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Annelida

(Phylum)

Overview

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Externally segmented, wormlike, with bristles (setae). In the case of earthworms and leeches, the setae may be greatly reduced in size. The phylum includes earthworms and their relatives, leeches, and a large number of mostly marine worms known as polychaetes. Various species of polychaete are known as lugworms, clam worms, bristleworms, fire worms, and sea mice. Annelids can be distinguished by their segmented bodies. Polychaetes (meaning "many bristles") have, predictably, many bristles on the body, while earthworms and leeches have fewer bristles. There are about 9000 species of annelid known today.

Photos

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Taxonomy

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The Phylum Annelida is a member of the Kingdom Animalia. Here is the complete "parentage" of Annelida:

The Phylum Annelida is further organized into finer groupings including:

Families

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Aberrantidae

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Acanthobdellidae

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Acanthodrilidae

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Acoetidae

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Acrocirridae

Acrocirridae is a family of polychaete worms. Acrocirrids are detritivores (deposit feeders), catching falling particles with numerous long prostomial tentacles. There are eight known genera, and at least 21 described species and subspecies within the Acrocirridae family. The acrocirrids are primarily benthic (seabed-dwelling) animals, but at least two genera (Swima and Teuthidodrilus) appear to have evolved or adapted to a pelagic (free-swimming) habitat. [more]

Aeolosomatidae

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Ailoscolecidae

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Alaysiidae

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Alciopidae

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Alluroididae

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Almidae

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Alvinellidae

The Alvinellidae are a family of small, deep-sea polychaete worms endemic to hydrothermal vents in the Pacific Ocean. Belonging to the order Terebellida, the family contains two genera, Alvinella and Paralvinella; the former genus contains two valid species and the latter eight. Members of the family are termed alvinellids. [more]

Americobdellidae

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Ampharetidae

Ampharetidae are a family of terebellid "bristle worm" (class Polychaeta). As such, they belong to the order Canalipalpata, one of the three main clades of polychaetes. They appear to be most closely related to the peculiar alvinellids (Alvinellidae) which inhabit the deep sea, and somewhat less closely to the well-known trumpet worms (Pectinariidae). These three appear to form one of the main clades of terebellids. [more]

Amphinomidae

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Annelida

The annelids (also called "ringed worms"), formally called Annelida (from French annel?s "ringed ones", ultimately from Latin anellus "little ring"), are a large phylum of segmented worms, with over 17,000 modern species including ragworms, earthworms and leeches. They are found in marine environments from tidal zones to hydrothermal vents, in freshwater, and in moist terrestrial environments. Although most textbooks still use the traditional division into polychaetes (almost all marine), oligochaetes (which include earthworms) and leech-like species, research since 1997 has radically changed this scheme, viewing leeches as a sub-group of oligochaetes and oligochaetes as a sub-group of polychaetes. In addition, the Pogonophora, Echiura and Sipuncula, previously regarded as separate phyla, are now regarded as sub-groups of polychaetes. Annelids are considered members of the Lophotrochozoa, a "super-phylum" of protostomes that also includes molluscs, brachiopods, flatworms and nemerteans. [more]

Antonbruuniidae

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Aphroditidae

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Aphroditinae

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Apistobranchidae

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Archinomidae

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Arcovestiidae

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Arenicolidae

Arenicolidae is a family of marine polychaete worms. They are commonly known as lugworms and the little coils of sand they produce are commonly seen on the beach. Arenicolids are found worldwide, mostly living in burrows in sandy substrates. Most are deposit feeders but some graze on algae. [more]

Bdellodrilidae

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Biwadrilidae

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Branchiobdellidae

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Calamyzidae

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Cambarincolidae

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Caobangidae

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Capilloventridae

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Capitellidae

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Caridinophilidae

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Chaetopteridae

The Chaetopteridae are a family of marine filter feeding polychaete worms that live in vertical or U-shaped tubes in tunnels buried in the sedimentary or hard substrate of marine environments. The worms are highly adapted to the hard tube they secrete. Inside the tube the animal is segmented and regionally specialized, with highly modified appendages on different segments for cutting the tunnel, feeding, or creating suction for the flow of water through the tube home. The modified segments for feeding are on the 12th segment from the head for members of this family. [more]

Chrysopetalidae

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Cirratulidae

Cirratulidae is a family of marine polychaete worms. Members of the family are found worldwide, mostly living in mud or rock crevices. Most are deposit feeders, but some graze on algae or are suspension feeders. [more]

Clitellata

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Cossuridae

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Ctenodrilidae

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Cylicobdellidae

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Diurodrilidae

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Dorvilleidae

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Dorydrilidae

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Enchytraeidae

The Enchytraeidae are a oligochaete family. They resemble small earthworms and include both terrestrial species known as potworms that live in highly organic terrestrial environments, as well as some that are marine. The peculiar genus Mesenchytraeus is known as "ice worms", as they live in glaciers and will die if exposed to temperatures a few degrees above freezing. Apart from these, the best-known species is probably the Grindal Worm (Enchytraeus buchholzi), which is commercially bred as aquarium fish food. [more]

Erpobdellidae

Erpobdellidae is a family of leeches. They have three or four pairs of eyes, but never have true jaws, and are typically 20?50 millimetres (0.8?2.0 in) long. Most are scavengers on small invertebrates, which they often swallow whole. [more]

Escarpiidae

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Eudrilidae

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Eulepethidae

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Eunicidae

Eunicidae is a family of polychaetes. Many eunicids reach a considerable size. Their jaws are known from Ordovician sediments. They live throughout the seas; a few species are parasitic. [more]

Euniphysidae

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Euphrosinidae

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Fauveliopsidae

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Flabelligeridae

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Flotidae

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Glossiphoniidae

Glossiphoniidae are the family called freshwater jawless leeches or glossiphoniids. They are one of the main groups of Rhynchobdellida, true leeches with a proboscis. These leeches are generally flattened, and have a poorly defined anterior sucker. Most suck the blood of freshwater vertebrates like amphibians and aquatic turtles, but some feed on the hemolymph of invertebrates like oligochaetes and freshwater snails instead. [more]

Glossoscolecidae

Glossoscolecidae is a large family of earthworms which has native representatives in South and Central America. The species has a circumtropical distribution. [more]

Glyceridae

Glyceridae is a family of polychaete worms. They are commonly referred to as beak-thrower worms or bloodworms. They are bright red, segmented, aquatic worms. The proboscis worm Glycera is sometimes called bloodworm. The Glyceridae are ferocious epi- and infaunal polychaetes that prey upon small invertebrates. They are errant burrowers that build galleries of interconnected tubes to aid in catching their prey. [more]

Goniadidae

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Haemadipsidae

Haemadipsidae are a family of "jawed leeches". The latter might be (but probably are not) a natural, monophyletic group of hirudiniform proboscisless leeches. The scientific names mean "blood-drinkers"[]. These leeches have five pairs of eyes, with the last two separated by two eyeless segments. Most have two jaws, but some have three. The family is monotypic, containing only the subfamily Haemadipsinae, though as the family can apparently be divided into two or three distinct lineages, at least one of the proposed splits, while not a distinct family, might be a valid subfamily. [more]

Haemopidae

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Haplotaxidae

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Hartmaniellidae

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Hesionidae

Hesionidae are a family of phyllodocid "bristle worms" (class Polychaeta). They are (like almost all polychaetes) marine organisms. Most are found on the continental shelf; Hesiocaeca methanicola[] is found on methane ice, where it feeds on bacterial biofilms. [more]

Hirudinidae

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Histriobdellidae

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Hormogastridae

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Ichthyotomidae

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Iospilidae

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Komarekionidae

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Kynotidae

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Lacydoniidae

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Lamellibrachiidae

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Lamellisabellidae

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Leodicidae

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Longosomatidae

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Lopadorhynchidae

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Lopadorrhynchidae

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Lumbricidae

The Lumbricidae is a family of earthworms which includes most of the earthworm species well known to Europeans. About 33 lumbricid species have become naturalized around the world, but the bulk of the species are in Holarctic: from Canada (e.g. Bimastos lawrenceae on Vancouver Island) and the United States (e.g. Eisenoides carolinensis, Eisenoides lonnbergi and most Bimastos spp.) and throughout Eurasia to Japan (e.g. Eisenia japonica, E. koreana and Helodrilus hachiojii). An enigmatic species in Tasmania is Eophila eti. There are currently 670 valid (sub-)species in about 42 recognized genera. [more]

Lumbriculidae

The Lumbriculidae are a family of oligochaetes common in fresh-water environments, including streams, lakes, marshes, wells and ground-water. They should not be confused with the earthworm family Lumbricidae. Many species and even genera are highly endemic, mainly in Siberia and the western parts of North America. Lumbriculidae is the only family in the order Lumbriculida. [more]

Lumbrineridae

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Lutodrilidae

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Magelonidae

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Maldanidae

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Megascolecidae

Megascolecidae is a large family of earthworms which has native representatives in Australia, New Zealand, Southeast and East Asia, and North America. The most ancient lineages of the family show a Gondwanan distribution and have been used as evidence of continental drift. Members of the Pheretima group of genera (e.g. Amynthas) are widely distributed around the tropics, much as some Lumbricidae are distributed through the temperate zones. Some North American native genera ? e.g. , Argilophilus and Driloleirus ? also belong to this family. [more]

Microchaetidae

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Microphthalmidae

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Moniligastridae

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Myzostomidae

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Naididae

The Naididae (formerly known as Tubificidae) are a family of clitellate oligochaete worms like the sludge worm, Tubifex tubifex. They are key components of the benthic communities of many freshwater and marine ecosystems. [more]

Nautiliniellidae

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Nephtyidae

Nephtyidae is a taxonomic family of worms. They are commonly referred to as catworms. [more]

Nereidae

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Nereididae

Nereididae (formerly spelled Nereidae) are a family of polychaete worms. It contains about 500 ? mostly marine ? species grouped into 42 genera. They may be commonly called ragworms or clam worms. [more]

Nerillidae

Nerillida is a family of invertebrates containing the following genera: [more]

Ocnerodrilidae

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Octochaetidae

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Oenonidae

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Oligobrachiidae

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Onuphidae

Onuphidae is a family of polychaete worms. [more]

Opheliidae

Ophelliidae is a family of small, annelid worms. It contains the following genera: [more]

Opistocystidae

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Orbiniidae

Orbiniidae is a family of polychaete worms. Orbiniids are mostly unselective deposit feeders on marine detritus. They can be found from the neritic zone to abyssal depths. [more]

Oweniidae

Oweniidae is a family of marine polychaete worms in the suborder Sabellida. The worms live in tubes made of sand and are selective filter feeders, detrivores and grazers. [more]

Ozobranchidae

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Paralacydoniidae

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Paraonidae

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Parergodrilidae

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Pectinariidae

Pectinariidae, or the trumpet worms or ice cream cone worms, are a family of marine polychaete worms that build sand tubes roughly resembling ice cream cones up to two inches long. [more]

Pholoidae

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Phreodrilidae

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Phyllodocidae

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Pilargidae

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Piscicolidae

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Pisionidae

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Poecilochaetidae

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Poeobiidae

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Polybrachiidae

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Polygordiidae

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Polynoidae

A family of scaled Polychaete worms known as the "scale worms". Short and flat, specimens reach as much as 20 cm in length and 10 cm width. An almost-constant number of small segments is the norm. They are covered by scales, technically termed elytra. They are active hunters, but generally dwell in protected environments such as under stones. [more]

Pontodoridae

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Potamodrilidae

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Propappidae

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Protodrilidae

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Protodriloididae

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Psammodrilidae

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Questidae

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Randiellidae

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Ridgeiidae

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Riftiidae

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Sabellariidae

Sabellariidae is a family of marine polychaete worms in the suborder Sabellida. The worms live in tubes made of sand and are filter feeders and detrivores. [more]

Sabellidae

Sabellidae (feather duster worms) are sedentary marine polychaete tube worms where the head is mostly concealed by feathery branchiae. They build tubes out of parchment, sand, and bits of shell. They tend to be common in the intertidal zones around the world. [more]

Saccocirridae

The Saccocirridae are small interstitial polychaetes common in coarse sand, reflective, surf beaches, usually within the zone of retention. The Saccociridae are members of the clade , which is in turn part of the clade Canalipalpata. Saccocirridae have a world wide distribution and it is likely that many more species remain to be described. These polychates are usually between 2 and 10 mm in length and 500 ?m wide. They have reduced parapodia and are considered a true interstitial species, incapable of burrowing through finer sediments. [more]

Salifidae

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Scalibregmatidae

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Scalibregmidae

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Sclerolinidae

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Semiscolecidae

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Serpulidae

Serpulidae is a family of sessile, tube-building annelid worms in the class Polychaeta. The members of this family differ from the sabellid tube worms in that they have a specialized operculum that blocks the entrance of their tubes when they withdraw into the tubes. In addition, serpulids secrete tubes of calcium carbonate. There are about 300 known species in the Serpulidae family, all but one of which live in saline waters. The group is known from the Middle Triassic (Vinn and Mutvei 2009). [more]

Siboglinidae

Siboglinidae, also known as the beard worms, is a family of polychaete annelid worms whose members made up the former phyla Pogonophora (the giant tube worms) and Vestimentifera. They are composed of about 100 species of vermiform creatures and live in thin tubes buried in sediments at ocean depths from 100 to 10,000 m. They can also be found in association with hydrothermal vents, methane seeps, with sunken plant material or whale carcasses. [more]

Sigalionidae

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Sparganophilidae

Sparganophilus, the only genus in the family Sparganophilidae, is a group of long slender limicolous (mud-dwelling) earthworms native to North America. There are an unknown number of species, most of them undescribed, throughout the continent and into Central America. One species, S. tamesis has been introduced into the streams of Europe, where it is now widespread; its synonyms are S. eiseni, S. benhami, S. guatemalensis, S. carnea, S. elongatus, S. cuenoti and, newly, S. langi. [more]

Sphaerodoridae

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Spintheridae

Spintheridae is a family of invertebrates with a single genus Spinther containing the following species: [more]

Spionidae

Spionidae is a family within the Polychaeta. Spionids are selective deposit feeders that use their two grooved palps to locate prey but some spionids are capable of interface feeding i.e. switching between deposit and suspension feeding. Spionids produce tubes by cementing sand grains and detritus material with mucus produced by their glandular pouches. The Spionidae is one of most studied polychaete families given their biological and commercial importance. Members of this family have been used in regeneration studies and some are capable of boring into calcareous substrate which has destructive implications for commercially important shellfish. [more]

Spirobrachiidae

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Spirorbidae

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Sternaspidae

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Syllidae

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Syngenodrilidae

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Terebellidae

Terebellidae is a family of polychaete worms. They are surface deposit feeders, catching falling particles with numerous elongate prostomial tentacles splayed out on the sea floor. These tentacles, which are the most or only normally visible portion of the animal and are reminiscent of spaghetti, inspired the common name spaghetti worms. The remainder of the animal is in a semi-permanent burrow or permanent tube in soft substrates. [more]

Tevniidae

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Tiguassuidae

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Tomopteridae

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Trichobranchidae

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Trochochaetidae

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Tubificidae

The Naididae (formerly known as Tubificidae) are a family of clitellate oligochaete worms like the sludge worm, Tubifex tubifex. They are key components of the benthic communities of many freshwater and marine ecosystems. [more]

Typhloscolecidae

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Uncispionidae

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Xerobdellidae

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Xironodrilidae

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Yndolaciidae

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More info about the Family Yndolaciidae may be found here.

Sources

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Last Revised: August 25, 2014
2014/08/25 12:28:46