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Arthropoda

(Phylum)

Overview

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The phylum of segmented animals with heads, jointed legs and a thick chitinous cuticle forming an exoskeleton. Arthropods include crustaceans, insects and arachnids.

Arthropods have hard exoskeletons, segmented bodies, and jointed appendages used for moving and feeding. Arthropods constitute over 90% of the animal kingdom. They are distinguished from other animals by an exoskeleton (a skeleton on the outside of the body), body divided into distinct parts, jointed legs and appendages, and bilateral symmetry (both sides of the body are the same).[1]

Photos

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Taxonomy

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The Phylum Arthropoda is a member of the Kingdom Animalia. Here is the complete "parentage" of Arthropoda:

The Phylum Arthropoda is further organized into finer groupings including:

Families

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Abacionidae

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Abadiellidae

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Abrocomophagidae

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Acalyptonotidae

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Acalyptratae

Acalyptratae is a subsection of Schizophora, commonly referred to as the acalyptrate muscoids (or simply acalyptrates). It is a very large assemblage, exhibiting very diverse habits, with one notable and perhaps surprising exception; there are no known acalyptrates that are obligate blood-feeders (hematophagous), though this is a life history that is common throughout the remaining Diptera. [more]

Acanaloniidae

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Acanthametropodidae

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Acanthaspidiidae

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Acanthocnemidae

Acanthocnemidae is a small family of beetles, in the suborder Polyphaga. The single species of Acanthocnemidae, Acanthocnemus nigricans, is native to Australia. [more]

Acanthogammaridae

Acanthogammaridae is a family of amphipod crustaceans, endemic to Lake Baikal. It contains the following subfamilies and genera: [more]

Acanthonotozomatidae

[more]

Acanthonotozomellidae

Acanthonotozomatidae is a family of Amphipoda comprising five genera (including those previously placed in the family Acanthonotozomellidae): [more]

Acanthopteroctetidae

Acanthoctesia or "archaic sun moths" is an infraorder of insects in the Lepidopteran order, containing a single superfamily Acanthopteroctetoidea and a single family Acanthopteroctetidae. They are currently considered the fifth group up on the comb of branching events in the extant lepidopteran phylogeny (Kristensen and Skalski, 1999: 10). They also represent the most basal lineage in the lepidopteran group Coelolepida (Wiegmann et al., 2002) (along with Lophocoronoidea and the massive group "Myoglossata") characterised in part by its scale morphology (Kristensen, 1999: 53-54). Moths in this superfamily are usually small (but one is 15 mm. in wingspan) and iridescent. Like other "homoneurous" Coelolepida and non-ditrysian Heteroneura, the ocelli are lost. There are variety of unique structural characteristics (see Kristensen, 1999: 53-54 for an overview). There are two described genera of these primitive moths. Catapterix was originally described within its own family (Sinev, 1988) but Acanthopteroctetes shares with it a number of specialised structural features including similar wing morphology (in A. unifascia) (Nielsen and Kristensen, 1996: 1255). [more]

Acanthosomatidae

Acanthosomatidae is a family of Hemiptera, commonly named ?shield bugs,? for which Kumar in his World revision recognizes 47 genera; now this number is 54 genera, with about 200 species, and is one of the least diversified families within Pentatomoidea. [more]

Acanthotelsonidae

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Acantiophoridae

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Acaridae

The Acaridae are a family of mites. Common forms include some mold mites, for example the grain mite. Genera in the family include: [more]

Acaronychidae

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Acarophenacidae

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Acartiidae

Acartiidae is a family of calanoid copepods distinguishable by the rostral margin not being extended. They are epipelagic, planktonic animals, not being found below a depth of 500 metres (1,600 ft). There are over 100 described species distributed throughout the world's oceans, mainly in temperate areas. [more]

Acartophthalmidae

Acartophthalmus is a genus of flies, the only genus in the family Acartophthalmidae. They are 1.0?2.5 millimetres (0.04?0.10 in) long, and grey or black in color, with pubescent arista. Only four species are included, all of which are Holarctic; two of the species occur in the United Kingdom. There is also an uncertain fossil species. [more]

Acastidae

Acastidae is a family of trilobites in the order Phacopidae, suborder Phacopina, superfamily Acastoidea, containing the following genera: [more]

Acerentomidae

Acerentomidae is a family of hexapods in the order Protura. Acerentomids are not tracheated, and instead utilize cuticular gas exchange. [more]

Achilidae

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Achilixiidae

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Achipteriidae

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Aclerdidae

Aclerdidae are a family of Coccoidea, the scale insects. They are usually found on grasses, sucking sap from the stem, inside the leaf sheaths. [more]

Aclopidae

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Acrididae

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Acrocephalitidae

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Acroceridae

Acroceridae is a small family of odd looking flies most closely related to Nemestrinidae. There are about 520 species in 50 genera. They are characterized by a humpbacked appearance and a small head, sometimes with a long proboscis for nectar. As such, acrocerids are commonly known as small-headed flies or hunchback-flies. Many are bee or wasp mimics. Their eyes are often holoptic; their heads seem to be composed primarily of ommatidia. They are cosmopolitan in distribution but rarely observed in most places; the majority of the over 500 species are known from fewer than 10 specimens. They are found most commonly in semi-arid tropical locations. [more]

Acrolepiidae

The Acrolepiidae family of moths are also known as False Diamondback moths. [more]

Acrolophidae

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Acromantidae

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Actaeciidae

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Actinopodidae

The spider family Actinopodidae is a family of mygalomorph spiders found in Australia, South America, and Central America. It includes the Australian genus Missulena, known as the mouse spiders, which are quite venomous. [more]

Acucapitidae

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Aculagnathidae

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Adamystidae

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Adelgidae

The Adelgidae is a small family of the Homoptera closely related to the aphids, and often traditionally included in the Aphidoidea with the Phylloxeridae. Adelgids are often known as "woolly conifer aphids". The family is composed of species associated with pine spruce or other conifers, known respectively as "pine aphids" or "spruce aphids". This family includes the former family Chermesidae, or "Chermidae", the name of which was declared invalid by the ICZN in 1955. There is still considerable debate as to the number of genera within the family, and the classification is still unstable and inconsistent among competing authors. [more]

Adelidae

The Adelidae or fairy longhorn moths are a family of monotrysian moths in the lepidopteran infraorder Heteroneura. Most species have at least partially metallic patterns coloration and are diurnal, sometimes swarming around the tips of branches with an undulating flight. Others are crepuscular and have a drab coloration. Fairy longhorn moths have a wingspan of 4-28 millimeters, and males often have especially long antennae, 1-3 times as long as the forewing. [more]

Adelphacaridae

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Ademosynidae

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Aderidae

Aderidae, the ant-like leaf beetles, is a family of beetles that bear some resemblance to ants. The family consists of about 1,000 species in about 50 genera, of which most are tropical, although overall distribution is worldwide. [more]

Adhaesozetidae

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Adiaphorostreptidae

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Adiheterothripidae

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Adritylidae

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Adumbratomorphidae

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Aechminidae

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Aegialiidae

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Aegidae

Aegidae is a family of isopod crustaceans, containing the following genera: [more]

Aeginellidae

Caprellidae is a family of amphipods commonly known as skeleton shrimps. Their common name denotes the threadlike slender body which allows them to virtually disappear among the fine filaments of seaweed, hydroids and bryozoans. They are sometimes also known as ghost shrimps. Caprellidae contains 88 genera in three subfamilies. [more]

Aegisthidae

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Aeglidae

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Aenicteguidae

Aenictegues is the only genus of mites in the family Aenicteguidae, in the order Mesostigmata. [more]

Aenigmephemeridae

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Aeolothripidae

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Aeroglyphidae

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Aeshnidae

The hawkers (or darners in North America) (family Aeshnidae) include the largest dragonflies found in North America and Europe, and are among the largest of the dragonflies on the planet. This family represents also the fastest flying dragonflies of the order of the dragonflies and damselflies (Odonata). [more]

Aetalionidae

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Aethridae

Aethridae is a family of crabs in its own superfamily, Aethroidea. It contains the following genera (extinct genera marked ?): [more]

Aetideidae

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Afrauropodidae

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Agaonidae

Fig wasps are wasps of the family Agaonidae which pollinate figs or are otherwise associated with figs, a coevolutional relationship that has been developing for at least 80 million years. They have been seen to fly farther than any known pollen-bearing insect, and in some regions of the world where wind can gust at up to 30 kilometres per hour (19 mph), they can travel downwind approximately 100 miles in their 48-hour lifespan. [more]

Agathiphagidae

Agathiphaga is a genus of moths in the family Agathiphagidae, known as kauri moths. This caddis fly-like lineage of primitive moths was first reported by Lionel Jack Dumbleton in 1952, as a new genus of Micropterigidae. [more]

Agathotanaidae

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Agelenidae

The araneomorph funnel-web spiders of the family Agelenidae include the common grass spiders of the genus Agelenopsis, as well as the purportedly venomous European hobo spider, Tegenaria agrestis, which has been introduced into the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Note: The araneomorph funnel-web spider should not to be confused with the funnel-web tarantula and the venomous funnel-web tarantula, both of which are members of the suborder Mygalomorphae. The venomous funnel-web tarantulas include the infamous Sydney funnel-web spider. [more]

Aglaspididae

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Aglycyderidae

Aglycyderini are a tribe of belids, primitive weevils of the family Belidae. Like in other belids, their antennae are straight, not elbowed as in the true weevils (Curculionidae). They occur only on the Pacific Islands and in the Macaronesian region.. [more]

Agnaridae

Agnaridae is a family of woodlice. They were formerly considered part of the , but were moved from that family to Porcellionidae in 1989, and then placed as a separate family in 2003. There are c.?80 species, distributed from the Mediterranean basin to East Asia. [more]

Agnostidae

Agnostidae is a family of agnostid trilobites. Like most agnostids, they were eyeless and only bore two thoracic segments. They ranged in benthic waters across the globe from 530 to 461 million years ago, containing the following genera, among others: [more]

Agonoxenidae

The Agonoxenidae are a family of moths only contains four named species in the whole world ? all in the type genus ? if (e.g. following Nielsen et al., 1996) the Blastodacnidae are considered to be a separate family. Such a monotypic arrangement is fairly unusual in modern taxonomy without explicit need due to phylogenetic constraints, and with little reliable data on the latter, the traditional approach is followed here pending new studies. [more]

Agoristenidae

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Agraulidae

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Agromyzidae

The family Agromyzidae is commonly referred to as the leaf-miner flies, for the feeding habit of larvae, most of which are leaf miners on various plants. [more]

Agyrtidae

Agyrtidae or primitive carrion beetles are a small family of polyphagan beetles They are found in mostly temperate areas of the northern hemisphere and in New Zealand. They are feeding on decaying organic material. [more]

Albuneidae

Albuneidae is a little-known family of specialized burrowing sand crabs. There are 50 extant species as well as nine fossil species that have been described. Fossil specimens have been described from the Cretaceous, Miocene and Oligocene. [more]

Aleurodamaeidae

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Aleyrodidae

The whiteflies, comprising only the family Aleyrodidae, are small hemipterans. More than 1550 species have been described. Whiteflies typically feed on the underside of plant leaves. [more]

Algophagidae

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Alicorhagiidae

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Alinkidae

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Alleculidae

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Allochaetophoridae

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Allocrangonyctidae

Allocrangonyx is a genus of troglobitic amphipod crustaceans from the South Central United States. The two species are both listed as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. The animals are blind and unpigmented. During the male's development, the outer ramus of the third uropod differentiates into secondary segments and grows to a length greater than the animal's body length. [more]

Alloniscidae

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Allopocockiidae

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Alloptidae

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Alloraphidiidae

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Allothyridae

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Alokistocaridae

Alokistocaridae is a family of extinct trilobites. Alokistocarids were particle feeders and left small furrows with are occasionally preserved. Their remains are found worldwide. A notable genus of Alokistocarid is Elrathia, one of the most common trilobites in the world. [more]

Alpheidae

Alpheidae is a family of caridean snapping shrimp characterized by having asymmetrical claws, the larger of which is typically capable of producing a loud snapping sound. Other common names of these species include pistol shrimp or alpheid shrimp. [more]

Alsataspidae

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Alucitidae

The Alucitidae or many-plumed moths are a family of moths with unusually modified wings. Both fore- and hind-wings consist of about six rigid spines, from which radiate flexible bristles creating a structure similar to a bird's feather. [more]

Alvinocarididae

Alvinocarididae is a family of shrimp, originally described by M. L. Christoffersen in 1986 from samples collected by DSV Alvin, from which they derive their name. Shrimp of the family Alvinocarididae generally inhabit deep sea hydrothermal vent regions, and hydrocarbon cold seep environments. Carotenoid pigment has been found in their bodies. The family Alvinocarididae comprises 7 extant genera. [more]

Alydidae

Alydidae, commonly known as broad-headed bugs, is a family of true bugs very similar to the closely related Coreidae (leaf-footed bugs and relatives). There are about 40 genera with 250 species altogether. Distributed in the temperate and warmer regions of the Earth, most are tropical and subtropical animals; for example Europe has a mere 10 species, and only 2 of these occur outside the Mediterranean region. [more]

Amacataidae

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Amaryllididae

Amaryllididae is a family of marine benthic amphipods found throughout the southern hemisphere. These smooth, laterally compressed amphipods can be distinguished by the accessory setal row of the mandible having a distal tuft. It contains the following genera: [more]

Amathillopsidae

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Amaurobiidae

The Amaurobiidae are three-clawed cribellate or ecribellate spiders found in most parts of the world and difficult to distinguish from related spiders in other families, especially Agelenidae, Desidae and Amphinectidae. Their intra- and interfamilial relationships are contentious. In Spider Families of the World 2007 they were represented by 69 genera and about 640 species in 5 subfamilies. [more]

Ambunguipedidae

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Ameiridae

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Ameletidae

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Ameridae

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Amerobelbidae

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Ameronothridae

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Ameroseiidae

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Ametropodidae

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Ammodesmidae

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Ammotheidae

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Ammotrechidae

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Ammoxenidae

The Ammoxenidae are a small spider family with 18 species in four genera. [more]

Amoenacaridae

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Amorphoscelididae

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Ampeliscidae

Ampeliscidae is a family of amphipods, distinct enough to warrant placement in a monotypic superfamily Ampeliscoidea. They are benthic, found at the bottom of seas and oceans. They are distributed worldwide, and are often abundant in areas with fine sediments. They live in infaunal tubes, constructed from "amphipod silk" and sediment. [more]

Amphientomidae

Amphientomidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the suborder Troctomorpha. The presence of scales on their wings gives them a superficial resemblance to the unrelated family socoptera, Trogiomorpha) and both families can pass for microlepidoptera to the untrained eye. The family comprises 100 species arranged in twenty genera. [more]

Amphilochidae

Amphilochidae is a family of amphipod crustaceans, containing the following genera: [more]

Amphinectidae

The Amphinectidae are a spider family with about 180 described species in 35 genera. [more]

Amphionididae

Amphionides reynaudii is the sole representative of the order Amphionidacea, and is a small (less than one inch long) planktonic crustacean found throughout the world's tropical oceans, mostly in shallow waters. [more]

Amphipsocidae

Amphipsocidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the suborder Psocomorpha. Like the other members of the infra-order Caeciliusetae, they have a broad, flat labrum, with well defined edges. The family is composed of 170 species arranged in 17 genera. [more]

Amphipterygidae

Amphipterygidae is a family of damselflies in the order Odonata. It is a small family of damselflies with around 12 species. [more]

Amphisbatidae

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Amphisopodidae

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Amphitheridae

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Amphithoidae

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Amphitoidae

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Amphizoidae

Amphizoa is a genus of beetles, placed in its own family, Amphizoidae. It comprises six species, three from western North America and three from China. The vernacular name "trout-stream beetle" comes from the original finding of A. insolens and A. lecontei in high mountain streams, although other species occur at lower elevation. They are notable as a possible intermediate stage between terrestrial and aquatic beetles; while living in the water, they are not good swimmers and physically resemble ground beetles more than other types of water beetle. [more]

Amphotrombiidae

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Ampithoidae

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Ampulicidae

The Ampulicidae, or Cockroach wasps, is a small (approx. 200 species), primarily tropical group of sphecoid wasps, all of which use various cockroaches as prey items for their larvae. They tend to have elongated jaws, a pronounced neck-like constriction behind the head, a strongly petiolate abdomen, and deep grooves on the thorax. Many are quite ant-like in appearance, though some are brilliant metallic blue or green. [more]

Anajapygidae

Anajapygidae is a small family of diplurans. They can be distinguished by their relatively short, stout cerci, which discharge abdominal secretions. Unlike most diplurans, which are largely predatory, these are scavengers. [more]

Analgidae

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Anamixidae

Leucothoidae is a family of amphipods. It contains 138 species in 6 genera: [more]

Anapidae

The Anapidae are a family of rather small spiders with 145 described species in 35 genera. Most species are less than 2 mm long. [more]

Anapronoidae

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Anarthruridae

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Anaspididae

Anaspididae is a family of freshwater crustacean that is endemic to Tasmania, Australia. The family contains 3 genera and 5 species. This group of crustaceans are considered living fossils. They are commonly and collectively known as the Tasmanian anaspid crustaceans. Anaspidids have stalked eyes, long antennae and antennules, and a slender body with no carapace. The two species of Allanaspides and the single species of Paranaspides are all listed as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. [more]

Anatylidae

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Anaxyelidae

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Anchineuridae

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Anchistioididae

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Ancinidae

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Ancistropsyllidae

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Ancopteridae

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Ancorabolidae

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Anderemaeidae

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Andrenidae

The family Andrenidae is a large (nearly) cosmopolitan (absent in Australia) non-parasitic bee family, with most of the diversity in temperate and/or arid areas (warm temperate xeric), including some truly enormous genera (e.g., Andrena with over 1300 species, and Perdita with nearly 800). One of the subfamilies, Oxaeinae, are so different in appearance that they were typically accorded family status, but careful phylogenetic analysis reveals them to be an offshoot within the Andrenidae, very close to the Andreninae. [more]

Andrognathidae

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Anelasmatidae

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Anelcanidae

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Angarosphecidae

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Anisembiidae

Anisembiidae is a family of web-spinners in the order Embioptera. [more]

Anisitsiellidae

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Anisogammaridae

Anisogammaridae is a family of small benthic amphipods. [more]

Anisolabididae

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Anisopodidae

Anisopodidae is a small cosmopolitan family of gnat-like flies known as wood gnats or window-gnats with 154 described extant species in 15 genera, and several described fossil taxa. Some species are saprophagous or fungivorous. They are mostly small to medium-sized flies, except the genera Olbiogaster and Lobogaster, which are large with bizarrely spatulate abdomens. Their phylogenetic placement is controversial. They have been proposed to be the sister group to the higher flies, the Brachycera. Some authors consider this group to be four distinct families ? Anisopodidae, , Olbiogastridae, and Valeseguyidae. [more]

Anobiidae

Anobiidae is a family of beetles. The larvae of a number of species tend to bore into wood, earning them the name "woodworm" or "wood borer". A few species are pests, causing damage to wooden furniture and house structures, notably the death watch beetle, Xestobium rufovillosum, and the common furniture beetle, Anobium punctatum. [more]

Anomalifrontidae

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Anomalopsychidae

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Anomocaridae

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Anomoeotidae

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Anomopterellidae

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Anomosetidae

Anomoses hylecoetes is a species of primitive hepialoid moth endemic to Queensland and New South Wales, Australia . It is the only species in the family Anomosetidae. [more]

Anopsobiidae

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Anostostomatidae

Anostostomatidae is a family in the order Orthoptera. It is sometimes referred to as Mimnermidae or Henicidae in some taxonomies, and common names include King crickets in South Africa, and wetas in New Zealand. They are believed to be most closely related to the Jerusalem crickets of North America. Prominent members includes the Parktown prawn of South Africa, and the giant wetas of New Zealand. The cave wetas belong to another family, the Rhaphidophoridae. Their distribution reflects a common ancestry before the fragmenting of Gondwanaland. [more]

Ansorgiidae

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Antarcturidae

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Antefungivoridae

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Antennophoridae

Antennophoridae is a family of mites in the order Mesostigmata. [more]

Anthelidae

Anthelidae is a family of Australian lappet moths in the Lepidoptera order. It was previously included in the Lasiocampoidea superfamily, but a recent study resulted in reincluding the family in the superfamily Bombycoidea. [more]

Antheluridae

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Anthessiidae

Poecilostomatoida are an order of copepods previously included in the Cyclopoida. [more]

Anthicidae

Anthicidae is a family of beetles, sometimes called ant-like flower beetles or ant-like beetles that resemble ants. The family consists of over 3,000 species in about 100 genera. [more]

Anthocoridae

The Anthocoridae are a family of bugs, commonly called minute pirate bugs or flower bugs. [more]

Anthomyiidae

Anthomyiidae is a large and diverse family of Muscoidea flies. Most look rather like small houseflies, but are commonly drab grey. The genus Anthomyia, in contrast, are generally conspicuously-patterned in black-and-white or black-and-silvery-grey. Most are difficult to identify, apart from a few groups such as the kelp flies that are conspicuous on beaches. [more]

Anthomyzidae

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Anthophoridae

The Apidae are a large family of bees, comprising the common honey bees, stingless bees (which are also cultured for honey), carpenter bees, orchid bees, cuckoo bees, bumblebees, and various other less well-known groups. The family Apidae presently includes all the genera that were previously classified in the families Anthophoridae and Ctenoplectridae, and most of these are solitary species, though a few are also cleptoparasites. The four groups that were subfamilies in the old family Apidae are presently ranked as tribes within the subfamily Apinae. This trend has been taken to its extreme in a few recent classifications that place all the existing bee families together under the name "Apidae" (or, alternatively, the non-Linnaean clade "Anthophila"), but this is not a widely-accepted practice. [more]

Anthracocarididae

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Anthribidae

Anthribidae is a family of beetles also known as fungus weevils. The antennae are not elbowed, may occasionally be longer than the body and thread-like, and can be the longest of any members of Curculionoidea. As in the Nemonychidae, the labrum appears as a separate segment to the clypeus, and the maxillary palps are long and projecting. [more]

Anthroleucosomatidae

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Anthuridae

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Antipodoeciidae

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Antrodiaetidae

The folding trapdoor spiders (Antrodiaetidae) are a small spider family with about 30 species in three genera. They are related to the Atypidae (atypical tarantulas). [more]

Anuropidae

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Anuropodidae

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Anyphaenidae

The anyphaenid sac spiders (family Anyphaenidae) are distinguished from the sac spiders and other spiders by having the abdominal spiracle placed one third to one half of the way anterior to the spinnerets toward the epigastric furrow on the underside of the abdomen. In most spiders the spiracle is just anterior to the spinnerets. Like clubionids, anyphaenids have eight eyes arranged in two rows, conical anterior spinnerets and are wandering predators that built silken retreats, or sacs, usually on plant terminals, between leaves, under bark or under rocks. There are more than 500 species in over 50 genera worldwide. [more]

Anystidae

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Aoridae

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Apachyidae

Apachyidae is a small family of earwigs, in the suborder Forficulina and the order Dermaptera. It is one of nine families in the suborder Forficulina, and contains two genera (placed in one subfamily, Apachyinae). It has been cited by in his book, The Animal Kingdom, by Brindle in The Dermaptera of Africa, and by at least two others. [more]

Apataniidae

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Apatelodidae

Apatelodidae is a somewhat disputed[] family of insects in the order Lepidoptera. They belong to the hawkoth, silkworm and relatives superfamily Bombycoidea. [more]

Aphalaridae

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Aphelacaridae

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Aphelidesmidae

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Aphelinidae

Aphelinidae is a moderate-sized family of tiny parasitic wasps, with some 1160 described species in some 35 genera. These minute insects are challenging to study as they deteriorate rapidly after death unless extreme care is taken (e.g., preservation in ethanol), making identification of most museum specimens difficult. The larvae of the majority are primary parasitoids on Hemiptera, though other hosts are attacked, and details of the life history can be variable (e.g., some attack eggs, some attack pupae, and others are hyperparasites). They are found throughout the world in virtually all habitats, and are extremely important as biological control agents. [more]

Aphelocheiridae

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Apheviderulicidae

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Aphididae

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Aphidiidae

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Aphilodontidae

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Aphodiidae

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Aphrodidae

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Aphrophoridae

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Aphylidae

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Apidae

The Apidae are a large family of bees, comprising the common honey bees, stingless bees (which are also cultured for honey), carpenter bees, orchid bees, cuckoo bees, bumblebees, and various other less well-known groups. The family Apidae presently includes all the genera that were previously classified in the families Anthophoridae and Ctenoplectridae, and most of these are solitary species, though a few are also cleptoparasites. The four groups that were subfamilies in the old family Apidae are presently ranked as tribes within the subfamily Apinae. This trend has been taken to its extreme in a few recent classifications that place all the existing bee families together under the name "Apidae" (or, alternatively, the non-Linnaean clade "Anthophila"), but this is not a widely-accepted practice. [more]

Apioceridae

The Apioceridae, or flower-loving flies, are a small (approximately 150 species) family of flies, all in the single genus Apiocera. They occur mostly in dry sandy habitats in the deserts of North America, South America, and Australia. Other genera formerly placed in Apioceridae are now in Mydidae. [more]

Apiomorphidae

[more]

Apionacaridae

[more]

Apionidae

[more]

Apoprogonidae

Apoprogoninae is a subfamily of the moth family Sematuridae, represented by a single species from Swaziland, South Africa. [more]

Aprosphylosomatidae

[more]

Apseudellidae

[more]

Apseudidae

[more]

Apsilocephalidae

Apsilocephalidae is a family of flies in the superfamily Asiloidea. The family was proposed in 1991. [more]

Apteropanorpidae

Apteropanorpidae is a family of wingless scorpionflies containing a single genus Apteropanorpa with four named species. These species, also called Tasmanian snow scorpionflies are found in moss in Tasmania and southern Australia. The adults are generalised predators. The larvae live in moss and are locally common. [more]

Apterouridae

[more]

Apystomyiidae

Apystomyiidae are a family of flies. They are placed in the superfamily Asiloidea. There is only one genus which contains a single species. [more]

Aradidae

Aradidae bear the appropriate common name, flat bugs, in reference to their (usually) extremely flattened body. With few exceptions, the often cryptic insects are of no economic importance. Common temperate genera include Aradus, , Neuroctenus, and Aneurus. [more]

Araneidae

The "typical" orb-weaver spiders (family Araneidae) are the most common group of builders of spiral wheel-shaped webs often found in gardens, fields and forests. Their common name is taken from the round shape of this typical web, and the taxon was formerly also referred to as the Orbiculariae. [more]

Araripelocustidae

[more]

Arborichthoniidae

[more]

Arceremaeidae

[more]

Archaeaspidae

[more]

Archaeidae

The Archaeidae are a spider family with 25 described species in three genera. [more]

Archaemiopteridae

[more]

Archaeobalanidae

Archaeobalanidae is a family of barnacles of the order Sessilia. [more]

Archaeocumidae

[more]

Archaeocynipidae

[more]

Archaeorchestidae

[more]

Archaeoscinidae

[more]

Archeocrypticidae

[more]

Archeonothridae

[more]

Archescytinidae

[more]

Archiconiopterygidae

[more]

Archidesmidae

[more]

Archinotodelphyidae

[more]

Archipsocidae

Archipsocidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the suborder Psocomorpha. Members of the family are characterised by their reduced wing venation. Some species are viviparous. The family includes about 80 species in five genera. [more]

Archisargidae

[more]

Archithemistidae

[more]

Archizelmiridae

[more]

Archoglossopteridae

[more]

Arctacaridae

[more]

Arctiidae

Arctiidae is a large and diverse family of moths with around 11,000 species found all over the world, including 6,000 neotropical species. This family includes the groups commonly known as tiger moths (or tigers), which usually have bright colors, footmen (which are usually much drabber), lichen moths and wasp moths. Many species have 'hairy' caterpillars which are popularly known as woolly bears or woolly worms. The scientific name refers to this (Gk. a??t?? = a bear). Caterpillars may also go by the name 'tussock moths' (more usually this refers to Lymantriidae, however). [more]

Arcturidae

[more]

Arcturididae

[more]

Arenohydracaridae

[more]

Areozetidae

[more]

Argasidae

Argasidae is a family of ticks containing the soft ticks. They lack the hard scutum that is present in the hard ticks (Ixodidae). The capitulum (mouthparts-bearing structure) is located on the underside of the animal's body and is not readily visible. The family contains 193 species, although the composition of the genera is less certain, and more study is needed before the genera can become stable. The currently accepted genera are Antricola, Argas, , Ornithodoros and Otobius. [more]

Argestidae

[more]

Argidae

Argidae is a large family of sawflies, containing some 800 species worldwide, primarily in tropical regions. The larvae are phytophagous, and commonly can be found feeding (and often pupating) in groups, though very few attain pest status. [more]

Argiopidae

[more]

Argissidae

[more]

Argulidae

The family Argulidae contains the carp lice or fish lice ? a group of parasitic crustaceans of uncertain position within the Maxillopoda. Although they are thought to be forms, they have no fossil record. Argulidae is the only family in the order Arguloida (occasionally "Arguloidea"), although a second family, Dipteropeltidae, has been proposed. [more]

Argyresthiidae

Argyresthiinae is a subfamily of moths of the Yponomeutidae family, although it is treated as a valid family Argyresthiidae by some authors. [more]

Aribatidae

[more]

Arietellidae

[more]

Aristeidae

[more]

Aristiidae

[more]

Arixeniidae

[more]

Armadillidae

[more]

Armadillidiidae

Armadillidiidae is a family of woodlice, a terrestrial crustacean group in the order Isopoda. Unlike members of other woodlouse families, members of this family can roll into a ball, an ability they share with the outwardly similar but unrelated pill millipedes and other animals. It is this ability which gives woodlice in this family their common name of pill bugs, roly polies or potato bugs. The best known species in the family is Armadillidium vulgare, the common pill bug. [more]

Armaniidae

[more]

Armilliferidae

[more]

Arrenuridae

[more]

Arrhenophanidae

Arrhenophanidae is a family of moths in the Lepidoptera order. [more]

Arrhopalitidae

[more]

Artematopidae

[more]

Artemiidae

Artemia is a genus of aquatic crustaceans known as brine shrimp. Artemia, the only genus in the family Artemiidae, has changed little externally since the Triassic period. The historical record of the existence of Artemia dates back to 982 from Urmia Lake, Iran, although the first unambiguous record are the report and drawings made by Schl?sser in 1756 of animals from Lymington, England. Artemia populations are found worldwide in inland saltwater lakes, but not in oceans. Artemia are able to avoid cohabitating with most types of predators, such as fish, by their ability to live in waters of very high salinity up to 250?. [more]

Artesiidae

[more]

Arthropleidae

[more]

Arthropoda

An arthropod is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and jointed appendages. Arthropods are members of the phylum Arthropoda (from Greek ?rthron, "joint", and p?d?? pod?s "foot", which together mean "jointed feet"), and include the insects, arachnids, crustaceans, and others. Arthropods are characterized by their jointed limbs and cuticles, which are mainly made of a-chitin; the cuticles of crustaceans are also biomineralized with calcium carbonate. The rigid cuticle inhibits growth, so arthropods replace it periodically by molting. The arthropod body plan consists of repeated segments, each with a pair of appendages. It is so versatile that they have been compared to Swiss Army knives, and it has enabled them to become the most species-rich members of all ecological guilds in most environments. They have over a million described species, making up more than 80% of all described living animal species, and are one of only two animal groups that are very successful in dry environments ? the other being the amniotes. They range in size from microscopic plankton up to forms a few meters long. [more]

Artotrogidae

[more]

Asaphidae

Asaphidae is a family of trilobites in the order Asaphida, containing the following genera: [more]

Asaphiscidae

[more]

Asauridae

[more]

Ascalaphidae

Owlflies are dragonfly-like insects with large bulging eyes and long knobbed antennae. They are neuropterans in the family Ascalaphidae; they are only distantly related to the true flies, and even more distant from the dragonflies and damselflies. They are diurnal or crepuscular predators of other flying insects, and are typically 5 cm (2.0 in) long. [more]

Ascidae

Ascidae is a family of mites in the order Mesostigmata. [more]

Ascidicolidae

[more]

Ascomyzontidae

[more]

Ascothoracidae

[more]

Ascouracaridae

[more]

Asellidae

Asellidae is a family of isopod crustaceans. It is one of the largest families of freshwater isopods, living in both epigean and hypogean habitats in North America and Europe. The family includes the following genera: [more]

Asilidae

Insects in the Diptera family Asilidae are commonly called robber flies. The family Asilidae contains about 7,100 described species worldwide. [more]

Asilomorpha

The Brachyceran infraorder Asilomorpha is a large and diverse group of flies, containing the bulk of the non-muscoid Brachycera. [more]

Asiochaoboridae

[more]

Asiocoleidae

[more]

Asiopsocidae

Asiopsocidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the infraorder Caeciliusetae. The family is composed of 14 known species in three genera. [more]

Asiopteridae

[more]

Aspidohymenidae

[more]

Aspidothoracidae

[more]

Assamiidae

[more]

Astacidae

The family Astacidae comprises the freshwater crayfish native to Europe and western North America. It is made up of three genera. Pacifastacus is found on the Pacific coast of the United States and British Columbia and includes the signal crayfish and the Shasta crayfish. The genera Astacus and Austropotamobius are both found throughout Europe and parts of western Asia. [more]

Astacocrotonidae

Astegistidae

[more]

Asteiidae

Asteiidae is a small but widespread family of acalyptrate flies or Diptera. About 130 species in 10 genera have been described worldwide.They are rarely collected. [more]

Asternoseiidae

Asternoseiidae is a family of mites in the order Mesostigmata. [more]

Asterocheridae

[more]

Asterolecaniidae

Asterolecaniidae is a family of scale insects commonly known as pit scales or asterolecaniids. They typically cause a depression in the host plant's tissues and often cause distortion of the shoots. They are found on a range of hosts but are especially common on oaks, bamboos and a number of ornamental plants. Members of this family occur in most regions of the world but are most abundant in the northern hemisphere. There are about 27 genera and 243 recorded species. [more]

Asthenohymenidae

[more]

Astyridae

[more]

Atelecyclidae

Atelecyclidae is a family of crabs belonging to the Cancroidea superfamily, and currently containing eight genera two of which are extinct. However, the genera other than do not belong in the Cancroidea, and are to be removed from the family. [more]

Atelestidae

Atelestidae is a family of true flies in the superfamily Empidoidea. These four genera were placed in a separate family in 1983. They were formerly either in Platypezidae (which are not even particularly closely related) or considered incertae cedis. But while they are doubtless the most basal of the living Empidoidea, the monophyly of the family is not fully proven. The genus seems to represent a most ancient lineage among the entire superfamily, while Meghyperus is probably not monophyletic in its present delimitation, and it is liable to be split up eventually, with some species being placed elsewhere. [more]

Ateluridae

Atelurinae is a subfamily of primitive insects belonging to the order Thysanura. They are sometimes treated as a family Ateluridae. These are tiny and usually found within the nests of termites and ants with which they associate. [more]

Atemnidae

[more]

Athericidae

Athericidae is a small family of flies known as water snipe-flies; they used to be placed in the family Rhagionidae. The adults mostly feed on nectar but some species feed on mammal blood. [more]

Athienemanniidae

[more]

Athyreacaridae

[more]

Atlantasellidae

Atlantasellus is a genus of crustaceans, and the only member of the family Atlantasellidae. It contains the following species: [more]

Atopetholidae

[more]

Atopochthoniidae

[more]

Atopogestidae

[more]

Atopomelidae

[more]

Atriplectididae

[more]

Attelabidae

The Attelabidae or leaf-rolling weevils are a widespread family of weevils. There are more than 2000 species. They are included within the primitive weevils, because of their straight antennae, which are inserted near the base of the rostrum. The prothorax is much narrower than the base of the elytra on the abdomen. [more]

Attemsiidae

[more]

Attevidae

[more]

Aturidae

[more]

Atyidae

Atyidae is a family of shrimp, present in all tropical and most temperate waters of the world. Adults of this family are almost always confined to fresh water. This is the only family in the superfamily Atyoidea. [more]

Atypidae

The atypical tarantulas or purseweb spiders (family Atypidae) consist of only three genera. Purseweb spiders are accomplished ambush predators that spend most of their time in a sock-like, silken retreat on the ground from where they kill their prey. [more]

Audyanidae

[more]

Audycoptidae

[more]

Augaptilidae

Augaptilidae is a family of copepods, comprising the following genera: [more]

Aulacidae

The family Aulacidae is a small cosmopolitan group, with 3 extant genera containing some 200 known species. They are primarily endoparasitoids of wood wasps (Xiphydriidae) and xylophagous beetles (Cerambycidae and Buprestidae). They are closely related to the family Gasteruptiidae, sharing the feature of having the first and second metasomal tergites fused, and having the head on a long pronotal "neck", though they are not nearly as slender and elongate as Gasteruptiids, nor are their hind legs club-like, and they have a more sculptured thorax. They share the evanioid trait of having the metasoma attached very high above the hind coxae on the propodeum. [more]

Aulacigastridae

Aulacigastridae is a very small family of flies known as sap flies. The family used to be included within this family, but was moved by Papp in 1984. [more]

Aulacopleuridae

[more]

Aulonocnemidae

[more]

Auritamiidae

[more]

Austrachipteriidae

[more]

Australembiidae

[more]

Australimyzidae

[more]

Australocytherideidae

[more]

Austrarcturellidae

[more]

Austrochilidae

The Austrochilidae are a small spider family with nine species in three genera. [more]

Austrocorduliidae

[more]

Austrocynipidae

[more]

Austrodecidae

Austrodecidae is a family of sea spiders. Austrodecids tend to be small measuring only 1-2 mm. This family is polyphyletic and will be split into two groups. [more]

Austroleptidae

[more]

Austroniidae

[more]

Austroperlidae

[more]

Austropetaliidae

Austropetaliidae is a small family of dragonflies occurring only in Chile and Australia. [more]

Austrophasmatidae

[more]

Autognetidae

[more]

Avenzoariidae

[more]

Avoninidae

[more]

Axianassidae

[more]

Axiidae

Axiidae is a family of thalassinidean crustaceans. It includes the following genera : [more]

Axonopsidae

[more]

Axymyiidae

The Nematoceran family Axymyiidae is the sole member of the infraorder Axymyiomorpha, though it is often included within the infraorder Bibionomorpha in older classifications. It is known from only 6 species in 3 genera, plus 3 fossil species. [more]

Babinskaiidae

[more]

Bacillidae

[more]

Bacteriidae

[more]

Baetidae

Baetidae is a family of mayflies with about 900 described species distributed worldwide. These are among the smallest of mayflies, adults rarely exceeding 10 mm in length excluding the two long slender tails and sometimes much smaller, and members of the family are often referred to as small mayflies or small minnow mayflies. Most species have long oval forewings with very few cross veins (see Comstock-Needham system) but the hindwings are usually very small or even absent. The males often have very large eyes, shaped like turrets above the head (this is known as "turbinate condition"). [more]

Baetiscidae

[more]

Bairdiidae

[more]

Bairdiocyprididae

[more]

Baissodidae

[more]

Baissogryllidae

[more]

Baissopteridae

[more]

Balaenophilidae

[more]

Balanidae

Balanidae is a family of barnacles of the order Sessilia, containing the following genera: [more]

Balenophilidae

[more]

Baleyopterygidae

[more]

Balloniscidae

[more]

Ballophidae

[more]

Ballophilidae

[more]

Banksinomidae

[more]

Barbarochthonidae

[more]

Barbutiidae

[more]

Bardohymenidae

[more]

Barybrotidae

[more]

Barychelidae

The Brushed trapdoor spiders (family Barychelidae) are a spider family with about 300 species in 44 general. This family is the only family in superfamily Barycheloidea. [more]

Basilobelbidae

[more]

Basipodellidae

[more]

Bateidae

Bateidae is a family of amphipod crustaceans, comprising the single genus Batea, which in turn contains thirteen species: [more]

Bathycheilidae

Bathycheilidae is a family of trilobites comprising the genera Bathycheilus, and Eulomina. [more]

Bathylasmatidae

[more]

Bathylasmidae

[more]

Bathynataliidae

[more]

Bathynellidae

[more]

Bathynotidae

[more]

Bathypalaemonellidae

[more]

Bathypontiidae

[more]

Bathysquillidae

[more]

Bathytropidae

[more]

Bathyuridae

[more]

Batkeniidae

[more]

Batrachedridae

Batrachedridae is a small family of moths. These are small, slender moths which rest with the wings wrapped tightly around the body. The taxonomy of this and related groups is often disputed. It was long thought to contain two genera, Batrachedra (many species) and Houdinia (a single species, Houdinia flexissima from New Zealand and surrounding islands). [more]

Batrachideidae

[more]

Bdellidae

[more]

Bedelliidae

Bedelliidae is a small family of small, narrow-winged moths; most authorities recognize just a single genus, Bedellia, previously included in the family Lyonetiidae. The family is still included in the Lyonetiidae as the subfamily Bedelliinae by some authors. [more]

Beecherellidae

[more]

Beesoniidae

Beesoniidae is a family of scale insects commonly known as Beesoniids. They typically cause galls on their plant hosts. Members of this family mostly come from southern Asia. [more]

Behningiidae

[more]

Belidae

Belidae is a family of weevils, called belids or primitive weevils because they have straight antennae, unlike the "true weevils" or Curculionidae which have elbowed antennae. They are sometimes known as "cycad weevils", but this properly refers to a few species from the genera and Rhopalotria. [more]

Belliidae

[more]

Belohinidae

Belohina inexpectata is a polyphagan beetle and the sole member of family Belohinidae. It is endemic to southern Madagascar. Only a few specimens of this species are known. [more]

Belostomatidae

Belostomatidae is a family of insects in the order Hemiptera, known as giant water bugs or colloquially as toe-biters, electric-light bugs and Alligator Ticks (in Florida). They are the largest insects in the order Hemiptera, and occur worldwide, with most of the species in North America, South America, Northern Australia and East Asia. They are typically encountered in freshwater streams and ponds. Most species are relatively large (2 cm or more) with some of the largest, such as Lethocerus, exceeding 12 cm, and nearly reaching the dimensions (length and mass) of some of the larger beetles in the world. Giant water bugs are a popular food in Thailand. [more]

Bembidiacaridae

[more]

Benthesicymidae

[more]

Bentheuphausiidae

Bentheuphausia amblyops, the deep sea krill is a species of krill, small shrimp-like crustaceans living in the ocean. B. amblyops is the only species within its genus, which in turn is the only genus within the family Bentheuphausiidae. All the 85 other species of krill known are classified in the family Euphausiidae. [more]

Beraeidae

[more]

Berothidae

The beaded lacewings, Berothidae, are a family of winged insects of the order Neuroptera. The family was first named by Anton Handlirsch in 1906. [more]

Berounellidae

[more]

Berytidae

Berytidae is a family of bugs, commonly called stilt bugs. [more]

Berytoniscidae

[more]

Bestjubellidae

[more]

Bethylidae

[more]

Bethylonymidae

[more]

Beyrichiidae

[more]

Biancolinidae

[more]

Biantidae

[more]

Bibionidae

Bibionidae (march flies and lovebugs) is a family of flies (Diptera). Approximately 650-700 species are known worldwide. [more]

Bimichaeliidae

[more]

Bintoniellidae

[more]

Biphyllidae

[more]

Birobatidae

[more]

Biroellidae

[more]

Bittacidae

Bittacidae is a family of scorpionflies commonly called Hangingflies or hanging scorpionflies. [more]

Biturritiidae

[more]

Blaberidae

[more]

Blaniulidae

[more]

Blasticotomidae

[more]

Blastobasidae

Blastobasidae is a family of moths in the superfamily Gelechioidea. Its species can be found almost anywhere in the world, though in some places they are not native but introduced by humans. In some arrangements, these moths are included in the case-bearer family (Coleophoridae) as subfamily Blastobasinae. The Symmocidae are sometimes included in the Blastobasidae (particularly if both are included in Coleophoridae) as subfamily or tribe. [more]

Blatellidae

[more]

Blattellidae

The Blattellidae is a family of the order Blattaria (cockroaches). This family contains many of the smaller common household cockroaches, among others. They are sometimes called wood cockroaches. [more]

Blattidae

The Blattidae is a family of the order Blattaria (cockroaches). It contains several of the most common household cockroaches. [more]

Blattinopsidae

[more]

Blephariceridae

Blephariceridae, commonly known as Net-winged midges, are a nematoceran family in the order Diptera. The adults resemble crane flies except with a projecting anal angle in the wings, and different head shape, absence of the V on the mesonotum, and more laterally outstretched forward-facing legs. They are uncommon, but there are dozens of genera worldwide, and over 200 species. [more]

Blepharoceridae

Blephariceridae, commonly known as Net-winged midges, are a nematoceran family in the order Diptera. The adults resemble crane flies except with a projecting anal angle in the wings, and different head shape, absence of the V on the mesonotum, and more laterally outstretched forward-facing legs. They are uncommon, but there are dozens of genera worldwide, and over 200 species. [more]

Bochicidae

Bochicidae is a family of pseudoscorpions distributed throughout the Caribbean, Central America and Mexico with one species found as far north as Texas. Members of the family can be diagnosed mainly by features of the claws, notably the presence of exactly 12 trichobothria on each claw (members of other similar families possess many more) and a long, as opposed to short, venom duct. Some species live in caves while some are surface-dwelling. [more]

Bodotriidae

Bodotriidae is a family of crustaceans belonging to the order Cumacea. [more]

Boganiidae

Boganiidae is a family of beetles, in the suborder Polyphaga. [more]

Bogatiidae

[more]

Bogidiellidae

[more]

Bohartillidae

[more]

Bohemillidae

[more]

Boholdoyidae

[more]

Bojophlebiidae

[more]

Bolaspididae

[more]

Bolboceratidae

[more]

Bolithophilidae

[more]

Bolitophilidae

Bolitophilidae is a family of Diptera comprising only one genus, >, with contains around 40 Palaearctic and about 20 Nearctic species, and 3 species from the Oriental region. [more]

Bolliidae

[more]

Bombycidae

Bombycidae is a family of moths. The best-known species is Bombyx mori (Linnaeus) or silkworm, native to northern China and domesticated for millennia. Another well known species is Bombyx mandarina, also native to Asia. [more]

Bombylidae

[more]

Bombyliidae

Bombyliidae is a large family of flies with hundreds of genera, although their life cycles are not well known. Adults generally feed on nectar and pollen, thus are pollinators of flowers. They superficially resemble bees, thus are commonly called bee flies, and this may offer the adults some protection from predators. In parts of East Anglia locals refer to them as 'beewhals', thanks to their tusk-like appendages. [more]

Bomolochidae

Bomolochidae is a family of parasitic copepods, containing the following genera: [more]

Bonaducecytheridae

[more]

Boopidae

[more]

Bopyridae

Bopyridae is a family of isopod crustaceans in the suborder Cymothoida. Members of the family are ectoparasites of crabs and shrimps. They live in the gill cavities or on the carapace where they cause a noticeable swelling. Fossil crustaceans have occasionally been observed to have a similar characteristic bulge. [more]

Boreidae

Boreidae, commonly called Snow scorpionflies, are a very small family of Scorpionflies, containing only around 30 species, all of which are boreal or high-altitude species in the Northern Hemisphere. Recent research indicates that the boreids are more closely related to fleas than to other scorpionflies, which renders the order Mecoptera paraphyletic if the order Siphonaptera is excluded from it. [more]

Borhidiidae

[more]

Boridae

The family Boridae is a small group of beetles with no vernacular common name, though recent authors have coined the name conifer bark beetles. [more]

Borneacrididae

[more]

Bosminidae

[more]

Bostrichidae

The Bostrichidae are a family of beetles with more than 700 described species. They are commonly called auger beetles, false powderpost beetles or horned powderpost beetles. The head of most auger beetles cannot be seen from above, as it is downwardly directed and hidden by the thorax. An exception is the powderpost beetles from the subfamily Lyctinae. [more]

Bostrychidae

The Bostrichidae are a family of beetles with more than 700 described species. They are commonly called auger beetles, false powderpost beetles or horned powderpost beetles. The head of most auger beetles cannot be seen from above, as it is downwardly directed and hidden by the thorax. An exception is the powderpost beetles from the subfamily Lyctinae. [more]

Bothrideridae

Bothrideridae is a family of beetles, in the suborder Polyphaga. Larvae of some species are ectoparasites of the larvae and pupas of wood-boring beetles. [more]

Bothriuridae

[more]

Bougisidae

[more]

Bouretidae

[more]

Bourletiellidae

[more]

Brachinidae

[more]

Brachodidae

[more]

Brachycentridae

[more]

Brachycera

Brachycera is a suborder of Diptera. It is a major suborder consisting of around 120 families. The most distinguishing characteristic of the suborder is reduced antenna segmentation. A summary of main physiological characteristics follows: [more]

Brachyceridae

[more]

Brachychthoniidae

[more]

Brachycytheridae

[more]

Brachymetopidae

[more]

Brachypauropodidae

[more]

Brachypsectridae

Brachypsectridae is a family of beetles commonly known as the Texas beetles. There is only one genus, . The type species, Brachypsectra fulva (LeConte, 1874), occurs in North America. There are three other species which occur in southern India, Singapore and northwestern Australia. Two other extant and fossil species have been described from the Dominican Republic. [more]

Brachypteridae

[more]

Brachystomellidae

[more]

Braconidae

Braconidae is a family of parasitoid wasps and one of the richest families of insects. Between 50,000 and 150,000 species exist worldwide. The species are grouped into about 45 subfamilies and 1,000 genera, some important ones being: , Aphanta, Asobara, Bracon hebetor, Cenocoelius, Chaenusa, Chorebidea, Chorebidella, Chorebus, Cotesia, Dacnusa, Microgaster, Opius, Parapanteles, Phaenocarpa, Psenobolus. [more]

Bradynobaenidae

Bradynobaenidae is a family of wasps similar to the Mutillidae. These species are often found in arid regions. [more]

Brahmaeidae

Brahmaeidae is a family of insects in the Lepidoptera order, commonly known as brahmin moths. [more]

Branchinectidae

Branchinectidae is a family in the order Anostraca (fairy shrimp), containing two genera ? Branchinecta and . The majority of the species are in the genus Branchinecta, with only Archaebranchinecta pollicifera and the fossil Archaebranchinecta barstowensis in the second genus. [more]

Branchipodidae

Branchipodidae is a family of fairy shrimp. It contains 35 species in five genera: [more]

Branneriidae

[more]

Brassolidae

[more]

Braulidae

Braulidae, or bee lice, is a flies family (Diptera) that contains eight species in two genera, Braula and Megabraula. These are very unusual flies, wingless and flattened, and barely recognizable as Diptera. [more]

Brenthidae

[more]

Brentidae

Brentidae is a cosmopolitan family of primarily xylophagous beetles also known as straight-snouted weevils. The concept of this family has been recently expanded with the inclusion of three groups formerly placed in the Curculionidae; the subfamilies , Cyladinae, and Nanophyinae, as well as the Ithycerinae, previously considered a separate family. They are most diverse in the tropics, but occur throughout the temperate regions of the world. They are among the families of weevils that have non-elbowed antennae, and tend to be elongate and flattened, though there are numerous exceptions. [more]

Bresiliidae

[more]

Brevipalpidae

[more]

Bristolia

[more]

Brodiidae

[more]

Brodiopteridae

[more]

Brongniartiellidae

[more]

Bruchidae

The bean weevils or seed beetles are a subfamily (Bruchinae) of beetles, now placed in the family Chrysomelidae, though they have historically been treated as a separate family. They are granivores, and typically infest various kinds of seeds or beans, living for most of their lives inside a single seed. The family includes about 1,350 species found worldwide. [more]

Brychiopontiidae

[more]

Bucculatricidae

Bucculatricidae or (Bucculatrigidae) is a family of moths. This small family has representatives in all parts of the world. Some authors place the group as a subfamily of the family Lyonetiidae. [more]

Bucculatrigidae

Bucculatricidae or (Bucculatrigidae) is a family of moths. This small family has representatives in all parts of the world. Some authors place the group as a subfamily of the family Lyonetiidae. [more]

Buddelundiellidae

Trichoniscidae are a family of isopods (woodlice), including the most abundant British woodlouse, Trichoniscus pusillus. [more]

Bulbogamasidae

[more]

Buprestidae

Buprestidae is a family of beetles, known as jewel beetles or metallic wood-boring beetles because of their glossy iridescent colors. The family is among the largest of the beetles, with some 15,000 species known in 450 genera. In addition, almost 100 fossil species have been described. [more]

Buproridae

[more]

Burlingidae

[more]

Burlingiidae

[more]

Buthidae

Buthidae is the largest family of scorpions, containing about 80 genera and over 800 species as of mid-2008. Its members are known as, for example, thick-tailed scorpions and bark scorpions. There are a few very large genera (like Ananteris, Centruroides, Compsobuthus or Tityus), but also a high number of species-poor or monotypic ones. New taxa are being described at a rate of several to several dozen new species per year. They occur in the warmer parts of every major landmass on Earth, except on New Zealand. Together with the , the Buthidae make up the superfamily Buthoidea. The family was established by Carl Ludwig Koch in 1837. [more]

Byrrhidae

Byrrhidae, the pill beetles, is a family of beetles in the superfamily Byrrhoidea. [more]

Bythocyprididae

[more]

Bythocytheridae

[more]

Bythograeidae

[more]

Byturidae

Byturidae, also known as Fruitworms is a family of beetles, in the suborder Polyphaga. The larvae develop in fruits. Byturus unicolor affects species of Rubus and Geum, the larvae of Raspberry beetle raspberry plants. [more]

Cabiropidae

Cabiropidae is a family of isopod crustaceans in the suborder Cymothoida. The original description was made by Giard and Bonnier in 1887. Members of the family are hyperparasites of other parasitic isopods in the order and some are parasites on other free living isopods. [more]

Cachoplistidae

[more]

Caddidae

[more]

Caeciliidae

Caeciliidae is the family of common caecilians. They are found in Central and South America, equatorial Africa and India. Like other caecilians, they superficially resemble worms or snakes. [more]

Caeciliusidae

Caeciliusidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the suborder Psocomorpha. The family was once named Caeciliidae, but the latter name was changed because of homonymy with a family of amphibians. [more]

Caeculidae

[more]

Caenidae

Caenidae, or the Small Squaregill Mayflies, is a family of insects consisting of 4 genera comprising 26 individual species. They are found throughout North America in lotic, depostional environments, and they are sprawlers. Caenids occur in quiet and even stagnant water and are often overlooked because they are so small. They like to live in silty bottoms, and their gills are specially adapted for such environments. Adults usually emerge from May to September, but they emerge all year in Florida. Unlike other mayflies, squaregills can be found in degraded conditions and are not reliable markers for undisturbed conditions. [more]

Calabozoidae

Calabozoidae is a family of isopod crustaceans, placed in its own order, Calabozoida or Calabozoidea. It comprises two genera, and Pongycarcina. [more]

Calamoceratidae

[more]

Calanidae

Calinidae is the largest taxonomic family of calanoid copepods. It includes the genus Calanus, which may be the most abundant animal genus on Earth. Copepods of the genera Calanus and are ecologically important in the Arctic and subarctic regions of the world's oceans. [more]

Calanticidae

[more]

Calappidae

Calappidae is a family of crabs containing 16 genera, of which 7 are only known as fossils: [more]

Caleremaeidae

[more]

Caligidae

The sea louse (plural sea lice) is a copepod within the order Siphonostomatoida, family Caligidae. There are around 559 species in 37 genera, including approximately 162 and 268 Caligus species. Sea lice are marine ectoparasites (external parasites) that feed on the mucus, epidermal tissue, and blood of host marine fish. [more]

Caligonellidae

[more]

Callianassidae

Callianassidae is a family of ghost shrimp of the order Decapoda. It is divided into 13 subfamilies and 42 genera: [more]

Callianideidae

[more]

Callidulidae

[more]

Calliopidae

Calliopiidae is a family of amphipods, containing the following genera: [more]

Calliopiidae

Calliopiidae is a family of amphipods, containing the following genera: [more]

Callipallenidae

[more]

Callipharixenidae

[more]

Calliphoridae

Calliphoridae (commonly known as blow-flies, carrion flies, bluebottles, greenbottles, or cluster flies) are insects in the Order Diptera, family Calliphoridae. The family is known to be non-monophyletic, but much remains disputed regarding proper treatment of the constituent units, some of which are occasionally accorded family status (e.g., Bengaliidae, Helicoboscidae, Polleniidae, Rhiniidae). [more]

Callipodidae

[more]

Callirhipidae

[more]

Calmoniidae

[more]

Calocalanidae

Calocalanus is a genus of copepods, the only genus in the family Calocalanidae: [more]

Calocarididae

[more]

Calocidae

[more]

Calodiscidae

[more]

Calophyidae

[more]

Calopsocidae

[more]

Calopterygidae

Calopterygidae are a family of damselflies in the order Odonata and are commonly known as broad-winged damselflies or demoiselles. These rather large damselflies have wingspans of 5?8 cm and they're often metallic-colored. The family contains some 150 species. As the common name suggests they have broader wings than other damselflies and at rest hold their wings parallel to the body and slightly elevated. [more]

Calverocheridae

[more]

Calvertiellidae

[more]

Calymenidae

[more]

Calyptostomatidae

[more]

Cambalidae

[more]

Cambalopsidae

[more]

Cambaridae

Cambaridae is the largest of the three families of freshwater crayfish, with over 400 species. Most of the species in the family are native to North America east of the Great Divide, such as the invasive species Procambarus clarkii and Orconectes rusticus, with fewer species living in East Asia and Japan, such as zarigani (Cambaroides japonicus). [more]

Camerobiidae

[more]

Camillidae

Camillidae is a family of flies, or Diptera. There are five genera (four living; one fossil). [more]

Camisiidae

[more]

Campbellobatidae

[more]

Campichoetidae

Campichoetidae is a small family of acalyptrate Diptera with only one genus Campichoeta Macquart, 1835.They are regarded by some authors as Diastatidae. [more]

Campodeidae

Campodeidae is a family of hexapods belonging to the order Diplura. These pale, eyeless hexapods, the largest of which grow to around 12 mm in length, can be recognised by the two long, many-segmented cerci at the end of the abdomen. There are around 200 known species. [more]

Campodesmidae

[more]

Campylaspidae

[more]

Campylonotidae

[more]

Canaceidae

Canacidae, incorrectly Canaceidae, or beach flies, surf or surge flies, is a family of Diptera.There are 113 species in 12 genera. [more]

Canacidae

Canacidae, incorrectly Canaceidae, or beach flies, surf or surge flies, is a family of Diptera.There are 113 species in 12 genera. [more]

Cancerillidae

[more]

Cancridae

Cancridae is a family of crabs. It comprises six extant genera, and eleven exclusively fossil genera, in two subfamilies: [more]

Cancrincolidae

[more]

Candaciidae

[more]

Candonidae

Candonidae is a family of ostracods, containing around 25% of all known species of freshwater ostracods. Around 75% of genera in the family are endemic to a single zoogeographic region. It contains more than 500 species, of which more than 300 are endemic to the Palaearctic ecozone. [more]

Candoniidae

[more]

Canestriniidae

[more]

Canopidae

[more]

Cantharidae

The soldier beetles, Cantharidae, are relatively soft-bodied, straight-sided beetles, related to the Lampyridae or firefly family, but being unable to produce light. They are cosmopolitan in distribution. One common British species is bright red, reminding people of the red coats of soldiers, hence the common name. A secondary common name is leatherwing, obtained from the texture of the wing covers. [more]

Canthocamptidae

Canthocamptidae is a family of copepods. Most of the 700 species are confined to fresh water, although there are also marine species. It contains the following genera: [more]

Canthyloscelidae

The Canthyloscelidae are a small family of midges closely related to the Scatopsidae. [more]

Canthyloscelididae

The Canthyloscelidae are a small family of midges closely related to the Scatopsidae. [more]

Canuellidae

[more]

Capniidae

Capniidae, the small winter stoneflies, is a family of insects in the stonefly order (Plecoptera). It constitutes one of the largest stonefly families, containing some 300 species distributed throughout the Holarctic. Their closest relatives are the (Leuctridae). [more]

Caponiidae

Spiders of the ecribellate haplogyne family Caponiidae are unusual in that most species have only two eyes, which is unheard of in other spiders. Other species have four, six or eight eyes. Even in a single species, sometimes the number of eyes changes from spiderling to adult. [more]

Caprellidae

Caprellidae is a of amphipods. [more]

Caprellidea

Caprellinoididae

Caprellidae is a family of amphipods commonly known as skeleton shrimps. Their common name denotes the threadlike slender body which allows them to virtually disappear among the fine filaments of seaweed, hydroids and bryozoans. They are sometimes also known as ghost shrimps. Caprellidae contains 88 genera in three subfamilies. [more]

Caprogammaridae

[more]

Carabidae

Ground beetles are a large, cosmopolitan family of beetles, Carabidae, with more than 40,000 species worldwide, approximately 2,000 of which are found in North America and 2,700 in Europe. [more]

Caraboacaridae

[more]

Carabocepheidae

[more]

Caraboctonidae

[more]

Carabodidae

[more]

Carangoliopsidae

[more]

Carayonemidae

Carayonemidae is a family of scale insects commonly known as carayonemids. They typically live among mosses and leaf litter which is unusual for scale insects. Members of this family come from Neotropical areas of South and Central America. [more]

Carbonopteridae

[more]

Carcinophoridae

Anisolabididae is a family of earwigs, in the suborder Forficulina and the order Dermaptera. It is one of nine families in the suborder Forficulina, and contains thirty-eight genera spread across thirteen subfamilies. [more]

Carmonidae

[more]

Carnidae

Carnidae is a family of flies (Diptera). There are 5 genera, containing about 88 species worldwide. [more]

Carpiliidae

Carpilioidea is a superfamily of crabs containing a single extant family, Carpiliidae and three extinct families. The modern range of the family includes the Indo-Pacific, Western Atlantic and Caribbean Sea. The fossil record of the group extends back at least as far as the Paleocene. [more]

Carpoglyphidae

[more]

Carposinidae

Carposinidae, the "fruitworm moths" is a family of insects in the lepidopteran order. These moths are narrower winged than Copromorphidae, with less rounded forewing tips. Males often have conspicuous patches of scales on either surface (Dugdale et al., 1999). The mouthparts are quite diagnostic, usually with prominent, upcurved "labial palps", the third segment long (especially in females), and the second segment covered in large scales. Unlike Copromorphidae, the "M2" and sometimes "M1" vein on the hindwings is absent. The relationship of Carposinidae relative to Copromorphidae needs further investigation. It is considered possible that the family is artificial, being nested within Copromorphidae (Dugdale et al., 1999). The Palearctic species have been revised by Diakonoff (1989). [more]

Carsidaridae

[more]

Carthaeidae

The Dryandra Moth (Carthaea saturnioides) is a species of moth. It is considered the only species in the family Carthaeidae. Its closest relatives are the Saturniidae and it bears a resemblance to many species of that family, bearing prominent eye spots on all wings. The wingspan is up to 10 cm. It is restricted to the southern part of Western Australia. [more]

Caseyidae

[more]

Caspicolidae

[more]

Caspiopetalidae

[more]

Castniidae

Castniidae, or castniid moths, is a small family of moths with fewer than 200 species: The majority are Neotropical with some in Australia and a few in south-east Asia. These are medium-sized to very large moths, usually with drab, cryptically-marked forewings and brightly colored hindwings. They have clubbed antennae and are day-flying, and are often mistaken for butterflies. Indeed some previous classification systems placed this family within the butterflies or skippers. The Neotropical species are commonly known as giant butterfly-moths, the Australian and Asian species as sun moths. The larvae are internal feeders, often on roots of epiphytes or on monocotyledons (Edwards et al., 1999: 184-188). [more]

Catillicephalidae

[more]

Catiniidae

Poecilostomatoida are an order of copepods previously included in the Cyclopoida. [more]

Catophragmidae

[more]

Catopidae

[more]

Caudiferidae

[more]

Caulopteridae

[more]

Cavognathidae

Cavognathidae is a family of beetles, in the suborder Polyphaga. [more]

Cebrionidae

[more]

Cecidomyiidae

Cecidomyiidae (sometimes misspelled Cecidomyidae) is a family of flies (Order Diptera) known as gall midges or gall gnats. As the name implies, the larvae of most gall midges feed within plant tissue, creating abnormal plant growths called galls. [more]

Cecidosidae

Cecidosidae is a little known family of primitive monotrysian moths in the order Lepidoptera which have a piercing ovipositor used for laying eggs in plant tissue in which they induce galls, or they mine in bark (Davis, 1999; Hoare and Dugdale, 2003). Nine species occur in southern Africa, five species in South America (Parra, 1998) and Xanadoses nielseni was recently described from New Zealand (Hoare and Dugdale, 2003). Some minute parasitoid wasps are known (Burks et al., 2005). [more]

Cecropidae

[more]

Cedariidae

[more]

Ceinidae

Ceinidae is a family of amphipods. Until 1972, they were considered part of the family Phliantidae. Some genera previously included in this family have been transferred to the family Hyalidae. [more]

Celaenopsidae

[more]

Celmidae

[more]

Celyphidae

Celyphidae, commonly known as beetle flies or beetle-backed flies, are a family of flies (Order Diptera). About 90 species are known from the Oriental and Afrotropic biogeographic regions. [more]

Centropagidae

Centropagidae is a family of copepods. Its members are particularly common as plankton in coastal waters and in fresh water in Australia and southern South America. They are also found on subantarctic islands and in lakes in Antarctica. [more]

Centropleuridae

[more]

Cephalobaenidae

[more]

Cephaloidae

[more]

Cepheidae

Cepheidae is a family of jellyfish. [more]

Cephidae

The Cephoidea are a small superfamily within the Symphyta, containing some 100 species in a single family, Cephidae, commonly referred to as stem sawflies. Most species occur in the Northern Hemisphere, especially in Eurasia. The larvae are stem borers in various plants, especially grasses, but sometimes other herbaceous plants, shrubs, or trees. A few are pests of cereal grains (e.g. >, which attacks wheat). They are exceptionally slender for Symphytans, often resembling other types of wasps, and they are the only Symphyta which lack cenchri. They are sometimes postulated to be the sister taxon to the Apocrita, though the Orussidae are more commonly considered such. [more]

Cerambycidae

The longhorn beetles (Cerambycidae; also known as long-horned beetles or longicorns) are a cosmopolitan family of beetles, typically characterized by extremely long antennae, which are often as long as or longer than the beetle's body. In various members of the family, however, the antennae are quite short (e.g., Neandra brunnea, figured below) and such species can be difficult to distinguish from related beetle families such as Chrysomelidae. The family is large, with over 20,000 species described, slightly more than half from the Eastern Hemisphere. Several are serious pests, with the larvae boring into wood, where they can cause extensive damage to either living trees or untreated lumber (or, occasionally, to wood in buildings; the old-house borer, Hylotrupes bajulus, being a particular problem indoors). A number of species mimic ants, bees, and wasps, though a majority of species are cryptically colored. The rare titan beetle (Titanus giganteus) from nor theastern South America is often considered the largest (though not the heaviest, and not the longest including legs) insect, with a maximum known body length of just over 16.7 centimetres (6.6 in). [more]

Ceraphronidae

Ceraphronidae is a small Hymenopteran family with 14 genera and some 360 known species, though a great many species are still undescribed. It is a poorly known group as a whole, though most are believed to be parasitoids (esp. of flies), and a few hyperparasitoids. Many are found in the soil, and of these, a number are wingless. [more]

Ceratiocarididae

[more]

Ceratocanthidae

[more]

Ceratocombidae

[more]

Ceratocumatidae

Ceratocumatidae is a family of crustaceans of the order Cumacea. Ceratocumatidae have a small free telson. The endopods (interior branches) of the uropods are present on only one segment. Males have 5, 4 or 3 pairs of pleopods. All maxillipeds and some of the pereiopods bear (outer branches). The gill apparatus has no supporting gill plates. [more]

Ceratokalummidae

[more]

Ceratolasmatidae

The Ceratolasmatidae are a family of harvestmen with eleven described species. [more]

Ceratolasmetidae

[more]

Ceratophyllidae

Ceratophyllidae is a family of fleas. Its members parasitize mainly rodents and birds. It contains two subfamilies, one containing over 40 genera, and the other just three. [more]

Ceratopogonidae

Ceratopogonidae, or biting midges (including what are called, in the United States and Canada, no-see-ums, midgies, sand flies, punkies, and others), are a family of small flies (1?4 mm long) in the order Diptera. They are closely related to the Chironomidae, Simuliidae (or black flies), and Thaumaleidae. [more]

Ceratopygidae

[more]

Ceratozetidae

[more]

Cercomegistidae

[more]

Cercopagididae

[more]

Cercophanidae

[more]

Cercopidae

Cercopidae are the largest family of Cercopoidea, a xylem-feeding insect group, commonly called froghoppers . They belong to the hemipteran suborder Auchenorrhyncha. [more]

Ceresellidae

[more]

Cermatobiidae

[more]

Cerococcidae

Cerococcidae is a family of scale insects commonly known as ornate pit scales or cerococcids. There are seventy two species in three genera. Members of this family occur in all regions of the world. [more]

Ceromidae

[more]

Cerophytidae

[more]

Cerviniidae

[more]

Cerylonidae

Cerylonidae is a family of beetles, in the suborder Polyphaga.The Cerylonidae are a family of small to minute beetles (usually 2 mm. 01- less) which occur most commonly in forest litter and under bark. At present, there are about 40 genera and over 300 described species known from all of the major zoogeographic regions. Crowson (1955) first recognized the Cerylonidae as an independent clavicorn family, including the cerylonines and murmidiines, as well as Euxes- tus and its allies; but these groups have been treated as tribes of the heteromerous family Colydiidae by both Hetschko (1930) and Ar- nett (1968). In their world generic revision of the family, Sen Gupta and 'Crowson (1973) added Anommatus Wesmael, Abromus Reitter, and Ostomopsis Scott, while transferring Eidoreus Sharp (== Eupsilob'ws Casey) to the Endomychidae. The present paper consists of a revision of the 10 genera and 18 species of Cerylonidae occurring in America north of Mexico. With respect to the compo- sition of the family and that of its major subordinate groups, we have followed the classification presented by Sen Gupta and Crowson; the interrelationships among the subgroups, however, are still obscure, so we have treated the Euxestinae, Anommatinae, Metaceqloninae (not North American), Murrnidiinae, Ostomopsinae, and Cerylon- inae as independent subfamilies. The following abbreviations have been used in keys and descrip- tions: PL - pronotal length, PW - pronotal width, EL - elytral length, EW - elytral width, and TL -sum of PL and EL. The word "length" refers to the total length, including the head, and is 'Published with the aid of a grant from the Museum of Comparative Zoology. Museum of comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass [more]

Cetoniidae

Flower chafers are a group of scarab beetles, comprising the subfamily Cetoniinae. Many species are diurnal and visit flowers for pollen and nectar, or to browse on the petals. Some species also feed on fruit. The group is also called fruit and flower chafers, flower beetles and flower scarabs. There are around 4,000 species, many of them still undescribed. [more]

Chactidae

[more]

Chaerilidae

[more]

Chaeteessidae

Chaeteessa is a genus of praying mantis in the monotypic family Chaeteessidae, containing four species: [more]

Chaetiliidae

Chaetiliidae is a family of isopod crustaceans in the suborder Valvifera, comprising the following genera: [more]

Chaetodactylidae

[more]

Chaetosomatidae

[more]

Chalcididae

The Chalcididae are a moderate-sized family within the Chalcidoidea, composed mostly of parasitoids and a few hyperparasitoids. The family is apparently polyphyletic, though the different subfamilies may each be monophyletic, and some may be elevated to family status in the near future. As presently defined, there are over 85 genera and over 1455 species worldwide. They are often black with yellow, red, or white markings, rarely brilliantly metallic, with a robust mesosoma and very strong sculpturing. The hind femora are often greatly enlarged, with a row of teeth or serrations along the lower margin. [more]

Chalcodryidae

[more]

Chamaemyiidae

Chamaemyiidae is a small family of acalyptrate flies with less than 200 species described worldwide. The larvae of these small flies are active and predatory and are often used for biological control of aphids, scale insects and similar pests. Chamaemyiid fossils are poorly represented in amber deposits but a few examples are known from the Eocene epoch onwards. [more]

Chamobatidae

[more]

Chaoboridae

Chaoboridae, commonly known as phantom midges, are a family of fairly common midges with a cosmopolitan distribution. They are closely related to Corethrellidae and Chironomidae; the adults are differentiated through peculiarities in wing venation. If they eat at all, the adults feed on nectar. The larvae are aquatic. They are unique due to their feeding method. The antennae of phantom midge larvae are modified into a grasping organ, which captures food, such as small insect larvae and crustaceans like Daphnia and mosquito larvae. The antennae impale or crush the prey and then bring it to the larval mouth, or stylet. The larvae sometimes move about their lacustrine habitats in large swarms. [more]

Chappuisididae

Chappuisiidae

[more]

Charassobatidae

[more]

Charilaidae

[more]

Charinidae

[more]

Charontidae

[more]

Chathamiidae

Chathamiidae is a family of case making caddisflies more commonly known as the marine caddisflies. Chathamiids are unique among insects in their invasion of the tide pool environment. Larvae construct their cases of coraline algae. The four described species are distributed along the coasts of New Zealand, New South Wales, and the Chatham Islands. [more]

Chaunoproctidae

[more]

Chaviniidae

[more]

Cheilocephalidae

[more]

Cheiragonidae

Cheiragonidae is a small family of crabs, sometimes called helmet crabs, placed in its own superfamily, Cheriagonoidea. It comprises three extant species, Erimacrus isenbeckii, and Telmessus cheiragonus, and 13 extinct species in the three genera Karasawaia, Montezumella and Stintonius. Many of these crabs were formerly treated as members of the Atelecyclidae. The family's fossil record extends back at least as far as the Eocene. [more]

Cheiridiidae

[more]

Cheiruridae

The family Cheiruridae was a family of phacopid trilobites of the suborder . Its members, as with other members of the suborder, had distinctive pygidia modified into finger-like spines. They first appeared near the very beginning of the Ordovician, and persisted until the Devonian. [more]

Cheiruroididae

[more]

Cheliferidae

[more]

Chelisochidae

Chelisochidae is a family of earwigs whose members are commonly known as black earwigs. The family contains a total of approximately 96 species, spread across sixteen genera in three subfamilies. They are primarily located in the more tropical Afrotropical, Australasian, and Oriental ecozones, even though some species, such as Chelisoches morio, are cosmopolitan. They are often dark in color, lending to their common name, and can vary in size. They can be easily identified due to a certain characteristic in their tarsals, that involves the abdominal projection located in the second tarsal segment. Like most earwigs, they are omnivores, and their diet consists of the larvae of leaf-mining insects, as well as certain types of vegetation. [more]

Chelodesmidae

[more]

Chelojulidae

[more]

Chelonariidae

[more]

Chelonibiidae

[more]

Chelopteridae

[more]

Cheluridae

Cheluridae is a family of amphipods. It is the only family classified under the superfamily Cheluroidea. [more]

Chenghuiidae

[more]

Chengkouaspidae

[more]

Chernetidae

[more]

Chetochelacaridae

[more]

Cheylabididae

[more]

Cheyletidae

Cheyletidae is a family of mites in the Trombidiformes. Some members are associated with parasitism in birds and mammals, for example causing Cheyletiellosis, also called "walking dandruff". Others are free-ranging predators in soil, forest litter, under tree bark and on foliage, in nests of a diverse range of animals, and in house dust. [more]

Chilenophilidae

[more]

Chimaeropsyllidae

[more]

Chionelasmatidae

[more]

Chirocephalidae

Chirocephalidae is a family of fairy shrimp, characterised by a reduced or vestigial maxilla, more than two setae on the fifth endite, divided pre-epipodites and widely separated seminal vesicles. It consists of the following eight genera, including the genera formerly placed in the families Linderiellidae and Polyartemiidae: [more]

Chirodiscidae

[more]

Chironomidae

Chironomidae (informally known as chironomids or non-biting midges) are a family of nematoceran flies with a global distribution. They are closely related to the Ceratopogonidae, Simuliidae, and Thaumaleidae. Many species superficially resemble mosquitoes but they lack the wing scales and elongate mouthparts of the Culicidae. [more]

Chirorhynchobiidae

[more]

Chirostylidae

Squat lobsters are decapod crustaceans of the families Galatheidae, Chirostylidae and Kiwaidae, including the common genera Galathea and Munida. They are not lobsters at all, but are more closely related to porcelain crabs, hermit crabs and then, more distantly, true crabs. They are distributed worldwide in the oceans, and occur from near the surface to deep sea hydrothermal vents. There are currently 870 described species. [more]

Chlorocyphidae

Chlorocyphidae is a family of damselfies, commonly known as jewels. They are most commonly found in Africa and Asia. [more]

Chlorolestidae

[more]

Chloroperlidae

Chloroperlidae is a family of stoneflies commonly known as green stoneflies. There are more than 180 species in the family. They appear in colors of green and yellow. [more]

Chloropidae

Chloropidae is a family of flies commonly known as frit flies or grass flies. There are approximately 2000 described species in over 160 genera distributed worldwide. These are usually very small flies, yellow or black and appearing shiny due to the virtual absence of any hairs. The majority of the larvae are phytophagous, mainly on grasses, and can be major pests of cereals. However, parasitic and predatory species are known. A few species are kleptoparasites. Some species in the genus Hippelates and Siphunculina (S. funicola being quite well known in Asia) are called eye gnats or eye flies for their habit of being attracted to eyes. They feed on lachrymal secretions and other body fluids of various animals including humans. [more]

Choctellidae

[more]

Cholevidae

[more]

Chondracanthidae

Chondracanthidae is a family of parasitic copepods, comprising the following genera: [more]

Choniostomatidae

[more]

Chordeumatidae

[more]

Chordeumiidae

[more]

Choreutidae

Choreutidae, or "metalmark moths," are a family of insects in the lepidopteran order whose relationships have been long disputed. It was placed previously in the superfamily Yponomeutoidea in family Glyphipterigidae and in superfamily Sesioidea. It is now considered to represent its own superfamily (Minet, 1986). The relationship of the family to the other lineages in the group "Apoditrysia" [1] need a new assessment, especially with new molecular data. [more]

Choristidae

Choristidae is a small (only 8 species in three genera) family of scorpionflies known only from Australia. Their larvae are found in moss mats. [more]

Chorotypidae

[more]

Chortoglyphidae

[more]

Chresmodidae

[more]

Chrysididae

Commonly known as cuckoo wasps, the Hymenopteran family Chrysididae is a very large cosmopolitan group (over 3000 described species) of parasitoid or cleptoparasitic wasps, often highly sculptured, with brilliantly colored metallic-like bodies (thus the common names jewel wasp, gold wasp, or emerald wasp are sometimes used). They are most diverse in desert regions of the world, as they are typically associated with solitary bee and wasp species, which are also most diverse in such areas. [more]

Chrysomelidae

Beetles in the family Chrysomelidae are commonly known as leaf beetles. This is a family of over 35,000 species in more than 2,500 genera, one of the largest and most commonly encountered of all beetle families. [more]

Chrysopidae

Green lacewings are insects in the large family Chrysopidae of the order Neuroptera. There are about 85 genera and (differing between sources) 1,300?2,000 species in this widespread group. Members of the genera Chrysopa and Chrysoperla are very common in North America and Europe; they are very similar and many of their species have been moved from one genus to the other time and again, and in the non-scientific literature assignment to Chrysopa and Chrysoperla can rarely be relied upon. Since they are the most familiar neuropterids to many people, they are often simply called "lacewings". But actually most of the diversity of Neuroptera are properly referred to as some sort of "lacewing", so common lacewings is preferable. [more]

Chrysopolomidae

[more]

Chthamalidae

Chthamalidae is a family of barnacles of the order Sessilia, containing the following genera: [more]

Chthamalophilidae

[more]

Chthonidae

[more]

Chthoniidae

Chthoniidae is a family of pseudoscorpions within the superfamily Chthonioidea. The family contains more than 600 species in about 30 genera. Three fossil species are known from Baltic and Dominican amber. [more]

Chummidae

The Chummidae are a tiny spider family with only two described species in one genus. Both were first described in 2001. Both species are known from males and females. [more]

Chuneolidae

[more]

Chydoridae

[more]

Chyromyidae

[more]

Chyzeriidae

[more]

Cicadellidae

Leafhopper is a common name applied to any species from the family Cicadellidae. Leafhoppers, colloquially known as hoppers, are minute plant-feeding insects in the superfamily Membracoidea in the order Homoptera. They belong to a lineage traditionally treated as infraorder Cicadomorpha in the suborder Auchenorrhyncha, but as the latter taxon is probably not monophyletic, many modern authors prefer to abolish the Auchenorrhyncha and elevate the cicadomorphs to a suborder Clypeorrhyncha. [more]

Cicadidae

A cicada ( or /s?'k??d?/) is an insect of the order Hemiptera, suborder Auchenorrhyncha (which was formerly included in the now invalid order Homoptera), in the superfamily Cicadoidea, with large eyes wide apart on the head and usually transparent, well-veined wings. There are about 2,500 species of cicada around the world, and many of them remain unclassified. Cicadas live in temperate to tropical climates where they are among the most widely recognized of all insects, mainly due to their large size and unique sound. Cicadas are often colloquially called locusts, although they are unrelated to true locusts, which are a kind of grasshopper. Cicadas are related to leafhoppers and spittlebugs. [more]

Cicindelidae

The tiger beetles are a large group of beetles known for their aggressive predatory habits and running speed. The fastest species of tiger beetle can run at a speed of 9 km/h (5.6 mph), which, relative to its body length, is about 22 times the speed of former Olympic sprinter Michael Johnson, the equivalent of a human running at 480 miles per hour (770 km/h). As of 2005, about 2,600 species and subspecies were known, with the richest diversity in the Oriental (Indo-Malayan) region, followed by the Neotropics. [more]

Ciidae

The minute tree-fungus beetles, family Ciidae, are a sizeable group of beetles which inhabit Polyporales bracket fungi or coarse woody debris[]. Most numerous in warmer regions, they are nonetheless widespread and a considerable number of species occur as far polewards as Scandinavia for example. [more]

Cimbicidae

The Cimbicidae are a small family of large-bodied, often hairy sawflies, with only 130 species in 6 genera worldwide. Larvae are solitary herbivores. [more]

Cimicidae

Cimicidae is a family of small parasitic insects that feed exclusively on the blood of warm-blooded animals. They are called cimicids or, loosely, bedbugs (or bed bugs or bed-bugs), though the latter term properly refers to the most famous species of the family, Cimex lectularius, the common bedbug. [more]

Circocyllibamidae

Circocylliba is a genus of mites in the order Mesostigmata, placed in its own family, Circocyllibamidae. [more]

Cirolanidae

Cirolanidae is a family of isopod crustaceans, including the following genera: [more]

Cithaeronidae

The Cithaeronidae are a small spider family with only six species in two genera. [more]

Cixiidae

Cixiidae is a family of fulgoroid insects, one of many families commonly known as planthoppers, distributed worldwide and comprising more than 2,000 species from over 150 genera. The genera are placed into three subfamilies, , Bothriocerinae and Cixiinae with sixteen tribes currently accepted in Cixiinae. [more]

Cladonychiidae

The Cladonychiidae are a small family of harvestman with less than twenty described species, within the suborder Laniatores. [more]

Clambidae

[more]

Clastopteridae

[more]

Clathrosperchonidae

[more]

Clausidiidae

Clausidiidae is a family of parasitic copepods of the order Poecilostomatoida, containing the following genera: [more]

Clausiidae

Clausiidae is a family of parasitic copepods of the order Poecilostomatoida, comprising the following genera: [more]

Clausocalanidae

[more]

Clavagnostidae

[more]

Cleidogonidae

[more]

Cleridae

Cleridae are a family of beetles of the superfamily Cleroidea. They are commonly known as checkered beetles. The Cleridae family has a worldwide distribution, and a variety of habitats and feeding preferences. [more]

Cletodidae

[more]

Clistosaccidae

[more]

Cloacaridae

[more]

Clothodidae

[more]

Clubionidae

The sac spiders of the family Clubionidae have a very confusing taxonomic history. Once this family was a large catch-all taxon for a disparate collection of spiders, similar only in that they had eight eyes arranged in two rows, conical anterior spinnerets that touched and were wandering predators that built silken retreats, or sacs, usually on plant terminals, between leaves, under bark or under rocks. These are now recognized to include several families, some of which are more closely related to the three-clawed spiders, like lynx and wolf spiders, than to true "clubionoids." [more]

Clusiidae

[more]

Clytemnestridae

[more]

Cneoglossidae

Cneoglossidae is a family of beetles, in the large suborder Polyphaga.
It contains nine species in a single genus: [more]

Cobanocytheridae

[more]

Coccidae

The Coccidae are a family of scale insects belonging to the superfamily Coccoidea. They are commonly known as soft scales, wax scales or tortoise scales. The females are flat with elongated oval bodies and a smooth integument which may be covered with wax. In some genera they possess legs but in others, they do not, and the antennae may be shortened or missing. The males may be alate or apterous. [more]

Coccinellidae

Coccinellidae is a family of beetles, known variously as ladybirds (UK, Ireland, Australia, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, South Africa, New Zealand, India, Malta, some parts of Canada and the US), or ladybugs (North America). Scientists increasingly prefer the names ladybird beetles or lady beetles as these insects are not true bugs. Lesser-used names include God's cow, ladycock, lady cow, and lady fly. [more]

Coelopidae

[more]

Coenagrionidae

The insect family Coenagrionidae is found in the order Odonata and the suborder Zygoptera. The Zygoptera are the damselflies, which although less known than the dragonflies, are no less common. There are more than 1100 species in this family, making it the largest damselfly family. Coenagrionidae has six subfamilies and they are Agriocnemidinae, Argiinae, , Ischnurinae, Leptobasinae, and Pseudagrioninae. [more]

Coenobitidae

Coenobitidae are a family of hermit crabs, widely known for their terrestrial habits. There are 17 species in two genera: [more]

Coenomyiidae

The Brachyceran infraorder Xylophagomorpha is a small group that consists solely of the family Xylophagidae, which presently contains subfamilies that were sometimes considered to be two small related families (Coenomyiidae and Rachiceridae). Other obsolete names for members of this family include Exeretonevridae and Heterostomidae. [more]

Coleophoridae

Coleophoridae is a family of small moths, belonging to the huge superfamily Gelechioidea. Collectively known as case-bearers, casebearing moths or case moths, this family is represented on all continents but the majority are found in temperate areas of the Northern Hemisphere. They are most common in the Palearctic, and rare in sub-Saharan Africa, South America and Australia; consequently, they probably originated (like most or all other Gelechioidea families) in northern Eurasia. [more]

Colletidae

Colletidae is a family of bees, and are often referred to collectively as plasterer bees or polyester bees, due to the method of smoothing the walls of their nest cells with secretions applied with their mouthparts; these secretions dry into a cellophane-like lining. There are 5 subfamilies, 54 genera, and over 2000 species, all of them evidently solitary, though many nest in aggregations. Two of the subfamilies, and Hylaeinae, lack the external pollen-carrying apparatus (the scopa) that otherwise characterizes most bees, and instead carry the pollen in their crop. These groups, and in fact most genera in this family, have liquid or semi-liquid pollen masses on which the larvae develop. [more]

Colletteidae

[more]

Collohmanniidae

[more]

Colobathristidae

[more]

Colomastigidae

[more]

Colossendeidae

Colossendeidae is a family of marine sea spider (class Pycnogonida). [more]

Colydiidae

Colydiinae is a subfamily of beetles, commonly known as cylindrical bark beetles. They have been treated historically as a family, but have recently been moved into the Zopheridae , where they constitute the bulk of the diversity of the new composite family, with about 140 genera worldwide. There is not much known about the biology of these beetles. Most feed on fungi, others are carnivores and feed on arthropods. [more]

Compactozetidae

[more]

Compsocidae

Compsocidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the suborder Troctomorpha. The family comprises two extant species in two genera, found in Central America. [more]

Conchaspididae

Conchaspididae is a small and relatively unstudied family of scale insects. [more]

Condukiidae

[more]

Condylopygidae

[more]

Coniopterygidae

The dustywings, Coniopterygidae, are a family of Pterygota (winged insects) of the net-winged insect order (Neuroptera). About 460 living species are known. These tiny insects can usually be determined to genus with a hand lens according to their wing venation, but to distinguish species, examination of the genitals by microscope is usually necessary. [more]

Conocoryphidae

[more]

Conoesucidae

[more]

Conopidae

Conopidae, usually known as the thick-headed flies, is a family of flies within the Brachycera suborder of Diptera. Flies of the family Conopidae are distributed worldwide except for the poles and many of the Pacific islands. About 800 species in 47 genera are described worldwide, approximately 70 of which are found in North America. The majority of conopids are black and yellow, or black and white, and often strikingly resemble wasps, bees, or flies of the family Syrphidae, themselves notable bee mimics. Conopids are most frequently found at flowers, feeding on nectar with their proboscis, which is often long. [more]

Conotylidae

[more]

Cooloolidae

Cooloola is a genus of ensiferan orthopterans. It is the only genus in the family Cooloolidae of the superfamily . [more]

Coosellidae

[more]

Copepoda

[more]

Copromorphidae

Copromorphidae, the "tropical fruitworm moths" is a family of insects in the lepidopteran order. These moths have broad, rounded forewings, and well-camouflaged scale patterns. Unlike Carposinidae the mouthparts include "labial palps" with the second rather than third segment the longest. The position of the enigmatic New Zealand genus Isonomeutis in this family in uncertain, as it lacks the flimsy cuticle of the pupa characteristic of other Copromorphoidea. With other unusual structural characteristics of the caterpillar and adult, it could represent the sister lineage of all other extant members of this superfamily (Dugdale et al., 1999). The genus Sisyroxena from Madagascar is also notable for its unusual venation and wing scale sockets (Dugdale et al., 1999). [more]

Coprozerconidae

Coprozercon scopaeus is a species of mite, placed in its own family, Cropocerconidae, in the order Mesostigmata. It was described in 1999 from the feces of the Allegheny woodrat, Neotoma magister, in a cave in Kentucky. [more]

Coptopsyllidae

[more]

Corallanidae

[more]

Cordulegastridae

The Cordulegastridae are a family of Odonata (dragonflies) from the suborder Anisoptera. They are commonly known as Spiketails. Some vernacular names for the species of this family are biddie and flying adder. They have a large brown or black body with yellow markings. They can be found along small, clear, woodland streams, flying slowly 30 to 70 cm above the water. When disturbed, however, they can fly very rapidly. [more]

Corduliidae

The insect family Corduliidae contains the emerald dragonflies or green-eyed skimmers. These dragonflies are usually black or dark brown with areas of metallic green or yellow, and most of them have large, emerald-green eyes. The larvae are black, hairy-looking, and usually semi-aquatic. [more]

Coreidae

Coreidae is a large family of predominantly herbivorous insects that belong in the hemipteran suborder Heteroptera. There are more than 1,800 species in over 250 genera. They vary in size from 7 to 45 mm, making the larger species some of the biggest heteropterans. The body shape of coreids is quite variable, with some species broadly oval while others are slender. Coreids are found throughout the world but most species are found in the tropics and subtropics. [more]

Corethrellidae

Corethrellidae is a family of parasitic midges, small flying insects belonging to the Order Diptera, that are commonly known to parasitize frogs. The members of the family are sometimes known as "frog-biting midges". The family currently consists of just two genera, totalling around ninety seven species worldwide. There are several fossil species known. Most extant species are found in the lower latitudes, usually associated around the tropics. [more]

Corinnidae

The corinnid sac spiders (family Corinnidae), like the other clubionoid families, have a very confusing taxonomic history. Once this family was a part of the large catch-all taxon Clubionidae, now a shadow of its former self. The clubionoids are apparently similar only in that they have eight eyes arranged in two rows, conical anterior spinnerets that touch and are generally wandering predators that build silken retreats, or sacs, usually on plant terminals, between leaves, under bark or under rocks. [more]

Corioxenidae

Corioxenidae are an insect family of the order Strepsiptera. Species in this family are parasites of Heteropteran bugs including Pentatomidae, Scutelleridae, Cydnidae, Coreidae and Lygaeidae. The males lack mandibles. Three subfamilies within this family are recognized. The subfamilies are separated using morphology of the males, particularly on the basis of the number of tarsi and the presence of tarsal claws. [more]

Corixidae

Corixidae is a family of aquatic insects in the order Hemiptera that inhabit ponds and slow moving streams, where they swim near the bottom. There are about 500 known species worldwide, in 33 genera, including the genus Sigara. [more]

Coronididae

[more]

Coronulidae

Whale barnacles are barnacles belonging to the family Coronulidae. Whale barnacles attach themselves to the bodies of baleen whales during the barnacles's free-swimming larval stage. Though often described as parasites, the relationship is an example of commensalism, as the barnacles neither harm, nor benefit, their host. A number of taxa formerly treated as subfamilies of Corolunidae are now considered separate families in their own right, including the turtle barnacles in the family Chelonibiidae. [more]

Corophiidae

Corophiidae is a family of amphipods, containing the following genera: [more]

Corticariidae

[more]

Corycaeidae

Poecilostomatoida are an order of copepods previously included in the Cyclopoida. [more]

Corydalidae

The family Corydalidae contains the megalopterous insects known as dobsonflies and fishflies. Making up about one dozen genera, they occur primarily throughout the Northern Hemisphere, both temperate and tropical, and South America. [more]

Corydaloididae

[more]

Corydasialidae

[more]

Corylophidae

Corylophidae is a family of beetles, sometimes known as the minute fungus beetles. [more]

Corynexochidae

[more]

Corystidae

Corystidae is a family of crabs, in its own superfamily, Corystoidea. It includes the oldest Eubrachyuran fossil, , dating from the Bathonian (Middle Jurassic). Corystidae contains ten extant and five extinct species in eight genera: [more]

Cosmetidae

Cosmetidae, with around 700 species, is the second most diverse family of the Suborder Laniatores. They are distributed from Argentina to southern USA, most diverse in northern South America, Central America and Mexico. This Nearctic-Neotropical family comprises Opiliones with elaborate white/yellow/green/orange/red stripes and spots on the dorsal scutum and peculiar pedipalps strongly compressed and applied on the chelicerae. [more]

Cosmochthoniidae

[more]

Cosmopterigidae

Cosmopterigidae (cosmet moths) is a family of insects in the Lepidoptera order. These are small moths with narrow wings whose tiny larvae feed internally on the leaves, seeds, stems, etc of their host plants. There are about 1,500 described species. The family is most diverse in the Australian and Pacific region with about 780 species. [more]

Cosmopterygidae

Cosmopterigidae (cosmet moths) is a family of insects in the Lepidoptera order. These are small moths with narrow wings whose tiny larvae feed internally on the leaves, seeds, stems, etc of their host plants. There are about 1,500 described species. The family is most diverse in the Australian and Pacific region with about 780 species. [more]

Cossidae

Cossidae, the cossid millers or carpenter millers, make up a family of mostly large miller moths. Ths family contains over 110 genera with almost 700 known species, and many more species await description. Carpenter millers are nocturnal Lepidoptera found worldwide, except the Southeast Asian subfamily Ratardinae which is mostly active during the day. [more]

Costacaridae

[more]

Cowiedesmidae

[more]

Crabronidae

Crabronidae is a large family of wasps, that includes nearly all of the species formerly comprising the now-defunct superfamily Sphecoidea. It collectively includes well over 200 genera, containing well over 9000 species. Crabronids were originally a part of Sphecidae, but the latter name is now restricted to a separate family based on what was once the subfamily Sphecinae. As this change is very recent, it seems likely that the subfamilies of Crabronidae will each eventually be treated as families in their own right, as they have been treated as such by many authorities in the past (as in the catalog linked below). [more]

Crambidae

The Crambidae are the grass moth family of Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths). They are quite variable in appearance, the nominal subfamily Crambinae (grass moths) taking up closely folded postures on grass-stems where they are inconspicuous, while other subfamilies include brightly colored and patterned insects which rest in wing-spread attitudes. [more]

Cranaidae

[more]

Crangonidae

The family Crangonidae is a taxon of shrimps, of the superfamily Crangonoidea, including the commercially important species Crangon crangon. Its type genus is Crangon. Twenty-four genera are included in the family: [more]

Crangonyctidae

Crangonyctidae is a family of cave-dwelling freshwater amphipod crustaceans. It contains the following genera: [more]

Craspedosomatidae

[more]

Craterostigmidae

[more]

Cratomyiidae

[more]

Crepicephalidae

[more]

Cressidae

Cressidae is a family of amphipods. The family contains two genera: [more]

Cretevaniidae

Evaniidae, also known as the ensign wasps or hatchet wasps, is a family of parasitic wasps. It numbers around 20 extant genera containing over 400 described species, and is found all over the world except in the polar regions. The larvae of these solitary wasps feed on cockroaches and develop inside the egg-cases (oothecae) of their hosts. [more]

Cretitanaidae

[more]

Crinoniscidae

Crinoniscidae is a family of isopod crustaceans in the suborder Cymothoida. The original description was made by Bonnier in 1900. Members of this family are parasites, mostly on other crustaceans. is parasitic on the barnacle, Balanus perforatus. [more]

Crotalomorphidae

[more]

Crotoniidae

[more]

Crowsoniellidae

Crowsoniellidae is a small family of beetles, in the suborder Archostemata. [more]

Cryptocercidae

Cryptocercus is a genus of Dictyoptera (cockroaches and allies) in the family Polyphagidae, of which this genus is the only member. Species are known as wood roaches or brown-hooded cockroaches. They are subsocial xylophagous insects, found in North America and Asia. [more]

Cryptochaetidae

[more]

Cryptochetidae

[more]

Cryptochiridae

Cryptochiridae is a family of crabs, known as gall crabs, because the females cause corals to form protective galls around themselves. The family is placed in its own superfamily, Cryptochiroidea. It contains the following genera: [more]

Cryptococcidae

[more]

Cryptodesmidae

[more]

Cryptognathidae

[more]

Cryptolaryngidae

[more]

Cryptoniscidae

Cryptoniscidae is a family of isopod crustaceans in the suborder Cymothoida. The original description was made by Kossmann in 1880. Liriopsidae is a junior synonym. Members of this family are hyperparasites of rhizocephalid barnacles which are themselves parasites of decapod crustaceans. The morphology of the adult females gives little clue as to their true identity but the free living larvae show their true taxonomic affiliations. [more]

Cryptophagidae

Cryptophagidae is a family of beetles with representatives found in all ecozones. Only around 800 species have been described but it seems certain that many others await discovery. Members of this family are commonly called silken fungus beetles and both adults and larvae appear to feed exclusively on fungi although in a wide variety of habitats and situations (e.g. rotting wood, shed animal fur/feathers). These beetles are generally small to very small, usually with a basically oval body shape with a slight "waist". [more]

Cryptophialidae

[more]

Cryptopidae

[more]

Cryptothelidae

[more]

Crypturoptidae

[more]

Ctenacaridae

[more]

Ctenidae

The wandering spiders is a term used to refer to the spider family Ctenidae. Previously, the term referred only to the genus Phoneutria but now usually refers to the entire family Ctenidae. The members of the genus Phoneutria are highly aggressive and venomous nocturnal hunters, and are the only wandering spiders known to pose a serious danger to humans. However, the venom of some other members of this family is very poorly known, meaning that all larger Ctenids should be treated with caution. Ctenids have a distinctive longitudinal groove on the top-rear of their oval carapace (some other spiders have a similar groove; e.g., Amaurobiidae). Venom from wandering spider injected in human body can lead to death within 2-12 hours. The venom induces release of nitric oxide which acts as a dilating agent and arteries and veins are dilated, it is then followed by increased blood flow in penis and results in a long duration penal erection. Finally the victim dies by a heart stroke. [more]

Ctenizidae

Trapdoor spiders (superfamily Ctenizoidea, family Ctenizidae) are medium-sized mygalomorph spiders that construct burrows with a cork-like trapdoor made of soil, vegetation and silk. Some similar species are also called trapdoor spiders, such as the Liphistiidae, Barychelidae, Cyrtaucheniidae and some Idiopidae and Nemesiidae. Some Conothele species do not build a burrow, but construct a silken tube with trap-door in bark crevices. [more]

Ctenobelbidae

[more]

Ctenochelidae

[more]

Ctenophthalmidae

[more]

Ctenosculidae

[more]

Ctenostylidae

The enigmatic fly family Ctenostylidae is a small group of very rare flies formerly included in the family Pyrgotidae (as the subfamily "Lochmostyliinae"); the principal reason for their inclusion in the Pyrgotidae was the absence of ocelli, a feature originally thought to be a unique defining feature ("autapomorphy") of the Pyrgotidae. Subsequent careful analysis has revealed that this anatomical feature shared with Pyrgotidae may not be indicative of a close relationship, and even the inclusion of Ctenostylidae within the superfamily Tephritoidea was cast into doubt, leaving this as the only family of Acalyptratae presently unassignable to superfamily. [more]

Ctenothyadidae

[more]

Ctenuchidae

Noctuoidea is the superfamily of noctuid (Latin "night owl") or "owlet" moths, and has the largest number of species described for any Lepidopteran superfamily. Its classification has not yet reached a satisfactory or stable state. The most recent classifications include only four families in the superfamily; Noctuidae, Oenosandridae, Doidae, and Notodontidae. The remaining four families listed here are presently all considered subfamilies within Noctuidae. [more]

Cucujidae

The Cucujidae, sometimes called flat bark beetles are a family of distinctively flat beetles found worldwide under the bark of dead and live trees. The family consists of about 40 species in four genera. [more]

Culicidae

Mosquitoes are a family of small, midge-like flies, the Culicidae. Although a few species are harmless or even useful, most cause a nuisance by sucking blood from vertebrates, including humans. Several of the most harmful human and livestock diseases are transmitted by mosquitoes during feeding. Accordingly, some authorities argue that mosquitoes are the most dangerous animals on earth. [more]

Cumacea

[more]

Cunaxidae

[more]

Cuneocytheridae

[more]

Cuneoppidae

[more]

Cupedidae

Cupedidae is a small family of beetles, notable for the square pattern of "windows" on their elytra (hard forewings), which gives the family their common name of reticulated beetles. [more]

Curculionidae

Curculionidae is the family of the "true" weevils (or "snout beetles"). It was formerly recognized in 1998 as the largest of any animal family, with over 40,000 species described worldwide at that time. Today, it is still one of the largest known. [more]

Curtonotidae

[more]

Cushmanideidae

[more]

Cyamidae

A whale louse is a parasitic crustacean of the family Cyamidae. They are related to the better-known skeleton shrimp, most species of which are found in shallower waters. Whale lice are external parasites, found in skin lesions, genital folds, nostrils and eyes of marine mammals of the order Cetacea. These include not only whales but also dolphins and porpoises. [more]

Cyatholipidae

The Cyatholipidae are a spider family with 58 described species in 23 genera. [more]

Cybaeidae

Cybaeidae is a family of spiders comprising twelve genera. [more]

Cybocephalidae

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Cyclestheriidae

Clam shrimp are a taxon of bivalved branchiopod crustaceans that resemble the unrelated bivalved molluscs. They are extant, and known from the fossil record, from at least the Devonian period and perhaps before. They were originally classified in a single order Conchostraca, which later proved to be paraphyletic (artificial). [more]

Cyclidae

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Cyclidiidae

Cyclidiinae is a small subfamily of the Drepanidae moths. They occur in Southeast Asia. Their caterpillars feed on Alangium (Alangiaceae). In some treatments, they are raised to full family status[]. [more]

Cycloctenidae

Cycloctenidae is a spider family with 36 described species in 5 genera. The genera (5 spp.), Toxopsiella (12 spp.) and Uzakia (1 sp.) are all endemic to New Zealand, Cycloctenus is found in both Australia (7 spp.) and New Zealand (10 spp.), while Galliena (1 sp.) is endemic to Java. The placements of Galliena, Plectophanes and Uzakia in Cycloctenidae are tentative only. [more]

Cyclodorippidae

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Cyclopidae

Cyclopidae is a family of copepods. It contains more than half of the 1,200 species in the order Cyclopoida in over 70 genera. [more]

Cyclopididae

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Cyclopinidae

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Cyclopygidae

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Cyclorrhapha

Cyclorrhapha is an unranked taxon within the infraorder Muscomorpha. They are called "Cyclorrhapha" ('circular-seamed flies') with reference to the circular aperture through which the adult escapes the puparium. This is a circumscriptional name that has significant historical familiarity, but in the present classification, this name is synonymous with the more recent "Muscomorpha"; details and reasoning are presented here.
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Cyclotornidae

Cyclotorna is a genus of moths, the sole one of family Cyclotornidae, with five recognized species. The family is endemic to Australia. This family and the closely related Epipyropidae are unique among the Lepidoptera in that the larvae are ectoparasites, the hosts in this case typically being leafhoppers, sometimes scale insects. The larvae of cyclotornids, however, leave the hemipteran host and become predatory on the brood in ant nests, apparently using chemical cues to induce the ants to carry the larvae into the ant nest. [more]

Cydnidae

Cydnidae are a family of shield bugs, known by common names including burrowing bugs or burrower bugs. In some classifications, Cydnidae includes the family Thyreocoridae (sometimes referred to as "Corimelaenidae"), which are known commonly as negro bugs or ebony bugs, and/or the family . Though similar in appearance to a beetle at casual glance, they can be distinguished by both their piercing/sucking mouthparts, and wing configuration (beetle elytra are split directly down the back of the insect). Of some 750 species of burrower bugs, 27 are reported as crop pests, and six species are thought to feed on peanut. [more]

Cylindrachetidae

Sandgropers are wholly larviform insects of the family Cylindrachetidae that may grow up to 7 cm (3 in) long. Three genera are currently recognised: Cylindracheta, Cylindraustralia and Cylindrodes. Like many subterranean animals, little is known about their habits and diet, but Western Australian farmers have blamed them for substantial crop losses. [more]

Cylindroleberidae

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Cylindroleberididae

Cylindroleberididae is a family of ostracods that shows remarkable morphological diversity. The defining feature is the possession of gills: 7?8 leaf-like pairs at the posterior of the body. Other features common to all species in the family include a "baleen-comb" on both the maxilla and the fifth limb, a sword-shaped coxal endite on the mandible, and the triaenid bristles on the basal endites of the mandible. [more]

Cylindropsyllidae

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Cylindrotomidae

The Cylindrotomidae or Long-bodied Craneflies, are a family of flies closely related to true crane flies. There are about 115 species worldwide. [more]

Cylisticidae

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Cyllopodidae

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Cymbaeremaeidae

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Cymonomidae

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Cymopoliidae

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Cymothoidae

Cymothoidae is a family of isopods. Several species are parasites, usually of fish. These include the bizarre "tongue-biter", Cymothoa exigua. Around forty genera are recognised  [more]

Cynipidae

Gall wasps (Cynipidae), also called Gallflies, are a family of the order Hymenoptera and are classified with the Apocrita suborder of wasps in the superfamily Cynipoidea. About 1300 species of this generally very small creature (1-8 millimeters) are known worldwide, with about 360 species of 36 different genera in Europe and some 800 species in North America. [more]

Cyphocarididae

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Cyphoderidae

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Cypridae

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Cyprididae

Cyprididae is "the most diverse group of freshwater ostracods". It contains 1000 species, which represents 50% of the known species of freshwater ostracods (other speciose families include Candonidae, with 25%, and Limnocytheridae, with 10%). Around 60% of genera in the family are endemic to a single zoogeographic region. The family contains 25 subfamilies, and is most diverse in the Afrotropic ecozone, with over 300 species in 45 genera. [more]

Cypridinidae

Cypridinidae is a family of ostracods, containing the following genera: [more]

Cypridopsidae

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Cyproideidae

Cyproideidae is a family of amphipod crustaceans. Eighteen genera and 43 species have been described as of 2009. They mostly occur mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, where they form associations with corals, sponges, crinoids and hydroids. [more]

Cyproniscidae

Cyproniscidae is a family of marine isopod crustaceans in the suborder Cymothoida. The original description was made by Bonnier in 1900. Members of this family are parasitic on other isopods. [more]

Cypselosomatidae

Cypselosomatidae is a family of true flies (Diptera) closely related to the Micropezidae . There are 3 living genera and one fossil. The living species are believed to be associated with bat guano. [more]

Cyrtaucheniidae

The wafer trapdoor spiders (superfamily Cyrtauchenioidea, family Cyrtaucheniidae) are a widespread family of spiders that lack the thorn-like spines on tarsi and metatarsi I and II (the two outermost leg segments) found in true trapdoor spiders (Ctenizidae).
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Cyrtodesmidae

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Cystisomatidae

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Cytherellidae

Cytherellidae is a family of ostracods, and is the only living family in the order, Platycopida, although the family is also sometimes included. Members of the family have existed since the Jurassic. It contains 6 genera: [more]

Cytherettidae

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Cytheridae

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Cytherideidae

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Cytheromatidae

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Cytheruridae

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Cytoditidae

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Cyzicidae

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Dactylopiidae

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Daesiidae

Daesiidae is a family of solifugids, which are widespread in Africa and the Middle East. Members of the family are also present in India, South America, the Balkans, and the single species Gluvia dorsalis in the Iberian Peninsula. A single fossil species is known from Eocene Baltic amber. Around thirty genera are recognised: [more]

Dairellidae

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Dairidae

Dairoidea is a superfamily of crabs, comprising two families which each contain a single genus: Dairidae (the living fossil  ) and Dacryopilumnidae (Dacryopilumnus) . [more]

Dajidae

Dajidae is a family of marine isopod crustaceans in the suborder Cymothoida. The original description was made by Giard and Bonnier in 1887. Members of this family are ectoparasites of krill. They resemble a fleshy growth on the krill's back, and make the host look as if it is wearing a rucksack. The following genera are included in the famiyl Dajidae: [more]

Dalceridae

Dalceridae is a small family of moths with 84 known species. They are mostly found in the Neotropical region with a few reaching the far south of the Nearctic region. [more]

Daldorfiidae

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Dalmanitidae

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Dalodesmidae

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Damaeidae

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Damaeolidae

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Damesellidae

Odontopleurida is an order of trilobites, containing the following taxa: [more]

Dampfiellidae

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Danaidae

Milkweed butterflies are a subfamily, Danainae, in the family Nymphalidae, or brush-footed butterflies. They lay their eggs on various milkweeds on which their larvae (caterpillars) feed. Historically, this group had been considered a separate family, Danaidae, and the tribes placed herein were sometimes considered distinct subfamilies in the Nymphalidae. [more]

Daphniidae

Daphniidae is a family of water fleas in the sub-order Anomopoda. [more]

Darcythompsoniidae

Darcythompsoniidae is a family of copepods, containing four genera. Members of the family have a very wide distribution throughout the tropics, where they live in rotting mangrove leaves. They lack egg sacs and are thought to lay their eggs directly into the leaf litter. [more]

Darwinulidae

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Dascillidae

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Dasyceridae

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Dasydemellidae

In the insect world, Dasydemellidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the suborder Psocomorpha, in the infraorder Caeciliusetae. The family is composed of about 30 species. [more]

Dasyleptidae

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Dasyponyssidae

Dasythyreidae

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Davacaridae

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Deckeniidae

Potamonautidae is a family of freshwater crabs endemic to tropical parts of Africa and adjacent islands, including Madagascar, the Seychelles, Zanzibar, Mafia, Pemba, Bioko, S?o Tom?, Pr?ncipe and Sherbro Island. It comprises 18 extant genera and 138 extant species. Fossil remains dating from the Late Miocene period have been attributed to the family Potamonautidae. [more]

Deinopidae

The spider family Deinopidae consists of stick-like elongate spiders that build unusual webs that they suspend between the front legs. When prey approaches, the spider will stretch the net to two or three times its relaxed size and propel itself onto the prey, entangling it in the web. Because of this, they are also called net-casting spiders. Their excellent night-vision adapted anterior median eyes allow them to cast this net over potential prey items. These eyes are so large in comparison to the other six eyes that the spider seems to have only two eyes. [more]

Delatorreidae

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Delphacidae

Delphacidae is a family of planthoppers containing about 2000 species, distributed worldwide. Delphacids are separated from other "hoppers" by the prominent spur on the tibia of the hindleg. All species are phytophagous, many occurring on various grasses, and some are important vectors for cereal pathogens. The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens St?l, is an example. [more]

Deltocephalidae

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Demodecidae

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Demodicidae

Demodex is a genus of tiny parasitic mites that live in or near hair follicles of mammals. About 65 species of Demodex are known; they are among the smallest of arthropods. Two species living on humans have been identified: Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis, both frequently referred to as eyelash mites. Demodex canis lives on the domestic dog. Infestation with Demodex is common and usually does not cause any symptoms, although occasionally some skin diseases can be caused by the mites. [more]

Dendrogastridae

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Dendrotiidae

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Dendrotionidae

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Deoterthridae

Deoterthridae is a family of crustaceans in the subclass Tantulocarida, classified under the class Maxillopoda. It contains the following genera: [more]

Depressariidae

The Depressariinae ? sometimes spelled "Depressiinae" in error ? are a subfamily of moths in the superfamily Gelechioidea. Like their relatives therein, their exact relationships are not yet very well resolved. It has been considered part of family Elachistidae sensu lato or treated as distinct gelechioid family Depressariidae, but more recently they are assumed to be closer to the Oecophorinae and included in an expanded Oecophoridae. [more]

Deraiophoridae

Deraiophorus is a genus of mites in the order Mesostigmata, placed in its own family, Deriaphoridae. [more]

Derbidae

Derbidae is a family of bugs in the suborder Auchenorrhyncha. The nymphs of some species nymph feed on fungi while adults live by sucking sap. Many adults are recognizable by their habit of holding up their wings. The short apical segment of the rostrum identifies the family. [more]

Dericorythidae

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Dermanyssidae

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Dermationidae

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Dermestidae

Dermestidae are a family of Coleoptera that are commonly referred to as skin beetles. Other common names include larder beetle, hide or leather beetles, carpet beetles, and khapra beetles. There are approximately 500 to 700 species worldwide. They can range in size from 1?12 mm. Key characteristics for adults are round oval shaped bodies covered in scales or setae. The (usually) clubbed antennae fit into deep grooves. The hind femora also fit into recesses of the coxa. Larvae are scarabaeiform and also have setae. [more]

Dermoglyphidae

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Derocheilocarididae

Mystacocarida is a subclass of crustaceans, that form part of the meiobenthos. They are less than 1 mm (0.04 in) long, and live interstitially in the intertidal zones of sandy beaches. [more]

Derodontidae

Derodontidae is a family of beetles, in its own superfamily, Derodontoidea, sometimes known as tooth-necked fungus beetles. There are 38 species in 4 genera and 3 subfamilies. Beetles of this family are small, between 2 and 6 mm in length, with spiny margins on their pronotum (part of the thorax) that give them their name. The genus, Laricobius, lacks these spines. They have two ocelli on the top of their heads. [more]

Desidae

The intertidal spiders (family Desidae) live in a very unusual location ? between the tides. Once thought to be limited to the Southern Hemisphere, members of this family in the genus were discovered in northern Sonora and the Florida Keys during the last half of the 20th Century. The family has been reevaluated in recent years and now includes inland genera and species as well. Members of the genus Paratheuma commonly live in barnacle shells, which they seal up with silk. This allows them to maintain an air bubble during high tide. These intertidal spiders feed on various small arthropods that live in the intertidal zone. [more]

Desmosomatidae

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Detonidae

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Deuterophlebiidae

The fly genus Deuterophlebia is the sole member of the small monotypic family Deuterophlebiidae or mountain midges. Adults have broad, fan-shaped wings, and males have extremely long antennae which they employ when contesting territories over running water, waiting for females to hatch. Larvae occur in swiftly flowing streams and are easily recognized by their forked antennae and the prolegs on the abdomen. [more]

Devonacaridae

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Dexaminidae

Dexaminidae is a family of amphipods. It contains the following genera: [more]

Diadocidiidae

Diadocidiidae is a family of Diptera. There are two described genera with over twenty species. Diadocidiidae are found worldwide, except in Africa and Antarctica. It is usually considered close to Keroplatidae, Bolitophilidae and Ditomyiidae, and was previously included in Mycetophilidae. They are woodland flies. The larvae spin silken tubes under bark or in dead logs. [more]

Diaixidae

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Diamphipnoidae

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Diaphanometopidae

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Diapheromeridae

Diapheromeridae is a family of stick insects (order Phasmatodea). They belong to the superfamily of suborder Verophasmatodea. [more]

Diapriidae

Diapriidae is a family of insects belonging to the order Hymenoptera. These tiny wasps (with an average length of 2-4 mm and never exceeding 8 mm) are typically parasitoids on the larvae and pupae of a wide range of insects, especially flies; a few are hyperparasitoids (e.g., Ismarus, which parasitize Dryinidae who are themselves parasites of leafhoppers). There are about 2300 described species in 150 genera, divided into four subfamilies, and the group has a global distribution. [more]

Diaptomidae

Diaptomidae is a family of freshwater pelagic copepods. It includes around 50 genera: [more]

Diarthrophallidae

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Diaspididae

Diaspididae is the largest family of scale insects with over 2650 described species in around 400 genera. As with all scale insects, the female produces a waxy protective scale beneath which it feeds on its host plant. Diaspidid scales are far more substantial than those of most other families: Incorporating the exuviae from the first two nymphal instars and sometimes faecal matter and fragments of the host plant, these can be complex and extremely waterproof structures rather resembling a suit of armour. For this reason these insects are commonly referred to as armoured scale insects. As it is so robust and firmly attached to the host plant, the scale often persists long after the insect has died. [more]

Diastatidae

Diastatidae are a type of flies, and are in the family Diptera. They occur primarily in the Holarctic Region, but several species are known from the Oriental, Neotropical, and Australasian regions. Members of the family number over 20 described species in three genera. There is an additional fossil genus. [more]

Diastylidae

Diastylidae is one of the eight most commonly recognised families of crustaceans of the order Cumacea. They are marine creatures especially common around the 30th parallel north. [more]

Diathemidae

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Diceratocephalidae

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Dichelesthiidae

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Dicranolasmatidae

The Dicranolasmatidae are a family of harvestmen with about 20 described species in a single genus. [more]

Dicteriadidae

Dicteriadidae is a small family of damselflies with only two species in two genera. The family is only found in neotropical areas. [more]

Dictynidae

Dictynidae is a family of cribellate (hackled band-producing) spiders. Most spiders in this family build irregular webs close to or directly on the ground. Typically they create a tangle of silken fibers among several branches or stems of one plant. [more]

Dictyopharidae

Dictyopharidae is a family of bugs in the suborder Auchenorrhyncha belonging to the infraorder Fulgoromorpha. The family comprises nearly 760 species in more than 150 genera. [more]

Dicyrtomidae

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Diesingidae

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Digamasellidae

Digamasellidae is a family of mites in the order Mesostigmata. [more]

Dignathodontidae

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Diguetidae

The coneweb spiders of the family Diguetidae are six-eyed haplogyne (lacking hardened female genitalia, or epigyne) spiders that live in tangled space webs. They fashion a cone-like central retreat in which they hide and lay eggs. The family is small (three genera and only 15 species) and is confined to the New World, where it is usually found in deserts. Members of the genus Diguetia usually build their webs in shrubs or between cactus pads. Although they have the same eye arrangement as the venomous recluse spiders (family Sicariidae), none of these genera are known to be harmful to humans. [more]

Dikelokephalidae

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Dikelokephalinidae

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Dilaridae

The pleasing lacewings, Dilaridae, are a family of winged insects of the order Neuroptera. [more]

Dimeropygidae

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Dinesidae

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Dinidoridae

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Dinjapygidae

Dinjapygidae is a family of diplurans. It contains one genus, with six recognized species: [more]

Dinopontiidae

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Dinychidae

Dinychidae is a family of mites in the order Mesostigmata. [more]

Diogenidae

Diogenidae is a family of hermit crabs, sometimes known as "left-handed hermit crabs" because in contrast to most other hermit crabs, it is the left chela (claw) that is enlarged instead of the right. It comprises 429 extant species, and a further 46 extinct species, making it the second largest family of marine hermit crabs, after Paguridae. [more]

Dionididae

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Diopsidae

Stalk-eyed flies are insects of the fly family Diopsidae. The family is distinguished by the possession of eyestalks: projections from the sides of the head with the eyes at the end. Some fly species from other dipteran families such as the Drosophilidae and Tephritidae carry similar structures but the unique character of the Diopsidae is that the antennae are carried next to the eye at the end of the stalk. A rather remarkable feature of stalk-eyed flies shortly after emerging from their pupae, is the ability of the males to ingest air through their oral cavity, and pump it through ducts in the head and through to the tips of the stalks, thereby elongating them while they are still soft and transparent. There are several hundred species in the family, with the greatest diversity found in the Old World tropics They are distributed throughout the region, with the best known species being from South-East Asia and Southern Africa. There are also two species in North America and a European species has recently been found in Hungary. Adult diopsids are typically found on low-lying vegetation in humid areas, often near streams and rivers, where they feed on fungi and bacteria on decaying vegetation. The larvae develop in rotting vegetation. Due to their peculiar morphology, stalk-eyed flies are readily identifiable as fossils (e.g. in amber); one such prehistoric genus is . An African genus Centrioncus once placed in the Sepsidae and then moved to the Diopsidae had been suggested as belonging to a proposed new family Centrioncidae as a sister group of the Diopsids but this is usually treated as a subfamily. [more]

Dioptidae

Dioptinae is a subfamily of the moth family Notodontidae. [more]

Diosaccidae

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Diphyllostomatidae

The false stag beetles (Diphyllostoma) are a group of three species of rare beetles known only from California. Almost nothing is known of their life history beyond that the adults are diurnal and females are flightless; larvae have not been observed. [more]

Diplagnostidae

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Diplatyidae

Diplatyidae is a family of earwigs in the suborder Forficulina. It contains only one subfamily, Diplatyinae, which contains at least two genera: and Haplodiplatys. It is a relatively small family, comprising few species when compared to other families in Forficulina, such as Anisolabididae, Chelisochidae, and Forficulidae. [more]

Diplocentridae

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Diplogyniidae

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Diplomaragnidae

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Diplopolyneuridae

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Dipluridae

Funnel-web tarantulas (super-family Dipluroidea, family Dipluridae), are a group of spiders in the infraorder Mygalomorphae, that have two pairs of booklungs, and chelicerae (fangs) that move up and down in a stabbing motion. A number of genera, including the Sydney funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus), used to be classified in this family but have now been moved to Hexathelidae. [more]

Diprionidae

The Diprionidae are a small family of conifer-feeding sawflies (thus the common name conifer sawflies, though other Symphyta feed on conifers) restricted to the Northern Hemisphere, with some 90 species in 11 genera worldwide. Larvae are often gregarious, and sometimes there can be major outbreaks, thus these wasps can be major forest pests at times. [more]

Dipseudopsidae

Hydropsychidae is a family level taxon consisting of certain caddisflies. [more]

Dipsocoridae

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Diptera

True flies are insects of the order Diptera (from the Greek di = two, and ptera = wings). They possess a pair of wings on the mesothorax and a pair of halteres, derived from the hind wings, on the metathorax. Apart from secondarily flightless insects (including some flies), the only other order of insects with any form of halteres are the Strepsiptera, and theirs are on the mesothorax, with the flight wings on the metathorax. [more]

Diptilomiopidae

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Dirivultidae

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Disciadidae

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Discocephalidae

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Discoidae

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Discolomatidae

Discolomatidae is a family of beetles, in the suborder Polyphaga. [more]

Discolomidae

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Discourellidae

Discourella is a genus of mites in the order Mesostigmata, placed in its own family, Discourellidae. [more]

Discozerconidae

Discozerconidae is a small family of mites in the order Mesostigmata. [more]

Dissonidae

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Ditaxineuridae

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Dithinozerconidae

Dithinozerconidae is a small family of mites in the order Mesostigmata. [more]

Ditomyiidae

Ditomyiidae is a family of Diptera comprising only two genera: and Symmerus. [more]

Dixidae

The Dixidae (meniscus midges) are a family of aquatic nematoceran Diptera. The larvae live in unpolluted, standing fresh waters, just beneath the surface film, usually amongst marginal aquatic vegetation . [more]

Doderiidae

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Dogielinotidae

Dogielinotidae is a family of amphipods. It is currently subdivided into three subfamilies, containing a total of twelve genera: [more]

Dokimocephalidae

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Dolabellapsocidae

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Dolerolenidae

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Dolichocybidae

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Dolichometopidae

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Dolichopodidae

Dolichopodidae, the long-legged flies, make up a large family of true flies with more than 7,000 described species in about 230 genera distributed worldwide. The genus Dolichopus is the most speciose, with some 600 species. They are generally small flies with large, prominent eyes and a metallic cast to their appearance, though considerable variation is observed. Most have long legs, though some do not. The males often have enlarged genitalia which can be useful for species recognition. The adults are predatory on other small animals. [more]

Doratodesmidae

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Dorippidae

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Dorsoporidae

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Dorypetalidae

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Doryphallophoridae

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Dorypygidae

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Doteridae

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Douglasiidae

The small Lepidopteran family Douglasiidae includes several species of moths whose adults are collectively called Douglas moths and whose larvae are leaf miners. The largest genus in the family is . [more]

Drabescidae

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Drepanidae

The Drepanidae is a family of moths with about 660 species described worldwide. They are generally divided in three subfamilies (Minet and Scoble, 1999) which share the same type of hearing organ. Thyatirinae, previously often placed in their own family, bear a superficial resemblance to Noctuidae. Many species in the Drepanid family have a distinctively hook-shaped apex to the forewing, leading to their common name of hook-tips. [more]

Drilidae

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Dromiidae

Dromiidae is a family of crabs, often referred to as sponge crabs. They are small or medium-sized crabs which get their name from the ability to shape a living sponge into a portable shelter for themselves. A sponge crab cuts out a fragment from a sponge and trims it to its own shape using its claws. The last two pairs of legs are shorter than other legs and bend upward over the crab's carapace, to hold the sponge in place. The sponge grows along with the crab, providing a consistent shelter. [more]

Drosophilidae

Drosophilidae is a diverse, cosmopolitan family of flies, which includes fruit flies. Another family of flies called Tephritidae also includes fruit flies. The best known species of Drosophilidae is Drosophila melanogaster, within the genus Drosophila, and this species is used extensively for studies concerning genetics, development, physiology, ecology and behaviour. This fruit fly is mostly composed of post-mitotic cells, has a very short lifespan, and shows gradual aging. As in other species, temperature influences the life history of the animal. Several genes have been identified that can be manipulated to extend the lifespan of these animals. [more]

Dryinidae

Dryinidae is a family of hymenopteran insects with about 1,400 described species found worldwide. These are solitary wasps whose larvae are parasitoids on other insects. The only known hosts are Hemiptera, especially leafhoppers. [more]

Drymobatidae

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Drymusidae

The Drymusidae are a small spider family with ten species in one genus. They are also called false violin spiders or leaf-litter spiders. They resemble the violin spider or recluse spider (genus Loxosceles, Sicariidae), but other than these build a web[1]. Also unlike Loxosceles, which are highly venomous to man, spiders in Drymusidae are not believed to be harmful to humans. [more]

Dryomyzidae

Dryomyzidae is a small family of flies. [more]

Dryophthoridae

Dryophthorinae is a weevil subfamily within the family Curculionidae. [more]

Dryopidae

[more]

Dubioniscidae

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Dudgeoneidae

Dudgeonea is a small genus of moths and the only genus of its family, the Dudgeoneidae. It includes six species distributed sparsely across the Old World from Africa and Madagascar to Australia and New Guinea. [more]

Dulichiidae

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Dumontiidae

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Duplorbidae

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Dwigubskyiidae

Dwigubskyia togatus is a species of mite placed in its own family Dwigubskyiidae, in the order Mesostigmata. [more]

Dynastidae

The Rhinoceros Beetles or Rhino Beetles are a subfamily (Dynastinae) of the scarab beetle family (Scarabaeidae). Other common names ? some for particular groups of rhino beetles ? are for example Hercules beetles, unicorn beetles or horn beetles. There are over 300 known species of rhino beetles. [more]

Dynomenidae

[more]

Dysderidae

The family Dysderidae (woodlouse hunters, sowbug-eating spiders or cell spiders) are araneomorph spiders found primarily in Eurasia, although extending into North Africa, with very few species occurring in South America, and one (Dysdera crocata) introduced into many regions of the world. [more]

Dyspontiidae

[more]

Dytiscidae

Dytiscidae ? based on the Greek dytikos (d?t????), "able to dive" ? are the predaceous diving beetles, a family of water beetles. They are about 25 mm (one inch) long on average, though there is much variation between species. Dytiscus latissimus, the largest[], can grow up to 45 mm long. Most are dark brown, blackish or dark olive in color with golden highlights in some subfamilies. They have short, but sharp mandibles. Immediately upon biting they deliver digestive enzymes. The larvae are commonly known as water tigers. The family has not been comprehensively cataloged since 1920, but is estimated to include about 4,000 species in over 160 genera. [more]

Dzhajloutshellidae

[more]

Ebertiidae

[more]

Echimyopodidae

[more]

Echinophthiriidae

[more]

Echinothambematidae

[more]

Ecnomidae

Ecnomidae is a family of caddisflies comprising 9 genera with a total of 375 species. [more]

Ectinosomatidae

Ectinosomatidae is a family of the Harpacticoida, a huge group of crustaceans belonging to the subclass Copepoda. Like most of their relatives, they are usually benthic inhabitants of marine environments. Ectinosomatidae commonly inhabit sediment and fragments of dead corals or glass sponges, and occasionally algae and bryozoans, in the deep oceans. In the epifaunal species, the first leg pair is often modified to allow the animals a better grip on the substrate. [more]

Ectinosomidae

Ectinosomatidae is a family of the Harpacticoida, a huge group of crustaceans belonging to the subclass Copepoda. Like most of their relatives, they are usually benthic inhabitants of marine environments. Ectinosomatidae commonly inhabit sediment and fragments of dead corals or glass sponges, and occasionally algae and bryozoans, in the deep oceans. In the epifaunal species, the first leg pair is often modified to allow the animals a better grip on the substrate. [more]

Ectinosomitidae

[more]

Ectobiidae

[more]

Ectopsocidae

Ectopsocidae is a family of Psocoptera (book lice or bark lice) belonging to the suborder Psocomorpha. Members of the family are characterised by their absence of an areola postica in their wings, like in the family Peripsocidae. The family includes fewer than 200 species, most of them in the genus Ectopsocus. [more]

Edelsteinaspidae

[more]

Elachistidae

The Elachistidae (grass-miner moths) are a family of small moths in the superfamily Gelechioidea. Some authors lump about 3,300 species in eight subfamilies here, but this arrangement almost certainly results in a massively paraphyletic and completely unnatural assemblage, united merely by symplesiomorphies retained from the first gelechioid moths. [more]

Elasmidae

The genus Elasmus is the only member of the subfamily Elasminae (formerly classified as a separate family, Elasmidae), and contains over 200 species worldwide. They are mostly parasitoids or hyperparasitoids of lepidopteran larvae, though several species are parasitoids of Polistes paper wasp larvae. [more]

Elateridae

The family Elateridae is commonly called click beetles (or "typical click beetles" to distinguish them from the related Cerophytidae and ), elaters, snapping beetles, spring beetles or "skipjacks". They are a cosmopolitan beetle family characterized by the unusual click mechanism they possess. There are a few closely related families in which a few members have the same mechanism, but all elaterids can click. A spine on the prosternum can be snapped into a corresponding notch on the mesosternum, producing a violent "click" which can bounce the beetle into the air. Clicking is mainly used to avoid predation, although it is also useful when the beetle is on its back and needs to right itself. There are about 9300 known species worldwide, and 965 valid species in North America. [more]

Elcanidae

[more]

Electralbertidae

[more]

Electrotomidae

[more]

Elenchidae

Elenchidae is an insect family in the order Strepsiptera. [more]

Elipsocidae

Elipsocidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the suborder Homilopsocidea. Member of the family have a free areola postica. Many species are apterous. The family includes about 130 species in 26 genera. [more]

Elliidae

[more]

Ellipsocephalidae

[more]

Elliptochthoniidae

[more]

Elmidae

[more]

Elminthidae

[more]

Elviniidae

[more]

Elvinndae

[more]

Embiidae

[more]

Embolemidae

[more]

Embonychidae

[more]

Emeraldellidae

[more]

Emmrichellidae

[more]

Empididae

Empididae is a family of flies with over 3,000 described species occurring worldwide, but the majority are found in the Holarctic. They are mainly predatory flies like most of their relatives in the Empidoidea, and exhibit a wide range of forms but are generally small to medium sized, non-metallic and rather bristly. [more]

Empusidae

[more]

Emuellidae

[more]

Enantioppiidae

[more]

Encrinuridae

Encrinuridae is a family of trilobite within the order Phacopida that lived in what would be Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America from the middle Ordovician to the early Devonian from 479 to 412.3 million years ago, existing for approximately 66.7 million years. [more]

Encyrtidae

Encyrtidae is a large family of parasitic wasps, with some 3710 described species in some 455 genera (see List of encyrtid genera). The larvae of the majority are primary parasitoids on Hemiptera, though other hosts are attacked, and details of the life history can be variable (e.g., some attack eggs, some attack larvae, others are hyperparasites and there are even Encyrtidae that develops as parasitoids of ticks). They are found throughout the world in virtually all habitats, and are extremely important as biological control agents. [more]

Endeidae

[more]

Endeididae

[more]

Enderleinellidae

[more]

Endevouridae

[more]

Endomychidae

Endomychidae, or handsome fungus beetles is a family of beetles with representatives found in all ecozones.There are around 120 genera and 1300 species. As the name suggests Endomychidae feed on fungi. [more]

Endromidae

[more]

Eneopteridae

[more]

Engisopteridae

[more]

Enicocephalidae

Enicocephalidae, also called unique-headed bug and gnat bug, are a family of 130 species of the suborder heteroptera. They are typically 4 mm long, and found throughout the world. They have an elongated head, constricted in places, hence its head is 'unique'. [more]

Eniochthoniidae

[more]

Enoplometopidae

Reef lobsters, Enoplometopus, are a genus of small lobsters that live on reefs in the Indo-Pacific, Caribbean and warmer parts of the east Atlantic Ocean. [more]

Entedoninae

[more]

Entocytheridae

[more]

Entomaspididae

[more]

Entomobielziidae

[more]

Entomobryidae

The family Entomobryidae contains the so-called "slender springtails", a group of springtails characterised as having an enlarged fourth abdominal segment and a well-developed furcula. Species in this family may be heavily scaled and can be very colorful. The scale-less Entomobryas are commonly caught in pitfall traps around the planet, and also occur in canopy faunas high up in trees (notably , very common throughout Europe if not the northern hemisphere). [more]

Entomolepidae

[more]

Entomolepididae

[more]

Entoniscidae

Entoniscidae is a family of marine isopod crustaceans in the suborder Cymothoida. The original description was made by in 1881. [more]

Entonyssidae

Entonyssidae is a small family of mites in the order Mesostigmata. [more]

Eodiscidae

[more]

Eoditomyiidae

[more]

Eoichneumonidae

[more]

Eolocustopsidae

[more]

Eomeropidae

[more]

Eophliantidae

Eophliantidae is a family of amphipods, containing the following genera: [more]

Eopleciidae

[more]

Eopolyneuridae

[more]

Eoptychopteridae

[more]

Eosentomidae

Eosentomidae is a family of hexapods in the order Protura. Eosentomids are tracheated, unlike the Acerentomidae. [more]

Epacteriscidae

[more]

Epactozetidae

[more]

Epallagidae

[more]

Epedanidae

[more]

Epeoromimidae

[more]

Epermeniidae

[more]

Ephemerellidae

Ephemerellidae are known as the Spiny Crawler Mayflies. They are a family of the order Ephemeroptera. There are 8 genera consisting of a total 90 species (Merritt & Cummins). They are distributed throughout North America as well as the UK. Their habitat is lotic-erosional, they are found in all sizes of flowing streams on different types of substrates where there is reduced flow. They are even found on the shores of lakes and beaches where there wave action present. They move by swimming and clinging, they are very well camouflaged. Most species have one generation per year. They are mostly collector-gatherers. [more]

Ephemeridae

Ephemeridae is a family of mayflies with about 150 described species found throughout the world except Australia and Oceania. These are generally quite large mayflies (up to 35 mm) with either two or three very long tails. Many species have distinctively patterned wings. [more]

Ephialtitidae

[more]

Ephydridae

Ephydridae (shore fly, sometimes brine fly) is a family of insects in the order Diptera. [more]

Epialtidae

Epialtidae is a family of crabs, containing the subfamilies: [more]

Epicopeiidae

Epicopeiidae is a family of insects in the Lepidoptera order. They are known as Oriental Swallowtail Moths as they resemble Oriental Swallowtail butterflies so well. [more]

Epicriidae

[more]

Epidermoptidae

[more]

Epilampridae

[more]

Epilohmanniidae

[more]

Epimerellidae

[more]

Epimeriidae

Epimeriidae is a family of amphipods, containing the following genera: [more]

Epinannolenidae

[more]

Epiophlebiidae

The genus Epiophlebia is the sole member of the family Epiophlebiidae, which is itself the sole living representative of the Epiproctan infraorder Epiophlebioptera, and it contains only two species. These two species were historically placed in their own suborder Anisozygoptera, considered intermediate between dragonflies and damselflies, mainly because the hind wings are very similar in size and shape to the forewings and held back over the body at rest, as in damselflies. It has more recently been recognized that the genus Epiophlebia shares a more recent ancestor with dragonflies (having become separated from these in and around of the uplifting Himalayas), and the group has accordingly been reclassified as an infraorder within the dragonflies. [more]

Epiplemidae

[more]

Epipsocidae

Epipsocidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the suborder Psocomorpha, that includes, among others, the genera Epipsocus, Epipsocopsis, and the New Guinean endemic Dicropsocus. The only European species in the family is the (almost always) apterous Bertkauia lucifuga. Like the other members of the infra-order Epipsocetae, Epipsocidae have a labrum with two sclerotized ridges. [more]

Epipyropidae

Epipyropidae is a small family of moths. This family and the closely related Cyclotornidae are unique among the Lepidoptera in that the larvae are ectoparasites, the hosts typically being fulgoroid planthoppers, thus the common name Planthopper Parasite Moths. [more]

Episactidae

[more]

Erebonasteridae

[more]

Eremaeidae

[more]

Eremaeozetidae

[more]

Eremellidae

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Eremiaphilidae

Eremiaphilidae is a small family of the order Mantodea (mantises). They are frequently wingless or brachypterous, and commonly encountered in desert environments. Their coloration often matches that of the sand or rocks in the habitat. [more]

Eremobatidae

[more]

Eremobelbidae

[more]

Eremochaetidae

[more]

Eremoneura

[more]

Eremulidae

[more]

Eresidae

The velvet spiders (family Eresidae) are a small group (about 100 species in 10 genera) of almost totally Old World spiders (exception: a few species are known from Brazil). The characteristics of this family of spiders are that they are entelegyne (have a genital plate in the female), eight-eyed araneomorph spiders that build unkempt webs. With the exception of Wajane, they are cribellate (use wooly silk). Some species are nearly eusocial, lacking only a specialized caste system and a queen. They cooperate in brood rearing, unlike almost most other spiders except for some African agelenid spiders in the genus Agelena and a few others. [more]

Ereynetidae

[more]

Ergasilidae

Ergasilidae is a widespread family of copepods and comprises many species. The type genus is Ergasilus. With a few doubtful exceptions all ergasilids are parasitic on fishes. [more]

Eriococcidae

Eriococcidae is a family of scale insects in the order Hemiptera. They are commonly known as felt scales or eriococcids. Each species is usually specific to a different plant host. [more]

Eriocottidae

[more]

Eriocraniidae

[more]

Eriophydae

[more]

Eriophyidae

Eriophyidae is a family of more than 200 genera of mites, which live as plant parasites, commonly causing galls or other damage to the plant tissues and hence known as gall mites. About 3,600 species have been described, but this is probably less than 10% of the actual number existing in this poorly-researched family. They are tiny, microscopic mites and are yellow to pinkish white to purplish in color. The mites are worm like, and have only two pairs of legs. Their primary method of population spread is by wind. They affect a wide range of plants, and several are major pest species causing substantial economic damage to crops. Some species, however, are used as biological agents to control weeds and invasive plant species. [more]

Eriorhynchidae

[more]

Eriphantidae

[more]

Eriphiidae

[more]

Erirhinidae

[more]

Erotylidae

Erotylidae is the pleasing fungus beetles, is a family of beetles containing over 100 genera. In the present circumscription, it includes the subfamilies , Encaustinae, Erotylinae, Megalodacninae, and Tritominae. In other words, the narrowly-circumscribed Erotylidae correspond to the subfamily Erotylinae in the definition sensu lato. They feed on plant and fungal matter; some are important pollinators (e.g. of the ancient cycads), while a few have gained notoriety as pests of some significance. Sometimes, useful and harmful species are found in one genus, e.g. Pharaxonotha. Most pleasing fungus beetles are inoffensive animals of little significance to humans however. [more]

Eruciidae

[more]

Erymidae

[more]

Eryonidae

[more]

Erythraeidae

Erythraeidae is a family of mites belonging to the Trombidiformes. Larval forms of these mites are parasitic on various other arthropods, for example harvestmen, but the adults are free-living predators. These oval mites are rather large, usually reddish colored and densely hairy. The legs, especially the first and fourth pairs, are long and adapted for running. They have either one or two pairs of eyes and can be distinguished from related families microsopically by the presence of a single claw on the tibia of the palp. [more]

Erythreidae

[more]

Escadabiidae

[more]

Ethmiidae

Ethmiidae is a family of small moths in the superfamily Gelechioidea. It is sometimes included in the Elachistidae or the Oecophoridae as a subfamily Ethmiinae. [more]

Eubelidae

[more]

Eubleptidae

[more]

Eucalanidae

[more]

Euchaetidae

[more]

Eucharitidae

[more]

Euchauliodidae

[more]

Euchiridae

[more]

Eucinetidae

Eucinetidae is a family of beetles, notable for their large that cover much of the first ventrite of the abdomen, sometimes called plate-thigh beetles. The family is small for beetles, with about 37 species in nine genera, but are found worldwide. [more]

Eucnemidae

[more]

Eucoilidae

[more]

Eucopiidae

[more]

Eucratonychidae

[more]

Eucytheridae

[more]

Eudactylinidae

[more]

Eudigonidae

[more]

Eugeronidae

[more]

Eugeropteridae

[more]

Euglycyphagidae

[more]

Eugonatonotidae

[more]

Eukoeneniidae

[more]

Eulichadidae

[more]

Eulohmanniidae

[more]

Eulomidae

[more]

Eulophidae

Eulophidae is a large family of hymenopteran insects, with over 4,300 described species in some 300 genera (see list of eulophid genera). The family as presently defined also includes the genus Elasmus, which was previously treated as a separate family, "Elasmidae", and is now treated as a subfamily of Eulophidae. These minute insects are challenging to study as they deteriorate rapidly after death unless extreme care is taken (e.g., preservation in ethanol), making identification of most museum specimens difficult. The larvae of a very few species feed on plants but the majority are primary parasitoids on a huge range of arthropods at all stages of development. They are exceptional in that they are one of two hymenopteran families with some species that are known to parasitize Thysanoptera. Eulophids are found throughout the world in virtually all habitats (one is even aquatic, parasitising psephenid beetles). [more]

Eumastacidae

[more]

Eumedonidae

[more]

Eumenidae

Potter wasps (or mason wasps) are a cosmopolitan wasp group presently treated as a subfamily of Vespidae, but sometimes recognized in the past as a separate family, Eumenidae. [more]

Eumenotidae

[more]

Eupalopsellidae

[more]

Eupatrellidae

[more]

Eupelmidae

Eupelmidae is a family of parasitic wasps in the superfamily Chalcidoidea. The group is apparently polyphyletic, though the different subfamilies may each be monophyletic, and may be elevated to family status in the near future. As presently defined, there are over 905 described species in 45 genera. The larvae of the majority are primary parasitoids, commonly on beetle larvae, though many other hosts are attacked, including spiders, and details of the life history can be variable (e.g., some attack eggs and others are hyperparasites). They are found throughout the world in virtually all habitats. [more]

Euphaeidae

Euphaeidae is a family of damselflies in the order Odonata. It is sometimes called Epallaginidae They are commonly known as Gossamerwings. It is a small family of damselflies with around 70 species. They commonly occur in Old World tropics. They are large and mostly metallic-colored. They look similar to species of damselflies in the family Calopterygidae. [more]

Euphausiidae

Krill is the common name given to the order Euphausiacea of shrimp-like marine crustaceans. Also known as euphausiids, these small invertebrates are found in all oceans of the world. The common name krill comes from the Norwegian word , meaning "young fry of fish", which is also often attributed to other species of fish. [more]

Euphoberiidae

[more]

Euphthiracaridae

[more]

Eupodidae

[more]

Eupterotidae

Eupterotidae is a family of insects in the Lepidoptera order with more than 300 described species. [more]

Eurekiidae

[more]

Eurhynchidae

[more]

Eurybrachidae

The Eurybrachyidae (sometimes misspelled "Eurybrachidae" or "Eurybrachiidae") is a small family of planthoppers found in Asia, Australia and Africa; there are over 50 species described in some 20 genera. The frons of the head is characteristic in being broader than it is long. Their large forewings are often colorfully mottled as a means of camouflage, hiding the broad and sometimes colorful abdomen. [more]

Eurybrachyidae

[more]

Eurycercidae

[more]

Eurychoromyiidae

Eurychoromyia mallea, the broad-headed fly, is a species of fly, the only species in the family Eurychoromyiidae. [more]

Eurycopidae

[more]

Eurymelidae

[more]

Eurymerodesmidae

[more]

Eurypauropodidae

[more]

Euryphoridae

[more]

Eurypteridae

[more]

Eurysquillidae

Eurysquillidae is a family of mantis shrimp. Formerly placed in the superfamily , it has since been recognised that eurysquillids are closer to families in the Squilloidea, and so Eurysquillidae has been placed in its own superfamily, Eurysquilloidea. It includes six genera: [more]

Eurytomidae

Eurytomidae is a family within the superfamily Chalcidoidea. The group is apparently polyphyletic, though the different subfamilies may each be monophyletic, and may be elevated to family status in the near future. As presently defined, there are some 1420 described species in 87 genera. [more]

Euryuridae

[more]

Euschmidtiidae

[more]

Euscorpiidae

[more]

Eusiridae

Eusiridae is a family of amphipods. It contains the following genera: [more]

Eustathiidae

[more]

Eustheniidae

[more]

Eutegaeidae

[more]

Euterpinidae

[more]

Euthemistidae

[more]

Euthyplociidae

[more]

Euxenoperlidae

[more]

Euzerconidae

[more]

Euzetidae

[more]

Evacanthidae

[more]

Evaniidae

Evaniidae, also known as the ensign wasps or hatchet wasps, is a family of parasitic wasps. It numbers around 20 extant genera containing over 400 described species, and is found all over the world except in the polar regions. The larvae of these solitary wasps feed on cockroaches and develop inside the egg-cases (oothecae) of their hosts. [more]

Eviphididae

[more]

Exoedicerotidae

[more]

Expanathuridae

[more]

Eylaidae

[more]

Faginidae

[more]

Falculiferidae

[more]

Fallotaspidae

[more]

Fallotaspididae

[more]

Falsiformicidae

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Family Unassigned

Fanniidae

The Fanniidae are a small (285 species in 4 genera) group of true flies largely confined to the Holarctic and temperate Neotropical regions. [more]

Fauriellidae

[more]

Feaellidae

The Feaellidae are a family of pseudoscorpions with the single genus Feaella. [more]

Fedrizziidae

[more]

Feltriidae

[more]

Fenicheliidae

[more]

Fergusoninidae

[more]

Ferradasiidae

[more]

Figitidae

Figitidae is a family of tiny wasps with a worldwide distribution. There are currently about 1400 described species in 126 genera although many taxa undoubtedly await discovery. In contrast to most cynipoids, which are gall-inducing phytophages, these insects are parasitoids, the larvae feeding internally on the larvae of other insects. Flies are the commonest hosts but Neuroptera and other Hymenoptera are also targeted by various species. [more]

Filistatidae

The crevice weaver spiders (super-family Filistatoidea, family Filistatidae) contain primitive cribellate. They are haplogyne weavers of funnel or tube webs. The family contains 17 genera and more than hundred described species worldwide. One of the most abundant members of this family in the Americas is the Southern house spider (Kukulcania hibernalis). Named after the fierce Meso-American god Kukulkan, the females are large (up to nearly 20 mm) dark-colored spiders and males are light brown, smaller (about 10 mm.), but more long-legged and with palpi that are held together in front of their carapaces like the horn of a unicorn. The males also have a darker streak on the center of the dorsal carapace that causes them to be often mistaken for brown recluse spiders. The tiny members of the genus Filistatinella are like miniature versions of Kukulcania. The nominate genus Filistata is Afro-Eurasian in distribution. In many older books the species from the Americas now placed in the genus Kukulcania are placed in Filistata. [more]

Fissiphalliidae

[more]

Flatidae

Flatidae are a family of Fulgoroid plant-hoppers. They are cosmopolitan in distribution and are distinguished from others in the superfamily by a combination of characters. Adults of some species have brightly colored wings and are easily identified but the identification of species often requires dissection and comparison with identification keys. [more]

Floridobolidae

[more]

Forficulidae

Forficulidae is a family of earwigs, in the suborder Forficulina in the order Dermaptera. [more]

Formicidae

Ants are social insects of the family Formicidae () and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera. Ants evolved from wasp-like ancestors in the mid-Cretaceous period between 110 and 130 million years ago and diversified after the rise of flowering plants. More than 12,500 out of an estimated total of 22,000 species have been classified. They are easily identified by their elbowed antennae and a distinctive node-like structure that forms a slender waist. [more]

Fortuyniidae

[more]

Fosshageniidae

[more]

Fratiidae

[more]

Freyanidae

[more]

Fuhrmannodesmidae

[more]

Fulgoridae

The family Fulgoridae is a large group of hemipteran insects, especially abundant and diverse in the tropics, containing over 125 genera worldwide. They are mostly of moderate to large size, many with a superficial resemblance to Lepidoptera due to their brilliant and varied coloration. Various genera and species (especially the genera Fulgora and Laternaria) are sometimes referred to as lantern flies, though they do not emit light. [more]

Gabuciniidae

[more]

Galagalgidae

[more]

Galapagacaridae

[more]

Galatheidae

Squat lobsters are decapod crustaceans of the families Galatheidae, Chirostylidae and Kiwaidae, including the common genera Galathea and Munida. They are not lobsters at all, but are more closely related to porcelain crabs, hermit crabs and then, more distantly, true crabs. They are distributed worldwide in the oceans, and occur from near the surface to deep sea hydrothermal vents. There are currently 870 described species. [more]

Galeodidae

[more]

Gallieniellidae

The Gallieniellidae are a spider family with 48 species in ten genera. [more]

Galliobatidae

[more]

Galumnellidae

[more]

Galumnidae

[more]

Gammaracanthidae

[more]

Gammarellidae

Gammarellidae is a family of amphipods containing three genera: [more]

Gammaridae

Gammaridae is a family of amphipods. In North America they are included among the folk taxonomic category of "scuds", and otherwise gammarids is usually used as a common name. [more]

Gammaroporeiidae

[more]

Garypidae

[more]

Gasterophilidae

[more]

Gasteruptidae

[more]

Gasteruptiidae

[more]

Gastrodelphyidae

Gastrodelphyidae is a family of parasitic copepods. [more]

Gastronyssidae

[more]

Gaudiellidae

[more]

Gaudoglyphidae

[more]

Gecarcinidae

Gecarcinidae is a family of true crabs that are adapted for terrestrial existence, commonly known as land crabs. Similar to all other crabs, land crabs possess a series of gills. In addition, the part of the carapace covering the gills is inflated and equipped with blood vessels. These organs extract oxygen from the air, analogous to the vertebrate lungs. Adult land crabs are terrestrial, but visit the sea periodically, where they breed and their larvae develop. Land crabs are tropical omnivores which sometimes cause considerable damage to crops. Most land crabs have one of their claws larger than the other. [more]

Gecarcinucidae

Gecarcinucidae is a family of freshwater crabs. Some scientists also include the genera placed in the family Parathelphusidae in a larger Gecarcinucidae. [more]

Gehypochthoniidae

[more]

Gelastocoridae

The Gelastocoridae (toad bugs) is a family of about 100 species of insects in the suborder Heteroptera. They are reminiscent of toads both in the warty appearance and hopping movements of some species. [more]

Gelechiidae

Gelechiidae is a family of moths commonly referred to as twirler moths or gelechiid moths. They are the namesake family of the huge and little-studied superfamily Gelechioidea, and the Gelechiidae's relationships with and delimitation against their relatives have been subject to considerable dispute. These are generally very small moths with narrow, fringed wings. The larvae of most species feed internally on various parts of their host plants, sometimes causing galls. Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga) is a host plant common to many species of the family, particularly of the genus Chionodes which is consequently more diverse in North America than usual for Gelechioidea. [more]

Geleyellidae

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Gengidae

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Geogarypidae

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Geometridae

The geometer moths or Geometridae (from Greek geo ?? or ?a?a 'the earth' and metron ??t??? 'measure' ? refers to the larvae, which appear to "measure the earth" as they move in a looping fashion) are a family of the order Lepidoptera. A very large family, it has around 35,000 species of moths described, and over 1,400 species from 6 subclasses indigenous to North America. A well-known member is the Peppered Moth, Biston betularia, which has been subject of numerous studies in population genetics. Several other geometer moths are notorious pests. [more]

Geophilidae

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Georyssidae

Georissus, also called minute mud-loving beetles, is the only genus in the beetle family Georissidae (or Georyssidae). They are tiny insects living in wet soil, often near water. Found on every continent except Antarctica. [more]

Geotrupidae

Geotrupidae (from Greek geos[], earth, and trypetes, borer) is a family of beetles in the order Coleoptera. They are commonly called dor beetles or earth-boring dung beetles. Most excavate burrows in which to lay their eggs. They are typically detrivores, provisioning their nests with leaf litter (often moldy), but are occasionally coprophagous, similar to dung beetles. The eggs are laid in or upon the provision mass and buried, and the developing larvae feed upon the provisions. The burrows of some species can exceed 2 metres in depth. [more]

Geragnostidae

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Gerocynipidae

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Gerridae

Gerridae is a family of true bugs in the order Hemiptera, commonly known as water striders, water bugs, magic bugs, pond skaters, skaters, skimmers, water scooters, water skaters, water skeeters, water skimmers, water skippers, water spiders, or Jesus bugs. One main characteristic that sets gerrids and other true bugs apart from other insects is that the front wing is only half functional. Rather than using it for flight, it acts as a membranous covering and the thickened part is by where claws develop. Consistent with the classification of Gerridae as true bugs, gerrids have a mouthpart evolved for piercing and sucking, Gerrids distinguish themselves by having the unique ability to walk on water. Gerridae, or water striders, are anatomically built to transfer their weight to be able to run on top of the water's surface. As a result, one could likely find water striders present in any pond, river, or lake. Sci entists have identified over 1,700 species of Gerrids, 10% of them being marine. [more]

Geryonidae

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Gigantapseudidae

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Gigantopygidae

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Gigasiricidae

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Glaphuridae

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Glaphyridae

Glaphyridae is a family of beetles, commonly known as The bumble bee scarab beetles. There are eight genera with about 80 species distributed worldwide. [more]

Glaresidae

Glaresis is a genus of beetles, sometimes called "enigmatic scarab beetles", in its own family, the Glaresidae. It is closely related to scarab beetles. Although its members occur in arid and sandy areas worldwide (except Australia), only the nocturnal adults have ever been collected (typically at lights), and both the larvae and biology of Glaresis are as yet unknown. Due to their narrow habitat associations, a great number of these species occur in extremely limited geographic areas, and are accordingly imperiled by habitat destruction. [more]

Glomeridae

Glomeridae is a family of pill millipedes. It includes dozens of genera, including many which are yet to be described ; the family includes at least the following genera: [more]

Glomeridellidae

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Glomeridesmidae

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Glosselytridae

[more]

Glossinidae

Tsetse (, US /'tsi?tsi/, or UK /'ts?tsi/), sometimes spelled tzetze and also known as tik-tik flies, are large biting flies that inhabit much of mid-continental Africa between the Sahara and the Kalahari deserts. They live by feeding on the blood of vertebrate animals and are the primary biological vectors of trypanosomes, which cause human sleeping sickness and animal trypanosomiasis, also known as nagana. Tsetse include all the species in the genus Glossina, which are generally placed in their own family, Glossinidae. [more]

Glossopteridae

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Glossosomatidae

Glossosomatidae is a family of the class Insecta and order Trichoptera. [more]

Glycacaridae

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Glycyphagidae

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Glypheidae

The Glypheoidea (containing the glypheoid lobsters), is a group of lobster-like decapod crustaceans which forms an important part of fossil faunas, such as the Solnhofen limestone. These fossils included taxa such as Glyphea (from which the group takes its name), and Mecochirus, mostly with elongated (often semichelate) chelipeds. This group of decapods is a good example of a living fossil, or a lazarus taxon, since until their discovery in the 1970s, the group was considered to have become extinct in the Eocene. The superfamily Glypheoidea comprises five families. The two extant species, Neoglyphea inopinata and Laurentaeglyphea neocaledonica, are both in the Glypheidae. [more]

Glyphipterigidae

Glyphipterigidae is a family of small moths commonly known as sedge moths as the larvae of many species feed on sedges and rushes. More than 500 species have been described in the family. [more]

Glyphiulidae

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Glyphocrangonidae

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Glyptograpsidae

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Gnaphosidae

Ground spiders (family Gnaphosidae) include nearly 2,000 described species in over 100 genera, distributed worldwide. This makes the family the seventh largest known. New species are still being discovered. They are closely related to Clubionidae. [more]

Gnathidae

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Gnathiidae

Gnathiidae is a family of isopod crustaceans. They occur in a wide range of depths, from the littoral zone to the deep sea. The adults are associated with sponges and may not feed. The juvenile form is known as a praniza larva, and it is a temporary parasite of marine fish. [more]

Gnathophyllidae

Gnathophyllidae is a pantropical and subtropical family of shrimp in the superfamily Palaemonoidea. They are often associated with echinoderms. [more]

Gnathostenetroididae

[more]

Gobryidae

Gobryidae is a family of five species in the genus Gobrya. Walker described the genus in 1860. They are relatively rare and found only in Taiwan, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Gobryids are brilliantly metallic blue in coloration and their heads are wider than the rest of their body. Very little is known about the larval habits of these flies. McAlpine (1997) elevated the genus to family level. More research is needed to determine the best phylogenetic placement for Gobrya. [more]

Godzilliidae

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Goeridae

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Gomphidae

Gomphidae is an Odonata family that contains about 90 genera and 900 species. They are commonly referred to as clubtail dragonflies. The name refers to the clublike widening of the end of the abdomen (abdominal segments 7 through 9). However, this club is usually less pronounced in females and is entirely absent in some species. [more]

Gomphodesmidae

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Gomphomastacidae

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Goneplacidae

Goneplacidae is a family of crabs of the order Decapoda and the superfamily Goneplacoidea. It includes the following genera: [more]

Gonibregmatidae

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Goniodidae

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Gonodactylidae

Gonodactylidae is a family of mantis shrimp. It contains the following genera: [more]

Gonyleptidae

[more]

Gracilitipulidae

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Gracillariidae

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Gradungulidae

The Gradungulidae are a small spider family of Australia and New Zealand with 16 species in seven genera. They are medium to large three-clawed haplogyne spiders with two pairs of book-lungs (like Mygalomorphae). [more]

Grammosmylidae

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Grandiunguidae

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Grandjeanicidae

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Granuloppiidae

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Grapsidae

Grapsidae is a family of crabs known variously as marsh crabs, shore crabs or talon crabs. It is not confirmed that the family forms a monophyletic group and some taxa may belong in other families. They are found along the shore among rocks, in estuaries, marshes, and in some cases pelagic among drifting seaweeds and flotsam. [more]

Gretacaridae

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Gripopterygidae

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Gryllacrididae

Gryllacrididae are a family of non-jumping cricket-like insects occurring worldwide, known commonly as "leaf-rolling crickets" or "raspy crickets". The family historically has been broadly defined to include what are presently several other families, such as Stenopelmatidae ("Jerusalem crickets") and Rhaphidophoridae ("camel crickets"), now considered separate. As presently defined, the family contains two subfamilies, with the vast majority (over 90 genera containing over 600 species) in the subfamily .[verification needed] The remaining subfamily, Lezininae, contains only a single genus with 12 described species.[verification needed] They are commonly wingless and nocturnal, resting during the day in shelters made from leaves which have been folded over and partially sealed with silk. [more]

Gryllavidae

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Gryllidae

Crickets, family Gryllidae (also known as "true crickets"), are insects somewhat related to grasshoppers, and more closely related to katydids or bush crickets (family Tettigoniidae). They have somewhat flattened bodies and long antennae. There are about 900 species of crickets. They tend to be nocturnal and are often confused with grasshoppers because they have a similar body structure including jumping hind legs. Crickets are harmless to humans. [more]

Grylloblattidae

Grylloblattidae is a family of extremophile and wingless insects that live in the cold on top of mountains. It belongs, as Mantophasmatidae, to the order of Notoptera. [more]

Gryllotalpidae

The mole crickets compose family Gryllotalpidae, of thick-bodied insects about 3?5 centimetres (1.2?2.0 in) long, with large beady eyes and shovel-like forelimbs highly developed for burrowing and swimming. They can also fly: the adult mole cricket may fly as far as 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) during mating season, is active most of the year, and spends the winter in hibernation. Younger insects can have shorter wings, and their appearance varies by species, with some resembling grasshoppers or very large ants or dark-colored "termites" when wings are short. [more]

Guanolichidae

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Guasiniidae

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Gustaviidae

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Gylippidae

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Gymnobisiidae

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Gymnodamaeidae

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Gynodiastylidae

Gynodiastylidae is one the eight most commonly recognised families of crustaceans of the order Cumacea. They are especially prevalent in the southern hemisphere, with some types described from Japan, Thailand and the Persian Gulf. Most are found at less than 100 metres (330 ft) depth. [more]

Gyrinidae

The whirligig beetles are a family (Gyrinidae) of water beetles that usually swim on the surface of the water if undisturbed, though they swim actively underwater when threatened. They get their common name from their habit of swimming rapidly in circles when alarmed, and are also notable for their divided eyes which are believed to enable them to see both above and below water. [more]

Gyropidae

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Haaseidae

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Haasiidae

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Hadromastacidae

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Hadziidae

Hadziidae is a family of amphipods, which is difficult to distinguish from the related family Melitidae. It contains the following genera: [more]

Haematomyzidae

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Haematopinidae

These sucking lice are members of a larger Suborder Anoplura which also includes the species of lice most commonly infesting humans. The Haematopinidae are identified by the presence of ocular points (although the eyes themselves are usually absent), and the tarsi being 1-clawed. [more]

Haemogamasidae

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Haglidae

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Hagloedischiidae

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Haglotettigoniidae

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Hahniidae

The dwarf sheet spiders (family Hahniidae) are small spiders, their bodies are about 2 mm in length. They build extremely delicate webs in the form of a sheet, and unlike many spiders the web does not lead to a retreat. The silk used in these webs is so fine that they are difficult to spot unless they are coated with dew. They greatly favor locations near water or near moss, and are often found in leaf litter and detritus or on the leaves of shrubs and trees. [more]

Halacaridae

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Halarachnidae

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Halcaridae

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Halictidae

Halictidae is a cosmopolitan family of the order Hymenoptera consisting of small (> 4 mm) to midsize (> 8 mm) bees which are usually dark-colored and often metallic in appearance. Several species are all or partly green and a few are red; a number of them have yellow markings, especially the males, which commonly possess yellow faces, a pattern widespread among the various families of bees. They are commonly referred to as sweat bees (especially the smaller species), as they are often attracted to perspiration; when pinched, females can give a minor sting. [more]

Halictophagidae

Halictophagidae are an insect family of the order Strepsiptera. [more]

Halidae

The Halidae are a tiny spider family with only three described species in two genera. As of 2006, this family is no longer considered valid; the two genera are instead grouped in the family Pisauridae. [more]

Halimococcidae

Halimococcidae is a family of scale insects in the order Hemiptera. Members of the family are commonly known as pupillarial palm scales or halimococcids. Most species are found on the leaves of palm trees where they suck sap, but some species occur on Pandanus. The family was named by Brown and McKenzie in 1962 and includes five known genera and twenty one species. [more]

Haliplidae

The Haliplidae are a family of water beetles who swim using an alternating motion of the legs. They are therefore clumsy in water (compared e.g. with the Dytiscidae or Hydrophilidae), and prefer to get around by crawling. The family consists of about 200 species in 5 genera, distributed wherever there is freshwater habitat; it is the only extant member of superfamily Haliploidea. They are also known as crawling water beetles or haliplids. [more]

Halocypridae

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Halocyprididae

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Halolaelapidae

Halolaelapidae is a family of mites in the order Mesostigmata. [more]

Halophilosciidae

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Hammatocnemidae

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Hammeriellidae

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Hamophthiriidae

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Hanidae

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Hapalocarcinidae

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Haplobainosomatidae

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Haplochthoniidae

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Haplodesmidae

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Haplomunnidae

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Haploniscidae

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Haplozetidae

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Harpacticidae

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Harpagopalpidae

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Harpagophoridae

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Harpalidae

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Harpetidae

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Harpididae

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Harpiosquillidae

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Harpirhynchidae

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Harpyrhynchidae

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Hastagnostidae

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Hatschekiidae

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Haustoriidae

Haustoriidae is a family of amphipods. They are very distinctive stout-bodied burrowing animals. [more]

Heatherellidae

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Hebediscidae

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Hebridae

Velvet water bugs are members of the family Hebridae. They are semiaquatic insects that live among moss or ponds with an abundance of vegetation, in which they prey on small arthropods. Velvet water bugs are the smallest of the Gerromorpha, and have an appearance of tiny veliids. Hebrids sometimes move across water surfaces, but walk or run rather than skate or scull on the surface. [more]

Hedylidae

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Hekelidae

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Helcomyzidae

Helcomyzinae is a small subfamily of Acalyptratae flies. Most authors consider they are now placed in the family Dryomyzidae. They are sometimes placed in the family Coelopidae, or elevated to family rank as Helcomyzidae. [more]

Heleomyzidae

Heleomyzidae is a small family of true flies in the insect order Diptera. There are over 650 described species of Heleomyzidae in about 80 genera and 22 tribes distributed throughout the world; the greatest number occur in the Holarctic Region. Approximately 100 species of Heleomyzidae are found in North America. Larvae feed on decaying plant and animal matter, mushrooms and various fungi. All of the subfamilies have been commonly recognized as families in the past, but are now included within the Heleomyzidae (McAlpine,D.K.,1985). [more]

Helicophidae

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Helicopsychidae

Helicopsychidae (snail-case caddisfly) are a family of Trichoptera. The name refers to the helix shaped larval cases. Helicopsychidae is divided into two genera, the monphyletic Rakiura and Helicopsyche. The family contains more than 230 species and are present on all major faunal regions. [more]

Heliocharitidae

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Heliodinidae

Heliodinidae is a family of small moths with slender bodies and narrow wings. Members of this family are found in all parts of the world. [more]

Heliozelidae

A family of primitive monotrysian moths in the order Lepidoptera, Heliozelidae are small, metallic day-flying moths with shiny smooth heads, In Europe the small adult moths (genera Antispila and Heliozela) are seldom noticed as they fly quite early in the Spring. The larvae are leaf miners[1] and the vacated leaf mines are distinctive because the larva leaves a large hole at the end. [more]

Helodidae

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Heloridae

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Helosciomyzidae

Helosciomyzidae is a very small family of flies. They comprise nine genera and 22 species. [more]

Helotidae

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Helotrephidae

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Hemerobiidae

Hemerobiidae is a family of Neuropteran insects commonly known as brown lacewings. These insects differ from the somewhat similar Chrysopidae (green lacewings) not only by the usual coloring but by the wing venation: hemerobiids having numerous long veins lacking in chrysopids. Some of the costal cross veins are forked, unlike in green lacewings. Imagines of subfamily mimic dead leaves. Hemerobiid larvae are usually less hairy than chrysopid larvae. [more]

Hemicytheridae

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Hemimeridae

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Hemioniscidae

Hemioniscidae is a family of marine isopod crustaceans in the suborder Cymothoida. The original description was made by Bonnier in 1900. Members of this family are parasitic on cirripede barnacles. [more]

Hemiphlebiidae

Hemiphlebia mirabilis, the Ancient Greenling, is a species of damselfly in family Hemiphlebiidae. It is very small with a long, metallic green body and clear wings. It is the only member of its genus and family. It is endemic to south-eastern Australia. Its natural swamp habitat is threatened by habitat loss. [more]

Hemipsocidae

Hemipsocidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the infraorder Psocetae. Member of the family have the areola postica joined to the M vein by a crossvein, and their M vein is 2-branched. This family comprises twenty-four species in three genera. [more]

Hemisarcoptidae

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Hemisquillidae

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Hemithripidae

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Henicopidae

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Hennigmatidae

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Hepatidae

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Hepialidae

The Hepialidae is a family of insects in the lepidopteran order. Moths of this family are often referred to as swift moths or ghost moths. [more]

Heptageniidae

Heptageniidae (Synonym: Ecdyonuridae) is a family of mayflies with over 500 described species mainly distributed in the Holarctic, Oriental, and Afrotropical regions, and also present in the Central American Tropics and extreme northern South America. These are generally rather small mayflies with two long tails. The wings are usually clear with prominent venation although species with variegated wings are known. As in most mayflies, the males have large compound eyes but not divided into upper and lower parts (the group is sometimes referred to as flat-headed mayflies). [more]

Hermanniellidae

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Hermanniidae

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Hermatobatidae

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Herpyllobiidae

Poecilostomatoida are an order of copepods previously included in the Cyclopoida. [more]

Hersiliidae

The tree trunk spiders are members of the tropical and semi-tropical Family Hersiliidae. There are about 150 species in this family. These spiders have two very prominent spinnerets that are almost as long as their abdomen. So they are also sometimes known as "two-tailed spiders." They range in size from about 10 mm (0.4 inch) to 18 mm (0.7 inch) long. Being very well camouflaged for life on the varicolored trunks of trees, they have an interesting way of capturing prey. Rather than making a web that captures prey directly, they lay a light coating of threads over an area of tree bark and wait hidden in plain sight for an insect to stray onto that patch. Once that occurs, they direct their spinnerets toward their prey and circle it; all the while casting silk on it. When the hapless insect has been thoroughly immobilized, they can bite it through its new shroud. [more]

Hesperiidae

A skipper or skipper butterfly is a butterfly of the family Hesperiidae. They are named after their quick, darting flight habits. There are more than 3500 recognized species of skippers and they occur worldwide, but with the greatest diversity in the Neotropical regions of Central and South America. [more]

Hesperinidae

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Heteralepadidae

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Heterobathmiidae

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Heterobelbidae

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Heteroceridae

The Heteroceridae, or variegated mud-loving beetles, are a widespread and relatively common family of beetles. They occur on every continent except for Antarctica. [more]

Heterocheylidae

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Heterochordeumatidae

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Heterocoptidae

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Heterogynaidae

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Heterogynidae

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Heterojapygidae

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Heterolatzeliidae

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Heteronemiidae

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Heterophlebiidae

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Heteropsoridae

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Heteropterygidae

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Heterorhabdidae

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Heteroscorpionidae

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Heterothripidae

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Heterozerconidae

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Hexapodidae

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Hexathelidae

The spider family Hexathelidae, the only family in the super-family Hexatheloidea, is one of two families (along with Dipluridae) of spiders known as funnel-webs. This order is sometimes incorrectly referred to (in unknown references) as the venomous funnel-web tarantulas, due to the inclusion of the Australian funnel-web spiders, including the Sydney funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus). Most specimens in Hexathelidae are not dangerous to humans. [more]

Hexgenitidae

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Hexisopodidae

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Hexoppiidae

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Hilarimorphidae

Hilarimorphidae or Hilarimorphid flies are a Family of Diptera. They are placed in the Super family Asiloidea, though there is some considerable doubt, but the consensus is that they are most closely related to the Bombyliidae. Most species are nearctic. [more]

Himantariidae

[more]

Himantopteridae

Himantopteridae is a family of insects in the Lepidoptera order. [more]

Hippidae

Hippidae is a family of decapod crustaceans, commonly known as "mole crabs" or "sand crabs". They are closely related to the family Albuneidae, with which they are usually joined in the superfamily Hippoidea. The family Hippidae comprises the three genera Emerita, Hippa and . They burrow into sand, and are found throughout the world, except the Arctic and Antarctic. [more]

Hippoboscidae

Hippoboscidae, the louse flies or keds are obligate parasites of mammals and birds. In this family there are winged species which can fly at least reasonably well, as well as others with vestigial or no wings which are flightless and highly apomorphic. As usual in their superfamily Hippoboscoidea, most of the larval development takes place within the mother's body, and pupation occurs almost immediately. [more]

Hippolytidae

Hippolytidae is a family of cleaner shrimp, also known as broken-back shrimp or anemone shrimp. The term "broken-back shrimp" also applies to the genus Hippolyte in particular and "cleaner shrimp" is sometimes applied exclusively to Lysmata amboinensis. [more]

Hipponicharionidae

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Hirstionyssidae

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Hirsutiidae

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Hirudisomatidae

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Histeridae

Histeridae is a family of beetles commonly known as Clown beetles or Hister beetles. This very diverse group of beetles contains 3,900 species found worldwide. They can be easily identified by their shortened elytra that leaves two of the seven tergites exposed, and their elbowed antennae with clubbed ends. These predatory feeders are most active at night and will fake death if they feel threatened. This family of beetles will occupy almost any kind of niche throughout the world. Hister beetles have proved useful during forensic investigations to help in time of death estimation. Also, certain species are used in the control of livestock pests that infest dung and to control houseflies. Because they are predacious and will even eat other Hister beetles, they must be isolated when collected. [more]

Histiostomatidae

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Hodotermitidae

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Hoffmaneumatidae

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Holanshaniidae

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Holarchaeidae

The Holarchaeidae are a spider family with only two described species in one genus. [more]

Holidoteidae

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Holistophallidae

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Hollinidae

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Holmiidae

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Holognathidae

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Holopediidae

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Holothyridae

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Holotrachelidae

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Homalisidae

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Homalonotidae

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Homalonychidae

The Homalonychidae are a very small spider family with three described species in one genus. [more]

Homiopteridae

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Homocaligidae

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Homolidae

The family Homolidae, known as carrier crabs or porter crabs, contains 14 genera of marine crabs. They mostly live on the continental slope and continental shelf, and are rarely encountered. Members of the Homolidae have their fifth pereiopods (last pair of walking legs) in a sub-dorsal position, which allows them to hold objects in place over the rear half of the carapace. The objects carried include sponges, black corals and gorgonians, and this is behaviour may be a defence mechanism against predators. Some species have been observed carrying living sea urchins in a symbiotic relationship which allows them to benefit from the protection of the urchin's dangerous spikes. [more]

Homolodromiidae

Homolodromiidae is a family of crabs, the only family in the superfamily Homolodromioidea. In contrast to other crabs, including the closely related Homolidae, there is no strong linea homolica along which the exoskeleton breaks open during ecdysis. The family comprises two genera, , which has 18 species, and Homolodromia, with five species. [more]

Homoptera

Homoptera: Coccoidea

Homotomidae

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Hoplomegistidae

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Hoplopleuridae

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Housiidae

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Hubbardiidae

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Humerobatidae

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Hungaiidae

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Hungarohydracaridae

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Huntemanniidae

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Hutchinsoniellidae

Cephalocarida is a class inside the subphylum Crustacea that comprises only twelve shrimp-like benthic species. They were discovered in 1955 by , and are commonly referred to as horseshoe shrimps. They have been grouped together with the Remipedia in the Xenocarida. Although a second family, Lightiellidae, is sometimes used, all cephalocaridans are generally considered to belong in just one family: Hutchinsoniellidae. Even though there is no fossil record of cephalocaridans, most specialists believe them to be primitive among crustaceans. [more]

Huttoniidae

Huttonia palpimanoides is a spider in its own family, Huttoniidae. [more]

Huttoninidae

The family Sciomyzidae belongs to the typical flies (Brachycera) of the order Diptera. They are commonly called marsh flies, and in some cases snail-killing flies due to the food of their larvae. [more]

Hyadesidae

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Hyadesiidae

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Hyalellidae

Dogielinotidae is a family of amphipods. It is currently subdivided into three subfamilies, containing a total of twelve genera: [more]

Hyalidae

Hyalidae is a family of amphipods, containing 12 genera in two unequal subfamilies: [more]

Hyblaeidae

[more]

Hybophthiridae

[more]

Hybosoridae

Hybosoridae, sometimes known as the scavenger scarab beetles, is a family of scarabaeiform beetles. The 210 species in 33 genera occur widely in the tropics, but little is known of their biology. [more]

Hybotidae

Hybotidae, the typical dance flies are a family of true flies. They belong to the superfamily Empidoidea and were formerly included in the Empididae as a subfamily. [more]

Hydrachnidae

[more]

Hydraenidae

Hydraenidae is a family of very small aquatic beetles with a worldwide distribution. These beetles are generally 1-3 mm in length (although some species reach 7 mm) with clubbed antennae. They do not swim well and are generally found crawling in marginal vegetation. Most are phytophagous but a few saprophagous and predatory species are known. [more]

Hydrobiosidae

Hydrobiosidae is a family in the insect order of Trichoptera. [more]

Hydrodromidae

[more]

Hydrometridae

Hydrometridae is a family of semi-aquatic insects, known as marsh treaders or water measurers. They have a characteristic elongated head and body which makes them resemble a yardstick for measuring the water surface. [more]

Hydrophilidae

Hydrophilidae , also called water scavenger beetles, is a family of chiefly aquatic beetles. Aquatic hydrophilids are notable for their long , which are longer than their antennae. Several of the former subfamilies of Hydrophilidae have recently been removed and elevated to family rank; Epimetopidae, Georissidae (= Georyssinae), Helophoridae, Hydrochidae, and Spercheidae (= Sphaeridiinae). Some of these formerly-included groups are primarily terrestrial or semi-aquatic. [more]

Hydropsychidae

Hydropsychidae are a family-level taxon consisting of net-spinning caddisflies. Hydropsychids are common among much of the world's streams and a few species occupy the shorelines of freshwater lakes. Larvae of the hyrdopsychids construct nets at the open end of their dwellings which is responsible for their "net-spinning caddisfly" common name. [more]

Hydroptilidae

Hydroptilidae is a large family of caddisflies (Trichoptera) with a worldwide distribution. They are commonly known as microcaddisflies or purse-case caddisflies, in reference to two characteristic traits of this family: Hydroptilidae are much smaller than other caddisflies, rarely exceeding 5 millimetres (0.20 in) in length. Their larvae do not build a protective case until the final instar of their growth. At that time however, they build a typically purse-shaped case, either portable or stuck to the substrate, in which the larva finishes growth and pupates. [more]

Hydrosalpingidae

[more]

Hydroscaphidae

Hydroscaphidae is a small family of water beetles, consisting of 13 species in three genera, which are sometimes called skiff beetles. [more]

Hydrovolziidae

[more]

Hydrozetidae

[more]

Hydryphantidae

[more]

Hygrobatidae

[more]

Hygrobiidae

[more]

Hyidae

[more]

Hylaeidae

[more]

Hymenoceridae

[more]

Hymenopodidae

Hymenopodidae is a family of the order Mantodea (mantises), with three subfamilies. [more]

Hymenoptera

Hymenosomatidae

Hymenosomatidae is a family of crabs with some 110 described species in nearly 20 genera. The following genera are placed in the Hymenosomatidae: [more]

Hyocephalidae

[more]

Hyperiidae

Hyperiidae is a family of amphipods, containing the following genera: [more]

Hyperiopsidae

Hyperiopsidae is a family of amphipods, comprising the genera and Parargissa. [more]

Hypochilidae

The Lampshade spiders of the family Hypochilidae are among the most primitive of araneomorph spiders. There are two genera and twelve species currently recognized. Like mygalomorphs, hypochilids have two pairs of book lungs, but like araneomorphs they have intersecting fangs. These long-legged spiders build typical "lampshade" style webs under overhangs and in caves. In the United States the fauna is primarily associated with the Appalachian, Rocky and California Mountains. Ten of the known species are found in these ranges, all in the genus Hypochilus. The genus Ectatosticta is found in China. [more]

Hypochthonellidae

[more]

Hypochthoniidae

[more]

Hypoderatidae

[more]

Hypoderidae

[more]

Hypodermatidae

[more]

Hypogastruridae

Hypogastruridae is a family of springtails. Members of the family are common and widespread with a cosmopolitan distribution of about 660 species in about 40 genera. [more]

Hypogexenidae

[more]

Hypolestidae

[more]

Hyponeoidae

[more]

Hypsimetopodidae

[more]

Hypsipterygidae

[more]

Hyssuridae

[more]

Hystrichonyssidae

[more]

Hystrichopsyllidae

[more]

Ibaliidae

[more]

Iblidae

[more]

Icaleptidae

[more]

Ichneumonidae

Ichneumonidae is a family within the insect order Hymenoptera. Insects in this family are commonly called ichneumon wasps. Less exact terms are ichneumon flies (they are not closely related to true flies), or scorpion wasps due to the extreme lengthening and curving of the abdomen (scorpions are not insects). Simply but ambiguously these insects are commonly called "ichneumons", which is also a term for the Egyptian Mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon); ichneumonids is often encountered as a less ambiguous alternative. Ichneumon wasps are important parasitoids of other insects. Common hosts are larvae and pupae of Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, and Lepidoptera. [more]

Idahoiidae

[more]

Ideoroncidae

[more]

Idioceridae

[more]

Idiodamaeidae

[more]

Idiopidae

Idiopidae (superfamily Idiopoidea are a mygalomorph spider family. They have a large body that often looks rather like a tarantula. [more]

Idiostolidae

[more]

Idiozetidae

[more]

Idoteidae

Idoteidae is a family of isopod crustaceans. It includes the following genera: [more]

Ignotogregatidae

[more]

Illaenidae

[more]

Illaenuridae

[more]

Ilyarachnidae

[more]

Ilyocryptidae

[more]

Ilyocyprididae

[more]

Immidae

Immoidea is a superfamily of pantropical moths containing only the family Immidae comprising ten genera with around 250 species, over half of them in the genus Imma. Many are brightly colored and diurnal. The position of this group is currently uncertain within the group Obtectomera[1]. The larvae feed on the leaves of dicotyledons and conifers including Podocarpus (Dugdale et al. 1999). [more]

Inachidae

Inachidae is a family of crabs, containing 39 genera: [more]

Inachoididae

[more]

Incerta

[more]

Incurvariidae

Incurvariidae is a family of small primitive monotrysian moths in the order Lepidoptera. There are twelve genera recognised (Davis, 1999). Many species are leaf miners and much is known of their hostplants, excluding Paraclemensia acerifoliella (Fitch). The most familiar species in Europe are perhaps Incurvaria masculella and Phylloporia bistrigella. The narrow wings are held tightly along the body at rest and some species have very long antennae. [more]

Indianidae

[more]

Indosquillidae

[more]

Ingolfiellidae

Ingolfiellidae is a family of amphipod crustaceans, comprising the following genera: [more]

Inocelliidae

Inocelliidae is a small family of snakeflies containing 8 genera of which one is known only from fossils. They are commonly known as inocelliid snakeflies. The largest known species is Fibla carpenteri known from fossils found in baltic amber. [more]

Inouyiidae

[more]

Iolinidae

[more]

Iphimediidae

[more]

Iphiopsididae

[more]

Irmaosidae

[more]

Ironomyiidae

Ironomyiidae or ironic flies , are a small family of insects of the order Diptera. Historically they have been included in the family Platypezidae. It includes only 3 living species, and a number extinct fossil species. [more]

Isaeidae

Isaeidae is a family of amphipods. It is the only family classified under the superfamily Isaeoidea. It contains the following genera: [more]

Ischnomesidae

[more]

Ischnopsyllidae

[more]

Ischnuridae

[more]

Ischyroceridae

Ischyroceridae is a family of amphipods. It contains the following genera: [more]

Ischyropsalididae

[more]

Isochilinidae

[more]

Isolapotamidae

[more]

Isometopidae

[more]

Isonychiidae

[more]

Isophlebiidae

[more]

Isostictidae

Isostictidae is a small family of medium sized to large damselflies. They're restricted to Australia, New Caledonia and New Guinea. It contains 12 genera and more than 40 species. They resemble species in the threadtail family (Protoneuridae). [more]

Isotomidae

Isotomidae is a family of springtails, comprising the following genera: [more]

Issidae

Issidae is a family of 'planthoppers' described by Spinola in 1839, belonging to the ordo Hemiptera, subordo Auchenorrhyncha infraordo Fulgoromorpha. [more]

Ithonidae

The Ithonidae or moth lacewings are a small family of winged insects of the insect order Neuroptera. This family contains a total of nine genera, seven living and two extinct. The modern moth lacewings have a notably disjunct distribution while the extinct genera had a more global range. The family is considered one of the most primitive living neuropteran families. Along with the giant lacewings, moth lacewings may be phytophagous. [more]

Ithyceridae

The New York weevil (Ithycerus noveboracensis) is a species of primitive weevil; large for weevils (12-18 mm), it is covered with fine bristles and has a regular pattern of light and dark spots. It occurs in the eastern United States and southern Canada. [more]

Ityophoridae

[more]

Iulomorphidae

[more]

Iulopididae

[more]

Iuridae

[more]

Ixodidae

Ixodidae is a family of ticks containing the hard ticks. [more]

Ixodorhynchidae

[more]

Jacobsoniidae

Jacobsoniidae is a family of beetles. The larvae and adults live under bark, in plant litter, fungi, bat guano and rotten wood. [more]

Jaktidae

[more]

Janirellidae

[more]

Janiridae

[more]

Japygidae

The japygids (family Japygidae) are a taxon of hexapods, of the order Diplura. In this family the paired cerci at the end of the abdomen are pincer-like (superficially similar to the unrelated earwigs) and are used to catch their tiny prey. Seventy genera are recognised, divided among seven subfamilies. [more]

Jarmilidae

[more]

Jassidae

Leafhopper is a common name applied to any species from the family Cicadellidae. Leafhoppers, colloquially known as hoppers, are minute plant-feeding insects in the superfamily Membracoidea in the order Hemiptera. They belong to a lineage traditionally treated as infraorder Cicadomorpha in the suborder Auchenorrhyncha, but as the latter taxon is probably not monophyletic, many modern authors prefer to abolish the Auchenorrhyncha and elevate the cicadomorphs to a suborder Clypeorrhyncha. [more]

Joeropsididae

[more]

Johnstonianidae

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Joppeicidae

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Judomiidae

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Julidae

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Jurapriidae

[more]

Jurapseudidae

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Juraraneidae

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Jurinidae

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Kainellidae

[more]

Kalliapseudidae

[more]

Kalligrammatidae

[more]

Kalotermitidae

Kalotermitidae is a family of termites. Kalotermitidae include 22 genera and 419 species. [more]

Kansasiidae

[more]

Kantacaridae

[more]

Kaolishaniidae

[more]

Karataothripidae

[more]

Karatavitidae

[more]

Karatawiidae

[more]

Karschiellidae

[more]

Karschiidae

[more]

Katianiridae

[more]

Katiannidae

[more]

Kelleriidae

Poecilostomatoida are an order of copepods previously included in the Cyclopoida. [more]

Kennedyidae

[more]

Kermesidae

The Kermesidae are a family of scale insects belonging to the superfamily Coccoidea. The typical genus, Kermes, includes the kermes scale insects, from which a red dye, also called kermes (a.k.a. crimson), is obtained. [more]

Keroplatidae

Mycetophilidae is a family of small flies, forming the bulk of those species known as fungus gnats. There are approximately 3000 described species in 150 genera but the true number of species is undoubtedly much higher. They are generally found in the damp habitats favoured by their host fungi and sometimes form dense swarms. [more]

Kerridae

[more]

Kerriidae

Kerriidae is a family of scale insects known as lac scales. [more]

Keuphyliidae

[more]

Kingstoniidae

[more]

Kinnaridae

[more]

Kirkbyidae

[more]

Kiwaidae

[more]

Kiwilichidae

[more]

Kliellidae

[more]

Klinckowstroemiidae

[more]

Klinkowstroemiidae

[more]

Kloedenellidae

[more]

Knemidokoptidae

[more]

Kodiakellidae

[more]

Kokiriidae

[more]

Koleolepadidae

[more]

Komaspididae

[more]

Koonungidae

[more]

Kovalevisargidae

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Kramerellidae

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Krausellidae

[more]

Krendowskiidae

[more]

Krithidae

[more]

Kroyeriidae

[more]

Kueichowiidae

[more]

Kuriidae

[more]

Kytoditidae

[more]

Labidophoridae

[more]

Labidostommatidae

[more]

Labiduridae

Labiduridae, whose members are known commonly as striped earwigs, is a relatively large family of earwigs in the suborder Forficulina. It contains a total of approximately 71 species, spread across seven genera in three subfamilies. Some well-known members of the family include Labidura riparia, commonly known as the tawny earwig, and . The family is mostly cosmopolitan, so it can be found around the world. The family's members are moderate to large earwigs, and are cylindrically shaped with well-developed wings. They have especially long antennae, while some segments can be shorter, and large cerci. [more]

Labiidae

Labiidae, whose members are commonly known as little earwigs, is a moderately-sized family of earwigs in the suborder Forficulina. It is a cosmopolitan family, whose members are small, winged earwigs, generally less than 1.5 centimetres (1.0 in) in length. [more]

Lachesillidae

Lachesillidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the suborder Psocomorpha. Members of the family are characterised by a rounded, free areola postica in their wings. Males have diverse sclerotized genitalic structures. The family includes close to 300 species, most of them in the genus Lachesilla. [more]

Lacturidae

Lacturidae is a family of insects in the Lepidoptera order. Brighly colored tropical moths Lacturidae have been previously placed in Plutellidae, Yponomeutidae and Hyponomeutidae. [more]

Laelapidae

Laelapidae is a family of mites in the order Mesostigmata. [more]

Laelaptidae

[more]

Laelaptonyssidae

[more]

Laemophloeidae

Laemophloeidae is a family of beetles, in the suborder Polyphaga. [more]

Lafystiidae

[more]

Lagriidae

[more]

Lalacidae

[more]

Lamellareidae

[more]

Lamingtoniidae

[more]

Laminosioptidae

[more]

Lamippidae

[more]

Lamponidae

The Lamponidae are a spider family with about 200 described species in 23 genera. [more]

Lampropidae

Lampropidae is a family of cold-water crustaceans belonging to the order Cumacea. Members of Lampropidae are relatively easily recognised because they all at have at least three terminal setae on the telson (rigid fibres on the end of the tail). The telson is medium to large and not fused with the last segment of the pleon. The endopods (interior branches) of the uropods are present on all three members. In the males the flagellum of the second antenna reaches beyond the carapace; moreover, they possess pleopods. In the females the second antenna is somewhat shorter than the first. There are (outer branches) on the third maxilliped and strongly reduced or absent on the third pereopods. [more]

Lampyridae

Lampyridae is a family of insects in the beetle order Coleoptera. They are winged beetles, and commonly called fireflies or lightning bugs for their conspicuous crepuscular use of bioluminescence to attract mates or prey. Fireflies produce a "cold light", with no infrared or ultraviolet frequencies. This chemically-produced light from the lower abdomen may be yellow, green, or pale-red, with wavelengths from 510 to 670 nanometers. [more]

Lanceolidae

[more]

Languriidae

[more]

Lankasomatidae

[more]

Laomediidae

[more]

Laophontidae

[more]

Laophontopsidae

[more]

Laphystiidae

[more]

Laphystiopsidae

[more]

Larcidae

[more]

Lardoglyphidae

[more]

Largidae

Largidae is a family of insects within the order Hemiptera. They are commonly known as bordered plant bugs because many have contrasting colored edges to their elytra. There are fifteen genera and about one hundred species. They are mostly wide-bodied, have no ocelli and have a four-segmented rostrum. The bugs in this family are generally ground-dwelling or they scramble around in plants, bushes and trees. They are phytophagous, feeding on plant juices and seeds. [more]

Largriidae

[more]

Larvamimidae

[more]

Lasiocampidae

The Lasiocampidae family of moths are also known as eggars, snout moths or lappet moths. There are over 2000 species worldwide, and probably not all have been named or studied. [more]

Lathiceridae

[more]

Lathridiidae

[more]

Latiremidae

[more]

Latreilliidae

Latreilliidae is a small family of crabs. They are relatively small, long-legged crabs found on soft bottoms at depths of up 700 metres (2,300 ft) in mostly tropical and subtemperate waters around the world. The family and its type genus are named after Pierre Andr? Latreille. It comprises seven extant species: [more]

Latridiidae

Latridiidae is a family of tiny, little-known beetles commonly called minute brown scavenger beetles. The number of described species currently stands at around 1050 in 29 genera but the number of species is undoubtedly much higher. [more]

Lauridae

[more]

Lauxaniidae

Lauxaniidae is a family of acalyptrate flies. It contains around 1800 described species in 126 genera distributed worldwide. These are generally small flies (length 5 mm or less) with large compound eyes, often brightly colored in life. Many species have different patterned wings. Contrary to popular belief they do not have different patterned bodies [more]

Laversiidae

[more]

Lebertiidae

[more]

Lecanodiaspididae

Lecanodiaspididae is a family of scale insects commonly known as false pit scales or lecanodiaspidids. Members of this family come from all parts of the world but are most numerous in the Far East. [more]

Lecanopygidae

[more]

Lechytiidae

Lechytiidae is a family of pseudoscorpions within the superfamily Chthonioidea. The single genus Lechytia contains 22 described species from many parts of the world. [more]

Lecithoceridae

Lecithoceridae (long-horned moths) is a family of small moths. Although lecithocerids are found throughout the world, the great majority are found in the Indomalaya ecozone and the southern part of the Palaearctic ecozone. [more]

Ledridae

[more]

Leeuwenhoekiidae

[more]

Leguminocythereididae

[more]

Leiodidae

Leiodidae is a family of beetles with around 3800 described species found worldwide. Members of this family are commonly called round fungus beetles due to the globular shape of many species, although some are more elongated in shape. They are generally small or very small beetles (less than 10 mm in length) and many (but not all) species have clubbed antennae. [more]

Leiostegiidae

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Lemmatophoridae

[more]

Lemoneitidae

[more]

Lemoniidae

[more]

Lemurnyssidae

[more]

Lentulidae

[more]

Leotichiidae

[more]

Lepadidae

Lepadidae is a family of goose barnacles, erected by Charles Darwin in 1852. It contains the three genera Lepas, Conchoderma and Dosima. [more]

Lepechinellidae

[more]

Leperditellidae

[more]

Leperditiidae

[more]

Lepiceridae

[more]

Lepidomysidae

[more]

Lepidopsocidae

[more]

Lepidoptera

Lepidoptera ( le-pi-dop-t?-r?) is a large order of insects that includes moths and butterflies (called lepidopterans). It is one of the most widespread and widely recognizable insect orders in the world, encompassing moths and the three superfamilies of butterflies, skipper butterflies, and moth-butterflies. The term was coined by Linnaeus in 1735 and is derived from Ancient Greek ?ep?d?? (scale) and pte??? (wing). Comprising an estimated 174,250 species, in 126 families and 46 superfamilies, the Lepidoptera show many variations of the basic body structure that have evolved to gain advantages in lifestyle and distribution. Recent estimates suggest that the order may have more species than earlier thought, and is among the four most speciose orders, along with the Hymenoptera, Diptera, and the Coleoptera. [more]

Lepidostomatidae

[more]

Lepidotrichidae

Lepidotrichidae is a family of basal insects belonging to the order Thysanura. The family is considered to contain two genera: the extinct , known from specimens preserved in Baltic amber, and the extant Tricholepidion, which contains a single species, Tricholepidion gertschi (commonly called the forest silverfish). Recent research has suggested the extant species should be assigned to its own family, Tricholepidiidae. [more]

Lepismatidae

Lepismatidae is a family of primitive wingless insects belonging to the order Thysanura with about 190 described species. This family contains the two most familiar apterygotes, the silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) and the firebrat (Thermobia domestica). [more]

Leptanthuridae

Leptanthuridae is a family of isopod crustaceans, containing the following genera: [more]

Leptastacidae

[more]

Leptestheriidae

[more]

Leptinidae

[more]

Leptoceridae

The family Leptoceridae are a family of caddisflies often called "long-horned caddisflies". Leptoceridae is the second largest family of caddisflies with more than 1500 species in around 45 genera. The main identifying feature of most Leptoceridae is that their antennae are longer than those of other caddisflies. There is one genus with short antennae (Ceraclea), but it is easily identified by the pair of dark curved lines on the mesonotum. [more]

Leptocheliidae

[more]

Leptocytheridae

[more]

Leptodoridae

Leptodora is a genus containing two species of large, nearly transparent predatory water fleas. They grow up to 21 mm (0.83 in) long, with two large antennae used for swimming and a single compound eye. The legs are used to catch other copepods that it comes into contact with by chance. Leptodora kindtii is found in temperate lakes across the Northern Hemisphere and is probably the only cladoceran ever described in a newspaper; L. richardi is only known from eastern Russia. For most of the year, Leptodora reproduces parthenogenetically, with males only appearing late in the season, to produce winter eggs which hatch the following spring. Leptodora is the only genus in its family, the Leptodoridae, and suborder, Haplopoda. [more]

Leptognathiidae

[more]

Leptohyphidae

Leptohyphidae is a family of mayflies with some 140 described species in 12 genera. [more]

Leptolaelapidae

[more]

Leptonetidae

Leptonetidae is a family of relatively primitive haplogyne (lacking hardened external female genitalia) spiders, which includes 15 genera and nearly 200 species. The family is poorly known to anybody but specialists. Leptonetids are generally tiny, have six eyes arranged in a semicircle of four in front and two behind. Many live in caves or in leaf litter. They are found around the Mediterranean, and in Eurasia, Japan and the New World[]. [more]

Leptophlebiidae

Leptophlebiidae is a family belonging to the Ephemeropterans that are commonly known as the prong-gilled mayflies or leptophlebiids. In North America they occur with about 70 species from 9 genera in freshwater streams and lakes; in Europe they are somewhat less diverse. Globally, this family is much more prevalent and diverse, with about 2000 different species. Leptophlebiids are easily recognized by the forked gills present on the larvae's abdomen, thus their common name. [more]

Leptopodidae

[more]

Leptopontiidae

[more]

Leptopsyllidae

[more]

Lernaeidae

[more]

Lernaeodiscidae

Lernaeodiscidae is a family of parasitic barnacles. They belong to the bizarre and highly apomorphic superorder Rhizocephala, and therein to the less diverse of the two orders, the . The Lernaeodiscidae are one of the smallish families of Rhizocephala, though the only one among the Kentrogonida (which otherwise contain the two larger rhizocephalan families). The family contains three genera: Lernaeodiscus M?ller, 1862, Septodiscus Van Baal, 1937 and Triangulus Smith, 1906. [more]

Lernaeopodidae

Lernaeopodidae is a family of parasitic copepods. The females are typically large and fleshy, and attach to the host permanently using a plug made of chitin called the bulla. The males cling on to the females using their antennae. The family contains the following genera: [more]

Lernaeosoleidae

[more]

Lernanthropidae

[more]

Lestidae

Lestidae is a rather small family of cosmopolitan, large-sized, slender damselflies. They are of the order of the dragonflies (Odonata) and are commonly known as "Spreadwings." There are two subfamilies in Lestdae. The first subfamily is . Damselflies in Lestinae rest with their wings partly open and the second subfamily is Sympecmatinae. The damselflies in Sympecmatinae rest with their wings folded. These damselflies in this subfamily are reedlings, ringtails, and winter damselflies. [more]

Lestoideidae

[more]

Lestoniidae

[more]

Lestrigonidae

[more]

Leuconidae

Leuconidae is a family of marine hooded shrimp (order Cumacea). These malacostracan crustaceans belong to the superorder Peracarida, unlike true shrimp, which are Eucarida. The family was established by Georg Ossian Sars in his 1878 study of Mediterranean cumaceans. [more]

Leucosiidae

Leucosiidae is a family of crabs containing three subfamilies and a number of genera incertae sedis: [more]

Leucospidae

[more]

Leucospididae

[more]

Leucothoidae

Leucothoidae is a family of amphipods. It contains 138 species in 6 genera: [more]

Leuctridae

[more]

Lezinidae

[more]

Liacaridae

[more]

Liassogomphidae

[more]

Liassophlebiidae

[more]

Libellulidae

The skimmers or perchers and their relatives form the Libellulidae, the largest dragonfly family in the world. It is sometimes considered to contain the Corduliidae as the subfamily Corduliinae and the Macromiidae as the subfamily Macromiinae. Even if these are excluded (as Silsby does), there still remains a family of over 1000 species. With nearly worldwide distribution, these are almost certainly the most often seen of all dragonflies. [more]

Libytheidae

Libytheinae is the nymphalid subfamily of the snout butterflies, containing two valid genera and about 10 species, 6 in Libythea and 4 in Libytheana. The common name refers to the thick labial palps (pedipalps) that look like a "snout" in this subfamily. In older literature, this group was recognized as the family Libytheidae. They are medium-sized and typically a drab brown. The front legs are reduced in length and the ventral hindwings are cryptically colored in order to help in blend in with its surroundings. While at rest, the members of this subfamily keep their wings tightly closed in order to resemble dead leaves. [more]

Lichakephalidae

[more]

Lichidae

[more]

Lichomolgidae

[more]

Lichomologidae

[more]

Licneremaeidae

[more]

Licnobelbidae

[more]

Licnodamaeidae

[more]

Ligiidae

Ligiidae is a family of woodlice, the only family in the infraorder Diplocheta. Its members are common on rocky shores, in similar habitats to those inhabited by species of the bristletail Petrobius and the crab Cyclograpsus. The family contains the following genera: [more]

Liljeborgiidae

Liljeborgiidae is a family of amphipods, containing the following genera: [more]

Limacodidae

Limacodidae or Euclidae is a family of moths in the superfamily Zygaenoidea or the Cossoidea; the placement is in dispute. They are often called slug moths because their caterpillars bear a distinct resemblance to slugs. They are also called cup moths because of the shape of their cocoons. [more]

Limnadiidae

[more]

Limnephilidae

Limnephilidae is a family of caddisflies with about 100 genera. They belong to the main lineage of case-constructing caddisflies, the Integripalpia or tube-case caddisflies. The Limnephilidae is one of the most species-rich Trichoptera families of northern temperate regions, but only a few are known from tropical areas and the Southern Hemisphere. For this reason they are often known as northern caddisflies. [more]

Limnesiidae

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Limnetidae

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Limnichidae

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Limnocentropodidae

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Limnocharidae

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Limnocytheridae

Limnocytheridae is a family of ostracods, containing the following genera: [more]

Limnohalacaridae

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Limnorhyphidae

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Limnoriidae

A gribble (or gribble worm) is any of about 56 species of marine isopod from the family Limnoriidae. They are mostly pale white and small (1?4 millimetres or 0.04?0.16 inch long) crustaceans, although from subantarctic waters can reach 10 mm (0.4 in). [more]

Limnozetidae

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Limoniidae

Limoniidae is a family of flies closely related to the crane flies Tipulidae although they can usually be distinguished by the way the wings are held at rest. Limoniids usually hold/fold the wings along the back of the body whereas tipulids usually hold them out at right angles. Members of the genus Chionea (snow flies) have no wings at all. Limoniids are also usually smaller than tipulids, although there are exceptions. Limoniidae is a very large family with nearly 10500 described species in 133 genera. These flies are found in damp places throughout the world and many species form dense swarms in suitable habitats. [more]

Limulidae

Horseshoe crabs are arthropods that live primarily in and around shallow ocean waters on soft sandy or muddy bottoms. They will occasionally come on shore for mating. They are commonly used as bait and in fertilizer, and in recent years there has been a decline in number of individuals, as a consequence of coastal habitat destruction in Japan and overharvesting along the east coast of North America. Tetrodotoxin may be present in the roe of species inhabiting the waters of Thailand. Horseshoe crabs are considered living fossils. [more]

Limulodidae

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Linderiellidae

Linderiella is a genus of fairy shrimp, previously placed in its own family, Linderiellidae, but now usually considered part of the Chirocephalidae. It comprises five species ? Linderiella occidentalis and L. santarosae from California, L. africana from the Atlas Mountains in Morocco, L. massaliensis from southeastern France and L. baetica from southern Spain. [more]

Linguatulidae

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Linognathidae

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Linotaeniidae

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Linotetranidae

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Linyphiidae

Linyphiidae is a family of spiders, including more than 4,300 described species in 578 genera worldwide. This makes Linyphiidae the second largest family of spiders after the Salticidae. New species are still being discovered throughout the world, and the family is poorly known. Because of the difficulty in identifying such tiny spiders, there are regular changes in taxonomy as species are combined or divided. [more]

Liochelidae

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Liocranidae

Liocranid sac spiders consist of about 160 species of wandering spiders in 30 or so genera. The best known are those in the Holarctic genus Agroeca. Various genera of rather obscure spiders are included in the family, which still lacks a diagnosis. Two species in the North American genus Neoanagraphis are found in often hyperarid conditions in the Mojave, Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts. The females apparently live in animal burrows and the males wander and are often caught in pitfall traps. [more]

Liodidae

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Liomopteridae

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Liopteridae

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Liostracinidae

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Liphistiidae

The spider family Liphistiidae comprises 5 genera and 85 species from Southeast Asia, China, and Japan. They are among the most basal living spiders, belonging to the suborder Mesothelae. In Japan, the Kimura-gumo (Heptathela kimurai) is rather well-known. [more]

Liposcelidae

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Liposcelididae

Liposcelididae is a family of barklice (Psocoptera) belonging to the suborder Troctomorpha. Members of this family are small and flattened, and often wingless. [more]

Lisaniidae

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Listrophoridae

Listrophoridae is a family of mites in the suborder Psoroptidia of the order Sarcoptiformes. The family contains small, long mites specialized for grasping the hairs of mammals. North American genera include: [more]

Lithidiidae

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Lithobiidae

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Lithodidae

King crabs, also called stone crabs, are a superfamily of crab-like decapod crustaceans chiefly found in cold seas. Because of their large size and the taste of their meat, many species are widely caught and sold as food, the most common being the red king crab, Paralithodes camtschaticus. [more]

Lithoglyptidae

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Lithotryidae

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Litophlebiidae

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Liwiidae

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Lobalgidae

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Locustavidae

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Locustidae

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Locustopseidae

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Locustopsidae

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Loganellidae

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Lohmanniidae

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Lomisidae

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Lonchaeidae

Lonchaeidae is a family of acalyptrate flies commonly known as lance flies. There are about 500 described species in 9 genera. These are generally small but robustly built flies with blue-black or metallic bodies. They are found, mainly in wooded areas, throughout the world with the exception of polar regions and New Zealand. [more]

Lonchocephalidae

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Lonchodidae

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Lonchopteridae

Lonchopteridae (spear-winged flies or pointed-wing flies) are a family of small (2?5 mm), slender, yellow to brownish-black Diptera, occurring all over the world. Their common name refers to their pointed wings, which have a distinct venation. Most are bisexual; males are very rare however at least in North American species, and have a somewhat different venation than do the females. [more]

Longduiidae

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Longipediidae

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Lophocoronidae

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Lophogastridae

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Lophonotacaridae

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Lophopidae

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Lophoproctidae

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Lordalychidae

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Lorenzellidae

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Louriniidae

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Loxoconchidae

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Luanpingitidae

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Lubbockiidae

Poecilostomatoida are an order of copepods previously included in the Cyclopoida. [more]

Lucanidae

Stag beetles are a group of about 1,200 species of beetle in the family Lucanidae, presently classified in four subfamilies Some species grow up to over 12 cm (4.8 in), but most are about 5 cm (2 in). [more]

Lucicutiidae

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Luciferidae

Lucifer is a little-known and degenerate genus of prawns, the only genus in the family Luciferidae. Lucifer has a long body, but many fewer appendages than other prawns, with only three pairs of pereiopods remaining, all without claws. It also bears no gills. The females, uniquely among prawns, carry the fertilised eggs on her pleopods until they are ready to hatch. This parallels the development of a similar system in pleocyemates, although the attachment is less strong in Lucifer. The length of the eye-stalks and the form of the are used in distinguishing the eight species from each other. Seven species are recognised: [more]

Lusitaniosomatidae

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Lutrochidae

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Luxtoniidae

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Lycaeidae

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Lycaenidae

The Lycaenidae are the second-largest family of butterflies, with about 6000 species worldwide, whose members are also called gossamer-winged butterflies. They constitute about 40% of the known butterfly species. [more]

Lycaeopsidae

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Lycidae

Lycidae is a family in the beetle order Coleoptera, members of which are commonly called net-winged beetles. [more]

Lycopsyllidae

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Lycosidae

Wolf spiders are members of the family Lycosidae, from the Ancient Greek word "" meaning "wolf". They are robust and agile hunters with good eyesight. They live mostly solitary lives and hunt alone. Some are opportunistic hunters pouncing upon prey as they find it or even chasing it over short distances. Some will wait for passing prey in or near the mouth of a burrow. [more]

Lyctidae

Powderpost beetles are a group of seventy species of woodboring beetles classified in the insect subfamily Lyctinae. These beetles, along with spider beetles, death watch beetles, common furniture beetles, skin beetles, and others, make up the superfamily Bostrichoidea. While most woodborers have a large prothorax, powderpost beetles do not, making their heads more visible. In addition to this, their antennae have two-jointed clubs. They are considered pests and attack deciduous trees, over time reducing the wood to a powdery dust. The damage caused by longhorn beetles (family Cerambycidae) is often confused with that of powderpost beetles, but the two groups are unrelated. Their larvae are white and C-shaped. [more]

Lygaeidae

The Lygaeidae are a family in the Hemiptera (true bugs), with some 60 genera in six subfamilies. The family includes the insects commonly known as milkweed bugs, and also some of those known as seed bugs. The family used to be vastly larger, as numerous former subfamilies have been removed and given independent family status, including , Blissidae, Cryptorhamphidae, Cymidae, Geocoridae, Heterogastridae, Ninidae, Oxycarenidae, Pachygronthidae, and Rhyparochromidae, which together constituted well over half of the former family. Many of the species feed on seeds, although some feed on sap (mucivory), and a few, such as the wekiu bug, feed on insects. [more]

Lygaiedae

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Lygistorrhinidae

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Lymantriidae

Lymantriidae is a family of moths. Many of its component species are referred to as "Tussock moths" of one sort or another. The caterpillar, or larval, stage of these species often has a distinctive appearance of alternating bristles and haired projections. Like other families of moths, many Tussock Moth caterpillars have urticating hairs (often hidden among longer, softer hairs) which can cause painful reactions if they come into contact with skin. [more]

Lymexylidae

The Lymexylidae, or ship-timber beetles, are a family of wood-boring beetles, and the sole member of the superfamily Lymexyloidea. [more]

Lymexylonidae

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Lynceidae

Clam shrimps are a taxon of bivalved crustacea bearing passing resemblance but no relation to bivalved molluscs. They are extant, and known from the fossil record, from at least the Devonian period and perhaps before. They were originally classified in a single order Conchostraca, which later proved to be artificial (paraphyletic). They have a two-part shell similar to that of a bivalve mollusc. [more]

Lyonetiidae

Lyonetiidae is a family of moths with some 200 described species. These are small, slender moths, the wingspan rarely exceeding 1 cm. The very narrow forewings, held folded backwards covering the hindwings and abdomen, often have pointed apices noticeably up- or down-turned. The larvae are leaf miners. [more]

Lyrifissellidae

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Lysianassidae

Lysianassidae is a family of marine amphipods, containing the following genera: [more]

Lysiosquillidae

Lysiosquillidae is a family of mantis shrimp, containing the following genera : [more]

Machadobelbidae

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Machaeroidae

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Machaerotidae

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Machilidae

Machilidae is a family of primitive insects belonging to the order Archaeognatha (the bristletails). There are around 250 described species worldwide. These insects are wingless, elongated and more or less cylindrical with a distinctive humped thorax and covered with tiny, close-fitting scales. The color is usually grey or brown, sometimes intricately patterned. There are three "tails" at the rear of the abdomen: two cerci and a long central . They have large compound eyes, often meeting at a central point. They resemble the silverfish and the firebrat. [more]

Machuellidae

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Mackenziellidae

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Macrochelidae

Macrochelidae is a family of mites in the order Mesostigmata, containing the following genera and species: [more]

Macrochironidae

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Macrocyprididae

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Macrodinychidae

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Macrohectopidae

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Macronyssidae

Macronyssidae is a family of parasitic mites in the order Mesostigmata. [more]

Macropathidae

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Macropsyllidae

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Macrosternodesmidae

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Macrostylidae

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Macrothricidae

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Macroveliidae

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Madeoveliidae

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Maiidae

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Maimetshidae

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Maindroniidae

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Majidae

Majidae is a family of crabs, comprising around 200 marine species with a carapace that is longer than it is broad, and which forms a point at the front. The legs can be very long in some species, leading to the name "spider crab". The exoskeleton is covered with bristles to which the crab attaches algae and other items to act as camouflage. [more]

Malachiidae

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Malacolepadidae

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Malaconothridae

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Malacopsyllidae

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Malacostraca

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Malcidae

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Malgasiidae

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Malkaridae

The Malkaridae are a small spider family with ten species in four genera. [more]

Manaosbiidae

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Manicapsocidae

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Manitherionyssidae

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Manotidae

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Mantidae

Mantidae is the largest family of the order Mantodea, commonly known as praying mantises; most are tropical or subtropical. Historically, this was the only family in the order, and many references still use the term "mantid" to refer to any mantis. Technically, however, "mantid" refers only to members of the Mantidae family, and not the 14 remaining families of mantises. Some of the most recent classifications have promoted a number of the mantid subfamilies to the rank of family, e.g. Iridopterygidae, Sibyllidae, Tarachodidae, Thespidae, and Toxoderidae, while other classifications have reduced the number of subfamilies without elevating to higher rank. [more]

Mantispidae

Mantispidae is a family of small to moderate-sized net-winged insects, known as mantidflies, mantispids, mantid lacewings or mantis-flies. There are many genera with around 400 species worldwide, especially in the tropics and subtropics. Only 5 species of occur in Europe. [more]

Mantoididae

Mantoida is a genus containing seven species of praying mantis. It is placed in its own family, Mantoididae. [more]

Mantophasmatidae

Mantophasmatodea is a suborder of carnivorous African insects discovered in 2002, originally considered to be a new order, but since relegated to subordinal status, and comprising the single family Mantophasmatidae. It belongs, as Grylloblattidae, to the order of Notoptera. [more]

Maorizetidae

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Mapaniidae

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Margarodidae

Margarodidae is a family of scale insects within superfamily Coccoidea. Members of the family include giant coccids (various genera), Polish cochineal (genus Porphyrophora) and ground pearls (genus Margarodes). [more]

Marginidae

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Marjumiidae

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Marrellidae

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Martynoviidae

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Masaridae

Pollen wasps are unusual wasps that are typically treated as a subfamily of Vespidae, but have in the past sometimes been recognized as a separate family, "Masaridae", which also included the subfamily Euparagiinae. It is a small subfamily, unique among wasps in feeding their larvae exclusively with pollen and nectar, in a fashion quite similar to many solitary bees. Most species are black or brown, marked with strikingly contrasting patterns of yellow, white, or red (or combinations thereof). They are most diverse and abundant in the desert regions of southern Africa, but also occur in the deserts of North and South America. Some species of Pseudomasaris in California, such as , bear a remarkable resemblance to yellowjackets, but can be recognized by their strongly clubbed antennae, a characteristic feature of the subfamily. Males have the antennae greatly elongated, but still ending in a strong club. [more]

Mastacideidae

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Mastigophorophyllidae

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Mastotermitidae

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Matutidae

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Maudheimiidae

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Maxillipiidae

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Mayiellidae

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Mecicobothriidae

Dwarf tarantulas, also known as sheet funnel-web spiders are a type of spider from the family Mecicobothriidae. Dwarf tarantulas are one of several families of the sub-order Mygalomorphae; this larger group also includes the true tarantulas. [more]

Mecistocephalidae

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Mecochiridae

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Mecognathidae

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Mecynoceridae

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Mecysmaucheniidae

The Mecysmaucheniidae are a spider family with 25 described species in seven genera. [more]

Medocostidae

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Meenoplidae

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Megacalanidae

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Megacelaenopsidae

Megacelaenopsidae is a family of mites in the order Mesostigmata. [more]

Megachilidae

The Megachilidae are a cosmopolitan family of (mostly) solitary bees whose pollen-carrying structure (called a scopa) is restricted to the ventral surface of the abdomen (rather than mostly or exclusively on the hind legs as in other bee families). Megachilid genera are most commonly known as mason bees and leafcutter bees, reflecting the materials they build their nest cells from (soil or leaves, respectively); a few collect plant or animal hairs and fibers, and are called carder bees. All species feed on nectar and pollen, but a few are cleptoparasites (informally called "cuckoo bees"), feeding on pollen collected by other megachilid bees. Parasitic species do not possess a scopa. The brightly colored scopa leads to a colloquial name used occasionally in North America - "Jelly-belly bees." Megachilid bees are among the world's most efficient pollinators because of their energetic swimming-like motion in the reproductive structures of flowers, which moves pollen, as need ed for pollination. One of the reasons they are efficient pollinators is their frequency of visits to plants, but this is because they are extremely inefficient at gathering pollen; compared to all other bee families, megachilids require on average nearly ten times as many trips to flowers to gather sufficient resources to provision a single brood cell. [more]

Megalodontesidae

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Megalodontidae

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Megalolaelapidae

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Megalopygidae

Megalopygidae is the technical name of a group of insect species known generally as crinkled flannel moths, or simply Flannel Moths. They occur in North America (11 species) and the New World tropics. The larvae are called Puss Caterpillars, and with their long hairs, resemble cotton balls. They have venomous spines that can cause a painful sting and inflammation lasting for several days. In some cases, the sting may cause headache, nausea, and shock-like symptoms. Perhaps the most notorious for stinging is the caterpillar of Megalopyge opercularis. [more]

Megaluropidae

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Megalyridae

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Megamerinidae

Megamerinidae is a family of flies (Diptera) with about 11 species in the genera Protexara Yang Megamerina Rondani, and Texara Walker. They are marked by an elongate, basally constricted abdomen. The family is typically placed in the superfamily Diopsoidea (but may be placed in Nerioidea by some authors). [more]

Meganeuridae

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Megapodagrionidae

Megapodagrionidae is a family of damselflies, commonly called flatwings for their habit of spreading out the hindwings horizontally when at rest. They belong to the superfamily . [more]

Megapontiidae

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Megarididae

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Megaspilidae

Megaspilidae is a small Hymenopteran family with 12 genera in two subfamilies, and some 450 known species, with a great many species still undescribed. It is a poorly known group as a whole, though most are believed to be parasitoids (esp. of Sternorrhynchan Hemiptera), and a few hyperparasitoids. Many are found in the soil, and of these, a number are wingless. [more]

Megelytridae

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Megeremaeidae

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Megisthanidae

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Meinertellidae

Meinertellidae is a small family of basal insects belonging to the order Archaeognatha. They are sometimes known as rock bristletails. These insects can be distinguished from members of the other Archaeognatha family, Machilidae, by the lack of scales at the base of the legs and antennae. [more]

Meinertulidae

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Melandryidae

Melandryidae or The false darkling beetles is a family of beetles in the large suborder Polyphaga. [more]

Melanoblossidae

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Melanthripidae

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Melinnacheridae

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Melitidae

Melitidae is a family of amphipods. It contains around 45 genera, and formerly included a further 40 genera that are now placed in the family . [more]

Melittidae

The family Melittidae is a small bee family, with some 60 species in 4 genera, restricted to Africa and the northern temperate zone. Historically, the family has included the Dasypodaidae and Meganomiidae as subfamilies, but recent molecular studies indicate that Melittidae (sensu lato) was paraphyletic, so each of the three historical subfamilies is now accorded family status, with Dasypodaidae as the basal group of bees, followed by Meganomiids and Melittids, which are sister taxa.. [more]

Meloidae

Blister beetles are beetles (Coleoptera) of the family Meloidae, so called for their defensive secretion of a blistering agent, cantharidin. There are approximately 7,500 known species worldwide. Many are conspicuous and some aposematically colored, announcing their toxicity to would-be predators. [more]

Melolonthidae

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Melphidippidae

Melphidippidae is a family of amphipods which rest upside-down and feed on particles of food suspended in the water. Three genera are recognised: [more]

Melyridae

Melyridae (common name: soft-wing flower beetles) are a family of beetles of the superfamily Cleroidea. The family Melyridae contains 520 species in 58 genera in North America. Most are elongate-oval, soft-bodied beetles 10 mm long or less. Many are brightly colored with brown or red and black. Some melyrids () have peculiar orange structures along the sides of the abdomen, which may be everted and saclike or withdrawn into the body and inconspicuous. Some melyrids have the two basal antennomeres greatly enlarged. Most adults and larvae are predaceous, but many are common on flowers. The most common North American species belong to the genus Collops (Malachiinae); C. quadrimaculatus is reddish, with two bluish black spots on each elytron. Batrachotoxins are found in them. [more]

Membracidae

Treehoppers (more precisely typical treehoppers to distinguish them from the ) and thorn bugs are members of the family Membracidae, a group of insects related to the cicadas and the leafhoppers. There are about 3,200 known species of treehoppers in over 600 genera. They are found on all continents except Antarctica, although there are only three species in Europe. [more]

Mengeidae

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Mengenillidae

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Menippidae

Menippidae is a family of crabs of the order Decapoda. [more]

Menneraspidae

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Menomoniidae

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Menoponidae

Sometimes referred to as the chicken body louse family, the Menoponidae are a family of a larger group Amblycera of the chewing lice. Most commonly they are ectoparasites of a wide range of birds. [more]

Menthidae

The Menthidae are a small family of pseudoscorpions that are nevertheless spread around the world. While Menthus is found from Mexico to California, Oligomenthus lives in South America. The monotypic genera Paramenthus and Thenmus live in Israel and Australia, respectively. [more]

Meropeidae

The Meropeidae are a tiny family of the order Mecoptera with only two living species, both of which are commonly referred to as "earwigflies" (or sometimes "forcepflies"); the North American Merope tuber, and the Western Australian Austromerope poultoni. The biology of both of these species is essentially unknown, and their larvae have never been seen. The disjunct distribution, only North America and Western Australia, is reminiscent of that of the marsupial possum. There are two extinct genera, Novokschonov from the Middle Jurassic of Siberia and Thaumatomerope with three described species all from the Madygen Formation in Kyrgyzstan. These insects are also of interest due to their presumed basal position in the order Mecoptera. [more]

Merothripidae

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Mesaiokeratidae

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Mesephemeridae

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Mesithonidae

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Mesoedischiidae

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Mesogammaridae

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Mesolimulidae

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Mesonetidae

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Mesoniscidae

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Mesoplectopteridae

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Mesoplophoridae

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Mesopsocidae

Mesopsocidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the suborder Psocomorpha. Members of the family are characterised by their free he family includes more than 70 species. [more]

Mesoraphidiidae

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Mesosciophilidae

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Mesoserphidae

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Mesosignidae

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Mesothaumaleidae

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Mesoveliidae

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Messicobolidae

The family Messicobolidae is one of the smaller families of millipedes in the Order Spirobolida (fewer than 30 described species). In general appearance, messicobolids are medium to large size spirobolids and are often brightly colored. Messicobolids occur in mountainous regions of Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador. Oak/pine forest and montane rain forest are the typical habitats in these environments and messicobolids are generally associated with decomposing logs and leaf litter of broad-leaved trees. [more]

Messoracaridae

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Metachandidae

Metachandidae is a small family of moths containing a single genus, Metachanda. [more]

Metadoxididae

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Metagnostidae

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Metagynuridae

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Metaingolfiellidae

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Metallyticidae

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Metapseudidae

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Metarbelidae

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Methocidae

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Metidae

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Metopidiothricidae

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Metretopodidae

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Metridinidae

Metridinidae is a family of copepods, comprising three genera: [more]

Metropatoridae

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Micheleidae

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Micreremidae

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Microcerberidae

Microcerberidae is a family of isopod crustaceans. They are less than 2 millimetres (0.08 in) long, and live interstitially in shallow marine or freshwater sand habitats. [more]

Microcharmidae

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Micrococcidae

Micrococcidae is a family of scale insects commonly known as the Mediterranean scales. There are two genera and eight species. Members of this family are found in Cyprus, Italy and other Mediterranean countries including Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Lebanon, Libya, Syria and Turkey. [more]

Microcytheridae

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Microdajidae

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Microdispidae

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Microgyniidae

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Microlepadidae

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Micromalthidae

The telephone-pole beetle, Micromalthus debilis, is a beetle native to the eastern United States, and the only species in the family Micromalthidae. [more]

Microparasellidae

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Micropeplidae

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Micropezidae

The Micropezidae are a moderate-sized family of acalyptrate muscoid flies in the insect order Diptera, comprising about 500 species in about 50 genera and 5 subfamilies worldwide, (except New Zealand and Macquarie Island). They are most diverse in tropical and subtropical habitats, especially in the Neotropical Region. [more]

Microphasmatidae

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Microphasmidae

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Micropholcommatidae

The Micropholcommatidae are a spider family with 33 described species in eight genera. Micropholcommatids are extremely small, with body lengths typically between 0.5 and 2 mm. They are usually found among leaf litter or moss. [more]

Microphoridae

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Microphysidae

The Microphysidae are a very small family of bugs, comprising only 5 genera. [more]

Micropontiidae

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Micropsammidae

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Micropterigidae

Micropterigoidea is the superfamily of "mandibulate archaic moths", all placed in the single family Micropterigidae, containing currently about 20 living genera. They are considered the most primitive extant lineage of Lepidoptera (Kristensen, 1999). [more]

Microsporidae

Sphaerius is a genus of beetle, comprising 23 species, which are the only members of the family Sphaeriusidae. They are typically found along the edges of streams and rivers, where they feed on algae, occurring on all continents except Antarctica. Only 3 species occur in the United States. [more]

Microstigmatidae

The Microstigmatidae are a small spider family with fifteen described species in seven genera. They are small ground-dwelling and free-living spiders that make little use of silk. [more]

Microtegeidae

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Microthoraciidae

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Microtrombidiidae

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Microzetidae

[more]

Mictocarididae

Mictocaris halope is the only species of freshwater crustacean in the monotypic genus Mictocaris. It is placed in its own family, Mictocarididae, and is sometimes considered the only member of the order Mictacea. Mictocaris is endemic to anchialine caves in Bermuda, and grows up to 3.5 mm (0.14 in) long. Its biology is poorly known. [more]

Mictosomatidae

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Mictyridae

[more]

Mideidae

[more]

Mideopsidae

[more]

Migidae

The tree trapdoor spiders (Migidae) are a spider family with about 90 species in 10 genera. [more]

Milichiidae

Milichiidae are a family of flies. Most species are very small and dark in color. Details of their biology have not yet been properly studied, but they are best known as kleptoparasites of predatory invertebrates, and accordingly are commonly known as freeloader flies or jackal flies. However, because of the conditions under which many species breed out, they also are known as filth flies [more]

Millotauropodidae

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Mimallonidae

[more]

Mimetidae

The family Mimetidae, commonly called pirate spiders, are spiders which typically feed on other spiders. [more]

Mimnermidae

[more]

Mimonectidae

[more]

Minuidae

[more]

Miracidae

[more]

Miraciidae

[more]

Miraculidae

[more]

Miratemnidae

[more]

Miridae

The large and diverse insect family Miridae contains the plant bugs, leaf bugs, and grass bugs, and may also be known as capsid bugs. It is the largest family of true bugs belonging to the suborder Heteroptera, with over 10,000 known species and new ones constantly being described. They are small, terrestrial insects, usually oval-shaped or elongate and measuring less than 12 millimetres (0.5 in) in length. Some are brightly colored, others drab or dark. Some genera are ant mimics at certain stages of life. Most of the more well-known mirids have received attention because they are agricultural pests. They pierce plant tissues and feed on the juices. [more]

Mischopteridae

[more]

Misophriidae

[more]

Misthodotidae

[more]

Mithracidae

[more]

Mitophlebiidae

[more]

Miturgidae

The long-legged sac spiders (family Miturgidae) include nearly 400 species in about 30 genera worldwide. [more]

Mnesarchaeidae

[more]

Mochlozetidae

[more]

Mogoplistidae

[more]

Moinidae

Moinidae is a crustacean family within the order Cladocera. Species within this family are widely occurring including the continents of North America and Africa. In newer classifications it is sometimes included in the family Daphniidae. [more]

Molannidae

[more]

Momoniidae

[more]

Momphidae

Momphidae (mompha moths) is a family of moths with some 115 described species. These tend to be rather small moths with a wingspan of up to 21 mm. The wings are held folded over the body at rest. The larvae are concealed feeders, either as leaf miners or within seeds or stems. [more]

Mongoliulidae

[more]

Monkaspidae

[more]

Monodellidae

[more]

Monomachidae

[more]

Monommidae

Monommatinae is a subfamily (or sometimes only considered a tribe) of beetles with no vernacular common name, though recent authors have coined the name opossum beetles. They have been treated historically as a family (sometimes spelled Monommidae), but have recently been placed into the Zopheridae. There are some 15 genera in this group, commonly found in association with plants in the family Agavaceae. [more]

Monoscutidae

[more]

Monotomidae

[more]

Monstrillidae

Monstrilloida is an order of copepods with a cosmopolitan distribution in the world's oceans. The order contains a single family, Monstrillidae; the family was formerly included in the order, but is now usually placed in the Cyclopoida. The taxonomy of the family is undergoing a period of revision, although some necessary changes are apparent; for instance, the genus Strilloma is now considered a taxonomic synonym of Monstrilla, the largest genus. [more]

Morabidae

[more]

Moravohymenidae

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Mordellidae

Mordellidae is a family of beetles commonly known as tumbling flower beetles for the typical irregular movements they make when escaping predators, or as pintail beetles due to their abdominal tip which aids them in performing these tumbling movements. Worldwide, there are about 1500 species. [more]

Mormonillidae

[more]

Mormotomyiidae

The family Mormotomyiidae (Diptera: Ephydroidea) contains only one known species, Mormotomyia hirsuta, commonly known as the Frightful Hairy Fly, which is found in Kenya. The fly was first described by English entomologist Ernest Edward Austen, and specimens have been collected from one location on a mountain in the (Okazzi Hills), in a cleft where a bat roost is located; this may possibly be the most restricted geographic distribution for any fly family. The larvae have been collected from bat guano. Adult flies are believed to feed on bodily secretions of bats. The fly measures about 1 cm long, with hairy legs, and, due to its non-functional wings and tiny eyes, looks more like a spider than a fly. Specimens have been collected only three times, in 1933, 1948, and 2010. [more]

Multoribulidae

[more]

Munnidae

[more]

Munnopsidae

[more]

Munnopsididae

[more]

Musapsocidae

[more]

Muscidae

Muscidae are a family of flies found in the superfamily Muscoidea. The apical segment of the antennae of Muscidae are plumose, and the basal portion is smooth. [more]

Musidoromimidae

[more]

Mutillidae

Mutillidae are a family of more than 3,000 species of wasp whose wingless females resemble ants. Their common name velvet ant refers to their dense pile of hair which most often is bright scarlet or orange but may also be black, white, silver, or gold. Their bright colors serve as aposematic signals. They are known for their extremely painful sting, facetiously said to be strong enough to kill a cow, hence the common name cow killer or cow ant is applied to some species. Unlike a real ant, they do not have drones, workers, and queens. However, velvet ants do exhibit haplodiploid sex determination similar to other members of Vespoidea (JH Hunt 1999). [more]

Mycetobiidae

[more]

Mycetomorphidae

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Mycetophagidae

Mycetophagidae or The hairy fungus beetles is a family of beetles, in the large suborder Polyphaga. The different species are between 1.0 - 6.5 mm in length. The larvae and adults live in decaying leaf litter, fungi and under bark. Most species feed on fungi (hence the name). Worldwide, there are about 18 genera which 200 species. [more]

Mycetophilidae

Mycetophilidae is a family of small flies, forming the bulk of those species known as fungus gnats. There are approximately 3000 described species in 150 genera but the true number of species is undoubtedly much higher. They are generally found in the damp habitats favoured by their host fungi and sometimes form dense swarms. [more]

Mycobatidae

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Mycteridae

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Mycteropidae

[more]

Mydidae

The Mydidae (alternative spelling Mydaidae), or Mydas flies, are a small (fewer than 400 species), cosmopolitan family of rather large flies - including, in fact, the largest known fly, Gauromydas heros (a.k.a. Mydas heros). Many of the species, in addition to their large size, are mimics of stinging Hymenopterans, especially wasps. They are most diverse and abundant in arid regions of the world, but can be found in other habitats. They are infrequently encountered as the adult life span appears quite short, and little is known about their biology, though larvae of some species appear to be subterranean predators of ants. [more]

Myicolidae

[more]

Mymaridae

Mymaridae, commonly known as fairyflies or fairy wasps, is a family of chalcid wasps found in temperate and tropical regions throughout the world. It contains around 100 genera and 1424 species. All of them are parasitoids of the eggs of other insects. Several species have been successfully used as biological pest control agents. [more]

Mymarommatidae

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Myobiidae

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Myocoptidae

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Myopsocidae

Myopsocidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the suborder Psocetae. This family is closely related to Psocidae, with which it share similar wing-venation, but from which it is distinguished by three-segmented tarsi. [more]

Myrmecolacidae

Myrmecolacidae are an insect family of the order Strepsiptera. There are four genera and about 98 species in this family. Like all strepsipterans, they have a parasitic mode of development with males parasitizing ants while the females develop inside Orthoptera. The sexes differ greatly in morphology making it very difficult to match females to the better catalogued museum specimens of males. [more]

Myrmecophilidae

The ant-loving crickets are rarely encountered relatives of crickets, and are obligate inquilines within ant nests. They are very small, wingless, and flattened, therefore resembling small cockroach nymphs. There are a few genera, containing fewer than 100 species. Ant Crickets are yellow in color and can be heard by listing to the quiet "tweeting" of the ant piles. [more]

Myrmeleonidae

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Myrmeleontidae

Antlions are a group of insects in the family Myrmeleontidae (sometimes misspelled as "Myrmeleonidae"). The most well-known genus is . There are about 2,000 species. Strictly speaking, the term "antlion" applies to the larval form of the members of this family, but while several languages have their own terms for the adult, there is no widely used word for them in English. Very rarely, the adults are called "antlion lacewings". [more]

Myrmochernetidae

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Mysidacea

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Mysidae

Mysidae is a family of crustaceans in the order Mysida or mysid shrimps. Six sub-families are recognised: [more]

Mysmenidae

The Mysmenidae are a spider family with almost 100 described species in more than twenty genera. [more]

Mystacinobiidae

The New Zealand batfly, Mystacinobia zelandica, is a small, wingless insect which lives in a symbiotic relationship with the New Zealand Lesser Short-tailed Bat. It is a member of the true flies that belong to the order Diptera but is so unusual that it is placed in its own genus, Mystacinobia, and family, Mystacinobiidae - this monotypic family is endemic to New Zealand. [more]

Mythicomyiidae

Mythicomyiids are very tiny flies (0.5?5.0 mm) found throughout most parts of the world, especially desert and semi-desert regions, except the highest altitudes and latitudes. They are not as common in the tropics, but genera such as and Platypygus are known from these regions. Many of these "microbombyliids" have humpbacked thoraces and lack the dense vestiture common in Bombyliidae. Mythicomyiids have until recently not had much attention in the literature. Their small size has caused them to be missed when collecting. Yellow pan trapping and fine-mesh netting in Malaise and aerial sweep nets has resulted in a tremendous amount of undescribed material from many parts of the world. A high amount of diversity of both genera and species exists for this family in Africa, especially northern and southern portions. Approximately 350 species are known (most in the genus Mythicomyia Coquillett). Hundreds more await description. [more]

Mytilicolidae

Poecilostomatoida are an order of copepods previously included in the Cyclopoida. [more]

Nabidae

The insect family Nabidae contains the damsel bugs. The term damsel bug is the common name used for the Nabids. There are over 400 species. They are soft-bodied, elongate, winged terrestrial predators. Many damsel bugs catch and hold prey with their forelegs, similar to mantids. They are considered helpful species in agriculture because of their predation on many types of crop pests, such as cabbage worms, aphids, and lygus bugs. [more]

Nacunansellidae

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Nadipteridae

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Najnidae

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Nalepellidae

Namurodiaphidae

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Nanaspidae

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Nanaspididae

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Nanhermanniidae

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Nannastacidae

Nannastacidae is a family of crustaceans belonging to the order Cumacea. [more]

Nannochoristidae

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Nannodastiidae

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Nannoniscidae

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Nannosquillidae

Nannosquillidae is a family of stomatopods, comprising the following genera: [more]

Nanophyidae

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Nanorchestidae

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Naobranchiidae

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Naraoiidae

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Nasobatidae

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Naucoridae

Naucoridae is a small family of insects commonly known as the creeping water bugs. They are very similar in appearance and behavior to the giant water bugs (Belostomatidae), and also occur in ponds and other still waters. Occasionally, these insects can be found in damp places in a person's home, and are often mistaken for cockroaches. There are approximately 20 genera in 5 subfamilies, distributed worldwide. [more]

Nautarachnidae

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Neanuridae

The family Neanuridae contains pudgy short-legged springtails of the order Poduromorpha. It was established by Carl B?rner in 1901. [more]

Nearctodesmidae

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Nebaliidae

Nebaliidae is the largest of the three families of leptostracan crustaceans, containing 33 of the 40 described species. Its members may be dinstinguished from members of the other two families by the tapering form of the caudal furcae (which is broader in Nebaliopsididae), and by the callynophores of the antennae in mature males, which are swollen in but not in Nebaliidae. [more]

Nebaliopsidae

Nebaliopsididae is a family of leptostracan crustaceans. It contains only two species, Nebaliopsis typica and . [more]

Nebaliopsididae

Nebaliopsididae is a family of leptostracan crustaceans. It contains only two species, Nebaliopsis typica and . [more]

Necrocarcinidae

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Necrosciidae

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Neelidae

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Nehypochthoniidae

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Neltneriidae

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Nemasomatidae

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Nemastomatidae

The Nemastomatidae are a family of harvestmen with about 170 described species in 16 recent genera. Several fossil species and genera are known. [more]

Nemastomoididae

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Nematalycidae

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Nematocarcinidae

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Nematocera

Nematocera ("thread-horns"), is a suborder of elongated flies with thin, segmented antennae and mostly aquatic larvae, consisting of the mosquitoes, crane flies, gnats, and midges. [more]

Nematozoniidae

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Nemesiidae

The Nemesiidae are a spider family of the infraorder Mygalomorphae, and the only member of the superfamily Nemesioidea. They were formerly considered part of the Dipluridae family. [more]

Nemestrinidae

Nemestrinidae, or tangle-veined flies is a family of flies in the superfamily Nemestrinoidea, closely related to Acroceridae. The family is small but distributed worldwide, with about 300 species in 34 genera. Larvae are endoparasitoids of either grasshoppers (Trichopsideinae) or scarab beetles (Hirmoneurinae). Some are considered important in the control of grasshopper populations. Adults are often observed on flowers. [more]

Neminidae

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Nemonychidae

Nemonychidae is a small family of weevils, placed within the primitive weevil group because they have straight rather than elbowed antennae. They are often called pine flower weevils. As in the Anthribidae, the labrum appears as a separate segment to the clypeus, and the maxillary palps are long and projecting. Nemonychidae have all ventrites free, while Anthribidae have ventrites 1-4 connate or partially fused. Nemonychidae lack lateral carinae on the pronotum, while these are usually present, though may be short, in Anthribidae. [more]

Nemopteridae

[more]

Nemouridae

Nemouridae is a family of stoneflies. This is one of the largest stonefly families with more than 600 described species with a mainly Holarctic distribution. Members of this family are commonly known as spring stoneflies or brown stoneflies. Fly fishermen often refer to these insects as tiny winter blacks. [more]

Nenteriidae

Nenteriidae is a family of mites in the order Mesostigmata. [more]

Neoacaridae

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Neoatractosomatidae

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Neobisiidae

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Neobrachylepadidae

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Neobradyidae

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Neocytherideidae

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Neoephemeridae

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Neogeophilidae

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Neogoveidae

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Neolanidae

The Amphinectidae are a spider family with about 180 described species in 35 genera. [more]

Neolinognathidae

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Neomegamphopidae

Neomegamphopidae is a family of amphipods, comprising the two genera and Neomegamphopus. A third genus, Komatopus, may be a synonym of Magaropsis. [more]

Neoniphargidae

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Neopetaliidae

Neopetalia punctata is a dragonfly, the only member of the family Neopetaliidae. [more]

Neopilionidae

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Neopseustidae

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Neotanaidae

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Neotanidae

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Neotenogyniidae

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Neotheoridae

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Neothrombiidae

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Neothyridae

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Neotrichozetidae

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Neotrombidiidae

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Neoverrucidae

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Nepeiidae

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Nephilidae

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Nephropidae

Clawed lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans. Highly prized as seafood, lobsters are economically important, and are often one of the most profitable commodities in coastal areas they populate. [more]

Nepidae

Nepidae is a family of exclusively aquatic Heteropteran insects in the order Hemiptera.[1] They are commonly called waterscorpions for their superficial resemblance to scorpions, which is due to their raptorial forelegs and the presence of a long slender process at the posterior end of the abdomen, resembling a tail. There are 14 genera in the family, in two subfamilies, and Ranatrinae, and they can be found on all continents except Antarctica. Members of the genus Ranatra, the most widespread and speciose genus, are sometimes called needle bugs or water stick insects as they are more slender than Nepa and feed primarily on invertebrates, but occasionally take small fish or tadpoles. Respiration in the adult is effected by means of the caudal process, which consists of a pair of half-tubes capable of being locked together to form a siphon by which air is conducted to the tracheae at the apex of the abdomen when the tip of the tube is thrust above the surface of the water. In immature forms the siphon is often underdeveloped and respiration takes place through six pairs of abdominal spiracles. The eggs, which are laid above the waterline in mud, decomposing vegetation, the stems of plants or rotting wood, are supplied with air by filamentous processes which vary in number among the genera. [more]

Nepticulidae

Nepticulidae is a family of very small moths with a worldwide distribution. They are characterised by eyecaps over the eyes (see also Opostegidae, Bucculatricidae, Lyonetiidae). These pigmy moths or midget moths, as they are commonly known, include the smallest of all living moths, with a wingspan that can be as little as 3 mm. in the case of the European Pigmy Sorrel Moth, but more usually 3.5?10 mm. The wings of adult moths are narrow and lanceolate, sometimes with metallic markings, and with the venation very simplified compared to most other moths. [more]

Nereicolidae

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Neriidae

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Nesideidae

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Nesozetidae

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Nesticidae

The scaffold web spiders of the family Nesticidae, are closely allied with the Theridiidae, or tangle web spiders. Like the Theridiidae these spiders have a comb of serrated bristles on the hind tarsi that are used to pull silk bands from the spinnerets. It contains nine genera and a little over 200 species, many of which are associated with caves or overhangs. The genus Nesticus is the type for the family and is found throughout the world. The related Eidmannella has speciated considerably in Texas caves and includes some extremely localized species that are considered threatened. One species, Eidmannella pallida, is found in caves and under overhangs, but also in agricultural fields and other habitats away from such restricted areas. The genus Carpathonesticus is found in central Eurasia. [more]

Neurochaetidae

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Nevadiidae

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Nevrorthidae

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Nichollsiidae

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Nicodamidae

The Nicodamidae are a spider family with 29 species in nine genera. [more]

Nicoletiidae

Nicoletiidae is a family of primitive insects belonging to the order Thysanura. These insects live primarily underground. [more]

Nicomiidae

[more]

Nicothoidae

Nicothoidae is a family of copepods, containing the following genera: [more]

Nihotungidae

[more]

Nileidae

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Niphargidae

Niphargidae is a family of amphipods. It contains the following genera: [more]

Niphocepheidae

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Nipobodidae

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Niponiosomatidae

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Nipponacaridae

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Nipponopsalididae

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Nirvanidae

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Nitidulidae

The sap beetles are a family (Nitidulidae) of beetles. [more]

Noctuidae

The Noctuidae or owlet moths are a family of robustly-built moths that includes more than 35,000 known species out of possibly 100,000 total, in more than 4,200 genera. They constitute the largest family in the Lepidoptera. [more]

Nodocepheidae

[more]

Nogodinidae

Nogodinidae is a family of planthoppers. They have membranous wings with delicate venation and can be confused with members of other Fulgoroid families such as the Issidae and . Some authors treat it as a subfamily of the Issidae. Some of their key features are a frons ("face") that is longer than wide and a reticulate wing venation. They are less than 2 cm long. The antenna arises well below the eye, has the base clubbed and flagellum unsegmented. The lateral ocelli (simple eyes) are outside the margins of the face. The face has carinae (or keels) on the edge. On the hind leg, the second tarsal segment has an apical spine arising from it. The tibia of the hind leg also has spines towards the tip. An important family character is found in the shape of the male genital structure, a style that is longer than broad. Most members of this family are forest species. [more]

Nolidae

Nolidae is a family of moths with about 1,400 described species worldwide. They are mostly small with dull coloration, the main distinguishing feature being tufts of raised scales on the forewings (the group is sometimes known as tuft moths). The larvae also tend to have muted colors and tufts of short hairs. [more]

Nooliodidae

[more]

Normanellidae

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Norwoodiidae

[more]

Nosodendridae

Nosodendridae is a family of beetles. [more]

Nosybeidae

[more]

Nosybelbidae

[more]

Noteridae

Noteridae is a family of water beetles closely related to the Dytiscidae, and formerly classified with them. They are mainly distinguished by the presence of a distinctive "noterid platform" underneath, in the form of a plate between the second and third pair of legs. The family consists of about 230 species in 12 genera, and is found worldwide, more commonly in the tropics. They are sometimes referred to as burrowing water beetles. [more]

Nothogynidae

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Nothridae

[more]

Nothrolohmanniidae

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Nothybidae

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Notiothaumidae

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Notodelphyidae

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Notodontidae

Notodontidae is a family of moths with approximately 3,800 known species. Moths of this family are found in all parts of the world, but they are most concentrated in tropical areas, especially in the New World (Miller, 1992). The Thaumetopoeidae (processionary moths) are sometimes included here as a subfamily. [more]

Notodromadidae

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Notoligotomidae

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Notonectidae

Notonectidae is a cosmopolitan family of aquatic insects in the order Hemiptera, commonly called backswimmers because they swim upside down. They are all predators, up to nearly 2 cm in size. They are similar in appearance to Corixidae (Water boatmen), but can be separated by differences in their dorsal-ventral coloration, front legs, and predatory behavior. Their dorsum is convex, lightly colored without cross striations. Their front tarsi are not scoop-shaped and their hind legs are fringed for swimming. There are two subfamilies, and Anisopinae, each containing four genera. [more]

Notonemouridae

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Nototanaidae

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Nullosetigeridae

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Nuttalliellidae

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Nycteribiidae

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Nymphalidae

The Nymphalidae is a family of about 5,000 species of butterflies which are distributed throughout most of the world. These are usually medium sized to large butterflies. Most species have a reduced pair of forelegs and many hold their colorful wings flat when resting. They are also called brush-footed butterflies or four-footed butterflies. Many species are brightly colored and include popular species such as the emperor, admirals, tortoiseshells and fritillaries. However, the underwings are in contrast often dull and in some species look remarkably like dead leaves, or are much paler, producing a cryptic effect that helps the butterfly disappear into its surroundings. [more]

Nymphidae

[more]

Nymphitidae

[more]

Nymphomyiidae

The Nymphomyiidae are a family of tiny (2 mm.)slender, delicate flies (Diptera). Larvae are found among aquatic mosses in small, rapid streams in northern regions of the world. Many fossil species and a few extant species are known. Under an alternative classification, they are considered the only living representatives of a separate, archaic suborder called "Archidiptera". [more]

Nymphonidae

Nymphonidae is a family of sea spiders native to the Atlantic. This family contains some 250 species, most of which are found in the genus Nymphon. Nymphonids are between 1 and 8 mm long. [more]

Nyssonidae

[more]

Oborophlebiidae

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Ochlesidae

Ochlesidae is a family of amphipods. They are very small, often less than 1.5 millimetres (0.06 in) long, and are found mainly in tropical and subtropical areas of the Southern Hemisphere. The family Odiidae has sometimes been subsumed into Ochlesidae. [more]

Ochodaeidae

Ochodaeidae, sometimes known as the sand-loving scarab beetles, is a small but widely-distributed family of scarabaeiform beetles. [more]

Ochrolichidae

[more]

Ochsenheimeriidae

[more]

Ochteridae

The Ochteridae comprise a small family of insects. About 25 species have been described. They are "true bugs", being members of the Order Hemiptera, and are in the suborder Heteroptera. Ochteridae commonly are known as the velvety shore bugs, although not all occur near the sea. [more]

Ochyroceratidae

The Ochyroceratidae are a six-eyed spider family in the Leptonetoidea superfamily, with 154 described species in 14 genera. [more]

Ocoidae

Evocoidae is a Family of Diptera. They are placed in the Super family Asiloidea. [more]

Oconnoriidae

[more]

Octopicolidae

[more]

Ocypodidae

Ocypodidae is a family of crabs that includes the ghost crabs and fiddler crabs. Other genera previously included in the family are now treated as members of separate families in the superfamily Ocypodoidea, such as Ucididae, Dotillidae and Macrophthalmidae. [more]

Odaraiidae

[more]

Odiidae

Odiidae is a family of amphipods, sometimes included in the family Ochlesidae. It includes the following genera: [more]

Odiniidae

Odiniidae is a small family of flies. There are only 58 described species but there are representatives in all the major biogeographic realms. [more]

Odontellidae

[more]

Odontoceridae

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Odontodactylidae

Odontodactylus is a genus of mantis shrimp, the only genus in the family Odontodactylidae. Mantis shrimp of the genus Odontodactylus can not only detect circular polarisation of light, but can polarise light reflecting off their telson and uropods. [more]

Odontopleuridae

Odontopleurida is an order of trilobites, containing the following taxa: [more]

Odontopygidae

[more]

Oecanthidae

[more]

Oecobiidae

The spider family Oecobiidae (also called Disc web spiders) consists of about 100 species. [more]

Oeconesidae

[more]

Oecophoridae

Oecophoridae (concealer moths) is a family of small moths in the superfamily Gelechioidea. The phylogeny and systematics of gelechoid moths are still not fully resolved, and the circumscription of the Oecophoridae is strongly affected by this. [more]

Oedemeridae

The family Oedemeridae is a cosmopolitan group of beetles commonly known as false blister beetles, though some recent authors have coined the name pollen-feeding beetles. There are some 100 genera and 1,500 species in the family, mostly associated with rotting wood as larvae, though adults are quite common on flowers. [more]

Oedicerotidae

Oedicerotidae is a family of amphipods. It comprises the following genera: [more]

Oedischiidae

[more]

Oehserchestidae

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Oestridae

A botfly, also written bot fly, bott fly or bot-fly in various combinations, is any fly in the family Oestridae. The life cycles vary greatly according to species, but the larvae of all species are internal parasites of mammals. They are variously known by common names such as warble flies, heel flies, and gadflies. The larvae of some species grow in the flesh of their hosts, while others grow within the hosts' alimentary tracts. The human botfly, Dermatobia hominis, is the only species of bot fly known to use humans routinely as its larval host, though it is neither the only nor the most harmful fly to cause myiasis in humans. [more]

Ogoveidae

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Ogygopsidae

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Ogyrididae

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Oithonidae

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Okeanobatidae

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Olenellidae

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Olenidae

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Olibrinidae

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Oligoneuriidae

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Oligotomidae

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Olipiidae

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Ologamasidae

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Olpiidae

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Omaniidae

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Omartacaridae

Omentolaelapidae

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Omethidae

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Ommatidae

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Ommexechidae

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Oncaeidae

Oncaeidae is a family of copepods, containing the following genera: [more]

Onceroxenidae

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Onchonotopsidae

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Oncocyprididae

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Oncopodidae

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Oniscidae

Oniscidae is a family of woodlice, including the common woodlouse Oniscus asellus. Six genera are certainly placed in the family (Oniscus, , Phalloniscus, Rabdoniscus, Rodoniscus and Sardoniscus), with eight others included by some sources (Cerberoides, Diacara, Exalloniscus, Hanoniscus, Hiatoniscus, Hora, Krantzia and Tasmanoniscus). [more]

Oniscodesmidae

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Onychiuridae

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Onychobatidae

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Oonopidae

The spider family Oonopidae (Goblin spiders) includes about 459 species in about 65 genera worldwide. The type genus of the family is Oonops Keyserling, 1835. They are generally tiny (1-3 mm) haplogyne araneomorph spiders. Some have hardened plates (scuta) on their abdomens. Oonopids usually have six eyes, the anterior median eyes having been lost. However, four-eyed (Opopaea viamao), two-eyed (e.g. Coxapopha, Diblemma) and even completely eyeless species (e.g. Cousinea, the cave-dwelling Blanioonops) are also known. The family is permeated with unusual morphological traits, many of which are limited to males. Examples include heavily modified mouthparts (e.g. Coxapopha, Xyccarph), sternal pouches (sometimes alternatively called holsters; e.g. Grymeus) and extensions of the carapace (e.g. Ferchestina, Unicorn). The male pedipalps are also often highly modified. The genus Opopaea, for example, exhibits an expanded palpal patella while male Ischnothyreus are characterized by completely sclerotized, pitch-black pedipalps. Members of the genus Orchestina are believed to be able to jump, as both sexes have greatly enlarged femora on the fourth leg pair. Oonopidae are seldom seen by people as they are too small to be easily noticed. Generally, oonopid spiders are found in the leaf litter layer and under rocks but they also constitute a significant component of the spider fauna living in the canopy of tropical rain forests. Three blind Afrotropical genera (Anophthalmoonops, Caecoonops, Termitoonops) are exclusively found in termite nests. A few species, such as the pantropical Heteroonops spinimanus, are thought to be parthenogenetic as no males have so far been collected. [more]

Opetiidae

Opetiidae or flat-footed flies are members of a family of flies of the Order Diptera. [more]

Ophioptidae

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Ophthalmopseudidae

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Opiliacaridae

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Opilioacaridae

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Opipeuteridae

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Opisidae

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Opisotretidae

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Opisthocheiridae

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Oplitidae

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Oplophoridae

The family Oplophoridae is a taxon of pelagic shrimps and the only subtaxon of the superfamily Oplophoroidea. It contains the following genera: [more]

Opomyzidae

Opomyzidae is a family of acalyptrate Diptera. They are generally small, slender, yellow, brown or black colored flies. The larval food plants are grasses, including cereal crops, the adults are mainly found in open habitats. Some species being agricultural pests. [more]

Opostegidae

Opostegidae or "white eyecap moths" is a family of insects in the Lepidoptera order that is characterised by particularly large eyecaps over the compound eyes (see also Nepticulidae, Bucculatricidae, Lyonetiidae). Opostegidae are most diverse in the New World tropics (83 described species, representing 42% of the world total). [more]

Oppiidae

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Orchestiidae

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Oregoniidae

Oregoniidae is a family of crabs, formerly included in the family Majidae. It contains the four genera Chionoecetes, Hyas, and Oregonia. [more]

Oreopteridae

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Oribatellidae

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Oribatidae

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Oribatulidae

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Oribotritiidae

Oribotritiidae is a family of mites in the order Oribatida. [more]

Orientellidae

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Oripodidae

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Ormyridae

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Orometopidae

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Orphnidae

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Orsolobidae

The Orsolobidae are a six-eyed spider family with about 180 described species in 28 genera. They were separated from the Dysderidae. Several genera were transferred from the Oonopidae. [more]

Ortheziidae

Ortheziidae is a family of scale insects commonly known as the ensign scales or ortheziids. They occur in most parts of the world but the majority of the species are found in the Neotropics and Nearctic regions while there are not many species in Australasia and the Far East. There are twenty valid genera and 198 species. [more]

Orthopsyllidae

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Orussidae

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Oryctocephalidae

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Oryidae

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Osmylidae

Osmylidae are a small family of winged insects of the net-winged insect order Neuroptera. The osmylids are found all over the world except in North America. A common species through most of Europe is . [more]

Osmylitidae

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Osmylopsychopidae

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Osticytheridae

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Ostracoda

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Otitidae

Ulidiidae (formerly Otitidae) is a large and diverse cosmopolitan family of flies, and, as in related families, most species are herbivorous or saprophagous. They are often known as picture-winged flies, along with members of other families in the superfamily Tephritoidea that have patterns of bands or spots on the wings. Most species share with the Tephritidae an unusual elongated projection of the anal cell in the wing, but can be differentiated by the smoothly-curving subcostal vein. [more]

Otocepheidae

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Otopheidomenidae

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Oxidae

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Oxyameridae

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Oxycephalidae

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Oxychirotidae

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Oxycorynidae

Oxycoryninae are subfamily of primitive weevils of the family Belidae, but sometimes treated as a distinct family Oxycorynidae. Like in other belids, their antennae are straight, not elbowed as in the true weevils (Curculionidae), and their larvae feed on the wood of diseased or dying plants or on deadwood or fruits; they tend to avoid healthy plants. [more]

Oxydesmidae

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Oxynaspididae

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Oxynotidae

Oxynotus is a genus of sharks in the order Squaliformes, commonly known as the rough sharks. It is the only extant genus in the family Oxynotidae. They live in deep waters in the Atlantic and western Pacific oceans. [more]

Oxyopidae

Lynx Spiders are the members of the family Oxyopidae. They all are hunting spiders that spend their lives on plants, flowers and shrubs. At least one species has been identified as exhibiting social behaviour. [more]

Oxytenidae

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Pachybolidae

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Pachydomellidae

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Pachylaelapidae

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Pachylasmatidae

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Pachymorphidae

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Pachyneuridae

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Pachynomidae

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Pachypodidae

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Pachytroctidae

Pachytroctidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the suborder Troctomorpha. Members of this family are small, often macropterous, with a distinct wing-venation. The family comprises less than 100 species arranged in ten genera. [more]

Paeromopodidae

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Pagetinidae

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Pagodiidae

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Pagurapseudidae

Pagurapseudidae is a family of crustaceans in the order Tanaidacea. Like hermit crabs, they inhabit empty gastropod shells, but can be told apart from hermit crabs by the lack of a carapace, revealing the segmentation of the thorax, and by the greater number of legs: hermit crabs have five pairs of legs, of which the first has large claws, and the last is highly reduced, while in Pagurapseudidae, there is one pair of claws, plus six further walking legs. [more]

Paguridae

Paguridae is a family of hermit crabs of the order Decapoda. It contains 542 species in over 70 genera: [more]

Palaeacaridae

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Palaemonidae

Palaemonidae is a family of crustaceans of the order Decapoda. They belong to the infraorder Caridea, which contains the true shrimp; while some freshwater palaemonid species are known as "prawns", the family belongs to the suborder Pleocyemata like all true shrimp, whereas the true prawns are members of the suborder Dendrobranchiata. [more]

Palaeonemouridae

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Palaeoperlidae

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Palaeosetidae

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Palaephatidae

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Paleomelittidae

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Paleuthygrammatidae

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Palicidae

The family Palicidae, sometimes called stilt crabs, are a group of crabs. Some genera previously included in this family are now placed in a separate family, the . [more]

Palingeniidae

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Palingeniopsidae

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Palinuridae

Spiny lobsters, also known as langouste or rock lobsters, are a family (Palinuridae) of about 60 species of achelate crustaceans, in the Decapoda Reptantia. Spiny lobsters are also, especially in Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, sometimes called crayfish, sea crayfish or crawfish, terms which elsewhere are reserved for freshwater crayfish. [more]

Pallenidae

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Pallopteridae

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Palophidae

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Palpimanidae

The Palp-footed spiders (Palpimanidae) are a spider family with about 130 described species in 15 genera. Instead of the normal six, Palpimanidae have only two spinnerets. Their first legs are greatly enlarged.. All species produce ecribellate silk . Palpimanidae have six eyes, a red cephalothorax, very strong first legs, which are raised while moving. At least Palpimanus gibbulus lives in leaf litter or under stones in dry soils. [more]

Pamphagidae

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Pamphiliidae

The Pamphiliidae (sometimes incorrectly spelled Pamphilidae) are a small family within the Symphyta, containing some 200 species from the temperate regions of North America and Eurasia. The larvae feed on plants (often conifers), using silk to either build webs or tents, or to roll leaves into tubes, in which they feed, thus earning them the common names leaf-rolling sawflies or web-spinning sawflies. They are distinguished from the closely related Megalodontesidae by their simple, filiform antennae. [more]

Pandalidae

The family Pandalidae is a taxon of Caridean shrimp. These species are commonly called pandalid shrimps. They are edible and have high economic value. They are characterized by the subdivided carpus of the second pereiopod and, mainly, by the lack of the chelae of the first pereiopod. This is a cold-water family, and their representation in tropical areas is made by deep-sea shrimps. The genus Physetocaris, sometimes placed in this family, is now considered to be in its own family. [more]

Pandaridae

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Panesthiidae

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Panopeidae

Panopeidae is a family of crabs, containing the following subfamilies and genera: [more]

Panorpidae

Panorpidae are a family of scorpionflies. This family contains more than 350 species. They are 9?25 mm long. [more]

Panorpodidae

Panorpodidae is a small family of scorpionflies. There are two genera, , which occurs only in the United States, and Panorpodes, which occurs in Japan, Korea and with a species described in 2004 from California. [more]

Panteniphididae

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Pantheidae

Pantheidae is a family of Lepidoptera. Mostly, it is classified as a subfamily of Noctuidae, under the name Pantheinae. [more]

Panthophthalmidae

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Pantophthalmidae

Pantophthalmidae is a small family of very large, robust flies, sometimes referred to as timber flies. There are about 22 known species in two genera in the family, all of Neotropical distribution. Superficially they resemble horse flies, but are only distantly related; they are most closely related to the soldier flies (Stratiomyidae). The larvae feed by boring into living wood, an unusual habit for Diptera, and can sometimes be pests. The adult stage is brief and does not feed at all, and most active at dusk. [more]

Paoliidae

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Papilionidae

Swallowtail butterflies are large, colorful butterflies that form the family Papilionidae. There are over 550 species, and though the majority are tropical, members of the family are found on all continents except Antarctica. The family includes the largest butterflies in the world, the birdwing butterflies of Australia (genus Ornithoptera). [more]

Papillonotidae

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Papyriaspidae

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Parabathynellidae

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Parabolinoididae

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Paracalanidae

Paracalanidae is a family of copepods. It contains the following genera: [more]

Paracalliopiidae

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Paracercopidae

Caprellidae is a family of amphipods commonly known as skeleton shrimps. Their common name denotes the threadlike slender body which allows them to virtually disappear among the fine filaments of seaweed, hydroids and bryozoans. They are sometimes also known as ghost shrimps. Caprellidae contains 88 genera in three subfamilies. [more]

Paracortinidae

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Paracrangonytidae

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Paracyprididae

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Paracytheridae

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Paracytherideidae

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Paradoxididae

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Paradoxosomatidae

Paradoxosomatidae, the only family in the suborder Paradoxosomatidea, is a "hugely speciose" family of flat-backed millipedes under the order Polydesmida, containing 178 genera and 878 species as of 2010. It is "probably the most homogeneous and well-worked group within the Polydesmida", and is characterised by a gonopod aperture in the shape of a dumb-bell. [more]

Paradoxostomatidae

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Paragryllidae

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Parahyidae

Parahya submersa is a species of pseudoscorpion that resides within the monotypic family Parahyidae. It occurs in Singapore and the Caroline Islands. [more]

Parajapygidae

Parajapygidae is a family of hexapods in the order Diplura. [more]

Parajulidae

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Parakalummidae

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Parallonothridae

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Paralogidae

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Paramegistidae

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Paramelitidae

Paramelitidae is a family of amphipods, containing the following genera: [more]

Paramesochridae

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Paramphithoidae

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Paramunnidae

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Paranebaliidae

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Parantennulidae

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Paranthuridae

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Parapaguridae

Parapaguridae is a family of terrestrial hermit crabs. They have gill chambers that function as lungs. Some genera, such as and Tylaspis, do not inhabit shells. The following genera are included: [more]

Parapamphiliidae

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Paraparchitidae

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Paraphronimidae

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Paraphrynoveliidae

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Parapleciidae

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Parapontellidae

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Parapseudidae

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Pararchaeidae

The Pararchaeidae are a spider family with 34 described species in seven genera. [more]

Pararchexyelidae

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Parartemiidae

Parartemia is a genus of fairy shrimp endemic to Australia. One species, P. contracta is listed as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. Parartemia contains the following species: [more]

Parascelidae

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Parasialidae

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Parasitidae

Parasitidae is a family of predatory mites in the order Mesostigmata that has worldwide distribution. They are the only family in the superfamily Parasitoidea. Relatively large for mites, their color is often yellowish to dark brown. The family as a whole preys on a wide variety of microarthropods and nematodes, with individual species usually having a narrower range of prey. The family contains two subfamilies, 29 genera, and around 400 species. [more]

Parasquillidae

Parasquillidae is a family of mantis shrimp containing the three genera , Parasquilla and Pseudosquillopsis. It was previously included in the superfamily Gonodactyloidea, but that group was found to be paraphyletic, and a new superfmaily, Parasquilloidea was erected. [more]

Parastacidae

Parastacidae is the family of freshwater crayfish found in the southern hemisphere. The family is a classic Gondwana-distributed taxon, with extant members in South America, Madagascar, Australia, New Zealand and New Guinea, and extinct taxa also in Antarctica. [more]

Parastenheliidae

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Parastenhelliidae

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Parastenocaridae

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Parastenocarididae

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Paratanaidae

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Parathelphusidae

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Paratropididae

The baldlegged spiders (Paratropididae) are a small spider family with eight species. They are related to tarantulas. [more]

Paratydeidae

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Paraxymyiidae

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Pardaliscidae

Pardaliscidae is a family of amphipods, including the deepest collections made by the Galathea expeditions. It contains the following genera: [more]

Parholaspididae

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Parhypochthoniidae

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Pariambidae

Caprellidae is a family of amphipods commonly known as skeleton shrimps. Their common name denotes the threadlike slender body which allows them to virtually disappear among the fine filaments of seaweed, hydroids and bryozoans. They are sometimes also known as ghost shrimps. Caprellidae contains 88 genera in three subfamilies. [more]

Paronellidae

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Paroryssidae

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Parthenopidae

Parthenopidae is a family of crabs, placed in its own superfamily, Parthenopoidea. It comprises nearly 40 genera, divided into two subfamilies, with three genera incertae sedis: [more]

Parvocytheridae

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Pasiphaeidae

Pasiphaeidae is a family of shrimps. It is the only family in the superfamily Pasiphaeoidea and contains seven extant genera: [more]

Passalidae

Passalidae is a family of beetles known variously as "bessbugs", "bess beetles", "betsy beetles" or "horned passalus beetles". Nearly all of the 500-odd species are tropical; species found in North America are notable for their size, ranging from 20?43 mm, for having a single "horn" on the head, and for a form of social behavior unusual among beetles. [more]

Passalozetidae

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Passandridae

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Pauropodidae

Pauropodidae is a family of pauropods. [more]

Paussidae

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Pecaroecidae

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Pectocytheridae

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Pedetopodidae

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Pediciidae

The Pediciidae or Hairy-eyed Craneflies, are a family of flies closely related to true crane flies. There are about 500 species worldwide. [more]

Pedicinidae

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Pediculidae

The body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus, sometimes called Pediculus humanus corporis) is a louse which infests humans. The condition of being infested with head lice, body lice, or pubic lice is known as pediculosis. [more]

Pedilidae

Fire-colored beetles are the beetles of the Pyrochroidae family, which includes the red Cardinal beetles. This family contains some 150 species. Many species in the subfamily ve comb- or antler-like antennae. This family also now includes most former members of the defunct family Pedilidae. [more]

Pedrocortesellidae

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Pelecinidae

The genus Pelecinus is the only living member of the family Pelecinidae (there are also two fossil genera), and contains only three species restricted to the New World. One species, Pelecinus polyturator, occurs from North through South America, and the others occur in Mexico () and South America (Pelecinus dichrous). The females are glossy wasps, very long (up to 7 cm) and the abdomen is extremely attenuated, used to lay eggs directly on scarab larvae buried in the soil. [more]

Pelecorhynchidae

Pelecorhynchidae is a small family of flies. All of the genera were originally placed in the family Rhagionidae, and their elevation to family rank has been controversial. Other phylogenetic analyses have supported Pelecorhynchidae as a distinct clade from Rhagionidae. The adults of Pelecorrhynchus mostly feed on nectar of Leptospermum flowers. Larvae have been collected in the damp margins of swamp areas, where they feed on earthworms. [more]

Peloppiidae

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Peloridiidae

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Pelorocelaenopsidae

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Peltidiidae

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Peltogastridae

Peltogastridae is a family of barnacles. They belong to the bizarre parasitic and highly apomorphic superorder Rhizocephala, and therein to the less diverse of the two orders, the . The Peltogastridae are by far the largest family of Rhizocephala. They comprise 14 genera: [more]

Peltoperlidae

Peltoperlidae Claassen 1931, also known as roachlike stoneflies or roachflies, are a family of stoneflies. [more]

Pemphicidae

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Pemphredonidae

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Penaeidae

Penaeidae is a family of prawns, although they are often referred to as penaeid shrimp. It contains many species of economic importance, such as the tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), whiteleg shrimp, Atlantic white shrimp and Indian prawn. Many prawns are the subject of commercial fishery, and farming, both in marine settings, and in freshwater farms. Lateral line-like sense organs on the antennae have been reported in some species of Penaeidae. At 210 metres per second (760 km/h), the myelinated giant interneurons of pelagic penaeid shrimp have the world record for impulse conduction speed in any animal. [more]

Pennellidae

The Pennellidae are a family of copepods, containing the following genera: [more]

Pentacentridae

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Pentanychidae

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Pentapalpidae

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Pentasetacidae

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Pentatomidae

Pentatomidae, Greek pente meaning five and tomos meaning section, is a family of insects belonging to order Hemiptera including some of the stink bugs and shield bugs. The scutellum body is usually trapezoidal in shape, giving this family the name 'shield bug'. The tarsi are 3-segmented. The forewings of stink bugs are called hemelytra, with the basal half thickened while the apex is membranous (as are the hindwings). The name stink bug derives from their tendency to eject a foul smelling glandular substance secreted from pores in the thorax when disturbed; in some species the liquid contains cyanide compounds with a rancid almond scent. This is a form of antipredator adaptation. [more]

Penthaleidae

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Penthalodidae

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Penthimiidae

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Peradeniidae

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Pergidae

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Pericambalidae

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Periegopidae

The spider family Periegopidae consists of only one genus Periegops, with two described species. Periegops had been long considered to be members of Sicariidae or Segestriidae until Raymond Forster evelated them to the family level in 1995. [more]

Perilampidae

The Perilampidae are a small family within the Chalcidoidea, composed mostly of hyperparasitoids. The family is closely related to the Eucharitidae, and the eucharitids appear to have evolved from within the Perilampidae, thus rendering the family paraphyletic (if the two families are joined in the future, the name that has precedence is Eucharitidae). As presently defined, there are 15 genera and >270 species worldwide. They are often brilliantly metallic (especially blue or green), with a robust mesosoma and a small, triangular metasoma (swollen and bulbous in ). They are generally very strongly sculptured. The prothorax is typically very broad and disclike, and the labrum is multidigitate, a feature shared with the Eucharitidae. [more]

Perilestidae

Perilestidae is a family of damselflies in the order Odonata. They are commonly known as Shortwings.[] It is a small family of damselflies with around 20 species. They occur only in Latin America. [more]

Perimylopidae

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Peripsocidae

Peripsocidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the suborder Psocomorpha. Members of the family are characterised by their absence of an areola postica in their wings. Many of the recently described genera are closely allied to Peripsocus, and only two genera are presented here. The family includes more than 200 species. [more]

Periscelididae

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Perissommatidae

Perissommatidae is a family of Diptera that was newly proposed in 1962. The family contains five species, four from Australia and one from Chile. Perissommatidae are unusual as they have four eyes. They have a small slender body that's less than 2mm in length. Their wings are large in comparison to their body and subsequently their flight is weak. Preferring high altitude forest environments, adults only fly in the winter. In the case of Perissomma macalpinei numbers of adults have been observed congregate in clumps of foliage, rising in short zigzag flights in the sunlight above the foliage for short periods before descending back. [more]

Perlariopseidae

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Perlidae

Perlidae is a family of stoneflies. [more]

Perlodidae

Perlodidae, also known as the Perlodid stoneflies, stripetails, or springflies, are a family of stoneflies. [more]

Perlohmanniidae

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Perlopseidae

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Permaeschnidae

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Permagrionidae

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Permelcanidae

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Permelytridae

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Permepallagidae

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Permithonidae

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Permoberothidae

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Permobiellidae

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Permochoristidae

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Permocupedidae

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Permolestidae

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Permopanorpidae

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Permopsocidae

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Permoraphidiidae

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Permothemistidae

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Peronaspidae

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Peronopsidae

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Perothopidae

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Petalophthalmidae

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Petaluridae

The Petaltails of the family Petaluridae are apparently the most ancient of the extant true dragonflies (infraorder Anisoptera), having fossil members from as early as the Jurassic (over 150 million years ago). [more]

Petrarcidae

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Petrothrincidae

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Pettalidae

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Pezidae

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Phacopidae

Phacopidae is a family of trilobites of the order Phacopida, including the following genera: [more]

Phaennidae

Phaennidae is a family of planktonic copepods, found in pelagic or benthopelagic waters. It contains the following genera: [more]

Phaeomyiidae

The family Sciomyzidae belongs to the typical flies (Brachycera) of the order Diptera. They are commonly called marsh flies, and in some cases snail-killing flies due to the food of their larvae. [more]

Phalacridae

The Phalacridae are a family of beetles commonly called the shining flower beetles. They are often found in composite flowers. They are oval-shaped, usually tan, and about 2 mm in length. [more]

Phalacromidae

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Phalangiidae

The Phalangiidae are a family of harvestmen with about 380 known species. The best known is Phalangium opilio. Dicranopalpus ramosus is an invasive species in Europe. [more]

Phalangodidae

The Phalangodidae are a family of harvestmen with about 20 genera and more than 100 described species, distributed in the Holarctic Region. [more]

Phalangopsidae

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Phaloniidae

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Phaneropteridae

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Pharodidae

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Phasmatidae

Phasmatidae is a family of the stick insects (order Phasmatodea). They belong to the superfamily of suborder Verophasmatodea. [more]

Phasmomimidae

[more]

Phenacoleachiidae

Phenacoleachiidae is a family of scale insects commonly known as the phenacoleachiids. They are found only on the south island of New Zealand and certain offshore islands. There are two species in a single genus. [more]

Phengodidae

The beetle family Phengodidae is known also as glowworm beetles, whose larvae are known as glowworms. The females and larvae have bioluminescent organs. They occur throughout the New World from extreme southern Canada to Chile. The family Rhagophthalmidae, an Old World group, used to be included in the Phengodidae. [more]

Phenopelopidae

[more]

Phenopteridae

[more]

Pheroliodidae

[more]

Philichthyidae

[more]

Phillipsiidae

[more]

Phillipsinellidae

[more]

Philodanidae

[more]

Philodromidae

Philodromidae is a family of spiders commonly known as philodromid crab spiders or running crab spiders. This family is superficially similar to the "true" crab spiders in the family Thomisidae. [more]

Philomedidae

[more]

Philopotamidae

Philopotamidae is a family level taxon containing certain finger-net and silken-tube spinner caddisflies. [more]

Philopteridae

The Philopteridae are a family of Ischnocera, chewing lice mostly parasitic on birds. [more]

Philorheithridae

[more]

Philosciidae

Philosciidae are a family of woodlice (terrestrial isopod crustaceans). They occur almost everywhere on earth, with most species found in (sub)tropical America, Africa and Oceania, and only a few in the Holarctic. [more]

Philotarsidae

Philotarsidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the suborder Psocomorpha. The family is closely related to the families Pseudocaeciliidae and Calopsocidae. [more]

Phlaeothripidae

Phlaeothripidae is a family of thrips with hundreds of genera. They are the only family of the suborder Tubulifera, and are themselves ordered into two subfamilies, the Idolothripinae with 80 genera, and the Phlaeothripinae with almost 400. Some 3,400 species are recognised in this family, and many are fungivores living in the tropics. [more]

Phliantidae

Phliantidae is a family of isopod-like amphipod crustaceans chiefly from the southern hemisphere. [more]

Phloeidae

[more]

Phloeostichidae

[more]

Phloiophilidae

[more]

Phoenicococcidae

Phoenicococcidae is a family of scale insects commonly known as palm scales or phoenicococcids. There is a single genus containing one species, Phoenicococcus marlatti. [more]

Pholcidae

Pholcidae, commonly known as cellar spiders, are a spider family in the suborder Araneomorphae. [more]

Phoratopodidae

Phoratopus remex is a species of isopod crustacean known from only two specimens, and first described in 1925 by (1895?1963). It lives on the continental shelf at Encounter Bay and Fowlers Bay, South Australia. It is so unlike all other isopods that it is placed in its own family, Phoratopodidae and suborder, Phoratopidea. [more]

Phoridae

Phoridae is a family of small, hump-backed flies resembling fruit flies. Phorid flies can often be identified by their escape habit of running rapidly across a surface rather than taking to the wing. This behaviour is a source of one of their alternate names: scuttle fly. They are a diverse and successful group of insects. Approximately 4,000 species are known in 230 genera. The most well-known species is Megaselia scalaris, commonly called a "coffin fly". [more]

Photidae

[more]

Phoxichilidiidae

Phoxichilidiidae is a family of sea spiders. About 150 species are described, almost all in the genus Wilson, 1878. [more]

Phoxocephalidae

[more]

Phreatogammaridae

[more]

Phreatoicidae

Phreatoicidae is a family of blind, freshwater isopods. They have survived apparently unchanged for 350 million years, and are only found in South Africa, India, Australia and New Zealand. They were first found near Christchurch in 1882 by Charles Chilton. The family Phreatoicidae now contains 13 genera: [more]

Phreatoicopsidae

[more]

Phronimidae

Phronimidae is a family of amphipod crustaceans, containing two genera: [more]

Phrosinidae

[more]

Phryganeidae

[more]

Phryganopsychidae

[more]

Phrynichidae

[more]

Phrynidae

[more]

Phthiracaridae

[more]

Phtisicidae

Caprellidae is a family of amphipods commonly known as skeleton shrimps. Their common name denotes the threadlike slender body which allows them to virtually disappear among the fine filaments of seaweed, hydroids and bryozoans. They are sometimes also known as ghost shrimps. Caprellidae contains 88 genera in three subfamilies. [more]

Phycosecidae

[more]

Phylliidae

[more]

Phyllocephalidae

[more]

Phyllochthoniidae

[more]

Phyllodicolidae

[more]

Phyllodromiidae

[more]

Phyllognathopodidae

[more]

Phyllopidae

[more]

Phylloxeridae

[more]

Phymatidae

Insects in the subfamily Phymatinae are commonly called ambush bugs after their habit of lying in wait for prey relying on their superb camouflage. Armed with raptorial forelegs, ambush bugs routinely capture prey ten or more times their own size. They form a subgroup within the assassin bugs. [more]

Physalozerconidae

[more]

Physetocarididae

[more]

Physiostreptidae

[more]

Phytoptidae

[more]

Phytoseidae

[more]

Phytoseiidae

Phytoseiidae is a family of mites which feed on thrips and other mite species. They are often used as a biological control agent for managing mite pests. [more]

Phyxelididae

The Phyxelididae are a spider family with 54 described species in twelve genera. They are grouped with the Titanoecidae within the Titanoecoidea superfamily. [more]

Pieridae

The Pieridae are a large family of butterflies with about 76 genera containing approximately 1,100 species, mostly from tropical Africa and Asia. Most pierid butterflies are white, yellow or orange in coloration, often with black spots. The pigments that give the distinct coloring to these butterflies are derived from waste products in the body and are a characteristic of this family. [more]

Piersigiidae

[more]

Piesmatidae

Piesmatidae is a small family of true bugs, commonly called ash-grey leaf bugs. It contains a mere three living genera with over 40 described species altogether. The Piesmatidae are distributed mostly in the temperate Northern Hemisphere, with some occurring in Africa, Australia and South America. A common species found throughout the Americas is . [more]

Pilekiidae

[more]

Pilumnidae

Pilumnoidea is a superfamily of crabs, whose members were previously included in the Xanthoidea. The three families are unified by the free articulation of all the segments of the male crab's abdomen and by the form of the gonopods. The Cretaceous genus is believed to belong to the Pilumnidae; apart from Titanocarcinus, the earliest fossils assigned to this group are of Eocene age. [more]

Pimoidae

The Pimoidae spider family is a rather small group of 37 species in four genera. They are monophyletic, and probably closest related to the Linyphiidae. [more]

Pinnotheridae

Pinnotheridae is a family of pea crabs. Pea crabs are tiny soft-bodied crabs that live commensally in the mantles of certain bivalve molluscs (and the occasional large gastropod mollusc species in genera such as Strombus and Haliotis). The earliest fossils attributable to the Pinnotheridae date from the Danian. [more]

Pionidae

[more]

Piophilidae

Cheese flies are members of the family Piophilidae of flies. Most are scavengers in animal products and fungi. The best-known member of the family is . It is a small fly, about four mm (1/6 inch) long, found worldwide. The fly's larva infests cured meats, smoked fish, cheeses, and decaying animals. The larva is about 8 mm (? inch) long and is sometimes called the cheese skipper for its leaping ability - when disturbed, this tiny maggot can hop up to 15 cm (six inches) into the air. Adults are also known as "bacon flies" and their larvae as "bacon skippers", "ham skippers", "cheese maggots", and "cheese hoppers". In Sardinia, Italy the larvae are intentionally introduced into pecorino cheese to produce casu marzu. [more]

Pipunculidae

Pipunculidae are a family of flies (Diptera), commonly termed Big-Headed Flies a reference to the large (Holoptic) eyes , which cover nearly the entire head. The Family is worldwide and more than 1300 species have been described. [more]

Pirimelidae

[more]

Pisauridae

Nursery web spiders are spiders of the family Pisauridae. They resemble wolf spiders (family Lycosidae), but they carry their egg sacs by means of their jaws and pedipalps (instead of attaching them to their spinnerets). When the eggs are about to hatch, a mother spider will build a nursery "tent", put her egg sac inside, and mount guard outside. The name nursery web spider is especially given to the European species Pisaura mirabilis, but the family also includes fishing spiders and raft spiders. [more]

Pisidae

[more]

Pisuliidae

[more]

Plagusiidae

Plagusiidae is a family of crabs. It was formerly treated as a subfamily of the family Grapsidae, but has since been considered sufficiently distinct to be a family in its own right. [more]

Plakarthriidae

[more]

Plasmobatidae

[more]

Plataspidae

Plataspididae (often misspelled Plataspidae) are a family of shield bugs native to the Eastern Hemisphere. One species, Megacopta cribraria, has recently become introduced and established in the southeastern United States, where it is a pest of soybeans. [more]

Plateremaeidae

[more]

Platyameridae

[more]

Platyarthridae

Platyarthridae is a family of woodlice, containing the following genera: [more]

Platycnemididae

Platycnemididae are a family of damselfly called white-legged damselflies. It is sometimes known as Platycnemidae. [more]

Platycopiidae

Platycopiidae is a family of copepods. Until the description of Nanocopia in 1988, it contained the single genus Platycopia. It now contains four genera, three of which are monotypic; the exception is Platycopia, with 8 species. [more]

Platydesmidae

[more]

Platygasteridae

The Hymenopteran family Platygastridae (sometimes incorrectly spelled Platygasteridae) is a large group (over 1100 species) of exclusively parasitoid wasps, mostly very small (1-2 mm), black, and shining, with elbowed antennae that have an 8-segmented flagellum. The wings most often lack venation, though they may have slight fringes of setae. [more]

Platygastridae

The Hymenopteran family Platygastridae (sometimes incorrectly spelled Platygasteridae) is a large group (over 1100 species) of exclusively parasitoid wasps, mostly very small (1-2 mm), black, and shining, with elbowed antennae that have an 8-segmented flagellum. The wings most often lack venation, though they may have slight fringes of setae. [more]

Platyglyphidae

[more]

Platyischnopidae

Platyischnopidae is a family of amphipod crustaceans. Its members are characterised by the conical rostrum, which is covered with sensory pits at the end. Although digging behaviour has only been directly observed in a few taxa, it is assumed that all the animals in the family Platyischnopidae are . The genera included in Platyischnopidae are Skaptopus, Platyischnopus, Indischnopus, Tiburonella, Eudevenopus, Tittakunara, Tomituka and Yurrokus. [more]

Platylepadidae

[more]

Platyperlidae

[more]

Platypezidae

Platypezidae is a family of true flies of the superfamily Platypezoidea. The more than 250 species are found worldwide primarily in woodland habitats. A common name is flat-footed flies, but this is also used for the closely related Opetiidae which were included in the Platypezidae in former times. [more]

Platypodidae

Ambrosia beetles are beetles of the weevil subfamilies Scolytinae and Platypodinae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), which live in nutritional symbiosis with ambrosia fungi and probably with bacteria. The beetles excavate tunnels in dead trees in which they cultivate fungal gardens, their sole source of nutrition. After landing on a suitable tree, an ambrosia beetle excavates a tunnel in which it releases spores of its fungal symbiont. The fungus penetrates the plant's xylem tissue, digests it, and concentrates the nutrients on and near the surface of the beetle gallery. The majority of ambrosia beetles colonize xylem (sapwood and/or heartwood) of dying or recently dead trees. Species differ in their preference for different parts of trees, different stages of deterioration, in the shape of their tunnels (?galleries?). However, the majority of ambrosia beetles are not specialized to any taxonomic group of hosts, unlike most phytophagous organisms including the closely related bark beetles. [more]

Platyrhacidae

[more]

Platyscelidae

[more]

Platystictidae

Platystictidae is a family of damselflies, commonly known as shadowdamsels. They look very similar to the threadtail damselfly family (Protoneuridae). They can mostly be found throughout Asia, Central America, and South America. [more]

Platystomatidae

[more]

Platythelphusidae

Platythelphusa is a genus of freshwater crabs endemic to Lake Tanganyika. It has been placed in a number of families, including a monotypic family, Platythelphusidae, as well as Potamidae and its current position in the Potamonautidae, and has also been treated as a subgenus of Potamonautes. It forms a monophyletic group, possibly nested within the genus Potamonautes, which would therefore be paraphyletic. The genus is the only evolutionary radiation of crabs to have occurred in a freshwater lake, and it occurred recently, probably since the Pliocene. This parallels the better known radiation of cichlid fishes in Lake Tanganyika. Only one other species of freshwater crab is found in Lake Tanganyika, Potamonautes platynotus. [more]

Platyxanthidae

[more]

Pleciidae

[more]

Pleciofungivoridae

[more]

Plectreuridae

'Plectreuridae, often called Plectreurid spiders, are a small spider family confined to the North American deserts and the island of Cuba. Only two living genera are known - the nominate genus and Kibramoa. In the past, the family was more widespread, with the Jurassic genus Eoplectreurys known from China, the Eocene Palaeoplectreurys baltica from Baltic amber and the Miocene Plectreurys pittfieldi from Dominican amber. [more]

Plectrotarsidae

[more]

Pleidae

Pleidae, the pygmy backswimmers, is a family of aquatic insects in the order Hemiptera (infraorder Nepomorpha, or "true water bugs"). There are 37 species in three genera, distributed across most of the world, except the polar regions and remote oceanic islands. [more]

Pleocomidae

The rain beetles are a group of beetles found in the far west of North America. They spend most of their lives underground, emerging in response to rain or snow, thus the common name. Formerly classified in the Geotrupidae, they are currently assigned to their own family Pleocomidae, considered the sister group to all the remaining families of Scarabaeoidea. The family contains a single extant genus, Pleocoma, and one extinct genus, Cretocoma, described in 2002 from Late Cretaceous deposits in Mongolia. [more]

Plethopeltidae

[more]

Pleurocopidae

[more]

Pleustidae

[more]

Pliomeridae

[more]

Plokiophilidae

[more]

Plumariidae

[more]

Plutellidae

Plutellidae is a family of moths. Some authors consider this family to be a subfamily of Yponomeutidae. [more]

Pneumocoptidae

[more]

Pneumophionyssidae

[more]

Pneumoridae

[more]

Podapolipidae

[more]

Podoceridae

Podoceridae is a family of amphipods. It contains eight genera: [more]

Podocinidae

[more]

Podoctidae

[more]

Podonidae

[more]

Podoscirtidae

[more]

Podothrombiidae

[more]

Poduridae

Poduridae is a small family of stout-bodied springtails containing only the single genus Podura, and making up the monotypic superfamily Poduroidea. The genus contains four species: [more]

Poecilasmatidae

[more]

Pollicipedidae

Pollicipedidae is a family of goose barnacles. [more]

Polyartemiidae

[more]

Polyaspididae

[more]

Polycentropodidae

Polycentropodidae is a family level taxon consisting of trumpet-net and tube-making caddisflies. [more]

Polychelidae

The family Polychelidae contains thirty-eight extant species of blind, benthic lobster-like crustaceans. They are found throughout the world's tropical, sub-tropical and temperate oceans, including the Mediterranean Sea and the Irish Sea. [more]

Polycopidae

Polycopidae is a family of ostracods. Its members are related to animals in the suborder Halocypridina, but are sufficiently distinct to be placed in their own sub-order, Cladocopina. There is speculation that a separate order may be warranted. The genera in the family differ from the other suborder, Halocypridina, in several features: the central adductor muscle scars are in a triangular (3 scars) or half-rosette (15 scars) pattern, they lack sixth and seventh limbs, and the maxilla (=fourth limb) has both an exopod and endopod (the maxilla in the Halocypridina lacks an exopod). [more]

Polyctenidae

Polyctenidae is a family of parasitic insects of the superfamily Cimicoidea that prefer bats as their host. These insects are not to be confused with bat bugs which are members of the family Cimicidae. There appears to be a significant relationship between the family groups and the specific species of hosts that indicates co-evolution and specialization. [more]

Polycytellidae

[more]

Polydesmidae

[more]

Polydesmida_incerta_sedis

[more]

Polymitarcyidae

[more]

Polyphagidae

The Polyphagidae is a family of the order Blattaria (cockroaches). Many are known as sand cockroaches. The family is divided into five subfamilies, comprising some 40 genera.[1] One prominent species is the desert cockroach, Arenivaga investigata. [more]

Polyphemidae

[more]

Polyplacidae

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Polypsocidae

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Polypterozetidae

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Polysaccidae

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Polystoechotidae

The Polystoechotidae or giant lacewings are a small family of winged insects of the insect order Neuroptera. This family contains three living and seven extinct genera. The modern giant lacewings have a notably disjunct distribution while the extinct genera had a more global range. The family is considered one of the most primitive living neuropteran families. Along with the moth lacewings, giant lacewings may be phytophagous. [more]

Polythoridae

Polythoridae is a family of damselflies. No species in this family has a common name. They're found in New World tropics. The family contains 58 species. It's a rather small family damselflies and isn't one of the most recognized of families. [more]

Polyxenidae

[more]

Polyzoniidae

[more]

Pomatochelidae

[more]

Pomerantziidae

[more]

Pompilidae

Wasps in the family Pompilidae are commonly called spider wasps (in South America, species may be referred to colloquially as marabunta or marimbondo, though these names can be generally applied to any very large stinging wasps). The family is cosmopolitan, with some 5,000 species in 6 subfamilies. All species are solitary, and most capture and paralyze prey, though members of the subfamily Ceropalinae are cleptoparasites of other pompilids, or ectoparasitoids of living spiders. [more]

Ponderellidae

[more]

Pontarachnidae

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Pontellidae

Pontellidae is a copepod family in the order Calanoida, containing the following genera: [more]

Pontocyprididae

[more]

Pontoeciellidae

[more]

Pontogammaridae

[more]

Pontogeneiidae

[more]

Pontoporeiidae

Pontoporeiidae is a family of amphipods, containing the following genera: [more]

Porcellanidae

Porcelain crabs are decapod crustaceans in the widespread family Porcellanidae, which superficially resemble true crabs. They are typically less than 15 mm (0.6 in) wide, and have flattened bodies as an adaptation for living in rock crevices. They are delicate, readily losing limbs when attacked, and use their large claws for maintaining territories. [more]

Porcellidiidae

[more]

Porcellionidae

Porcellionidae is a terrestrial family of the order Isopoda. The species classified here cannot roll into a ball, as opposed to the species of family Armadillidiidae, which can. [more]

Porocephalidae

[more]

Portunidae

Portunidae is a family of crabs which contains the swimming crabs. [more]

Potamanthidae

[more]

Potamidae

Potamidae is a family of freshwater crabs. Its more than 650 species and nearly 100 genera are divided into two subfamilies ? Potaminae around the Mediterranean Sea, on Socotra and eastwards to Northern India, and Potamiscinae in East Asia. [more]

Potamocarcinidae

[more]

Potamonautidae

Potamonautidae is a family of freshwater crabs endemic to tropical parts of Africa and adjacent islands, including Madagascar, the Seychelles, Zanzibar, Mafia, Pemba, Bioko, S?o Tom?, Pr?ncipe and Sherbro Island. It comprises 18 extant genera and 138 extant species. Fossil remains dating from the Late Miocene period have been attributed to the family Potamonautidae. [more]

Praeaulacidae

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Praeichneumonidae

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Primitiopsidae

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Prionoglaridae

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Prionoglarididae

Prionoglarididae is a family of Psocoptera that are characterised by the reduction or simplification of the in adults and the specialised form of the male genitalia. [more]

Priscaenigmatidae

[more]

Proasphiscidae

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Probnidae

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Procampodeidae

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Procarididae

Procarididea is an infraorder of decapods, comprising only eleven species. Six of these are in the genera Procaris and , which together make up the family Procarididae. The remaining five species are only known from fossils and belong to the genus Udora, which cannot yet be assigned to any family. Use of molecular phylogenetics suggests that the procarids are the sister group to the Caridea, and are thus recognised as a separate infraorder, Procarididea. [more]

Processidae

Processidae is a family of shrimp, comprising 65 species in 5 genera, and the only family in the superfamily Processoidea. They are small, nocturnal animals, mostly living in shallow seas, particularly on grass flats. The first pereiopods are usually asymmetrical, with a claw on one, but not the other ( forming the exception to this rule). The rostrum is generally a simple projection from the front of the carapace, with two teeth, one at the tip, and one further back. [more]

Procramptonomyiidae

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Proctophyllodidae

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Proctotrupidae

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Prodidomidae

The Prodidomidae are a spider family with about 300 species in 31 genera. They are sometimes called Long-Spinneret Ground Spiders. [more]

Prodoxidae

Prodoxidae is a family of primitive monotrysian Lepidoptera. Some of these small-to-medium sized moths are day flying, like Lampronia capitella, known to European gardeners as the "Currant Shoot Borer"[1]. Others occur in Africa and Asia.Tetragma gei feeds on Mountain Avens Geum triflorum in USA. Greya politella lay eggs in the flowers of Saxifragaceae there. The last five genera listed here are confined to dry areas of the United States. occurs in Chile and Argentina (Nielsen and Davis, 1985), but all other prodoxid moth genera have a northern distribution. The enigmatic genus Tridentaforma is sometimes placed here and assumed to be close to Lampronia, while other authors consider it incertae sedis among the closely related family Adelidae. [more]

Proetidae

Proetidae is a family of trilobites. The first appeared in the Upper Ordovician, and were among the last surviving trilobites, occurring until the Carboniferous. The family Proetidae contains the following genera: [more]

Progonophlebiidae

[more]

Projapygidae

Projapygidae is a family of hexapods in the order Diplura. [more]

Promastacidae

[more]

Promegistidae

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Pronoidae

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Propalticidae

Propalticidae is a family of beetles, in the suborder Polyphaga. It contains two genera (Propalticus and Slipinskogenia) with the following species: [more]

Proparagryllacrididae

[more]

Prophalangopsidae

"Grig" redirects here. For the fictional Dungeons and Dragons creature, see Fey (Dungeons & Dragons). [more]

Prophliantidae

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Proscinidae

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Proscopiidae

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Prosopidae

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Prosopidiscidae

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Prosopistomatidae

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Prostomidae

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Protapioceridae

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Protellidae

Caprellidae is a family of amphipods commonly known as skeleton shrimps. Their common name denotes the threadlike slender body which allows them to virtually disappear among the fine filaments of seaweed, hydroids and bryozoans. They are sometimes also known as ghost shrimps. Caprellidae contains 88 genera in three subfamilies. [more]

Protelytridae

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Protembiidae

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Protempididae

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Protentomidae

Protentomidae is a family of hexapods in the order Protura. [more]

Proteonematalycidae

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Protereismatidae

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Proterhinidae

Aglycyderini are a tribe of belids, primitive weevils of the family Belidae. Like in other belids, their antennae are straight, not elbowed as in the true weevils (Curculionidae). They occur only on the Pacific Islands and in the Macaronesian region.. [more]

Proterorhagiidae

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Prothoplophoridae

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Protimaspidae

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Protobrachycerontidae

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Protochthoniidae

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Protocucujidae

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Protodinychidae

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Protodiptera: Permotanyderidae

Protognathiidae

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Protogryllidae

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Protohymenidae

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Protojaniridae

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Protolenidae

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Protomphralidae

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Protomyrmeleontidae

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Protoneuridae

Protoneuridae is a family of damselflies. Most species are commonly known as threadtails, while others are commonly known as bambootails. They are called threadtails because their abdomen are pin-thin. Threadtails are usually small size damselflies and their wings are usually transparent. It contains the following genera : [more]

Protopleciidae

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Protopsyllidiidae

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Protorhyphidae

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Protoribatidae

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Protoscatopsidae

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Protoschizomidae

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Protosquillidae

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Prototheoridae

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Protoxenidae

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Protroctopsocidae

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Protziidae

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Pruvostitidae

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Psalidopodidae

Psalidopus is a genus of shrimp placed in its own family, Psalidopodidae, and superfamily, Psalidopodoidea. It comprises three species, one in the western Atlantic Ocean, and two in the Indo-Pacific. [more]

Psammaspidae

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Psammaspididae

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Psammocyclopinidae

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Psammocytheridae

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Psechridae

The Psechridae are a family of spiders with about two dozen species in two living genera. [more]

Pselaphidae

Pselaphinae is a subfamily of small (usually less than 2.5 mm long) beetles. The group was originally regarded as a separate family, named Pselaphidae. Newton and Thayer (1995) placed them in the Omaliine group of the family Staphylinidae, based on shared morphological characters. [more]

Psephenidae

Water-penny beetles are a family (Psephenidae) of aquatic beetles. The young, which live in water, resemble pennies. The larvae feed off of algae, larvae, and feces. The presence of water penny larvae in a stream can be used as a test for the quality of the water. Among the pollution sensitivity categories sensitive, somewhat-sensitive, and tolerant; water pennies belong to the sensitive category. They cannot live in habitats where rocks acquire a thick layer of algae, fungi, or inorganic sediment. Therefore, their presence along with other diverse phyla signifies good quality water. They are around 6 to 10 millimeters in length. [more]

Pseudagnostidae

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Pseudanthessiidae

Poecilostomatoida are an order of copepods previously included in the Cyclopoida. [more]

Pseudarmadillidae

Pseudarmadillo is a genus of woodlice from the Greater Antilles. All extant species live in Cuba, with one species also extending to the Bahamas: [more]

Pseudelcanidae

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Pseudidotheidae

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Pseudironidae

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Pseudocaeciliidae

Pseudocaeciliidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the suborder Psocomorpha. The name stems from a superficial resemblance to the distantly related family Caeciliusidae (formerly Caeciliidae). The family is closely related to the families Philotarsidae and Calopsocidae. [more]

Pseudocalanidae

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Pseudochactidae

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Pseudocheylidae

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Pseudochiridiidae

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Pseudococcidae

Mealybugs are insects in the family Pseudococcidae, unarmored scale insects found in moist, warm climates. They are considered pests as they feed on plant juices of greenhouse plants, house plants and subtropical trees and also acts as a vector for several plant diseases. [more]

Pseudocrangonyctidae

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Pseudocumatidae

Pseudocumatidae are a family of crustaceans of the order Cumacea. [more]

Pseudocyclopidae

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Pseudocyclopiidae

Pseudocyclopiidae is a family of copepods, comprising the following genera: [more]

Pseudocycnidae

[more]

Pseudodiaptomidae

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Pseudogarypidae

The Pseudogarypidae are a small family of pseudoscorpions. Most recent species are found in North America, while one species is endemic to Tasmania. [more]

Pseudohydryphantidae

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Pseudojaniridae

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Pseudolestidae

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Pseudolimnocytheridae

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Pseudomesidae

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Pseudonannolenidae

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Pseudonemasomatidae

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Pseudopeltidiidae

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Pseudophasmatidae

Pseudophasmatidae is a family of stick insect, commonly called the "striped walkingsticks". An important identifying characteristic is its mesothorax, which is never more than three times as long as the prothorax. [more]

Pseudophyllidae

[more]

Pseudopomyzidae

The Pseudopomyzidae are minute to small (1.7-5.5 mm), dark colored acalyptrate flies. [more]

Pseudorhombilidae

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Pseudosiricidae

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Pseudospirobolellidae

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Pseudosquillidae

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Pseudostigmatidae

Pseudostigmatidae is a family of tropical damselflies, known as helicopter damselflies, giant damselflies or Forest Giants. The family includes the largest of all damselfly species. They specialize in preying on web-building spiders, and breed in phytotelmata, the small bodies of water held by plants such as bromeliads. [more]

Pseudotachidiidae

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Pseudotanaidae

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Pseudothelphusidae

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Pseudozeuxidae

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Pseudoziidae

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Psilidae

Psilidae is family of two-winged flies. Commonly called the rust flies, there are at least 38 species in 4 genera. The Carrot fly (Chamaepsila rosae) is a member of this group. [more]

Psilopsocidae

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Psocidae

Psocidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the suborder Psocetae. Member of the family are easily recognised by their wing-venation, where the areola postica is fused to the M-vein, giving rise to the so-called discoidal cell. This family is closely related to Myopsocidae. [more]

Psocidiidae

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Psoquillidae

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Psoralgidae

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Psorergatidae

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Psoroptidae

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Psoroptoididae

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Psychidae

The Psychidae (bagworm moths, also simply bagworms or bagmoths) are a family of the Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths). The bagworm family is fairly small, with about 600 species described. Bagworm species are found globally, with some, such as the Snailcase Bagworm (Apterona helicoidella), settling continents where they are not native in modern times. [more]

Psychodidae

The nematoceran family Psychodidae (moth flies or drain flies) are small true flies (Diptera) with short, hairy bodies and wings giving them a "furry" moth-like appearance. The adults have long antennae and the wings are leaf-shaped, either slender or broad, with the most elementary wing venation of any Diptera, having little more than a series of parallel veins without crossveins. Adult Psychodidae are typically nocturnal and associated with damp habitats. The larvae of the subfamilies Psychodinae, and Horaiellinae live in aquatic to semi-terrestrial habitats, including bathroom sinks; some species are commonly nuisance pests in bathrooms. These pests are commonly removed through use of boiling water, bleach, or drain cleaner. [more]

Psychomyiidae

Psychomyiidae is a family level taxon consisting of trumpet-net and tube-making caddisflies. Members of this family are typically very similar to polycentropodids, but usually differ in leg characters. Larvae also tend to construct silken tubes. [more]

Psychopsidae

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Psyllidae

Psyllids or jumping plant lice are small plant-feeding insects that tend to be very host specific, i.e. they only feed on one plant species (monophagous) or feed on a few related plants (oligophagous). Together with aphids, phylloxerans, scale insects and whiteflies they form the group called Sternorrhyncha, which is considered to be the most "primitive" group within the true bugs (Hemiptera). They have traditionally been considered a single family, Psyllidae, but recent classifications divide the group into a total of seven families; the present restricted definition still includes more than 70 genera in the Psyllidae. [more]

Psyllipsocidae

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Pterobatidae

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Pterocephaliidae

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Pterochthoniidae

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Pterogeniidae

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Pterolichidae

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Pterolonchidae

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Pteromalidae

Pteromalidae is a very large family of parasitic wasps, with some 3,450 described species in some 640 genera (the number used to be greater, but many species and genera have been reduced to synonymy in recent years). The subfamily-level divisions of the family are highly contentious and unstable, and there is no question that the family is completely artificial, composed of numerous distantly-related groups (polyphyletic). Accordingly, details of the life history range over nearly the entire range possible within the Chalcidoidea, though the majority are (as with most Chalcidoids) parasitoids of other insects. They are found throughout the world in virtually all habitats, and many are important as biological control agents. [more]

Pteronarcyidae

Pteronarcyidae, also known as giant stoneflies or salmonflies, is a family of the order Plecoptera. [more]

Pterophoridae

The Pterophoridae or plume moths are a family of Lepidoptera with unusually modified wings. Though they belong to the Apoditrysia like the larger moths and the butterflies, unlike these they are tiny and were formerly included among the assemblage called "Microlepidoptera". [more]

Pteroplistidae

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Pterothysanidae

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Pterozetidae

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Pterygometopidae

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Pterygosomatidae

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Pthiridae

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Ptiliidae

Ptiliidae is a family of very tiny beetles with a worldwide distribution. This family contains the smallest of all beetles, with a length of 0.5 mm, and even the largest members of the family do not exceed 2 mm. The weight is approximately 0.4 milligrams. [more]

Ptilodactylidae

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Ptiloneuridae

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Ptiloxenidae

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Ptinidae

Spider beetles are the approximately 500 species of beetles in the subfamily Ptininae of the family Anobiidae. They are sometimes considered a family in their own right, which is then called Ptinidae. Spider beetles have round bodies with long, slender legs, and lack wings. They are generally 1?5 mm long. Both the larvae and the adults are scavengers. They reproduce at the rate of two to three generations per year. [more]

Ptochacaridae

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Ptychagnostidae

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Ptychaspidae

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Ptychaspididae

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Ptychopariidae

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Ptychopteridae

Ptychopteridae, the phantom crane flies, is a small family (three extant genera) of nematocerous Diptera. Superficially similar in appearance to other "tipuloid" families, they lack the ocelli of Trichoceridae, the 5-branched radial vein of Tanyderidae, and the two anal veins that reach the wing margin of Tipulidae. They are usually allied with the Tanyderidae based on similarities of the mesonotal suture, this group being called the Ptychopteromorpha. [more]

Ptyssalgidae

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Pudeoniscidae

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Pulicidae

Pulicidae is a flea family in the order Siphonaptera. [more]

Pycnogonidae

Pycnogonidae is a family of sea spiders. [more]

Pyemotidae

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Pygidicranidae

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Pygiopsyllidae

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Pygmaeosomatidae

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Pygmephoridae

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Pylochelidae

Pylochelidae is a family of hermit crabs. Its members are commonly called the symmetrical hermit crabs. They live in all the world's oceans, except the Arctic and the Antarctic, at depths of up to 2,000 metres (6,600 ft). Due to their cryptic nature and relative scarcity, only around 60 specimens had been collected before 1987, when a monograph was published detailing a further 400. [more]

Pyralidae

The Pyralidae or snout moths are a family of Lepidoptera in the ditrysian superfamily Pyraloidea. In many (particularly older) classifications, the grass moths (Crambidae) are included in the Pyralidae as a subfamily, making the combined group one of the largest families in the Lepidoptera. The latest review by Munroe & Solis, in Kristensen (1999)[] retains the Crambidae as a full family of pyraloidea. [more]

Pyramidopidae

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Pyrgacrididae

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Pyrgodesmidae

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Pyrgomatidae

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Pyrgomorphidae

Pyrgomorphidae is a family of grasshoppers in the order Orthoptera commonly known as the gaudy grasshoppers. It is the only family in the superfamily Pyrgomorphoidea, and contains 29 genera and at least 70 species and subspecies. [more]

Pyrgotidae

Pyrgotidae is an unusual family of flies (Diptera), one of only two families of Diptera that lack ocelli. Most species are "picture-winged", as is typical among Tephritoidea, but, unlike other tephritoids they are endoparasitoids; the females pursue scarab beetles in flight, laying an egg on the beetle's back under the elytra where the beetle cannot reach it. The egg hatches and the fly larva enters the body cavity of the beetle, feeding and eventually killing the host before pupating. In the United States, some species of and Sphecomyiella can be quite common in areas where their host beetles (typically the genus Phyllophaga, or "June beetles") are abundant. Like their host beetles, these flies are primarily nocturnal, and are often attracted to artificial lights. [more]

Pyrochroidae

Fire-colored beetles are the beetles of the Pyrochroidae family, which includes the red Cardinal beetles. This family contains some 150 species. Many species in the subfamily ve comb- or antler-like antennae. This family also now includes most former members of the defunct family Pedilidae. [more]

Pyroglyphidae

Pyroglyphidae is a family of mites. [more]

Pyrosejidae

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Pyrrhocoridae

Pyrrhocoridae is a family of insects with more than 300 species world-wide. A common species in parts of Europe is the firebug. They are part of the order Hemiptera which are also known as the 'true bugs'. A few are important crop pests. They are called cotton stainers because their red bodies get crushed along with the cotton they eat when it is harvested, and these stains are difficult to remove. Their feeding mechanism also cuts the fibres and hence affects the growth of the cotton ball. They caused massive problems in the United States during the industrial revolution. [more]

Pythidae

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Quadroppiidae

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Raillietiidae

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Ramsayellidae

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Rangomaramidae

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Raninidae

Raninidae is a family of unusual crabs named for their frog-like appearance, taken by most scientists to be quite primitive. These animals closely resemble the (unrelated) mole crabs, due to parallel evolution or convergent evolution. In both groups, the claws are modified into tools for digging, and the body is a rounded shape that is easy to bury in sand. Unlike most other true crabs, the abdomens of raninids are not curled under the cephalothorax. [more]

Raphidiidae

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Raphignathidae

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Raphiophoridae

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Raphoglidae

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Rasnitsyniidae

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Rataniidae

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Ratardidae

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Ratemiidae

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Raymondinidae

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Raymondionymidae

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Rectarcturidae

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Rectijanuidae

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Redlichiidae

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Redlichinidae

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Reduviidae

Reduviidae (from the contained genus, Reduvius which comes from the Latin meaning hangnail or remnant) is a large, cosmopolitan family of predatory insects in the suborder Heteroptera. It includes assassin bugs (genera include Melanolestes, Platymeris, Pselliopus, Rasahus, Reduvius, Rhiginia, Sinea, Triatoma, and Zelus), wheel bugs (Arilus cristatus), and thread-legged bugs (the subfamily Emesinae, including the genus Emesaya). There are about 7000 species altogether, making it one of the largest families in the Hemiptera. [more]

Regiatidae

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Reighardiidae

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Remopleurididae

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Renyxidae

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Retroplumidae

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Rhachiberothidae

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Rhachodesmidae

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Rhaetomyiidae

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Rhagidiidae

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Rhagionemestriidae

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Rhagionempididae

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Rhagionidae

Rhagionidae or snipe flies are a small family of flies containing 21 genera. [more]

Rhagodidae

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Rhaphidophoridae

The orthopteran family Rhaphidophoridae includes the cave wetas, cave crickets, camelback crickets, camel crickets, spider crickets (sometimes shortened to "criders, or sprickets"[]) and sand treaders, of the suborder Ensifera; in some regions, such as Missouri and Virginia, these crickets are referred to as "Cricket Spiders"[citation needed]. Those occurring in New Zealand, Australia, and Tasmania are typically referred to as wetas. Most are found in association with caves, animal burrows, cellars, under stones, in wood or in similar environments. They are characterized in part by their long antennae and legs. They may be found on all continents and many continental islands, though Africa has but one species and that is confined to the southern Cape region. The well-known field crickets are from a different superfamily (Grylloidea) and only look vaguely similar, while members of the family Tettigoniidae may look superficially similar in body form. [more]

Rhincalanidae

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Rhiniidae

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Rhinocarididae

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Rhinocricidae

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Rhinonyssidae

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Rhinophoridae

Rhinophoridae are a small family of flies (Diptera) with around 500 species. Rhinophoridae are found in all zoogeographic regions except Australasia and Oceania but mainly in the Palaearctic and Afrotropical regions. [more]

Rhinorhipidae

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Rhinotermitidae

Rhinotermitidae is a family of termites (Isoptera). They feed on wood and can cause extensive damage to buildings or other wooden structures. About 345 species are recognized, among these are severe pests like Coptotermes formosanus, Coptotermes gestroi and Reticulitermes flavipes. [more]

Rhipiceridae

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Rhipiphoridae

The family Ripiphoridae (formerly spelled Rhipiphoridae) is a cosmopolitan group of beetles commonly known as wedge-shaped beetles containing some 450 species. They are one of the most unusual beetle families, in that they are parasitoids?different groups within the family attack different hosts, but most are associated with bees or vespid wasps, while some others are associated with roaches. They often have abbreviated elytra, and branched antennae. [more]

Rhiscosomididae

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Rhizocephala

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Rhizocephalidae

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Rhizolepadidae

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Rhizophagidae

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Rhizothricidae

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Rhodacaridae

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Rhombocoleidae

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Rhopalidae

Rhopalidae, or scentless plant bugs are a family of true bugs. In older literature, the family is sometimes called "Corizidae". They differ from the related coreids in lacking well-developed scent glands. They are usually light-colored and smaller than the coreids. Some are very similar to the lygaeids, but can be distinguished by the numerous veins in the membrane of the hemelytra. They live principally on weeds, but a few (including the box elder bug) are arboreal. All are plant feeders. Currently 18 genera and over 200 species of rhopalids are known. [more]

Rhopalopsyllidae

[more]

Rhopalosomatidae

Rhopalosomatidae is a family of Hymenoptera. It contains about 68 extant species in four genera that are found worldwide. Three fossil genera are known. [more]

Rhyacophilidae

Rhyacophilidae is a family in the insect order of Trichoptera. Larvae of this family are free living and most species are predacious. The largest genus is Rhyacophila, with near 500 species distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere. [more]

Rhynchitidae

The tooth-nosed snout weevils receive this name due to the teeth on the edges of their mandibles. They are small beetles (1.5 to 6.5 mm) that are usually found on low vegetation. [more]

Rhynchocinetidae

The family Rhynchocinetidae are a group of small, reclusive red-and-white shrimp. This family typically has an upward-hinged foldable rostrum, hence its taxon name Rhynchocinetidae, which means movable beak. The family contains only two genera, and Rhynchocinetes. [more]

Rhynchohydracaridae

Rhynchomolgidae

Poecilostomatoida are an order of copepods previously included in the Cyclopoida. [more]

Rhynchophoridae

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Rhynchoribatidae

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Rhynchothoracidae

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Rhyncoptidae

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Rhyscotidae

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Rhysodidae

Rhysodidae (sometimes called wrinkled bark beetles) is a family of beetles, consisting of several hundred species in about 20 genera. [more]

Rhyssometopidae

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Ricaniidae

The family Ricaniidae is a group of hemipteran insects, containing over 40 genera and 400 species world-wide. Thus, they are one of the smaller families in the planthopper superfamily (Fulgoroidea). The highest diversity is in tropical Africa and Asia and in Australia, with a few species occurring in the Palearctic. [more]

Richardidae

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Richardiidae

Richardiidae is a family of Diptera in the superfamily Tephritoidea. [more]

Richardsonellidae

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Richinidae

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Ricinoididae

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Ridgewayiidae

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Riodinidae

The Riodinidae (or metalmarks) are a family of butterflies. The common name "metalmarks" refers to the small metallic-looking spots commonly found on their wings. There are approximately 1,000 species of metalmark butterflies in the world. Although mostly neotropical in distribution, the family is represented both in the Nearctic and the Old World. [more]

Rioppiidae

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Ripiphoridae

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Ripipterygidae

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Romaleidae

The Romaleidae or lubber grasshoppers are a family of grasshoppers. [more]

Ropalomeridae

Ropalomeridae is a family of acalyptrate flies. [more]

Roproniidae

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Rorringtoniidae

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Rosensteiniidae

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Rossianidae

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Rotoitidae

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Rutelidae

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Rutidermatidae

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Rutripalpidae

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Sabaconidae

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Sabelliphilidae

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Sacculinidae

Sacculinidae is a family of barnacles. They belong to the bizarre parasitic and highly apomorphic superorder Rhizocephala, and therein to the less diverse of the two orders, the . The Sacculinidae are one of the two larger families of Rhizocephala (which are both in the Kentrogonida), containing seven genera: [more]

Saipanettidae

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Saldidae

Saldidae, also known as shore bugs, are a family of insects in the order Hemiptera (true bugs). They are oval-shaped and measure 2?8 mm when mature. Typically they are found near shorelines or the marginal growth