Common Names in English:
Southern Broken, Southern Broken-Dash
'The Hesperiidae are members
of the Superfamily
Hesperioidea. Worldwide in distribution, skippers are richest in the tropics. More than 3,500 species are described, with approximately 275 in North America, many of which are found only in Arizona and Texas. Most skippers are small to medium, usually orange, brown, black, white, or gray. A few have iridescent
colors. Skippers have large eyes, short antennae (often with hooked
clubs), stout bodies, and three pairs of walking legs
. Their flight is often rapid, making wing
movement appear blurred. Adults
of most species have long probicscises and feed
nectar, but some also take up nutrients
from bird droppings. Males have scent scales
found in modified forewing
patches. Males of most species locate mates by perching
and giant-skippers), though some patrol, especially in the open-winged skippers. Globular
are laid singly.
The grass skippers are members of the Family Hesperiidae. Distributed worldwide, they comprise more than 2,000 species, most of which are found in the American tropics. The small to medium-sized adults usually have abruptly angled antennae with an apiculus at the tip . Adults of many temperate species are predominantly orange, while brown is the most common color of the tropical species. Male forewings usually have a brand or stigma with specialized scales . Most species have long proboscises and are avid flower-visitors. Adults flight is rapid, and perching posture is unique: the hindwings are opened at a wider angle than the forewings. Males of most species perch while looking for mates. Caterpillars feed on monocotyledons (grasses and allied plants ) and live in silken leaf nests that sometimes extend underground. Grass skippers typically overwinter as caterpillars within their shelters .
Species Wallengrenia otho
Upperside of male is brown with a few orange or red-oranges patches and a two-part black stigma (the "broken dash "). Female upperside is dark brown with pale orange spots. Underside of hindwing in both sexes is orange or red-orange and has a band of pale spots. (ref. 105071)
Upperside of male is brown with a few orange or red-oranges patches and a two-part black stigma (the "broken dash"). Female upperside is dark brown with pale orange spots. Underside of hindwing in both sexes is orange or red-orange and has a band of pale spots.
Wing span : 1 - 1 3/8 inches (2.4 - 3.5 cm).
Openings near wooded rivers
. Frequents gardens.
The species has a tendency to occur in or near wetlands, but not in truly wet places. Typical habitats are the edges of bottomlands or pocosins , marsh borders , moist powerline clearings, and particularly savannas . It can be seen in drier places, but it is not to be intentionally searched for in uplands . In fact, it can be locally numerous in some gardens/arboretums, as long as the foodplants are nearby. (ref. 104778)
Caterpillar hosts: Paspalum and St
. Augustine grass
food: Nectar from flowers including
pickerelweed, selfheal, and sweet pepperbush.
Various grasses are the foodplants. The species nectars on many plants , such as forbs growing in savannas -- blazing stars (Liatris spp. ), etc. Individuals even visit gardens and nurseries, such as the N.C. State's Raulston Arboretum and the Sarah Duke Gardens. (ref. 104778)
Caterpillar hosts: Paspalum and St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum). (ref. 105071)
Males perch on vegetation within 2 feet of the ground to watch for females, usually in the early morning. Females lay eggs singly on or near the host plants . Caterpillars live in nests of silk-tied leaves; when they come out to eat they carry a piece of leaf over themselves for protection.
Flight: Two broods (sometimes a partial third) from April-October;
all year in peninsular Florida
and South Texas.
Flight period: Two broods downstate; mid-May to mid-June, and mid- or late July to late September, very rarely to early October. Much more data needed for the mountains. (ref. 104778)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Latreille, 1829
- Snodgrass, 1938
- Heymons, 1901
- Order: Lepidoptera () - Linnaeus, 1758 - Butterflies and Moths
- Cohort: Myoglossata ()
- Infraclass: Pterygota ()
- Subclass: Dicondylia ()
- Epiclass: Hexapoda ()
- Superclass: Panhexapoda ()
- Infraphylum: Atelocerata () - Heymons, 1901
- Subphylum: Mandibulata () - Snodgrass, 1938
- Phylum: Arthropoda () - Latreille, 1829 - Arthropods
- Superphylum: Panarthropoda () - Cuvier
- Infrakingdom: Ecdysozoa () - A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Protostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Name Status: Accepted Name .
The very rich rusty brownish-orange color, relatively small size (for skippers in general), and "3" shaped mark in underhindwing distinguish this from other species.
Members of the genus Wallengrenia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 2 species and subspecies in this genus:
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- Entomological news. [Philadelphia]American Entomological Society, 1925- url p. 4.
- Journal of the Kentucky Academy of Science. Lexington, KY: The Academy, 1998- url p. 86, p. 86.
- Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. Washington, Biological Society of Washington url p. 239.
- The Entomologist's record and journal of variation. s.l., s.n. url p. 76.
- The Lepidopterists' news: the monthly newsletter of the Lepidopterists' Society. Cambridge, Mass.: Lepidopterists' Society, 1947-1958. url p. 42, p. 98.
- Tulane studies in zoology. 6 1958 New Orleans: Tulane University, 1953-1968. url p. 107.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 15, 2012.
- Butterflies of North Carolina
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed February 26, 2008. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from provider.
- LepIndex: The Global Lepidoptera Names Index
- Opler, Paul A., Harry Pavulaan, Ray E. Stanford, Michael Pogue, coordinators. Butterflies and Moths of North America. Bozeman, MT: Mountain Prairie Information Node. March 26, 2007.
- Opler, Paul A., Kelly Lotts, and Thomas Naberhaus, coordinators. 2009. Butterflies and Moths of North America. Bozeman, MT: Big Sky Institute. http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/ (Version of April 17, 2009).
- Pippen, Jeffrey S. Jeff's Nature Page. Accessed December 5, 2007.
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 26, 2008:
- Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (Costa Rica): Biodiversidad de Costa Rica
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2602563
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Lep-189801.0
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: IILEP67010
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 171383