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Amphibia

(Class)

Overview

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A Class in the Kingdom Animalia.

Photos

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Taxonomy

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The Class Amphibia is a member of the Phylum Chordata. Here is the complete "parentage" of Amphibia:

The Class Amphibia is further organized into finer groupings including:

Families

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Albanerpetontidae

[more]

Allophrynidae

The Tukeit Hill Frog (Allophryne ruthveni) is one of the two described species in the genus Allophryne (the other one being ), which in turn is the only member of the subfamily Allophryninae, a clade recently placed under the family Centrolenidae (elevated by some authors to the rank of a separate family Allophrynidae). These frogs live in Guyana, Venezuela, Surinam, Brazil and Bolivia. The holotype was discovered at Tukeit Hill, below Kaieteur Falls, Guyana, hence the common English name. [more]

Alytidae

Discoglossidae is a family of primitive frogs, with the common name Disc-Tongued Frogs. Most are endemic to Europe, but there are also three species in North-West Africa, and an extinct species formerly occurred in Israel. [more]

Ambystomatidae

The mole salamanders (genus Ambystoma) are a group of salamanders endemic to North America, the only genus in the family Ambystomatidae. The group has become famous due to the presence of the Axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), widely used in research, and the Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum, Ambystoma mavortium) which is the official amphibian of many states, and often sold as a pet. [more]

Amphibamidae

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Amphignathodontidae

The marsupial frogs are a disputed family (Amphignathodontidae) in the order Anura. Where it is treated as a separate family, it consists of two genera, Gastrotheca, and Flectonotus. These frogs are native to Neotropical America (Central America & South America). Under other classifications, these are treated as part of family Hemiphractidae. There is still an active question as to which classification is correct. [more]

Amphiumidae

A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[1] [more]

Archegosauridae

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Archeriidae

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Aromobatidae

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Arthroleptidae

Arthroleptidae () is a family of frogs found in Sub-Saharan Africa. They are also known as squeakers because of their high-pitched call. They are small, less than 4 centimetres (1.6 in) in length, terrestrial frogs found mostly in leaf litter on the forest floor. They completely bypass any aquatic stage, and therefore do not have tadpoles. They lay their eggs on the ground, in crevices or in leaf litter, and the offspring undergo direct development. Some species hatch already completely metamorphosed into the adult form, while others still have tails when they hatch. [more]

Ascaphidae

The tailed frogs are two species of frogs. The species are part of the genus, Ascaphus is the only taxon in the family Ascaphidae (). The "tail" in the name is actually an extension of the male cloaca. The tail is one of two distinctive anatomical features adapting the species to life in fast-flowing streams. It is the only North American frog that reproduces by internal fertilization. [more]

Astylosternidae

Arthroleptidae () is a family of frogs found in Sub-Saharan Africa. They are also known as squeakers because of their high-pitched call. They are small, less than 4 centimetres (1.6 in) in length, terrestrial frogs found mostly in leaf litter on the forest floor. They completely bypass any aquatic stage, and therefore do not have tadpoles. They lay their eggs on the ground, in crevices or in leaf litter, and the offspring undergo direct development. Some species hatch already completely metamorphosed into the adult form, while others still have tails when they hatch. [more]

Batrachosauroididae

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Benthosuchidae

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Bombinatoridae

Bombinatoridae are often referred to as Fire-bellied toads because of their brightly colored ventral sides, which show that they are highly toxic to humans. This family includes two genera, Barbourula and Bombina, both of which have flattened bodies. [more]

Brachycephalidae

The saddleback toads are the family Brachycephalidae () in the order Anura. The family consist of just one genus, Brachycephalus, with 11 species. These tiny, often yellow frogs are native to Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil. [more]

Brachyopidae

Brachyopidae is an extinct family of Temnospondyl labyrintodonts. They evolved in the early Mesozoic and were mostly aquatic. A fragmentary find from Lesotho, Africa is estimated to have been 7 meter long, the largest amphibian ever known to have lived besides Prionosuchus. [more]

Brachystelechidae

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Branchiosauridae

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Brevicipitidae

Brevicipitinae is a family of Neobatrachia subordio. [more]

Bufonidae

Bufonidae is the family of the true toads, members of the order Anura (frogs and toads). They are the only family of anurans all members of which are known as "toads." The bufonids now comprise more than 35 genera, Bufo being the most widespread and well known. [more]

Caeciliaidae

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Calyptocephalellidae

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Capitosauridae

Mastodonsauridae is a family of capitosauroid temnospondyls. Fossils belonging to this family have been found in North America, Greenland, Europe, Asia, and Australia. The family Capitosauridae (also known as Cyclotosauridae and Stenotosauridae) is synonymous with Mastodonsauridae. [more]

Centrolenidae

Glass frog (or Glassfrogs) is the common name for the frogs of the amphibian family Centrolenidae (order Anura). While the general background coloration of most glass frogs is primarily lime green, the abdominal skin of some members of this family is transparent. The internal viscera, including the heart, liver, and gastrointestinal tract are visible through this translucent skin, hence the common name. [more]

Ceratobatrachidae

The true frogs, family Ranidae, have the widest distribution of any frog family. They are abundant throughout most of the world, occurring on most continents except Antarctica. The true frogs are present in North America, northern South America, Europe, Asia, Madagascar, Africa, and from the East Indies to New Guinea; the species native to Australia?the Australian Wood Frog (Hylarana daemelii)?is restricted to the far north. [more]

Ceratophryidae

The Ceratophryinae, known as common horned frogs, are a subfamily of the leptodactylid frogs. All species in this subfamily live in South America. Fossils of the giant Beelzebufo from Cretaceous Madagascar suggest that the subfamily may have once ranged throughout the prehistoric supercontinent of Gondwana. Despite the common name, not all species in the subfamily have the horn-like projections at the eyes. All are carnivorous, terrestrial or semi-aquatic and notably thickset with proportionally large heads and mouths. Some species (especially from the genera Ceratophrys and Lepidobatrachus) are popular in herpetoculture. [more]

Chigutisauridae

Chigutisauridae is an extinct family of large temnospondyl amphibians. The only genera recognized as belonging to Chigutisauridae at the current time are all from Gondwana (Australia, Argentina, India and South Africa) and include Koolasuchus and Siderops. [more]

Colosteidae

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Cryptobatrachidae

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Cryptobranchidae

The hellbender and Asian giant salamanders (family Cryptobranchidae) are aquatic amphibians found in brooks and ponds in the United States, China, and Japan. They are the largest living amphibians known today. The Japanese giant salamander (Andrias japonicus), for example, reaches up to 1.44 metres (4.7 ft), feeds on fish and crustaceans, and has been known to live for more than 50 years in captivity. The Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus) can reach a length of 1.8 metres (5.9 ft). [more]

Cycloramphidae

Cycloramphinae is a subfamily of leptodactylid frogs found in South America. [more]

Dendrerpetontidae

Dendrerpetontidae is a family of Temnospondyli. [more]

Dendrobatidae

Poison dart frog (also dart-poison frog, poison frog or formerly poison arrow frog) is the common name of a group of frogs in the family Dendrobatidae which are native to Central and South America. These species are diurnal and often have brightly-colored bodies. Although all wild dendrobatids are at least somewhat toxic, levels of toxicity vary considerably from one species to the next and from one population to another. Many species are critically endangered. These amphibians are often called "dart frogs" due to the Amerindians' indigenous use of their toxic secretions to poison the tips of blowdarts. However, of over 175 species, only three have been documented as being used for this purpose (curare plants are more commonly used), and none come from the Dendrobates genus, which is characterized by the brilliant color and complex patterns of its members. [more]

Dicamptodontidae

Pacific giant salamanders (Dicamptodontidae) are a family of large salamanders. [more]

Dicroglossidae

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Discoglossidae

Discoglossidae is a family of primitive frogs, with the common name Disc-Tongued Frogs. Most are endemic to Europe, but there are also three species in North-West Africa, and an extinct species formerly occurred in Israel. [more]

Discosauriscidae

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Dissorophidae

Dissorophidae is an extinct family of medium-sized, temnospondyl amphibians that flourished during the Late Pennsylvanian and early Permian periods in what is now North America and Europe. Despite being amphibians, they seem to be well developed for life on land, with well-developed limbs, solid vertebrae, and a row of armour plates of dermal bone, which both protected the animal and further strengthened the backbone. [more]

Eocaeciliaidae

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Eogyrinidae

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Eryopidae

Eryopidae are a family of medium to large Permian temnospondyli amphibians, known from North America and Europe. They are defined cladistically as all Eryopoidea with interpterygoid vacuities (spaces in the ) that are rounded at the front; and large external nares (Laurin and Steyer 2000). Not all of the genera previously included in the Eryopidae (Carroll 1988) are retained under the cladistic revisions. [more]

Gobiatidae

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Gymnarthridae

Gymnarthridae is an extinct family of tuditanomorph microsaurs. Gymnarthrids are known from Europe and North America and existed from the Late Carboniferous through the Early Permian. Remains have been found from the Czech Republic, Nova Scotia, Illinois, Texas, and Oklahoma. [more]

Hapsidopareiontidae

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Heleophrynidae

The Heleophrynidae, is a family of order Anura, commonly known as ghost frogs. The family consists of a two genera, Heleophryne and Hadromophryne, with seven species. Ghost frogs live in swift-moving mountain streams in South Africa. The common name of "ghost frogs" may have been coined because of their occurrence in . [more]

Hemiphractidae

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Hemisotidae

The shovelnose frogs are nine species of frog in the genus, Hemisus, the only genus in the Family Hemisotidae. They are found in tropical and subtropical sub-Saharan Africa. The shovelnose frogs are moderate sized frogs, reaching a length of 8 centimetres (3.1 in). They are round-bodied, with short legs. Their head is small and narrow, with a hard, upturned nose. [more]

Hylidae

Hylidae is a wide-ranging family of frogs commonly referred to as "tree frogs and their allies". However, the hylids include a diversity of frog species, many of which do not live in trees, but are terrestrial or semi-aquatic. [more]

Hylodidae

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Hynobiidae

The Asiatic Salamanders (Family Hynobiidae) are primitive salamanders found all over Asia, and in European Russia. They are closely related to the Giant Salamanders (Family Cryptobranchidae), with which they form the suborder Cryptobranchoidea. About half of hynobiids are unique to Japan (Hasumi 2002). [more]

Hyperoliidae

Hyperoliidae is a family of small to medium sized, brightly colored, frogs which contains more than 250 species in 19 genera. Seventeen genera are native to sub-Saharan Africa. In addition, the monotypic genus Tachycnemis occurs on the Seychelles Islands, and the genus Heterixalus (currently 10 species) is endemic to Madagascar. [more]

Ichthyophiidae

Ichthyophiidae is the family of Asiatic tailed caecilians or fish caecilians. They are found in south-east Asia. [more]

Karauridae

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Lanthanosuchidae

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Leiopelmatidae

Leiopelmatidae, or New Zealand and North American primitive frogs, is a family belonging to the suborder Archaeobatrachia. Their relatively primitive form indicates that they have an ancient lineage. The North American frogs of the Genus Ascaphus are now united with the New Zealand frogs of the genus Leiopelma in the Leiopelmatidae family Only four Leiopelma and two Ascaphus extant species are known to belong to the family. Leiopelma are only found in New Zealand. Ascaphus are only found in North America. [more]

Leiuperidae

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Leptodactylidae

Leptodactylidae is a diverse family of frogs that probably diverged from other hyloids during the Cenozoic era, or possibly at the end of the Mesozoic. There are roughly 50 genera, one of which is Eleutherodactylus, the largest vertebrate genus, with over 700 species. In total, there are approximately 1100 leptodactylid species, which are widely distributed throughout Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America. The family is often considered paraphyletic and has no morphological synapomorphies. The family includes terrestrial, burrowing, aquatic, and arboreal members, inhabiting a wide range of different habitats. [more]

Limnodynastidae

Myobatrachidae is a family of frogs found in Australia and New Guinea. Members of this family vary greatly in size, from species less than 1.5 centimetres (0.59 in) long, to the second largest frog in Australia, the Giant Barred Frog (Mixophyes iteratus), at 12 centimetres (4.7 in) in length. The entire family are either terrestrial or aquatic frogs, with no arboreal species. [more]

Lydekkerinidae

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Lysorophidae

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Mantellidae

Mantellidae is a family of the order Anura. These frogs are found only in Madagascar and Mayotte. [more]

Mastodonsauridae

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Megophryidae

Megophryidae are a large family of frogs native to the warm southeast of Asia, from the Himalaya foothills eastwards, south to Indonesia and the Greater Sunda Islands in Maritime Southeast Asia, and extending to the Philippines. As of mid-2008 it encompasses approximately 70-100 species of frog divided between 12 genera. For lack of a vernacular name, they are commonly called megophryids. [more]

Melosauridae

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Metoposauridae

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Micrixalidae

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Microhylidae

Microhylidae is a geographically widespread family of frogs. There are 495 species in 68 genera and nine subfamilies, which is the largest number of genera of any frog family. [more]

Micromelerpetontidae

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Myobatrachidae

Myobatrachidae is a family of frogs found in Australia and New Guinea. Members of this family vary greatly in size, from species less than 1.5 centimetres (0.59 in) long, to the second largest frog in Australia, the Giant Barred Frog (Mixophyes iteratus), at 12 centimetres (4.7 in) in length. The entire family are either terrestrial or aquatic frogs, with no arboreal species. [more]

Nasikabatrachidae

Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis is a frog species belonging to the family Sooglossidae. It can be found in the Western Ghats in India. Common names for this species are Purple Frog, Indian Purple Frog, Pignose Frog or Doughnut Frog. It was discovered by S.D. Biju and F. Bossyut in October 2003 and was found to be unique for the geographic region. [more]

Noterpetontidae

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Notobatrachidae

A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[2] [more]

Nyctibatrachidae

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Ostodolepididae

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Palaeobatrachidae

A Family in the Kingdom Animalia.[3] [more]

Pantylidae

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Parioxyidae

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Pelobatidae

The European spadefoot toads are a family of frogs, the Pelobatidae, with only one extant genus Pelobates, containing four species. They are native to Europe, the Mediterranean, northwestern Africa and western Asia. [more]

Pelodytidae

Parsley frogs or Pelodytidae, is a family of order Anura. The family consists of just one genus, Pelodytes, which contains only three species. These frogs can be found in southwestern Europe and the Caucasus. The common name of "parsley frogs" comes from the Common parsley frog (Pelodytes punctatus) which, because of its coloring, looks garnished with parsley. [more]

Petropedetidae

Petropedetinae are a subfamily of frogs. They are placed in the true frog family (Ranidae) by many authors. But this is quite disputed and at least part of this group is often treated as a distinct family Petropedetidae, in which case the Cacosterninae and Phrynobatrachinae are usually separated as subfamilies or even distinct families Cacosternidae and Phrynobatrachidae. Most members of this subfamily are in the genus Phrynobatrachus. These frogs are essentially[] limited to sub-Saharan Africa, with the highest diversity - and as it seems their evolutionary origin - in the very south of the continent. [more]

Phlegethontiidae

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Phrynobatrachidae

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Phrynomeridae

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Pipidae

The Pipidae are a family of primitive, tongueless frogs. The thirty species in the family Pipidae are found in tropical South America (genus Pipa) and sub-Saharan Africa (four other genera). [more]

Plagiosauridae

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Plethodontidae

The Plethodontidae, or Lungless salamanders, are a family of salamanders. Most species are native to the western hemisphere, from British Columbia to Brazil, although a few species are found in Sardinia, Europe south of the Alps, and South Korea. In terms of number of species, they are by far the largest group of salamanders. [more]

Prosaliridae

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Prosirenidae

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Proteidae

Mudpuppies or waterdogs are aquatic salamanders of the family Proteidae. Their name originates from the misconception that they make a dog-like barking sound. The range of the genus Necturus runs from southern central Canada, through the midwestern United States, east to North Carolina and south to Georgia and Mississippi. The range of the olm, the only extant member of the genus Proteus, is limited to the Western Balkans. [more]

Protobatrachidae

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Ptychadenidae

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Pyxicephalidae

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Ranidae

The true frogs, family Ranidae, have the widest distribution of any frog family. They are abundant throughout most of the world, occurring on most continents except Antarctica. The true frogs are present in North America, northern South America, Europe, Asia, Madagascar, Africa, and from the East Indies to New Guinea; the species native to Australia?the Australian Wood Frog (Hylarana daemelii)?is restricted to the far north. [more]

Ranixalidae

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Rhacophoridae

Rhacophoridae is a family of frog species, which occur in tropical regions of Asia and Africa. They are commonly known as shrub frogs, or more ambiguously as '"moss frogs" or "bush frogs". Some Rhacophoridae are called "tree frogs". Among the most spectacular members of this family are numerous "flying frogs". [more]

Rheobatrachidae

The gastric-brooding frogs or Platypus frogs (Rheobatrachus) were a genus of ground-dwelling frogs native to Queensland in eastern Australia. The genus consisted of only two species, both of which became extinct in the mid-1980s. The genus was unique because it contained the only two known frog species that incubated the prejuvenile stages of their offspring in the stomach of the mother. [more]

Rhinatrematidae

Rhinatrematidae is the family of neotropical tailed caecilians or beaked caecilians. Members of the family are found in the equatorial countries of South America. [more]

Rhinesuchidae

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Rhinodermatidae

Rhinodermatidae are a family of small frogs found on the south-west coast of South America. There is only one genus (Rhinoderma), with just two species, of which the Chile Darwin's Frog (R. rufum) is highly endangered or may already be extinct. The better known Darwin's Frog (R. darwinii) is vulnerable. [more]

Rhinophrynidae

The Mexican Burrowing Toad (Rhinophrynus dorsalis) is the only species in the genus Rhinophrynus and the family Rhinophrynidae of order Anura. These frogs live from the southern Texas through Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador to Nicaragua and Costa Rica. The family was once more widespread, including species ranging as far north as Canada, but these died out in the Oligocene. [more]

Rhyacotritonidae

The torrent salamanders or Cascade salamanders are a family (Rhyacotritonidae) with only one genus (Rhyacotriton) of salamanders. Originally the genus Rhyacotriton was placed in the family Ambystomatidae, later in the family Dicamptodontidae, and finally in 1992 it was placed into a family of its own. At the same time the only species Rhyacotriton olympicus was split into four species due to genetic analysis. The torrent salamanders are limited to the western USA, namely the states California, Oregon, and Washington. [more]

Rhytidosteidae

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Salamandridae

Salamandridae is a family of salamanders consisting of true salamanders and newts. Currently, 74 species (with more expected) have been identified in the northern hemisphere - Europe, Asia, the northern tip of Africa and North America. Salamandrids are distinguished from other salamanders by the lack of rib or costal grooves along the sides of the body and by their rough skin and wierd looks. [more]

Saurerpetontidae

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Scapherpetontidae

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Scaphiopodidae

Scaphiopodidae is a family of American spadefoot toads. They are native to southern Canada and USA south to southern Mexico. Scaphiopodidae is a small family, comprising only seven species. [more]

Scolecomorphidae

Scolecomorphidae is the family of tropical caecilians (Frost) or African caecilians (ITIS). They are found in Cameroon in west Africa, and Malawi and Tanzania in east Africa. Caecilians are legless amphibians which superficially resemble worms or snakes. [more]

Seymouriidae

[more]

Sirenidae

Sirenidae, the sirens, is a family of aquatic salamanders. Family members have very small forelimbs, and lack hind limbs altogether. In one species, the skeleton in their forelimbs is made of only cartilage. In contrast to most other salamanders, they have external gills bunched together on the neck in both larval and adult states. Sirens are found only in the southeastern United States and northern Mexico. [more]

Sooglossidae

The Seychelles frogs (Sooglossidae) are a family of frogs found on the Seychelles Islands and India. Until recently this family was believed to include the genera Nesomantis and Sooglossus, but following a major revision of amphibians in 2006 the genus Nesomantis was named a junior synonym of Sooglossus; conversely, the recently-discovered purple frog which was initially assigned to a distinct monotypic family (Nasikabatrachidae) is now included in the Sooglossidae. [more]

Tregobatrachidae

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Trematopsidae

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Trematosauridae

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Triassuridae

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Trimerorhachidae

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Tupilakosauridae

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Uraeotyphlidae

Uraeotyphlidae is the family of Indian caecilians. It is a monotypic family containing a single genus, Uraeotyphlus. There are six species of caecilians in this genus, all of which are found in the Western Ghats in Kerala State, peninsular India. [more]

Zatracheidae

[more]

At least 4 species and subspecies belong to the Family Zatracheidae.

More info about the Family Zatracheidae may be found here.

Footnotes

  1. http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=31665
  2. http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=31808
  3. http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=31780

Sources

Last Revised: August 25, 2014
2014/08/25 13:05:33