The cohort Euselachii (Greek Eu, true, good or original, and selachos, shark or cartilaginous fish), the spined or 'phalacanthous' sharks, including the modern sharks or Neoselachii, and fossil shark groups including the hybodonts, the ctenacanths, and the xenacanths, all primitively with anal fins and having two dorsal fins with fin spines.
The Infraclass Euselachii is a member of the Subclass Elasmobranchii. Here is the complete "parentage" of Euselachii:
- Domain: Eukaryota
Whittaker & Margulis,1978 - eukaryotes
- Kingdom: Animalia
C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
- Subkingdom: Bilateria
(Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983 - bilaterians
- Branch: Deuterostomia
Grobben, 1908 - Deuterostomes
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia Grobben, 1908 - Deuterostomes
- Subkingdom: Bilateria (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983 - bilaterians
- Kingdom: Animalia C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
The Infraclass Euselachii is further organized into finer groupings including:
- Order (13): Carcharhiniformes · Echinorhiniformes · Heterodontiformes · Hexanchiformes · Hybodontiformes · Lamniformes · Orectolobiformes · Pristiformes · Pristiophoriformes · Rajiformes · Squaliformes · Squatiniformes · Torpediniformes
The ground sharks, order Carcharhiniformes, are the largest order of sharks. With over 270 species, carcharhiniforms include a number of common types, such as the blue shark, catsharks, swellsharks, and sandbar shark. [more]
Echinorhinus is a genus of squaliform sharks, the only extant genus in the family Echinorhinidae. The name is from Greek echinos meaning "spiny" and rhinos meaning "nose". Both species are uncommon, little known sharks. They are found worldwide in cold temperate to tropical seas down to 900 metres (3,000 ft) depth. [more]
The bullhead sharks are a small order (Heterodontiformes) of basal modern sharks (Neoselachii). There are nine living species in a single genus, Heterodontus, in the family Heterodontidae. All are relatively small, with the largest species being just 150 centimetres (59 in) in adult length. They are bottom feeders in tropical and subtropical waters. [more]
Hexanchiformes is the order consisting of the most primitive types of sharks, and numbering just six extant species. Fossil sharks that were apparently very similar to modern sevengill species are known from Jurassic specimens. [more]
The hybodonts are an extinct group of sharks and are the sister taxa to the Neoselachii (all modern sharks, skates and rays). They were very successful in their own right and existed as a group for more than 200 million years. Their fossil record extends from the Carboniferous to the Late Cretaceous. The hybodonts dominated the shark faunas of the Early Mesozoic and unlike modern sharks were abundant in both freshwater and marine habitats. The group went into decline in the second half of the era and finally became extinct near to the end of the Cretaceous, close to, or as part of the same extinction that wiped out the non-avian Dinosaurs. [more]
Lamniformes is an order of sharks commonly known as mackerel sharks (which may also refer specifically to the family Lamnidae). It includes some of the most familiar species of sharks, such as the great white shark, as well as more unusual representatives, such as the goblin shark and the megamouth shark. [more]
The carpet sharks are an order, Orectolobiformes, of sharks, so called because many members have ornate patterns reminiscent of carpets. Sometimes the term "carpet shark" is used interchangeably with wobbegong, which are a subgroup of the order. [more]
Sawfish, also known as the Carpenter Shark, are a family of rays, characterized by a long, toothy nose extension snout. Several species can grow to approximately 7 metres or 23 feet. The family as a whole is largely unknown and little studied. They are members of the sole living family Pristidae within the order Pristiformes, from the Ancient Greek pristes (p??st??) meaning "a sawyer" or "a saw". [more]
The sawsharks or saw sharks are an order (Pristiophoriformes) of sharks bearing long blade-like snouts edged with teeth, which they use to slash and disable their prey. Most occur in waters from South Africa to Australia and Japan, at depths of 40 metres (130 ft) and below; in 1960 the Bahamas sawshark was discovered in the deeper waters (640 m to 915 m) of the northwestern Caribbean. [more]
Rajiformes is one of the four orders of batoids, flattened cartilaginous fishes related to sharks. [more]
Squaliformes is an order of sharks that includes about 97 species in seven families. [more]
The angel sharks are an unusual genus of sharks with flattened bodies and broad pectoral fins that give them a strong resemblance to rays. The more than 16 known species are in the genus Squatina, the only genus in its family, Squatinidae, and order Squatiniformes. They occur worldwide in temperate and tropical seas. Most species inhabit shallow temperate or tropical seas, but one species inhabits deeper water, down to 1,300 metres (4,300 ft). [more]
The electric rays are a group of rays, flattened cartilaginous fish with enlarged pectoral fins, comprising the order Torpediniformes. They are known for being capable of producing an electric discharge, ranging from as little as 8 volts up to 220 volts depending on species, used to stun prey and for defense. There are 69 species in four families. [more]
At least 71 species and subspecies belong to the Order Torpediniformes.
More info about the Order Torpediniformes may be found here.
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