside the leaf sheaths. [more]


The Adelgidae is a small family of the Homoptera closely related to the aphids, and often traditionally included in the Aphidoidea with the Phylloxeridae. Adelgids are often known as "woolly conifer aphids". The family is composed of species associated with pine spruce or other conifers, known respectively as "pine aphids" or "spruce aphids". This family includes the former family Chermesidae, or "Chermidae", the name of which was declared invalid by the ICZN in 1955. There is still considerable debate as to the number of genera within the family, and the classification is still unstable and inconsistent among competing authors. [more]




The whiteflies, comprising only the family Aleyrodidae, are small hemipterans. More than 1550 species have been described. Whiteflies typically feed on the underside of plant leaves. [more]


Alydidae, commonly known as broad-headed bugs, is a family of true bugs very similar to the closely related Coreidae (leaf-footed bugs and relatives). There are about 40 genera with 250 species altogether. Distributed in the temperate and warmer regions of the Earth, most are tropical and subtropical animals; for example Europe has a mere 10 species, and only 2 of these occur outside the Mediterranean region. [more]


The Anthocoridae are a family of bugs, commonly called minute pirate bugs or flower bugs. [more]














Aradidae bear the appropriate common name, flat bugs, in reference to their (usually) extremely flattened body. With few exceptions, the often cryptic insects are of no economic importance. Common temperate genera include Aradus, , Neuroctenus, and Aneurus. [more]






Asterolecaniidae is a family of scale insects commonly known as pit scales or asterolecaniids. They typically cause a depression in the host plant's tissues and often cause distortion of the shoots. They are found on a range of hosts but are especially common on oaks, bamboos and a number of ornamental plants. Members of this family occur in most regions of the world but are most abundant in the northern hemisphere. There are about 27 genera and 243 recorded species. [more]


Beesoniidae is a family of scale insects commonly known as Beesoniids. They typically cause galls on their plant hosts. Members of this family mostly come from southern Asia. [more]


Belostomatidae is a family of insects in the order Hemiptera, known as giant water bugs or colloquially as toe-biters, electric-light bugs and Alligator Ticks (in Florida). They are the largest insects in the order Hemiptera, and occur worldwide, with most of the species in North America, South America, Northern Australia and East Asia. They are typically encountered in freshwater streams and ponds. Most species are relatively large (2 cm or more) with some of the largest, such as Lethocerus, exceeding 12 cm, and nearly reaching the dimensions (length and mass) of some of the larger beetles in the world. Giant water bugs are a popular food in Thailand. [more]


Berytidae is a family of bugs, commonly called stilt bugs. [more]








Carayonemidae is a family of scale insects commonly known as carayonemids. They typically live among mosses and leaf litter which is unusual for scale insects. Members of this family come from Neotropical areas of South and Central America. [more]




Cercopidae are the largest family of Cercopoidea, a xylem-feeding insect group, commonly called froghoppers . They belong to the hemipteran suborder Auchenorrhyncha. [more]


Cerococcidae is a family of scale insects commonly known as ornate pit scales or cerococcids. There are seventy two species in three genera. Members of this family occur in all regions of the world. [more]


Leafhopper is a common name applied to any species from the family Cicadellidae. Leafhoppers, colloquially known as hoppers, are minute plant-feeding insects in the superfamily Membracoidea in the order Homoptera. They belong to a lineage traditionally treated as infraorder Cicadomorpha in the suborder Auchenorrhyncha, but as the latter taxon is probably not monophyletic, many modern authors prefer to abolish the Auchenorrhyncha and elevate the cicadomorphs to a suborder Clypeorrhyncha. [more]


A cicada ( or /s?'k??d?/) is an insect of the order Hemiptera, suborder Auchenorrhyncha (which was formerly included in the now invalid order Homoptera), in the superfamily Cicadoidea, with large eyes wide apart on the head and usually transparent, well-veined wings. There are about 2,500 species of cicada around the world, and many of them remain unclassified. Cicadas live in temperate to tropical climates where they are among the most widely recognized of all insects, mainly due to their large size and unique sound. Cicadas are often colloquially called locusts, although they are unrelated to true locusts, which are a kind of grasshopper. Cicadas are related to leafhoppers and spittlebugs. [more]


Cimicidae is a family of small parasitic insects that feed exclusively on the blood of warm-blooded animals. They are called cimicids or, loosely, bedbugs (or bed bugs or bed-bugs), though the latter term properly refers to the most famous species of the family, Cimex lectularius, the common bedbug. [more]


Cixiidae is a family of fulgoroid insects, one of many families commonly known as planthoppers, distributed worldwide and comprising more than 2,000 species from over 150 genera. The genera are placed into three subfamilies, , Bothriocerinae and Cixiinae with sixteen tribes currently accepted in Cixiinae. [more]




The Coccidae are a family of scale insects belonging to the superfamily Coccoidea. They are commonly known as soft scales, wax scales or tortoise scales. The females are flat with elongated oval bodies and a smooth integument which may be covered with wax. In some genera they possess legs but in others, they do not, and the antennae may be shortened or missing. The males may be alate or apterous. [more]




Conchaspididae is a small and relatively unstudied family of scale insects. [more]


Coreidae is a large family of predominantly herbivorous insects that belong in the hemipteran suborder Heteroptera. There are more than 1,800 species in over 250 genera. They vary in size from 7 to 45 mm, making the larger species some of the biggest heteropterans. The body shape of coreids is quite variable, with some species broadly oval while others are slender. Coreids are found throughout the world but most species are found in the tropics and subtropics. [more]


Corixidae is a family of aquatic insects in the order Hemiptera that inhabit ponds and slow moving streams, where they swim near the bottom. There are about 500 known species worldwide, in 33 genera, including the genus Sigara. [more]




Cydnidae are a family of shield bugs, known by common names including burrowing bugs or burrower bugs. In some classifications, Cydnidae includes the family Thyreocoridae (sometimes referred to as "Corimelaenidae"), which are known commonly as negro bugs or ebony bugs, and/or the family . Though similar in appearance to a beetle at casual glance, they can be distinguished by both their piercing/sucking mouthparts, and wing configuration (beetle elytra are split directly down the back of the insect). Of some 750 species of burrower bugs, 27 are reported as crop pests, and six species are thought to feed on peanut. [more]




Delphacidae is a family of planthoppers containing about 2000 species, distributed worldwide. Delphacids are separated from other "hoppers" by the prominent spur on the tibia of the hindleg. All species are phytophagous, many occurring on various grasses, and some are important vectors for cereal pathogens. The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens St?l, is an example. [more]




Derbidae is a family of bugs in the suborder Auchenorrhyncha. The nymphs of some species nymph feed on fungi while adults live by sucking sap. Many adults are recognizable by their habit of holding up their wings. The short apical segment of the rostrum identifies the family. [more]


Diaspididae is the largest family of scale insects with over 2650 described species in around 400 genera. As with all scale insects, the female produces a waxy protective scale beneath which it feeds on its host plant. Diaspidid scales are far more substantial than those of most other families: Incorporating the exuviae from the first two nymphal instars and sometimes faecal matter and fragments of the host plant, these can be complex and extremely waterproof structures rather resembling a suit of armour. For this reason these insects are commonly referred to as armoured scale insects. As it is so robust and firmly attached to the host plant, the scale often persists long after the insect has died. [more]


Dictyopharidae is a family of bugs in the suborder Auchenorrhyncha belonging to the infraorder Fulgoromorpha. The family comprises nearly 760 species in more than 150 genera. [more]










Enicocephalidae, also called unique-headed bug and gnat bug, are a family of 130 species of the suborder heteroptera. They are typically 4 mm long, and found throughout the world. They have an elongated head, constricted in places, hence its head is 'unique'. [more]


Eriococcidae is a family of scale insects in the order Hemiptera. They are commonly known as felt scales or eriococcids. Each species is usually specific to a different plant host. [more]




The Eurybrachyidae (sometimes misspelled "Eurybrachidae" or "Eurybrachiidae") is a small family of planthoppers found in Asia, Australia and Africa; there are over 50 species described in some 20 genera. The frons of the head is characteristic in being broader than it is long. Their large forewings are often colorfully mottled as a means of camouflage, hiding the broad and sometimes colorful abdomen. [more]








Flatidae are a family of Fulgoroid plant-hoppers. They are cosmopolitan in distribution and are distinguished from others in the superfamily by a combination of characters. Adults of some species have brightly colored wings and are easily identified but the identification of species often requires dissection and comparison with identification keys. [more]


The family Fulgoridae is a large group of hemipteran insects, especially abundant and diverse in the tropics, containing over 125 genera worldwide. They are mostly of moderate to large size, many with a superficial resemblance to Lepidoptera due to their brilliant and varied coloration. Various genera and species (especially the genera Fulgora and Laternaria) are sometimes referred to as lantern flies, though they do not emit light. [more]


The Gelastocoridae (toad bugs) is a family of about 100 species of insects in the suborder Heteroptera. They are reminiscent of toads both in the warty appearance and hopping movements of some species. [more]




Gerridae is a family of true bugs in the order Hemiptera, commonly known as water striders, water bugs, magic bugs, pond skaters, skaters, skimmers, water scooters, water skaters, water skeeters, water skimmers, water skippers, water spiders, or Jesus bugs. One main characteristic that sets gerrids and other true bugs apart from other insects is that the front wing is only half functional. Rather than using it for flight, it acts as a membranous covering and the thickened part is by where claws develop. Consistent with the classification of Gerridae as true bugs, gerrids have a mouthpart evolved for piercing and sucking, Gerrids distinguish themselves by having the unique ability to walk on water. Gerridae, or water striders, are anatomically built to transfer their weight to be able to run on top of the water's surface. As a result, one could likely find water striders present in any pond, river, or lake. Sci entists have identified over 1,700 species of Gerrids, 10% of them being marine. [more]


Halimococcidae is a family of scale insects in the order Hemiptera. Members of the family are commonly known as pupillarial palm scales or halimococcids. Most species are found on the leaves of palm trees where they suck sap, but some species occur on Pandanus. The family was named by Brown and McKenzie in 1962 and includes five known genera and twenty one species. [more]


Velvet water bugs are members of the family Hebridae. They are semiaquatic insects that live among moss or ponds with an abundance of vegetation, in which they prey on small arthropods. Velvet water bugs are the smallest of the Gerromorpha, and have an appearance of tiny veliids. Hebrids sometimes move across water surfaces, but walk or run rather than skate or scull on the surface. [more]








Hydrometridae is a family of semi-aquatic insects, known as marsh treaders or water measurers. They have a characteristic elongated head and body which makes them resemble a yardstick for measuring the water surface. [more]














Issidae is a family of 'planthoppers' described by Spinola in 1839, belonging to the ordo Hemiptera, subordo Auchenorrhyncha infraordo Fulgoromorpha. [more]


Leafhopper is a common name applied to any species from the family Cicadellidae. Leafhoppers, colloquially known as hoppers, are minute plant-feeding insects in the superfamily Membracoidea in the order Hemiptera. They belong to a lineage traditionally treated as infraorder Cicadomorpha in the suborder Auchenorrhyncha, but as the latter taxon is probably not monophyletic, many modern authors prefer to abolish the Auchenorrhyncha and elevate the cicadomorphs to a suborder Clypeorrhyncha. [more]




The Kermesidae are a family of scale insects belonging to the superfamily Coccoidea. The typical genus, Kermes, includes the kermes scale insects, from which a red dye, also called kermes (a.k.a. crimson), is obtained. [more]




Kerriidae is a family of scale insects known as lac scales. [more]






Largidae is a family of insects within the order Hemiptera. They are commonly known as bordered plant bugs because many have contrasting colored edges to their elytra. There are fifteen genera and about one hundred species. They are mostly wide-bodied, have no ocelli and have a four-segmented rostrum. The bugs in this family are generally ground-dwelling or they scramble around in plants, bushes and trees. They are phytophagous, feeding on plant juices and seeds. [more]


Lecanodiaspididae is a family of scale insects commonly known as false pit scales or lecanodiaspidids. Members of this family come from all parts of the world but are most numerous in the Far East. [more]












The Lygaeidae are a family in the Hemiptera (true bugs), with some 60 genera in six subfamilies. The family includes the insects commonly known as milkweed bugs, and also some of those known as seed bugs. The family used to be vastly larger, as numerous former subfamilies have been removed and given independent family status, including , Blissidae, Cryptorhamphidae, Cymidae, Geocoridae, Heterogastridae, Ninidae, Oxycarenidae, Pachygronthidae, and Rhyparochromidae, which together constituted well over half of the former family. Many of the species feed on seeds, although some feed on sap (mucivory), and a few, such as the wekiu bug, feed on insects. [more]












Margarodidae is a family of scale insects within superfamily Coccoidea. Members of the family include giant coccids (various genera), Polish cochineal (genus Porphyrophora) and ground pearls (genus Margarodes). [more]








Treehoppers (more precisely typical treehoppers to distinguish them from the ) and thorn bugs are members of the family Membracidae, a group of insects related to the cicadas and the leafhoppers. There are about 3,200 known species of treehoppers in over 600 genera. They are found on all continents except Antarctica, although there are only three species in Europe. [more]




Micrococcidae is a family of scale insects commonly known as the Mediterranean scales. There are two genera and eight species. Members of this family are found in Cyprus, Italy and other Mediterranean countries including Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Lebanon, Libya, Syria and Turkey. [more]


The Microphysidae are a very small family of bugs, comprising only 5 genera. [more]


The large and diverse insect family Miridae contains the plant bugs, leaf bugs, and grass bugs, and may also be known as capsid bugs. It is the largest family of true bugs belonging to the suborder Heteroptera, with over 10,000 known species and new ones constantly being described. They are small, terrestrial insects, usually oval-shaped or elongate and measuring less than 12 millimetres (0.5 in) in length. Some are brightly colored, others drab or dark. Some genera are ant mimics at certain stages of life. Most of the more well-known mirids have received attention because they are agricultural pests. They pierce plant tissues and feed on the juices. [more]


The insect family Nabidae contains the damsel bugs. The term damsel bug is the common name used for the Nabids. There are over 400 species. They are soft-bodied, elongate, winged terrestrial predators. Many damsel bugs catch and hold prey with their forelegs, similar to mantids. They are considered helpful species in agriculture because of their predation on many types of crop pests, such as cabbage worms, aphids, and lygus bugs. [more]


Naucoridae is a small family of insects commonly known as the creeping water bugs. They are very similar in appearance and behavior to the giant water bugs (Belostomatidae), and also occur in ponds and other still waters. Occasionally, these insects can be found in damp places in a person's home, and are often mistaken for cockroaches. There are approximately 20 genera in 5 subfamilies, distributed worldwide. [more]


Nepidae is a family of exclusively aquatic Heteropteran insects in the order Hemiptera.[1] They are commonly called waterscorpions for their superficial resemblance to scorpions, which is due to their raptorial forelegs and the presence of a long slender process at the posterior end of the abdomen, resembling a tail. There are 14 genera in the family, in two subfamilies, and Ranatrinae, and they can be found on all continents except Antarctica. Members of the genus Ranatra, the most widespread and speciose genus, are sometimes called needle bugs or water stick insects as they are more slender than Nepa and feed primarily on invertebrates, but occasionally take small fish or tadpoles. Respiration in the adult is effected by means of the caudal process, which consists of a pair of half-tubes capable of being locked together to form a siphon by which air is conducted to the tracheae at the apex of the abdomen when the tip of the tube is thrust above the surface of the water. In immature forms the siphon is often underdeveloped and respiration takes place through six pairs of abdominal spiracles. The eggs, which are laid above the waterline in mud, decomposing vegetation, the stems of plants or rotting wood, are supplied with air by filamentous processes which vary in number among the genera. [more]






Nogodinidae is a family of planthoppers. They have membranous wings with delicate venation and can be confused with members of other Fulgoroid families such as the Issidae and . Some authors treat it as a subfamily of the Issidae. Some of their key features are a frons ("face") that is longer than wide and a reticulate wing venation. They are less than 2 cm long. The antenna arises well below the eye, has the base clubbed and flagellum unsegmented. The lateral ocelli (simple eyes) are outside the margins of the face. The face has carinae (or keels) on the edge. On the hind leg, the second tarsal segment has an apical spine arising from it. The tibia of the hind leg also has spines towards the tip. An important family character is found in the shape of the male genital structure, a style that is longer than broad. Most members of this family are forest species. [more]


Notonectidae is a cosmopolitan family of aquatic insects in the order Hemiptera, commonly called backswimmers because they swim upside down. They are all predators, up to nearly 2 cm in size. They are similar in appearance to Corixidae (Water boatmen), but can be separated by differences in their dorsal-ventral coloration, front legs, and predatory behavior. Their dorsum is convex, lightly colored without cross striations. Their front tarsi are not scoop-shaped and their hind legs are fringed for swimming. There are two subfamilies, and Anisopinae, each containing four genera. [more]


The Ochteridae comprise a small family of insects. About 25 species have been described. They are "true bugs", being members of the Order Hemiptera, and are in the suborder Heteroptera. Ochteridae commonly are known as the velvety shore bugs, although not all occur near the sea. [more]




Ortheziidae is a family of scale insects commonly known as the ensign scales or ortheziids. They occur in most parts of the world but the majority of the species are found in the Neotropics and Nearctic regions while there are not many species in Australasia and the Far East. There are twenty valid genera and 198 species. [more]


Oxynotus is a genus of sharks in the order Squaliformes, commonly known as the rough sharks. It is the only extant genus in the family Oxynotidae. They live in deep waters in the Atlantic and western Pacific oceans. [more]








Pentatomidae, Greek pente meaning five and tomos meaning section, is a family of insects belonging to order Hemiptera including some of the stink bugs and shield bugs. The scutellum body is usually trapezoidal in shape, giving this family the name 'shield bug'. The tarsi are 3-segmented. The forewings of stink bugs are called hemelytra, with the basal half thickened while the apex is membranous (as are the hindwings). The name stink bug derives from their tendency to eject a foul smelling glandular substance secreted from pores in the thorax when disturbed; in some species the liquid contains cyanide compounds with a rancid almond scent. This is a form of antipredator adaptation. [more]




Phenacoleachiidae is a family of scale insects commonly known as the phenacoleachiids. They are found only on the south island of New Zealand and certain offshore islands. There are two species in a single genus. [more]




Phoenicococcidae is a family of scale insects commonly known as palm scales or phoenicococcids. There is a single genus containing one species, Phoenicococcus marlatti. [more]






Insects in the subfamily Phymatinae are commonly called ambush bugs after their habit of lying in wait for prey relying on their superb camouflage. Armed with raptorial forelegs, ambush bugs routinely capture prey ten or more times their own size. They form a subgroup within the assassin bugs. [more]


Piesmatidae is a small family of true bugs, commonly called ash-grey leaf bugs. It contains a mere three living genera with over 40 described species altogether. The Piesmatidae are distributed mostly in the temperate Northern Hemisphere, with some occurring in Africa, Australia and South America. A common species found throughout the Americas is . [more]


Plataspididae (often misspelled Plataspidae) are a family of shield bugs native to the Eastern Hemisphere. One species, Megacopta cribraria, has recently become introduced and established in the southeastern United States, where it is a pest of soybeans. [more]


Pleidae, the pygmy backswimmers, is a family of aquatic insects in the order Hemiptera (infraorder Nepomorpha, or "true water bugs"). There are 37 species in three genera, distributed across most of the world, except the polar regions and remote oceanic islands. [more]




Polyctenidae is a family of parasitic insects of the superfamily Cimicoidea that prefer bats as their host. These insects are not to be confused with bat bugs which are members of the family Cimicidae. There appears to be a significant relationship between the family groups and the specific species of hosts that indicates co-evolution and specialization. [more]




Mealybugs are insects in the family Pseudococcidae, unarmored scale insects found in moist, warm climates. They are considered pests as they feed on plant juices of greenhouse plants, house plants and subtropical trees and also acts as a vector for several plant diseases. [more]


Psyllids or jumping plant lice are small plant-feeding insects that tend to be very host specific, i.e. they only feed on one plant species (monophagous) or feed on a few related plants (oligophagous). Together with aphids, phylloxerans, scale insects and whiteflies they form the group called Sternorrhyncha, which is considered to be the most "primitive" group within the true bugs (Hemiptera). They have traditionally been considered a single family, Psyllidae, but recent classifications divide the group into a total of seven families; the present restricted definition still includes more than 70 genera in the Psyllidae. [more]


Pyrrhocoridae is a family of insects with more than 300 species world-wide. A common species in parts of Europe is the firebug. They are part of the order Hemiptera which are also known as the 'true bugs'. A few are important crop pests. They are called cotton stainers because their red bodies get crushed along with the cotton they eat when it is harvested, and these stains are difficult to remove. Their feeding mechanism also cuts the fibres and hence affects the growth of the cotton ball. They caused massive problems in the United States during the industrial revolution. [more]


Reduviidae (from the contained genus, Reduvius which comes from the Latin meaning hangnail or remnant) is a large, cosmopolitan family of predatory insects in the suborder Heteroptera. It includes assassin bugs (genera include Melanolestes, Platymeris, Pselliopus, Rasahus, Reduvius, Rhiginia, Sinea, Triatoma, and Zelus), wheel bugs (Arilus cristatus), and thread-legged bugs (the subfamily Emesinae, including the genus Emesaya). There are about 7000 species altogether, making it one of the largest families in the Hemiptera. [more]


Rhopalidae, or scentless plant bugs are a family of true bugs. In older literature, the family is sometimes called "Corizidae". They differ from the related coreids in lacking well-developed scent glands. They are usually light-colored and smaller than the coreids. Some are very similar to the lygaeids, but can be distinguished by the numerous veins in the membrane of the hemelytra. They live principally on weeds, but a few (including the box elder bug) are arboreal. All are plant feeders. Currently 18 genera and over 200 species of rhopalids are known. [more]


The family Ricaniidae is a group of hemipteran insects, containing over 40 genera and 400 species world-wide. Thus, they are one of the smaller families in the planthopper superfamily (Fulgoroidea). The highest diversity is in tropical Africa and Asia and in Australia, with a few species occurring in the Palearctic. [more]


Saldidae, also known as shore bugs, are a family of insects in the order Hemiptera (true bugs). They are oval-shaped and measure 2?8 mm when mature. Typically they are found near shorelines or the marginal growths near water. They can flee by leaping or taking flight. [more]




Scutelleridae is a family of true bugs. They are commonly known as jewel bugs or metallic shield bugs due to their often brilliant coloration. They are also known as shield-backed bugs due to the enlargement of the last section of their thorax into a continuous shield over the abdomen and wings. This latter characteristic distinguishes them from most other families within Heteroptera, and may lead to misidentification as a beetle rather than a bug. These insects feed on plant juices from a variety of different species, including some commercial crops. Closely related to stink bugs, they may also produce an offensive odour when disturbed. There are around 450 species worldwide. [more]






Stictococcidae is a family of scale insects commonly known as stictococcids. There are three genera containing about seventeen species and members of this family are found only in Afro-tropical regions. [more]






Tessaratomidae is a family of true bugs. It contains about 240 species of large bugs divided into 3 subfamilies and 56 genera. [more]








Thyreocoridae are a family of shield bugs, known by common names including negro bugs or ebony bugs. In some classifications, they are included as a subfamily within the family Cydnidae; some authors also refer to this family under the name Corimelaenidae, a junior synonym. [more]




Hemiptera Heteroptera Tingidae Adult specimen of a small (ca. 2 mm) species of Lace bug on Lavandula near Cape Town in South Africa.
Lateral view of Lace bug, showing proboscis and dorsal protuberances.
Lateral view of feeding Lace bug

Tingidae is a family of very small [2-10 mm] insects in the order Hemiptera that are commonly referred to as lace bugs. This group is distributed worldwide with about 2,000 described species. [more]












Veliidae is a family of predatory insects in the suborder Heteroptera. They are commonly known as riffle bugs, smaller water striders or broad-shouldered water striders because the segment immediately behind the head is wider than the rest of the abdomen, unlike in the typical water striders (Gerridae), close relatives which are also in superfamily . Unlike some Gerridae, riffle bugs are small, typically about 4.5 mm. [more]





More info about the Family Vianaididae may be found here.


[ Back to top ]
Last Revised: August 25, 2014
2014/08/25 15:06:55