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Echinodermata

(Phylum)

Overview

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A phylum of marine coelomate animals that are bilaterally symmetrical as larvae but show pentamerous symmetry as adults and have a calcareous endoskeleton and a water vascular system. It includes the classes Crinoidea (sea lilies and feather stars), Asteroidea (starfish), Ophiuroidea (brittle stars), Echinoidea (sea urchins) and Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers).

Echinoderms are among the most distinctive of all animal phyla. They have a calcitic skeleton composed of many ossicles; a water vascular system; mutable collagenous tissue, and pentaradial body organization in adults.

The approximately 7,000 species of extant echinoderms fall into five well-defined clades: Crinoidea (sea lilies and feather stars), Ophiuroidea (basket stars and brittle stars), Asteroidea (starfishes), Echinoidea (sea urchins, sand dollars, and sea biscuits), and Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers).

Photos

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Taxonomy

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The Phylum Echinodermata is a member of the Kingdom Animalia. Here is the complete "parentage" of Echinodermata:

The Phylum Echinodermata is further organized into finer groupings including:

Families

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Abertellidae

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Acanthasteridae

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Achistridae

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Acrosaleniidae

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Actinocrinitidae

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Aeropsidae

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Agelacrinitidae

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Allagecrinidae

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Allanicytidiidae

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Amphilepididae

Amphilepididae are a small family of brittle stars of the suborder Gnathophiurina. It contains one genus (Amphilepis) and the following species: [more]

Amphiuridae

Amphiuridae (commonly called long-armed burrowing brittle stars or burrowing brittle stars) are a large family of brittle stars of the suborder Gnathophiurina. Some species are used to study echinoderm development (e.g. and Amphioplus abditus) and bioluminescence (the dwarf brittle star, Amphipholis squamata). [more]

Antedonidae

Antedonidae is a family of crinoids or feather stars in the phylum Echinodermata. Members of the family are unstalked and have ten feathery arms. They can move about freely and have clawed cirri to attach them temporarily to structures. [more]

Apatopygidae

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Apiocrinitidae

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Aporometridae

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Arachnoididae

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Arbaciidae

The Arbacioida are an order of sea urchins, consisting of a single family, the Arbaciidae. They are distinguished from other sea urchins by the presence of five separate plates around the anus. Unlike their close relatives, the Salenioida, all of the tubercles on their test are of similar size. It contains the following genera: [more]

Archaeocidaridae

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Archasteridae

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Aristocystitidae

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Aspidodiadematidae

Aspidodiadematidae is a family of sea urchins. [more]

Asteriidae

Asteriidae is a family of Asteroidea (sea stars) in the order Forcipulatida. [more]

Asterinidae

Asterinidae is a large family of sea stars in the order Valvatida. It contains twenty-five genera. [more]

Asterodiscididae

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Asterometridae

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Asteronychidae

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Asteropidae

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Asteropseidae

Asteropseidae is a family of sea stars. Members of the family have relatively broad discs and five short tapering arms. [more]

Asteroschematidae

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Asterostomatidae

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Astriclypeidae

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Astrocrinidae

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Astropectinidae

Astropectinidae is a family of sea stars in the order Paxillosida. There are ten genera in Astropectinidae. [more]

Atelecrinidae

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Bangtoupocrinidae

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Barycrinidae

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Bathycrinidae

Bathycrinidae is a family of echinoderms in the class Crinoidea. It contains the following genera and species: [more]

Batocrinidae

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Benthopectinidae

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Botryocrinidae

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Bourgueticrinidae

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Brisingasteridae

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Brisingidae

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Brissidae

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Calceocrinidae

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Callocystitidae

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Calometridae

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Calymnidae

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Carabocrinidae

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Caryocrinitidae

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Cassidulidae

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Caudinidae

Caudinidae is a family of sea cucumbers, marine animals with elongated bodies, leathery skins and tentacles that are found on the sea floor. [more]

Caymanostellidae

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Chaetasteridae

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Charitometridae

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Cheirocrinidae

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Chiridotidae

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Cidaridae

The Cidaridae is a family of sea urchins in the order Cidaroida. [more]

Clonocrinidae

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Clypeasteridae

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Clypeidae

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Codasteridae

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Codiacrinidae

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Coelocrinidae

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Collyritidae

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Colobometridae

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Comasteridae

Comasteridae is a family of crinoids. Members of this family are characterized by possession of one or paired blade-like or knob-like projections on a few to many of the outer segments of the oral pinnules (the side branches closest to the base of the arms) that together form structures called combs. In adults of most species, the mouth is offset from the center of the oral surface, often near the margin, and the anus lies centrally. In some, mouth and anus are both offset, while in a few, the mouth lies centrally and the anus is displaced, the arrangement in other crinoids. Comasterids are also unique among feather stars in other respects: some species in several genera have the centrodorsal, the aboral skeletal plate, reduced and bearing few or no anchoring hook-like cirri; whereas all other feather stars have symmetrical rays, many reef-dwelling species that live semi-cryptically exhibit a secondary bilateral symmetry in addition to the displaced mouth; arms that arise on one or more rays on the side closest to the mouth are longer than those on the other side. They are the ones that extend from the protective crevice and are the primary food collecting structures. Shorter arms opposite the long ones often have better developed gonads and may even lack food-collecting ambulacral grooves. Although a few species occur at depths exceeding 600 m, most comasterids are found in less than 100 m and constitute the great majority of reef-dwelling species in both the tropical Western Atlantic and Indo-Western Pacific regions. It contains the following genera: [more]

Conoclypidae

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Conulidae

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Cothurnocystidae

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Crinoidea

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Crotalocrinitidae

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Ctenodiscidae

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Cucumariidae

Cucumariidae is a family of sea cucumbers, marine animals with elongated bodies, leathery skins and tentacles that are found on the sea bed. [more]

Cupressocrinitidae

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Cupulocrinidae

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Cyathocrinitidae

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Cymbiocrinidae

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Deimatidae

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Dendrasteridae

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Diadematidae

Diadematidae is a family of sea urchins. [more]

Dichocrinidae

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Dimerocrinitidae

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Echinarachnidae

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Echinarachniidae

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Echinasteridae

Echinasteridae is a family of sea stars in the order Spinulosida. It contains five genera. [more]

Echinidae

Echinidae is a family of sea urchins in the order Echinoida. Members of the family are found in the Atlantic Ocean and the Antarctic. [more]

Echinocoridae

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Echinodermata

Echinoderms (Phylum Echinodermata) are a phylum of marine animals. Echinoderms are found at every ocean depth, from the intertidal zone to the abyssal zone. Aside from the hard-to-classify Arkarua, the first definitive members of the phylum appeared near the start of the Cambrian period. [more]

Echinolampadidae

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Echinolampidae

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Echinometridae

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Echinoneidae

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Echinosphaeritidae

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Echinothuriidae

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Elpidiidae

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Encrinasteridae

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Encrinidae

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Eucalyptocrinitidae

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Eudiocrinidae

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Eupyrgidae

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Euryalidae

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Euspirocrinidae

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Faujasiidae

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Fibulariidae

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Freyellidae

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Furcasteridae

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Galeritidae

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Ganeriidae

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Gephyrothuriidae

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Glossocrinidae

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Glyptocrinidae

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Glyptocystitidae

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Gomphocystitidae

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Goniasteridae

Goniasteridae are a large family of sea stars. About 260 extant species within 70 genera are currently known. They occur predominantly on deep-water continental shelf habitats in all the world?s oceans, being the most diverse in the Indo-Pacific region. Goniasteridae are usually middle-sized sea stars with a characteristic double range of marginal plates bordering the disk and arms. [more]

Goniopectinidae

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Gorgonocephalidae

Gorgonocephalidae are a family of Basket stars.They have characteristic many-branched arms. [more]

Granatocrinidae

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Gyrocystidae

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Haplocrinitidae

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Helianthasteridae

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Heliasteridae

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Hemiasteridae

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Hemieuryalidae

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Heterocrinidae

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Heterothyonidae

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Himerometridae

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Holasteridae

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Holectypidae

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Holopodidae

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Holothuriidae

Holothuriidae is a family of sea cucumbers, a type of echinoderm. [more]

Homocrinidae

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Hudsonasteridae

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Hymenodiscidae

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Hyocrinidae

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Iocrinidae

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Isocrinidae

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Korethrasteridae

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Labidiasteridae

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Laetmogonidae

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Laganidae

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Lampterocrinidae

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Lapworthuridae

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Lecanocrinidae

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Lepidocentridae

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Lissodiadematidae

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Loveniidae

Loveniidae is a family of heart urchins in the order Spatangoida. [more]

Luidiidae

Luidia is a genus of starfish in the family Luidiidae (Sladen, 1889) in which it is the only genus. Members of the family have a cosmopolitan distribution. [more]

Mariametridae

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Marsupiocrinidae

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Mastigocrinidae

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Mellitidae

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Melocrinitidae

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Mesopalaeasteridae

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Metrodiridae

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Micrasteridae

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Micropygidae

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Millericrinidae

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Mithrodiidae

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Molpadiidae

Molpadiidae is a family of sea cucumbers, marine invertebrates with elongated bodies, leathery skins and tentacles that are found on or burrowing in the sea floor. [more]

Monophorasteridae

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Myelodactylidae

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Myriotrochidae

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Myxasteridae

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Neolaganidae

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Neolampadidae

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Neomorphasteridae

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Neopalaeasteridae

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Notocrinidae

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Nucleocrinidae

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Odinellidae

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Odontasteridae

Odontasteridae is a family of sea stars. Members of the family are known as cushion stars and have relatively broad discs and five short tapering arms. [more]

Oligopygidae

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Onychasteridae

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Ophiacanthidae

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Ophiactidae

Ophiactidae are a family of brittle stars. It includes the following genera: [more]

Ophidiasteridae

Ophidiasteridae (Greek ophidia, ?f?d?a, "of snakes", diminutive form) is a family of sea stars with about 30 genera. Occurring both in the Indo-Pacific and Atlantic oceans, ophidiasterids are greatest in diversity in the Indo-Pacific. Many of the genera in this family exhibits brilliant color and pattern, which sometimes can be attributed to aposematism and crypsis to protect themselves from predators. Some ophidiasterids possess remarkable powers of regeneration, enabling them to either reproduce asexually or to survive serious damage made by predators or forces of nature (an example for this is the genus Linckia). Some species belonging to Linckia , Ophidiaster and Phataria shed single arms that regenerate the disc and the remaining rays to form a complete individual. Some of these also reproduce asexually by parthenogenesis. [more]

Ophiocanopidae

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Ophiochitonidae

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Ophiocomidae

Ophiocomidae are a family of brittle stars of the suborder Ophiurina. [more]

Ophiodermatidae

Ophiodermatidae are a family of brittle stars in the suborder Ophiurina. [more]

Ophiodiasteridae

Ophidiasteridae (Greek ophidia, ?f?d?a, "of snakes", diminutive form) is a family of sea stars with about 30 genera. Occurring both in the Indo-Pacific and Atlantic oceans, ophidiasterids are greatest in diversity in the Indo-Pacific. Many of the genera in this family exhibits brilliant color and pattern, which sometimes can be attributed to aposematism and crypsis to protect themselves from predators. Some ophidiasterids possess remarkable powers of regeneration, enabling them to either reproduce asexually or to survive serious damage made by predators or forces of nature (an example for this is the genus Linckia). Some species belonging to Linckia , Ophidiaster and Phataria shed single arms that regenerate the disc and the remaining rays to form a complete individual. Some of these also reproduce asexually by parthenogenesis. [more]

Ophiolepididae

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Ophioleucidae

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Ophiomyxidae

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Ophionereididae

Ophionereididae are a family of brittle stars. [more]

Ophiothricidae

Ophiothricidae are a family of ophiurid brittle stars within the infraorder Gnathophiurina. [more]

Ophiotrichidae

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Ophiuridae

Ophiuridae are a large family of brittle stars of the suborder Ophiurina. [more]

Orbitremitidae

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Oreasteridae

Oreasteridae is a family of sea stars in the class Asteroidea. [more]

Orophocrinidae

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Pachylocrinidae

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Palaeostomatidae

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Palasterinidae

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Paleopneustidae

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Paracucumidae

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Parasaleniidae

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Patelliocrinidae

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Pedicellasteridae

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Pedinidae

Pedinidae are a family of echinoderms. [more]

Pelagothuridae

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Pelagothuriidae

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Pentacrinidae

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Pentacrinitidae

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Pentametrocrinidae

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Pentremitidae

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Pericosmidae

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Periechocrinidae

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Phrynocrinidae

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Phyllophoridae

Phyllophoridae is a family of sea cucumbers, marine invertebrates with elongated bodies, leathery skins and feeding tentacles. [more]

Phymosomatidae

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Pisocrinidae

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Placothuriidae

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Platasteriidae

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Platyasteridae

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Platycrinitidae

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Pleurocystitidae

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Plexechinidae

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Pliolampadidae

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Podosphaerasteridae

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Poraniidae

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Porcellanasteridae

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Porocrinidae

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Porphyrocrinidae

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Poteriocrinitidae

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Pourtalesiidae

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Proisocrinidae

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Promopalaeasteridae

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Protasteridae

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Protoscutellidae

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Pseudodiadematidae

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Psolidae

Psolidae is a family of sea cucumbers, marine animals with elongated bodies, leathery skins and tentacles that are found on the sea bed. [more]

Psychocidaridae

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Psychropotidae

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Pterasteridae

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Ptilometridae

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Pythonasteridae

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Radiasteridae

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Reteocrinidae

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Rhabdocidaridae

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Rhodocrinitidae

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Rhopalodinidae

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Rotulidae

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Saccocomidae

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Sagenocrinitidae

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Saleniidae

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Schizasteridae

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Schizoblastidae

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Sclerodactylidae

Sclerodactylidae is a family of sea cucumbers, marine invertebrates with elongated bodies, leathery skins and tentacles. [more]

Scutellidae

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Scyphocrinitidae

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Scytalocrinidae

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Solasteridae

Solasteridae is a family of sea stars. [more]

Spatangidae

The Spatangidae are a family of heart urchins. There are four recognised genera within the family; Maretia, Paramaretia, Pseudomaretia and Spatangus. Additionally, Spatagus and Prospatangus were previously recognised genera within the Spatangidae, but are now accepted as part of the genus Spatangus. [more]

Sphaerasteridae

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Staphylocrinidae

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Stauranderasteridae

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Stephanocrinidae

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Stichopodidae

Stichopodidae is a family of echinoderms; its members are known as sea cucumbers. [more]

Stomechinidae

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Strongylocentrotidae

Strongylocentrotidae is a family of sea urchins in the order Echinoida. [more]

Sycocrinitidae

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Synallactidae

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Synaptidae

Synaptidae is a family of sea cucumber that have no tube feet, tentacle ampullae, retractor muscles, respiratory trees, or cuvierian organs. They also lack radial canals of the water-vascular system, with only the circumoral ring present. [more]

Synbathocrinidae

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Synerocrinidae

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Taxocrinidae

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Temnopleuridae

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Thalassometridae

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Thiolliericrinidae

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Tithoniidae

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Toxasteridae

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Toxopneustidae

Toxopneustidae is a family of globular sea urchins in the class Echinoidea. [more]

Trichasteropsiidae

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Trigonomartidae

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Troosticrinidae

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Tropidasteridae

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Tropiometridae

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Urasterellidae

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Urechinidae

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Valvasteridae

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Vaneyellidae

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Xyloplacidae

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Ypsilothuriidae

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Zophocrinidae

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Zoroasteridae

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Zygometridae

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More info about the Family Zygometridae may be found here.

Sources

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Last Revised: August 25, 2014
2014/08/25 12:32:08