Bufonidae is the family of the true toads, members of the order Anura (frogs and toads). They are the only family of anurans all members of which are known as "toads." The bufonids now comprise more than 35 genera, Bufo being the most widespread and well known.
True toads are widespread and occur natively on every continent except Australia and Antarctica, inhabiting a variety of environments, from arid areas to rainforest. Most lay eggs in paired strings that hatch into tadpoles, although, in the genus Nectophrynoides the eggs hatch directly into miniature toads.
True toads are toothless and generally warty in appearance. They have a pair of parotoid glands on the back of their heads. These glands contain an alkaloid poison which the toads excrete when stressed. The poison in the glands contains a number of t oxins causing different effects. Bufotoxin is a general term. Different animals contain significantly different substances and proportions of substances. Some, like the cane toad Bufo marinus, are more toxic than others. Some "psychoactive toads," such as the Colorado River Toad Bufo alvaris, have been used recreationally for the effects of the bufotoxin.
Male toads possess a Bidder's organ. Under the right conditions, the organ becomes an active ovary and the toad, in effect, becomes female.
Bufonidae contains about 500 species among 37 genera.ronments, from arid areas to rainforest. Most lay eggs in paired strings that hatch into tadpoles, although, in the genus Nectophrynoides the eggs hatch directly into miniature toads.
True toads are toothless and generally warty in appearance. They have a pair of parotoid glands on the back of their heads. These glands contain an alkaloid poison which the toads excrete when stressed. The poison in the glands contains a number of toxins causing different effects. Bufotoxin is a general term. Different animals contain significantly different substances and proportions of substances. Some, like the cane toad Bufo marinus, are more toxic than others . Some "psychoactive toads," such as the Colorado River Toad Bufo alvaris, have been used recreationally for the effects of the bufotoxin.
Male toads possess a Bidder's organ. Under the right conditions, the organ becomes an active ovary and the toad, in effect, becomes female.
Bufonidae contains about 500 species among 37 genera.
- "Amphibian Species of the World 5.1 - Bufonidae". < a class="external free" href="http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/names.php?taxon=&family=Bufonidae&subfamily=&genus=&commname=&authority=&year=&geo=0&dist=&comment=">http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/names.php?taxon=&family=Bufonidae&subfamily=&genus=&commname=&authority=&year=&geo=0&dist=&comment=. Retrieved 2008-04-10.
- Stebbins, Robert. Western Reptiles & Amphibians (3rd ed.). Houghton Mifflin Co., 2003.
- Halliday, Tim R., and Kraig Adler (editors). The New Encyclopedia of Reptiles & Amphibians. Facts on File, New York, 2002.
- Amphibian and Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia - Family Bufonidae
- Bufonidae recordings from the British Library Sound Archive
The Family Bufonidae is a member of the Superfamily Bufonoidea. Here is the complete "parentage" of Bufonidae:
- Domain: Eukaryota
Whittaker & Margulis,1978 - eukaryotes
- Kingdom: Animalia
C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
- Subkingdom: Bilateria
(Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983 - bilaterians
- Branch: Deuterostomia
Grobben, 1908 - Deuterostomes
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia
(Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Phylum: Chordata
Bateson, 1885 - Chordates
- Subphylum: Vertebrata
Cuvier, 1812 - Vertebrates
- Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
auct. - Jawed Vertebrates
- Superclass: Tetrapoda Goodrich, 1930 - Tetrapods
- Infraphylum: Gnathostomata auct. - Jawed Vertebrates
- Subphylum: Vertebrata Cuvier, 1812 - Vertebrates
- Phylum: Chordata Bateson, 1885 - Chordates
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia Grobben, 1908 - Deuterostomes
- Subkingdom: Bilateria (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983 - bilaterians
- Kingdom: Animalia C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
The Family Bufonidae is further organized into finer groupings including:
- Genus (56): Adenomus · Altiphrynoides · Amietophrynus · Anaxyrus · Andinophryne · Ansonia · Atelophryniscus · Atelopus · Bufo · Bufoides · Capensibufo · Chaunus · Churamiti · Crepidophryne · Dendrophryniscus · Didynamipus · Duttaphrynus · Epidalea · Frostius · Ghatophryne · Incilius · Ingerophrynus · Laurentophryne · Leptophryne · Melanophryniscus · Mertensophryne · Metaphryniscus · Nannophryne · Nectophryne · Nectophrynoides · Nimbaphrynoides · Oreophrynella · Osornophryne · Parapelophryne · Pedostibes · Pelophryne · Peltophryne · Phrynidium · Phryniscus · Phrynoidis · Poyntonophrynus · Pseudepidalea · Pseudobufo · Rhaebo · Rhamphophryne · Rhinella · Sabahphrynus · Schismaderma · Spinophrynoides · Stephopaedes · Torrentophryne · Truebella · Vandijkophrynus · Werneria · Wolterstorffina · Xanthophryne
- Species: ZipcodeZoo has pages for 1,140 species and subspecies in the Family Bufonidae.
Adenomus is a small genus of true toads with only three species endemic to Sri Lanka. Adenomus kandianus is now considered extinct. [more]
Altiphrynoides is a genus of toads, commonly referred to as Ethiopian toads. They are restricted to highlands of south-central Ethiopia in the Arussi, Bale, and Sidamo provinces. Both species are threatened by habitat loss. They were formerly included in Nectophrynoides, but lack the unusual reproductive mode of those species (they lay eggs, while Nectophrynoides give birth to fully developed young). Conversely, some authorities treat Altiphrynoides as a monotypic genus for A. malcolmi, placing A. osgoodi in another monotypic genus, Spinophrynoides. [more]
Andinophryne is a small genus of true toads with only three species found in the Andes. [more]
Ansonia is the name of some places in the United States of America: [more]
Atelophryniscus is a monotypic genus of toad, commonly referred to as "Rio Viejo Toads". The single species is Atelophryniscus chrysophorus. [more]
Atelopus, commonly known as harlequin frogs, is a large genus of true toads from Central and South America, ranging as far north as Costa Rica and as far south as Bolivia. Atelopus are small, generally brightly colored and diurnal. Most species are associated with mid- to high-elevation streams. This genus has been greatly affected by amphibian declines, and many species are now considered endangered, while others already are extinct. The cause of these declines primarily appears to be the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. [more]
Bufo is a large genus of about 150 species of true toads in the amphibian family Bufonidae. Bufo is a Latin word for toad. [more]
Bufoides meghalayanus is a species of true toad known as "Mawblang Toad" or "Khasi Hills Toad". The sole species in the genus Bufoides, it is native to Cherrapunji and Khasi Hills at north-eastern India. [more]
Capensibufo is a small genus of true toads with only two species. The common English name is Cape Toads. Found at the Republic of South Africa from Breede River to north of Knysna, Western Cape Province. [more]
Churamiti maridadi is a species of toad endemic to Tanzania. It is the only member of the genus Churamiti. It is listed as a critically endangered species due to a restricted range and habitat loss. [more]
Crepidophryne is a genus of toads commonly referred to as Cerro Utyum Toads. The genus comprises three species, scattered alopatrically throughout Costa Rican and Panamian highlands. [more]
Dendrophryniscus is a genus of true toads in the Bufonidae family endemic to the atlantic forests of Brazil, amazonian Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and the Guianas. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests. [more]
Didynamipus sjostedti, the four-digit toad, is a species of toad in the Bufonidae family. It is found in Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, and Nigeria. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical moist montane forests, and heavily degraded former forest. It is threatened by habitat loss. [more]
Frostius ? known as Frost's Toads ? is a small genus of true toads consisting of only two species. [more]
Laurentophryne parkeri, also called "Parkers Tree Toad", is a species of toad in the Bufonidae family. It is the single species in the genus Laurentophryne, and is endemic to Kivu region in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montane forests. It is threatened by habitat loss. [more]
Leptophryne is a small of true toads with only two species, found in southeast Asia, in Peninsular Thailand through the Malay Peninsula. [more]
Melanophryniscus (South American Redbelly Toads) is a genus of toads composed of 25 amphibian species located in Argentina, south of Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. [more]
Mertensophryne or "Snouted Frogs" is a genus of true toads native to Eastern and southern Democratic Republic of Congo to Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, southeastern Zimbabwe and adjacent Mozambique. Mertensophryne consists of species previously allocated to the genera Stephopaedes and Bufo, with just one species, Mertensophryne micranotis, occurring in the genus originally.
The genus consists of 14 species [more]
The Sapito Rugoso Del Marahuaka (Metaphryniscus sosae) is a species of in the Bufonidae family. It is monotypic within the genus Metaphryniscus. It is endemic to Venezuela. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montanes. [more]
Nectophryne (African Tree Toads) is a small of true toads with only two species. They are native to western Africa - Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, northeastern Congo, Bioko and Equatorial Guinea. Nectophryne afra uses small bodies of water to lay its eggs which are then guarded by the male. [more]
Nectophrynoides is a genus of true toads. They are endemic to Eastern Arc forests and wetlands in Tanzania, and all except N. tornieri are threatened. Species of the genus are ovoviviparous: fertilization is internal, and the females give birth to fully developed, small toadlets. Together with the West Africa Nimbaphrynoides (which was included in Nectophrynoides in the past), they are the only frogs/toads in the world that do not lay eggs. The Ethiopian Altiphrynoides (includes Spinophrynoides), which lay eggs, were also part of Nectophrynoides in the past. [more]
Oreophrynella (Bush Toads) is a genus of native to the tepuis of southern Venezuela, and adjacent Guyana and far northern Brazil. [more]
Osornophryne (Plump Toads) is a genus of endemic to Colombia and Ecuador at Cordillera Central region. [more]
Pedostibes (Asian Tree Toads) is a genus of endemic to South India, Malay Peninsula to Borneo and Sumatra. These species are characterized by horizontal pupils, elliptical tongue, entire and free behind, webbed fingers and toes, tips which are dilated into regular discs and united outer metatarsals. [more]
Pelophryne (Flathead Toads) is a genus of true toads endemic to Philippines, Borneo, Malaya, Singapore and Hainan Island, China. [more]
Pseudobufo subasper is a species of toad in the Bufonidae family. It is monotypic within the genus Pseudobufo. It is found in Indonesia and Malaysia. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical swamps and swamps. It is threatened by habitat loss. This toad can only be found in peat swamps. They have fully webbed hind feet and are closely associated with water. [more]
Rhinella (Beaked Toads or Rio Viejo Toads) is a subgenus of Bufo (treated by some as a distinct genus) containing 71 species of true toads native to Neotropical Central and South America. Originally, all Rhinella species were included in the genus Bufo, then they were split into Chaunus and Rhamphophryne. Chaparro, Pramuk, and Gluesenkamp (2007) placed Chaunus and Rhamphophryne into the synonymy of Rhinella (see Herpetologica, 63: 211). Other authors (e.g., Pauly, Hillis, and Cannatella, 2004; see References) continue to include Rhinella as a subgroup with the genus Bufo. [more]
The African Red Toad or African Split-skin Toad (Schismaderma carens) is a species of toad in the Bufonidae family. It is monotypic within the genus Schismaderma. It is found in Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and possibly Lesotho. Its natural habitats are dry savanna, moist savanna, subtropical or tropical dry shrubland, subtropical or tropical moist shrubland, subtropical or tropical dry lowland grassland, freshwater marshes, intermittent freshwater marches, arable land, pastureland, urban areas, water storage areas, ponds, canals and ditches, and man-made karsts. [more]
Altiphrynoides osgoodi is a species of in the Bufonidae family that is endemic to the mountains of south-central Ethiopia. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist montanes, subtropical or tropical high-altitude shrubland, and intermittent freshwater marshes. While it is common in the Bale Mountains National Park and other montane environments east of the Rift Valley, it is also present in an isolated population in the Guge Mountains. [more]
Stephopaedes is a genus of . [more]
Truebella is a genus of true toads native to Peru at Ayacucho and Jun?n regions. [more]
Werneria (Smalltongue Toads) is a genus of true toads endemic to Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea. [more]
Wolterstorffina (Wolterstorff Toads) is a genus of native to Nigeria and Cameroon. [more]
More info about the Genus Xanthophryne may be found here.
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